20

CIBSE Concise Handbook
Table A3.24 U-values for horizontal and roof glazing Type of glazing Spacing / mm U-value (/ W·m–2·K–1) for stated exposure of panes† Normal (0.13/0.04) Single Double — 25 20 16 12 9 6 25 20 16 12 9 6 20 16 12 9 6 20 16 12 9 6 20 16 12 9 6 20 16 12 9 6 20 16 12 9 6 20 16 12 9 6 6.94 3.32 3.34 3.37 3.41 3.44 3.63 2.06 2.09 2.11 2.14 2.17 2.46 2.51 2.56 2.61 2.67 2.95 2.3 2.35 2.41 2.47 2.78 2.18 2.22 2.29 2.35 2.68 2.20 2.23 2.28 2.33 2.52 1.95 2.00 2.04 2.09 2.32 1.80 1.84 1.90 1.96 2.19 Sheltered (0.13/0.06) 6.10 3.11 3.23 3.16 3.19 3.22 3.39 1.98 2.00 2.02 2.05 2.08 2.35 2.39 2.43 2.48 2.53 2.79 2.2 2.24 2.3 2.35 2.64 2.09 2.13 2.19 2.25 2.55 2.10 2.14 2.18 2.22 2.40 1.88 1.91 1.96 2.02 2.21 1.74 1.78 1.83 1.88 2.10 Severe (0.13/0.02) 8.07 3.55 3.58 3.61 3.66 3.70 3.92 2.15 2.18 2.20 2.23 2.27 2.59 2.65 2.69 2.75 2.82 3.14 2.41 2.46 2.53 2.6 2.95 2.28 2.33 2.4 2.47 2.84 2.30 2.33 2.39 2.44 2.66 2.03 2.07 2.13 2.19 2.42 1.87 1.91 1.97 2.04 2.29

Table A3.23 U-values for vertical glazing Type of glazing Spacing / mm U-value (/ W·m–2·K–1) for stated exposure of panes† Normal (0.13/0.04) Single Double — 25 20 16 12 9 6 25 20 16 12 9 6 20 16 12 9 6 20 16 12 9 6 20 16 12 9 6 20 16 12 9 6 20 16 12 9 6 20 16 12 9 6 5.75 2.76 2.74 2.73 2.85 3.01 3.28 1.72 1.71 1.78 1.89 2.04 2.29 1.85 1.82 2.02 2.29 2.71 1.60 1.57 1.80 2.10 2.57 1.45 1.42 1.67 1.98 2.48 1.65 1.63 1.76 1.98 2.35 1.38 1.36 1.50 1.75 2.16 1.21 1.19 1.34 1.61 2.05 Sheltered (0.13/0.06) 5.16 2.60 2.60 2.59 2.70 2.84 3.08 1.67 1.66 1.72 1.83 1.96 2.19 1.78 1.76 1.95 2.19 2.57 1.55 1.53 1.74 2.01 2.44 1.41 1.38 1.61 1.91 2.37 1.60 1.58 1.70 1.90 2.24 1.34 1.32 1.46 1.69 2.07 1.18 1.16 1.31 1.56 1.97 Severe (0.13/0.02) 6.49 2.90 2.90 2.90 3.02 3.20 3.51 1.78 1.77 1.84 1.97 2.12 2.40 1.92 1.89 2.11 2.39 2.87 1.65 1.63 1.87 2.19 2.71 1.49 1.46 1.72 2.06 2.61 1.71 1.69 1.82 2.06 2.46 1.42 1.40 1.55 1.81 2.26 1.24 1.22 1.38 1.66 2.14

Triple

Triple

Coated double ε = 0.2

Coated double ε = 0.2

Coated double ε = 0.1

Coated double ε = 0.1

Coated double ε = 0.05

Coated double ε = 0.05

Coated double argon-filled ε = 0.2

Coated double argon-filled ε = 0.2

Coated double argon-filled ε = 0.1

Coated double argon-filled ε = 0.1

Coated double argon-filled ε = 0.05

Coated double argon-filled ε = 0.05

† Internal and external surface resistances (m2·K·W–1) respectively are given in parentheses

† Internal and external surface resistances (m2·K·W–1) respectively are given in parentheses

A3.6.3

Frames and sashes (excluding glazing)

The U-values given in Table A3.25 are based on data given in BS EN ISO 10077-1. Alternatively the U-value of window frames can be calculated by software conforming with BS EN ISO 10077-2. A3.6.4 Spacer between panes (multiple glazing units)

The linear transmittance for particular glazing and frame combinations can be calculated by software conforming with BS EN ISO 10077-2. Table A3.26 gives default values that can be used in the absence of detailed information. A3.6.5 A3.6.5.1 Effect of blinds and curtains Internal blinds and curtains

In multiple glazing units, the thermal transmittance is increased due to interaction between the glazing and the frame, including the effect of the spacer bars. This allowed for by a linear thermal transmittance related to the perimeter length of the glazing.

Internal roller blinds or curtains provide additional insulation due to the air enclosed between the window and the blind. The degree of insulation depends strongly on the level of enclosure achieved. Roller blinds can achieve effective entrapment provided they run in side channels

Guide A: Environmental design
Table A3.25 Thermal transmittances for various types of window frame and sash Material Wood Description Average thickness 30 mm Average thickness 40 mm Average thickness 50 mm Average thickness 60 mm Average thickness 70 mm Average thickness 80 mm Average thickness 90 mm Average thickness 100 mm Plastic Without metal reinforcement: — polyurethane — PVC, two hollow chambers — PVC, three hollow chambers Thermal barrier† with: — 4 mm thermal break — 8 mm thermal break — 12 mm thermal break — 16 mm thermal break — 20 mm thermal break Without thermal barrier U-value / W·m–2·K–1 2.30 2.15 2.02 1.90 1.78 1.67 1.57 1.48 2.8 2.2 2.0 4.4 3.9 3.5 3.2 3.0 6.9 Conventional roller blind, curtain or venetian blind (vertical slats) Closely fitting curtain with pelmet Roller blind: — bottom only sealed — sides only sealed in channels — sides and top sealed — sides and bottom sealed — fully sealed Low emissivity roller blind, fully sealed Table A3.27 Thermal resistance of blinds and curtains Description Thermal resistance / m2.K.W–1 0.05 0.07 0.09 0.11 0.15 0.16 0.18 0.44

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Aluminium

Table A3.29 Indicative U-values for windows for conceptual design Type Indicative U-value / W·m–2·K–1 Glazing only Single Double Double (low emissivity) Triple 5.7 2.8 1.8 1.8 Window (including frame or sash) 5.0 3.0 2.2 2.2

Aluminium or steel

† Thermal barrier must be continuous and totally isolate the interior side of the frame or frame sections from the exterior side Table A3.26 Linear thermal transmittance, Ψs , for conventional sealed multiple glazing units Frame type Linear thermal transmittance (/ W·m–1·K–1) for stated glazing type Double or triple glazing uncoated glass, air or gas filled Double or triple glazing, low-emissivity glass (1 pane coated for double glazing or 2 panes coated for triple glazing), air or gas filled 0.08 0.11 0.05 Table A3.30 Indicative U-values (/ W·m–2·K–1) for windows and rooflights with wood or PVC-U frames, and doors (Crown copyright, reproduced with the permission of the Controller of Her Majesty’s Stationery Office and the Queen’s Printer for Scotland) Item Indicative U-value (/ W·m–2·K–1) for stated gap between panes 6 mm Single glazing Double glazing (air filled): — low-E, εn = 0.2[1] — low-E, εn = 0.15 — low-E, εn = 0.1 — low-E, εn = 0.05 Double glazing (argon filled[2]): — low-E, εn = 0.2 — low-E, εn = 0.15 — low-E, εn = 0.1 — low-E, εn = 0.05 Triple glazing: — low-E, εn = 0.2 — low-E, εn = 0.15 — low-E, εn = 0.1 — low-E, εn = 0.05 Triple glazing (argon filled[2]): — low-E, εn = 0.2 — low-E, εn = 0.15 — low-E, εn = 0.1 — low-E, εn = 0.05 Solid wooden door[3] 4.8 3.1 2.7 2.7 2.6 2.6 2.9 2.5 2.4 2.3 2.3 2.4 2.1 2.0 2.0 1.9 2.2 1.9 1.8 1.8 1.7 3.0 12 mm — 2.8 2.3 2.2 2.1 2.0 2.7 2.1 2.0 1.9 1.8 2.1 1.7 1.7 1.6 1.5 2.0 1.6 1.5 1.4 1.4 — ≥16 mm — 2.7 2.1 2.0 1.9 1.8 2.6 2.0 1.9 1.8 1.7 2.0 1.6 1.5 1.5 1.4 1.9 1.5 1.4 1.3 1.3 — Adjustment for rooflights in dwellings† +0.3 +0.2 +0.2 +0.2 +0.2 +0.2 +0.2 +0.2 +0.2 +0.2 +0.2 +0.2 +0.2 +0.2 +0.2 +0.2 +0.2 +0.2 +0.2 +0.2 +0.2 —

Wood or PVC Metal with thermal break Metal without thermal break

0.06 0.08 0.02

and are sealed at the top and bottom. With well-sealed blinds, further improvement can be achieved by using a material which has a low emissivity surface protected by layer transparent to infrared radiation. Values for the thermal resistance of internal blinds and curtains are given in Table A3.27. A3.6.6 Indicative U-values for conceptual design

At the concept design stage, it is convenient to use indicative U-values for typical window configurations to enable an initial evaluation of the heat losses and energy consumption of the proposed building. Table A3.29 provides such values for these purposes. A3.6.7 Indicative U-values for energy rating

† No correction need be applied to rooflights in buildings other than dwellings Notes: [1] The emissivities quoted are normal emissivities. (Corrected emissivity is used in the calculation of glazing U-values.) Uncoated glass is assumed to have a normal emissivity of 0.89. [2] The gas mixture is assumed to consist of 90% argon and 10% air. [3] For doors which are half-glazed the U-value of the door is the average of the appropriate window U-value and that of the non-glazed part of the door (e.g. 3.0 W·m–2·K–1 for a wooden door).

Tables A3.30, A3.31 and A3.32 provide indicative U-values for windows, doors and rooflights for the purposes of energy rating.

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Table A3.31 Indicative U-values (/ W·m–2·K–1) for windows and fullyglazed doors with metal frames (4 mm thermal break) (Crown copyright, reproduced with the permission of the Controller of Her Majesty’s Stationery Office and the Queen’s Printer for Scotland) Item Indicative U-value (/ W·m–2·K–1) for stated gap between panes 6 mm Single glazing Double glazing (air filled): — low-E, εn = 0.2[1] — low-E, εn = 0.15 — low-E, εn = 0.1 — low-E, εn = 0.05 Double glazing (argon filled[2]): — low-E, εn = 0.2 — low-E, εn = 0.15 — low-E, εn = 0.1 — low-E, εn = 0.05 Triple glazing: — low-E, εn = 0.2) — low-E, εn = 0.15) — low-E, εn = 0.1) — low-E, εn = 0.05) Triple glazing (argon filled[2]): — low-E, εn = 0.2 — low-E, εn = 0.15 — low-E, εn = 0.1 — low-E, εn = 0.05 5.7 3.7 3.3 3.3 3.2 3.1 3.5 3.0 3.0 2.9 2.8 2.9 2.6 2.5 2.5 2.4 2.8 2.4 2.3 2.2 2.2 12 mm — 3.4 2.8 2.7 2.6 2.5 3.3 2.6 2.5 2.4 2.3 2.6 2.1 2.1 2.0 1.9 2.5 2.0 1.9 1.9 1.8 16 mm or more — 3.3 2.6 2.5 2.4 2.3 3.2 2.5 2.4 2.3 2.1 2.5 2.0 2.0 1.9 1.8 2.4 1.9 1.8 1.7 1.7

CIBSE Concise Handbook

A4

Ventilation and air infiltration
Role of ventilation
Background

A4.2
A4.2.1

Ventilation provides fresh air to occupants, and dilutes and removes concentrations of potentially harmful pollutants. It is also used to passively cool and distribute thermally conditioned air. Energy losses from ventilation and general air exchange can account for more than half of the primary energy used in a building. These losses comprise space heating and refrigerative cooling losses as well as the electrical load associated with driving mechanical services. A4.2.2 Minimum ventilation rates for air quality

The amount of ventilation required for air quality depends on: — — — occupant density occupant activities pollutant emissions within a space.

[1] and [2]: see footnotes to Table 3.30 Table A3.32 Adjustments to U-values in Table 3.31 for frames with thermal breaks (Crown copyright, reproduced with the permission of the Controller of Her Majesty’s Stationery Office and the Queen’s Printer for Scotland) Thermal break / mm Adjustment to U-value (/ W·m–2·K–1) Adjustment for thermal break 0 (no break) 4 8 12 16 20 24 28 32 36 +0.3 +0.0 –0.1 –0.2 –0.2 –0.3 –0.3 –0.3 –0.4 –0.4 Additional adjustment for rooflights angled < 70° to horizontal +0.4 +0.3 +0.3 +0.3 +0.3 +0.3 +0.3 +0.3 +0.3 +0.3

BS EN 13779 provides basic definitions of air quality standards in occupied spaces and relates these to fresh air ventilation rates required for each occupant. These are summarised in Table 4.1. Building Regulations Part F (2006) requires a minimum ventilation rate of 10 L·s–1 per person for most nondomestic applications. This fits between classes IDA2 and IDA3 in Table 4.1. For guidance on ventilation techniques, see CIBSE Guide B.
Table A4.1 Ventilation and indoor air quality classification (BS EN 13779) Classification Indoor air quality standard High Medium Moderate Low Ventilation range / (L·s–1/person) >15 10–15 6–10 <6 Default value / (L·s–1/person) 20 12.5 8 5

IDA1 IDA2 IDA3 IDA4

A3.8

Non-steady state thermal characteristics
Admittance procedure

A4.2.3

Ventilation rate and metabolic carbon dioxide

A3.8.1

There are several methods available for assessing the nonsteady state or dynamic performance of a structure. One of the simplest is the admittance procedure which is described in detail in Guide A chapter 5. The method of calculation of admittances and related parameters is defined in BS EN ISO 13786 and a summary is given in Guide A Appendix 3.A6.

Carbon dioxide is emitted as part of the metabolic process and can be used as an estimate of the adequacy of ventilation. Guidelines related to CO2 concentrations almost always refer to sedentary environments. It takes a finite period for CO2 to reach a steady state level. Table A4.2 summarises CO2 concentrations above the ambient outdoor concentration that reflect the air quality classifications of Table A4.1.