Gait Hemiplegia

Description Circumduction gait The foot is plantar flexed and the leg is swung in a lateral arc (semicircle)

Associated signs Difficulty with balance, motor activities, speech, swallowing, stiffness of muscles, muscle spasm, depression. Problems with developmental milestones, behavioural problem, mental development in children.

Spastic paraparesis

Parkinson s disease


Scissors gait Combined effects of spasticity, uncoordination and weakness of both legs. The legs are flexed slightly at the hip, thighs are adducted and legs bump together and cross over each other in a scissors movement. There are short steps, side-to-side trunk movements and circumduction of legs. The toes never seem to leave the floor. Hesitation in starting. Shuffling Freezing: May freeze in mid-stride Festination: Small shuffling steps Propulsion: stiff with head and neck bent, Retropulsion: patient is easily pushed backward and may fall backward spontaneously Diminished arm swing, appear to fall forward as they walk and have difficulty making a turn Ataxic gait Unsteady drunken gait with cautious short

Spastic leg paresis, hyperreflexia, clonus, extensor plantar reflexes, arms affected as well. may also have extraspinal neurological deficits (eg. Spinocerebellar, ocular symptoms, mental retardation, dementia, polyneuropathy)

Causes Upper motor neuron lesion from any of the causes: Stroke (especially of the corticospinal tract), spinal cord injury (specifically BrownSequard syndrome), traumatic brain injury, encephalitis, meningitis, haemorrhages, neoplasms, cerebral palsy, MS MS, spinal cord lesions, trauma, hereditary, herniated IV discs, infections Tropical Spastic paraparesis (HTLVassociated myelopathy or chronic progressive myelopathy), caused by Human Tlymphotropic virus

Tremor, bradykinesia, instability, lead pipe, cog-wheel rigidity

Insufficient dopamine production by the substantial nigra

Asynergy, dysmetria, dyschronometria, dysdiadochokinesia,

Focal: stroke, infection, tumour Exogenous: alcohol,

intention tremor. Arnold Chiari dysarthria. peculiar writing antiepileptics. which is widebased or reeling on a narrow http://www. hereditary. normal pressure hydrocephalus etc Hemiplegic gait ataxic gait Parkinsonian Gait http://www. brain degeneration from alcohol. cannabis B12 Spastic gait the patient staggers towards the affected side if there is a unilateral cerebellar hemisphere lesion postural