'1'& :':~~~~f,l: 1ttJ6 !r.!!I?~~l ~' C'lI",6 1ln. ~~~J.~o "'~t (ll ElLafl.517m:; ",(;Ill 60(,Kl'S [;, K. K.t.o(nO~I,iO'l};Cl* <E""Mo~ 1'6 QI~~pout;ll9«l ~Qi) tOO~, T6 ?

6p0 ¢OI~G' 1:w.,. ~)0w~?t'!!W",1:,[,)'" a;;;~@". rrou ~,!y;;:t {, IlEYci~,; au.rXflill"'l'~ &.o:l.!o-.rn}; BLWPo;~\l.ti'O;L xtM &iW "ro6~ ,i'etJ:)l)<; i'~v O!A-Lio.M\! :oICOI) d'ptl:L: .,T6 "~}'IlS 'dk cptMlml'fCW;";» ,« 'E;nmJiO!, I'lOM'It}";f.i, ~'lO"'(>,!"'~Cth«:'fllljJo){().mMG!1l ~h6- fCf)~[.I~ Tit; o:iYro"'()'.y,~ .. "" ,,'1'( Q'l]~(d"'ElL ~1tw,,*fJ'I[.W':q;», «T6 1tpd'iM:I]~ ~ &][],c)\l1:pr.o:,(rn; ~» ~t:J.i «'H NX',<{>-t1!wT;1~~».

OJ QMM]EI: :E'fHN EAAAAA

r ,

KOPNHAJOE KA~TOP[AAH::t:

r:

Ol

(5~-tA{es

,.

llEPmXOMENA

fI{Jo;{oY!i<6f},,~{'t;.Jf.f{E .,., ••••••••••••••• ---- .....•• ", •• 9

To «~;I.(l~'iI1t:·'f'Iil.OOO~~~:>:>; .. , , , __ , - - .. _ ..••.••.• , •..•. t t 'U3;oUOl-r:t; I!lW.l.tX~ .. ~'OV(lf£[D! _ .••...•.••. , , . __ . __ . __ , 47 'H ~WXQ;·\I@I)tJlj It:m'l"6 Trp6"iiGl,Y!Ji'" Tii:;; Q;ih"(j,)IO~" ••.••.••. &5

-Ft ffl]!U<i\l.EI .E;·n:;a,'"oow;0'l'l;. ,_ . __ . __ .• , .••.••.••• __ . __ ~ 00'

T6 'Il(,)6fP.i'l1-W tij~ Q"l[.l!.(l:f(po::;:Loo;m'i~ •.••. __ . __ . __ .•• 12ft

'H 1:!l.X~(l~~fI~)] •..•...•..•• , ••• - _ _ 147

"I

npOAorIKO ~HMEIOMA

TO:. X~[~e::'~a nov, Ehrx ~p~I eow Q, a,vayvwaT"!1S E£Vat ot 1t1.(rrEC;:~E1:"aypo:;rpi~ 'twv b'~HAt,~,V 1to6 k:llwC1a a~v ·EAAaoa 'tov (f>~f3pOU6pLO (13-24) 'tOt) 19'89' > 0'1'0 rexAJux.6 lvaT~'!ou-co TijC; j\fJYjvac;. (rt~v Havrcto. orov no AO • 01:0. P ttJu I;l vo , c:rto Tlpa,XAztO xat at 6 ~aoCt $o~ Xct'V'<XAU'ttX6),V ~~Af:1:1j!'tWlv Q"'t'~v I\a~va. <fl. bJ-l(.AlO!. 1tO~) lxcc\u.:x., 01'0 1COAt1:1X6 ~v~~6cruvo To.G L1tU,POV !}-rt:vo.: EX8t ~s.~ OtfJilOO~strtcI oT6 :4 v-r{ T~'C; 24l2/89 .,

Tix x8[!:!8:Va «KT£ Q'Yj !Xext,V£t E1tc<'Vao-r(xol1 ~» xcd «To npo(3AYJI-L!XtijC; oi'l1~l:loxpa1'Eal~ m1(.u:po:,),} ol1l~O..,t€.uo\n:cn y~a. npwTY} !pop6_;. b·"dr; &'AAec; 1t~ptfCtWae;t~ ot cnUAtS<;e.:tVGu. ~e'tayi\(lrt'ti(J£:t~ ex temper KG:tP:,SVI(dV ypa~gtvu}\I a-r(X yaA/uxa ~ <lta ayyAtXa. np(Yt[~lYjoa V.(l 'to6C;,aqD¥]Gw ''to i)<po~ 1'01) npoqJo~nxof) j\OYQD. eA:rra~O'V"t'a~, o'n xGc~-o' ,~.'. ! JI, ""·A6't~(J, YW'V'To;vta nOt av'ttO"'"t'a.8IU£a8~ Tn fJ~tnVeK"t-h!I'.Ctt'a

nux ~e:: ra. '1;""11, "il,... . .... .. ' .. r r·· '~~

enol> a\N)!'TI6q>8l)Xt'C( auvooeuouv -n1 pLe'tOU:pop<x '"t1j; 6~ltAiac; 0",..0 ypa1t-ro.

rUX ''t~ ~X~'ta'yAcj)i"!'"! ~a1J 't'ij~ « Te:xvo en ~ oTiJ tJ. -qt; » o''t"1] p LXfhpu.x. (J T1) ~€'lt"a(p'p!XlY'l1: 1'00 CnoA6 nt6 €,xt'e:vou;) yo;,AAtX.oU 7tP(,:Yt01'l~nt()U a.1t'O 1'OV Noco 'HAt6noUAO xat 't~ .6,~~1P;p<X MapKor3It-r011. ·n:o~). EhtAW xaL 'TtaAt va Et,»::apt,G't110W yu.i, 1:6v x61[0 xed ~v nOLo'rYfta "'tYJ~ oou~ AEtac; "tUDe;:.

llap{o!. 2'8 (jje{3pouap{ov 1 f).90 K()p~)uoC; Kr:xaTop~aOl1';

TO «TEAOE THE <l>IAO~Oll>IA:E»;

ZOUlJ,E IJ,tct 7trxpa'tE'tCX!1EVl1 XPtCFY} xaL lt1tOGUVeEO"ll 'tii~ lilYtLX"fi<; XOtvwvLac; Xtx£ 'tOll Bvt'txou 1tOA,:'no[J.oi). ~H Buxyvc.uo7J alrnl 3tv xav,en "to [3apoc; 't1}<; tl7t6 1'6 y€yov6~ o't't &xe~ t1taVaA"tpee~ avaptelJ.lj't'e~ cpoptr;, ~x~vwytw; a1t6 -rov Pouaaw xed 'touS POllClvtLXQUt;, 1tEPvw-vtoo; anD 'tov Nt"'toE. xed "t6v L7tEVyxAzp, xa""tCtAY,yovt'ac; crt6v Tp6-taxu, rov Xc<tvtE.yxe:p xat 'tou~ IJ.E'"tE7tet"ta .. !:~v Duaia. 01 ratO~ 01 '1'p6rrot IlE 1:0U~ 01to(ous- 1toAMt; CPOPE~ alJ'tOt ~ xat aAAOt auyypacpa:i<; 1tpocrn&fh1aav \'& lx1totie:a;ouv Ott U1ttXPXE:L XPt011 X(l( a1tooUv6e01] ~ Cx1tO'teAOUV aUIJ.1t"t'hl (It'X'tcx T1l~ Kp l.".C; xcd a~xouvE a' aiYt'ilv.1 A&t6 nov llg eva~Ct.q>€pEt EBw a1JlLE.pa E:lvat ~ cptAOaoq>tJ(~ f,.lOPcrn11tOU ExE~ 1t&{le:.~ a&tij "h atlX1tto't'way} ~ !-tit -dJ a~a.){"t}(JUSl1 t tdBLxa a1t6 rov X&.~V'tEYXEP lx)"M oxt llOVO CxnD a lJ't6 V , "tOO "tE.AOU~ Tile; cptAOaOq>tac; - atCXx-r1pu~"I] TiJv o7tOta OtKOAOUeTJOe 8)..0<; 6 6pfla66c; "twv t1ttyOvwv. "t'wv aTIoBotLT)'t'wv KaL "ti:Jv IJ.EmIJ.OvtEpv~O'tWV p1Tt6- pwv.

'H qlLAoOO.:piex etV(lL E'Vex xe\l"tpU(O CitOtXeIo TOU e:AAYlVoBlYt~xou 7tpotaylla"to~ 'rii~ a-rol..ltxij<; xo::£ KOt'VW'1JLxi1~ au"t'ovoflfoo;. To -reAoC; Tij<; cp~Aoaocp(ac; 9ck a1J~cxr..\}E:, ol}t~ Aiyo OUT~ 'TtOAU, "to Tti\or; 'rii~ tAEUee:p£a.~. ~H tAltu6ep£a Bt" O:1t£tAEt'tCU lJ.ovo ano 'tel OAOXAl]PWTuca 'l "ttl. au'tapx.txa xcx6emlYta. 'A1t.e:tA.e::t't(xL, lJ.E 1ttO U1tOUAO xaL "{awe; 7t~6 E7t~K(VaUVO ,tp67to, (xn6 nj'V tl;acpckv&Ul1 't'ijr; Xpt"'t't}(:ijr:; )CaL T1jc; aUyxpOOCT'1}~, ano n1'V t;_a1tAWO'Yi ~.; cqLV1la£a~ xcd -ci1~ ao-q(J.aV'tQ-t-qt'ctC; ~ anD Tr1v aul;a~6l!e:.vY] txVtxctv<rr"l)'ta b.tl<pLO'~~TYJa,.~ Tij<; napouo~~ xa'taa~ao~w~ xaf 'tWV 6napx6vtwv 6eo(J.w'V - ~r~e (XlttOL e:lvGtL x(X6apti 1tOALTtXO( eL"t"1;. ~!v(Xt (liv (J.1tOpW va. Ttw) xoo~Oee(UPTJTtXo( eeallo{.~ B'YlAa(}~ 6eollOt 1tOU &<popoiJ\! -ni 6&0l'r.-

t. "'Exw mJ~~n1OE~ W 8EIJ.a 0"'[6 «T6 E:navacmrt'L)(O xhrru.r.a cmJV oUyxpoVO Ka1tt'taAtOf1()}) Kat «"H xp[O"'I1 -cii~ O'UyXPOVllC; XOtvwvtaC;», &AAl}V. ll~arpPrImJ CJ'"t6 ErJYXpovo~ "Ct'1rITaAlO'.u~ xa! rnav&araur; t txB6aett;; ·It.V~i\ov, Ae~'Vo:, t987.

12

01 OMIAIE::E l:THN EAAAfl.A

alJ.rtv~ napaaTaO''1 "tou X00I-L0U Xat Tij~ ?;cuijC;. E' ctUn1 Tfjv O:lltpta~~-qal1, 7tOU apx£r;e~ taw ~al 2 .500 xp6v~a, il <PLAOO'O<p~fX ibtC(~~e: ~"(Xv xe:'Y'tplx6 p6AO, ea'tw )(O:( av 6 p6AOC; au'tos ~Ta:V €(J.J.l.eao<;. All't6v 'to" p6AO XLV(5UVe:.UE:l va 't6~ XaoEL ~1J.€PtX, tScn't£().~ b.<p€\J6c; ThlV oUyxpovwv )(OlV(uV&)cO-~crtop~xwv "t'aaewv nov aEv (J.ltOpOU~E. v6. ou~ll-n1aout.le: a&t-IJv n1 (J't'tYI-l~.2 XCtL (xqlE:-ripou 'ri1c; e7t~apcxa't}c; peVlltX't'w" 07tW~ TO Xor;·'V"tE'j'X€ptC(.v6 ita.L ~6 lLE't'a-xdiv"t'eyxEpr.ClV6 pEvlla, nov xcn:' ouo£av Aa~peuouv TTl'V Wl-'-lJ1tPa.YllU'tLxon']"'Ca xa£ BtcUCllpUTIOUV, 01tW~ () XtX~V"teyxe::p: «dev lx,ouflE; va. xavoul-'-e "ttnOTe(, atv U1t&pxe:~ -d1tO"tcx 1tOO va. npE,1tEr. wi ylve~». 3 M1t'opou(le tya ~POUllE 'tOV €XqJUALO'llivo au~au(.(oV.6 oAcvv amw.v ~'V e~ufJ.""'O'1 -ri1c; o.a8e'Vouc; ai{E:$ew~ Cpcnsiero deboJe aTa !-rexALxti). aytAaB~ tJ.taS oxitIJewc; (laACtXYIC:;' EUTIAaO''t'y]t:;~ PYl'ta 7tPOO<XplLOGlJ-tV"I)<; ~\} xo~vwv(C( 1"WV J.l.a:~t)CW'V ll€OW-V E:'V"1]llipwa"l)~. 4 Kat ~ neplqlYl[.tlJ «xPt"t~){~» "!w'V a1toBO[l~<Tt61v. 't'ou-r; 61to£ou~ taw~ at a1tI.J.X eAAY'lV~xa ad ix1tox(X)..ouoa~e «!;tX(Xp~aM.rti~», 1teplop[~-r(U fTt'O wi 6:1tOaOller~ 8Y]AaB-q vee sexap~aAWVet Ttcxi\cna ~t[3Aia, xwp£c; va 1tPOOqJZPEt 7tO'te 'tl7!O't& 'to XCU\lOUPYLO.

q,ua~xa ~ ~ B~o:x-r,puSll 1'OU -reAou<; U,c; cptAoaocp~a~ Btv Elvat )(ar.\loupyta. To cha-raYl-la "t6 e[3yak y~6; n(J6l'tl'l <'Popa 6 XtyxeA. Kat 01'6v xtYKe). xcd mo'V Xatv'tEyxep. ~ t!;rxYYEA~a ~ a~aKl1pul;7J al'~pL~gTat at. flia qn.Aoaocpia ~ ono!a el~c(.t &'St6:crnaam xai OvrOAoy~(X (<<oKelf-nl 'too El'Vat»~ AtE~ 0 Xcuv-reyxe:p) xat CP~AoO'olPltx nj~ !o'toptac; xa{ lo-ropfo: tile; cpLAoaotp~oo;. Atv 1tp6xetl'cu taw va au~~aw Olyn: 1f)v ouokx ti}~ tYEA~avi}<; O\l-rOAOy£a.~ om-e: n1V oua~a.

2. BA. 'ttl. xetllEVa "rilt:; a1111. 1 . ~at Til B~aAes-q Jlou «The Crisis of Culture and the State», Center for Humanistic Studies. Occasional Papers No 16. University of Min nesota, 1987.

3. BA. ixvUIlEO"(X ot. 1toAM,,) &.AAE~ OL(l'tU1tfrl.oet<; 1:0 xe:tt1EVO 'tou Xarv-rS:YKEP «Gelassenhelts, )(a6~c; xai 't'"I] ~e-rci e&vcx""tOv ID7f.Loa&c:u(lev'W1 auv€:vre:u~~ TOU eTtO DeT Spiegel.

4. BA. II pensiero debole, Gianni Vatimo e P. A. Rovati ed., MLAUV01 1983. Gianni Varimo. La. fine della modemtts. Garzantl Edltore, 1985.

TO «TEAOl: TH!r 4lIAOEO()IA:E»;

13

"ril~ £p~Aoaocp((X<; "tOll XC(L'V-reyx~p. E!va~ o~(U~ fx1tapot£'t'''I]''t'e:.C; 0"' (Xu"to 't6 a"t)(.LELO v.eptxec; 1C(XPfXTr}p1]r:re~S·

~Y1t6:pxe:L o-rov Xchv'teyxe:p «SXL {1I'l'ttl. G.AACJ. tntOpp1]'tC(.) (1(0: lP~Aoaocp(a Tijt; (]O't'OpLa; .. 7tOO 7tapOUa~ci~L ~v "IO'"top(ex w<; Geschick (!lofpa, 7tPOOptGlLO xat Bwpo 'Col> Elvc(L). Au-n; -q cp~Aooot.p(a .e::1'Ja.l ~ lx7tap(linrt~ 1tpou1t66EOlJ y~ti va xa:trxAa~oul-'-e:. -rfJv ex ye:.v£:-rYJc; 'tU<pAw0Yl '"tOU Xa~v'tey)(E.P lJ.1tpoo-ra. O"-n1V 7tOAt't'~X'I1 xaL xo~vw'Vuc~ 5pam"f]p&m7J'ta -rw'V avEtpW1twv. 7tpOU1to6e:GYl e1ttG"I)t; 'tii~ 1tpoax(,)~ p1]~~ 'tOU <Tt6v va.~LalJ-6 xat o't'fJ FUhrerprinzip~ "R 'tu<piuuo7J Gtu't"IJ aU(l1tA71pWve-OCH a.rco llLCl t~laou arU.lo:'V"t'~K"r1 xaL el;_(aou ex yeVE-'t"il<; 'tUtpAwm] a1tEV(xV'"'t't .:rrI] ae:l;OOCtAtXD-tYJ't'Gt )'(0:: ( • YEVtx6'te:pex ~ a1tEvavn o-dJv tPoxfl. ~O XaLvte:.yxep 1tapOUOLri~r. 't"6 1tepte:pyo 6ttx(J.O:

Ev6t; cpLAoa6<pou~ 6 61toio~ lltAaat ixxC('"[tX1t(J..uo1:a ytfi -cou~ "EAA.Y]~ v€~. y~ti 'touC; apxaLot)~ ""'EAi, .. ~ve:C; EV\,QW q>uatxcX, XCli: (leO"a t:Ynl CfXEo/Yl 'too ono(ou U1ttXpxOUV€ (laupc:c; "tpU1t€~ On1 6eo"fJ 'rile; 1tOAE:w<;,. 'tou epw'tct xai 1:'ijc; $uxi1~. ~OllWC; (J.£a «ep~"1Jvefa» 'ri1~ eAA:flvtxi]~ cpLAoaoql(ru;. 1tOU exyvoe:t OU(f'['TJtl(X't~xa -r6 y~yov6C; O'tL "fJ CPLAoaocpia YE:\lvI167Jxe:. lJ,eoa. cra1V 7tOATl xo:£ aU! -rile:; 1tOA€.WS .. Kat o"'tt ~ cP LAooorpLa a. vt1 XE. ~ 0-nl'" t BLa x6Jl1<1Y] TtO U yev'V"f) oe: -de; npGYree; (5"11 ~ ~OXPt'J.:dE-;. EivQ.L x(x''ta.atXcwtJiV'l ae: a.vict't"11 a'Jamtpia. 'Ea'J, 01tW~ AtE:L xa7tOU 6 X(h'J't~)(e:p~ 'ta apxcda E:AA"1]V,"XU ae'V e:iva~ IJ.{a yAWar1(1.~ aAAa. ~ y"Ar})aaa, xa£ OU~E:1tW~ 7tPOOpto(lEva y~a TI1 qllAO~ aocp(cx.. -rO'tE -t£ lJ.1topou(J.e va 1tOUlle AOYOU Xap[,v yux 'tOUC; L1tCXP'tt<x-reS; ol Orrotot lltAouaa\l EAA"f]VtXa~ '(ocuC; BE xai..&tepa E:AA1]VtXa a7t6 1'OU~ CiAAOUC; ·'EAAy}vec; a~6-t~ «tAaxwVt~cxv», aAAa. O[.LW~ atv {ivU.LtOuPrlJOCXV X(l\JE"<X £PtMao<po O:x'tOS (Xv ee:wPl1o~~ XClVe:[.C; <ptA6- O"ocpo -rov XO .. WVO:. Evav a.1t6 "roue; E:1t't'Ct ao<pout;);

~H lBta alrn1 'tUl.pAOOmj tv-1tOaa;€:~ -ro\J XC;U'V-reyXEP va Bet .:rrI] Oll(..lepL~ E1tO;o1 ()"td5"1)1to"te: MAO O:1tO Triv xupLapx.tCt "t'"7jc; 1;'E.xVLxil~ Ka~ ti]<; t7t~.:rrI]lJ.'l~ (xcxt m;(s 8uo 7tEPt1t .. tl~OEtt; tJ.t !lteXv a1t((Tte:ota acpeA-r1 Ct.7to(5oxjJ -rile;; u1to'tL6e(l€V1Jt:; 1taVtoSuva~tar:; Ti}ot; t1tt~ll'YlC; :Kat ~e; "t"EXVt~jj~). EI'VClt av(xa;tyo; va (5e:.r ~v E.OIJ.:rt~p~x"l] xp(oll 'tou 'tE::xv[.X.O-O~KO\lOlJ.'-KOU aU~1t{lvro~ xaC ax.6~"Il 1tto o"lll.ltX'V"t'txQ. at-v ~AE1tEt B).zc; "t'(~ apO:O"t'"fJPLmYjTEC; 'twv Cxvepc{:r1ttJlv 1tOU x<X'tE.u6uvo-

14

or OMIAIEl: l:THN EAAAl1A

V'tat €vC(V'tlov "tou 0YJf.1.ept\loi) auO·riU..t.Cl'tO<; Xc(£ 'tU; auva't'6'['"fl'te:~ 1tOll ctl)'tE<; ol apaoTI'lp~6't71'te:C; 'Jte:{nExouv ..

AUnl ." cptAooapia tile; ~Imoptat; 6B"flyet 'tov XatV't'~yxE;p at ~(a tP~'lVEU't"~)(lJ !-l€eo(5o tilt; to'tOp(CU; Tile; <pLAoaocp[CXr; 1tOr) e:lv(.u an1v ooo£a rBta. J.(rt -n1 I-uteoBo 'tou XtyX£A, y~6: 'tOU':; raLOOC; [3ctel;:~~ ;.\6- youe; )CcxL Xtx't" ovaio:v, ~E 1:'6. ra&a tX7tO"tEAEov.a'ta. Me A(ya A6y~a: ~ .. u & npCXYll cx'tLxa xp rrt XY, au t ll't'YlO17 ti}c; cp tAOO'Ot.p (0:'; 'too 1tctpu86- V'tOC; Cx1tayopeU€-rlXt ~ xaG(O''t(l-r(U &liUVCl"tYl tq>el;~~. M' ao-rov 't6v "tpono" ~ qltAoO'oql'txii &t}jJ.oKpa''da, &-]ActB-q ~ B~fX.XpoVX~ KCX£ a~E1tOX~(Xx~ o:yopa (~E n1~ Cxp;(o:£a €vvOtcx) D1tOU iSMlt at cp~Maot.po~ OAwV "t'WV al6lv(O~~ ~w"'t'o:voi )(at ",expoL auv(Xepo~o",'t'O:~ X(X£ ou~l]'touv 1tp(.(y~rx't'r.)(a, xtX'Tcxpy€i"'tf.u. ME: 1tOtOV ·tp01tO; I:"t6\J XtyxE:h, lit; 't6 6ul-l"'l6ouIJ.E, (htOLO~ aaxEl xprrtX~ a'tou~ cpLi\oo6cpou~ "'tou 7tapeAe6vto~ Cx7tOOetXVuEt. a1tA&~ xa( 116vo mt at~ qEt xcx:ta:Aa~&t .t£ a7)~(([vet. qltAoQocpLa. 6,t6'n. x(('ta "'tol' XiyxEl. xcx£ 1-lE:<; m6 0"6- aTY]~a 1'00,. 01 t.prJ.6aocpo~ 'too 1tape:A66V"toC; Btv tL1tOpoov va. U1tOG"touv Kp ~'nxir 111tOPO UV flO vo va ~7tEpacrtouv ~ va Y(\lO U\I aufgehoben, xed ltPE1t€~ XelBE ~opa. va x(x1"aliE!.x6el o'n 6Bl1YOU\I «ex 't'WV e;v(5ov» ~6v E1tO(..LE.VO GJ~A6aocpo x.o .K. ecu~ o'tou rpeaaOUlle: OnlV O:1tOAu'tl1 yvw011 ~ a~Aa:a~ rrrov ~{Bto 'to\! xtyXeA. ~~\J 1tpay(!fX't'~x6nyt'a, <pua~)(&. lS'tcxv ypa<p£L il li'tC(v 1tapaB(Be:t 't6:. 1l(XBijlJ,fX"t(X yui. ~~ lmop£a -rij~ 4'.pLAooorp£ac;, () "KaLOS' /) XtyxeA (Stv fL1tOpe;i 1tO'tE. v6; ~e(\JeL 7t~mo~ 0' ClU'tO 't6 1tp6ypcxlJ.~6: 'tou xed xalie, x.Pt't'~x-q <Tto6C; 1ttxNxLOUC; qlLAOa6cpOU(;. IIap" aha cdJ'ta -r6 1tpOypa~!-ux ~rxpa:l-utve~. T6 TtAo~ -TIlS' q>r.Aoaolp(((~~ oove:.1tWr; .. U'tov xtyxe:A Bev e:lvat Bta6ea.,. ~ x€CP~ TOU xtyxu. Elvcxt ~ b:vayxaia &1t6A"'1S"I} OADU 'toO auan1p.a:ro<;. T 6 BE: aUo't7U..t,a O'"tExE"t'at ~ xa. - '[appi~? !J.Ct~( ~t TIl" lata: o'n ~ tyeA~a.,,~ cp~i\oaocp(cx E!va~ of] -rcleuTa{a tpL)..OOOcptct xat OTt JLE'ttX ano r.drolv {nt6{lxouv (lOVO ~ lS1tw~ Me~ Kcbrou (le &.6tAYl't"1l elp(u'VEtCX 6 xtYXeA t E:!J.7tE~Pt)(t<; OUfl.1tAlJ-

I

pMO'€t~.

~H x(.(''taG''t'aol'} c3e:v EI",o::t BuXCPOpe."tLK~ ~e -eov Xa..f.V'reyx€p. Ka~lct XPL'!tX~ au~~'t'YJ01l 't'WV <ptAOOOq>WV "t'OU 7t(XpE)"66V"toC; Btv E1t~'tpe1tE:mt. Aln:O£ nov 6 XatV"t'eyxep 6volJ.~~ «at O'tOXo:O'tEC:;» (denker)

15

EK£ppa~ouv 1taV'to'tE xcer' oua[av cr'tLW~-C; o-dJv r.o"t'opfa "tou Elvcx&. To Elven l.nMe!. ata. 'tou (it'611a:'t6~ 'tou~. :Euve::1tWC;, txll'tOC; 1[06 6ltAEt va XcXve;t xpntxil (TtOU~ cp~Aoa6cpouc; 'tOU 1trxpeAe6v'tor;: &7tAW~ CUtoC5eDCVO€L a-n Be'V €Xe:t xCX"taAa~E~ ou"t€ ''d elv{lt cptAoaocpfa OU't'E 1:£ elvc(t axe$Y} xat By) fl GXttV"fJ 'tou El'Jcu. Ol tptAOaotpoL 'COl) 1t{XpU-.e6v!o~ (lEan 0" amo "t'o. CJlJ.O' .. t .. tHla. y(vo'V't(u altoxAe:~m~x.& ttV'tLxe[(lEvo e:Pfl-qve£ac; xed tX1toa6[..l11CT'1]~. 'H M;1] (destruktion) U1ttXPX€L ij81l o-r6 Elva: xai Xp611~. T£ oYULahu;:t cxu-nl of] «eplJ.Y1ve:.£a xed (x.1to86~'710'"'l»; lln 1tpl1ta:~ x<k6e cpopa va. Be:.f.!;et xavE:U; (Bl1AaB-Yj va a~d~~ 6 Xanrte:yxs:(> ~ va (5e:.L~OUV 01 e7t£YOvo~ 'tou Xatvte:yxe:p) c5'n OAO~ «mOL 01 cptA6aocpot lxvfp{ouv o-n1V lcnop£a tiic; tAA~'JOaU'"t'tXYj<; «lle't(JJ.puO'txS1c;», llE Tilv ~vVOta: 7tot) Bt-vet errov opo 6 XCXtv'teyxe:.p. ~t 'd CJUvUnam.~ atYni ~ «(.LE.1:'(l<p uO' ~x:ri » ; .Luv(O't'O;"t'Clt a~ auyxaAuq,Y] TJ1~ «6V'toAoytxil~ a~(Xrpopac;», al1Aa(5~ -ITis- B~(l<pDpa.r; lxvcXlle- 00: o"to 8~ xed. 'to. oV'ttX a<pev6<; xo:( crt'6 Elv(xL acpE'tE:poU. !.uvlO'ta'tCt~ ouve:1tw.c; an) «A~611» 't'oi) E!'Va~. I1p6xet"ttxt rX1tAWC; yux C(1tC<axOA'10"q [..Lt 't'6 Elvat 't"WV ovt'WV Ktd 1ta.pa~€AYJa"f) Til; lxi\lle~\I~~ i:{JU}1:"'1a"l1<;~ ~ 01to[Gt~ x(X't'a 'to" X&t'v't'eyxs:p~ Elvca. epwTl1<1Yl yta 'to v6rjIJ.a: 'tou E !va~. Tau't'0xpovw <; xed 1tcx.pcxB6 swC; ~ Civ B ~o:~ 6.a!!~ xC( ~ v~tr; -eov XatV'tE.yxe:p~ ~At1te~ O't'L alYnl iJ A~Bl) xct~6: XO:1tOLO'.J 'tp01tO «1tpOOCiEUe~)} ~ 1t(JOXhlP€t (a1)Aa15~ innafloxwpe:t) lJ.E. Evav a.px€"ta ~Y£.Aoe::t(5il "t'p67to. &VtX(lEOCX a'tou~ {3~&cpopouS cp~Aoa6cpouc; nov EtJ,c.pavLo-n}xav Xct't-C( 1l1lxoC; TIle; ~I<Tt'op(a.C;. 1tPOXcupwv-tac; 1t'p6~ oAoevrJ.. xat 1ttD 1tA~P€~~ ~()P<P£C;~ hOL nou ((&to rrou 6 Xal'lfteyxe:.p

".. _,.,.

ovo~&~t «1tpaylJ.cx:r01tOLl)ol} x.at -r€A€twGYl TIl~ J.l!;:mtpuotxy}<; o(xv

A~&t]~ -roo E!v(;(~}), €x.€~ ~B-rl E~cpavL(JeE.1 cnov ni\a:'twva (xed. larue; )Cat <Tto6~ 1tpOahlxpcx't~Xout:;)" 6)) .. a cpe6.V€t o-n1v 1tt6 6AOXAl1PW[.lE."'"'1 lJ.OprpiJ TOU (lE. 'tov XEyxEA xed. o-n1 Ot)\t€Xe: Let IJ.t "to" N £ "ta~. M It-

• ~ ~, • f'

0'0: d airn1 v ~ (5t(la~ xaoul., ol auyxpouae:tc:;, 0 ~ av'tLcp(lOE~<; 't or.

aywV€r; o.veXlJ.eaa (f'[OU~ cp~Aoa6<pout:;;" 1tOll XapaX't'1]pi£;ou'V n1V to'topLa -rij~ tptAOOO<p(CX.c; t exY'Joou'J't'(tt. i1 auyx.a.A6rrtov'ta.~. T6 au\JoAO 'rii~ ia"t"op[(X~ ti1~ <PL)..oO'orpLa~ ellcp(X'Vt~'tCXt oriv ~ta ypa.tL~~XlJ 1tope:iex. €-rat wo-rE: va cpea.vet 0'[0 npoxa.6oPLOlJ.tVQ a1tcrt'tA!;:a~a TOU, (371N:xB11 rrt'O XAe:tottJ-O ~ o't6v e:yxAetalJ.6 -Pis l-le"to:cpuO'tX'l~' Ka(

16

01 OMIAIE:E }:TH~ EAAAAA

cno-v Cf"tOXaOn1 amou 'tOO EyxAe~O'~ou, 'to'V Xat.Vte:yxe:p~ 6 61tDtO~, xeer' cx.u't'ov 'tOV 'tp61to~ ~1C'opEl va ixCf.»1a€L xa"t'a ~EPO~ n1 cptAOaocp(o:; ~ al]Aa.B~ "n11-LE"'t"rupum~, xai va aaxoA716et lJ,t -n1 axt~~ 'tOU Elvctt.

~U1tWC; o'tov XEYX£A !:1"O't xat at'ov Xa.tV'tE)'XEP lSAot ol t.ptA6aorpo~ avayov'tc.u cn6 tl>to. :E'tov xtyxei\ ~!t ~v ewo~Cl o't't OAOL -roue; t.x1tpoaco1touv O:1tAW'; Q't'tyr;.t<; an] a~Gt8u,aa~o: ~C; alrtoO'uv€£lh)a1]~ xat a&toyvwolac; "tOU 1!VE:u~a'tot;. Ked <puatxa C5k<; G(u't'ec; 01 «aT~YlJ.t~» a1tot5etXvue:"taL G-ro L'tAos OTt E.rva~ xaL xaTad,xa~o].rt'at va c;:1\J(:U «O"tty~EC;» 'tOU eleA~(x'Jou auO'"t"ljIl(X'"to~. 1:'t6v XtXtvTEYxe,p, OAO& ol CPLA60'ocpO~5 av'tL1tpOaW1tE;UOUV lhwpope"t'txt~, aAAa (o"'C(l\l KO~:"t&IlE 't6 [36:6oC; -rW\I npayt-ta-rwv) XO:'t' OUO(cxv '!"it; r5te:<; xa£ IlYt atrupop01totylt,utve:<;~ Jlopcpi<; Ti1c; ):fJ6'Y}~ "too oVto~, ti1c;. OXE$"Il~ 'tOU ovro~ w<; 1tlXpOUoLa.;. TIlS aUY:XU0ljC; Ti1~ 1tapOooLa.C; ~t "t6 ExaO"'to-

~

't£ rcrxpov.

Mt 'to6~ ~Eta-x{x"LV'n:yx.EQtavoV~~ OAO ct&t6 'to 1tpay(l(( 1t(J.tPVltt -rov "t'L-t·AO 'tau nBy/ph-ou Ka£ aa~app~K"tou XUXAOU 'tOU ti\A"t)VOc'5U"t't)(0 U oV't"O - Aoyo-a eo - t.pCXAAO - x.ev't'p~alJ. OU . 'Evrooro LC; Ka1tote~ EoXa't"€S eA1t~aEC; cpaLve"tcu veX unapxouv' aUlllPWVa ~e KanotEr; npoo!pfX't'E<; CP¥i~E~, t.pcdv€-rGCt o"t~ eo: 111tOpOuaat..tE e'VaEX0!lE,"oJW~ v6. [3youlle an" CtlJ"t'ov T6v XUKAO, XIXtu:cpe:uyovrac; onJv naAcua ALae~X'1l (oxt ~€J3.(xLa. O'"t"Ijv Ka~vIJ t ~ o1to'a ~ 07tW~ xed ~a 'to x&vou~c:, Exe~ !J.oAuv6e'L avttX'tfX anD 'Toue:; xtX"to:pa~tVOUt; "'EAAl1Ve~). 06: f.L1topooa(X~E. E"t'Ot va ppou~e: OLDV 'lE:xU}~a, o't'OUt; N6lJou~ 'tou Kat 0'"t"Ij\J 'H6LX"t} ~iJJS "E~p(.((wv lJ.~a un:e:pJ3o:"CtX~ <TtUlcxofa ~ lle:m~l-I.aafa, 'h 01tOtc( aa (J.1t€t an? 6eGY] ""tw.v XP€WKO~lle'Vw'J 1tlXAllthlV 01tEP~ct'ttXwv <TI1f.uxatWv. "Jowr;" ecpe:si1<; 6& 1tpi7tE.t va tA1t£~OU~€

5. BA. 'de; '[eAeu·tl~te<; O"EAUStc:; Tilt; «P-tJo"IJ~ "toiJ 1\vr.d;t.(.uivlSpou» (1944) 011:0 u 6 ~p ~a'!<ntA1] ~. {) IT)'6:TW lJ , b "HpaxAe ~ 1"0';, 6 IT CXf>1le:vf(j~<; xed. 6 ~"Va;£t1avC5po<; t(1cpct\l U;OV1"ttt w~ Aiyovu~ «'to "1 B La ». "H 'tE pa"t.MB'1 ~ (xed o-ro 1tL6 01'J (Lcwtt x6 01] Ill:; ~o, )Cae ap& «1!OAL 'tt K1].....c);vnSpaO'tt xip» « tp~ 7lvdrn> &7t~ .or6v XatVl"E"'{XEp ""COU 1tep£q»llJ.ou crraoillOO Tijr:; ~1iTcy6Y7]q (<<1toi\AiX 't"Ct oewa ... ») ow 'tEAOC; Til..; EI(1tZY6)yijt; art] Mera({JVa~x-1 OdXVEt rc6ao ;tvo<; ~-ra:v 6 X6:~vrE.Y}(EP 1t"p6C; -r6-v kAi .... ~VL)(6 x6a~o xaC 't6 tAA'I1V~x6 1tVEU!-1(J..

17

~

awo€t •..

* IIti *

MtOCl d au'tls; 'd~ ou'V&rixtt;;, atv eI'Vo:r. 7tEp(€.PYO o'n TJ tptAOO"O<pUx aaxEL'tcxL OAoeva xed AlyO'te:.pO Kat o'n -r6 f.l~C(A&tepo (lEPOC; (X,u'tou 7tOU m1tJ.EPo. Ovot-t6.~£-ro:~ «qnAooocpfa» e:IV(lL Ct1tAW'.; GXoAtaq.t6c; xa£ e::Plll1V€Lct~ YlIlCt.AAOV oxoAuxali6~ o't6 't&'t{Jayw'Vo. Llt6- "tL ol e:tf5iU.LO"YE<; 1tAto" (38\1 E.P~1]'VEUOUV Xtl.V 't'ou~ q>lAoo6t.pouC; 'tou 1tapeA66vtoc:; .MAa tp(l1jV~UOUV "tt ebte: 6 'teXae: E.P~Y]V&uTflt; yta 'tOV 1:"a.Be tplly]VE.trn1, 6 61tOLO~ epfl~vE.ue:. .. lie; 1tOU~E. .. -r6v Aa~~TIVt'tt;. Airto 01111r1tVEt E.1ttO"f1; O'tl ft raux 1) lo"topict tii~ qJLAoOO<pU:.u; u<p((J"l"a'tr.tf. !-L(a 'tpO(.LEP~ 1tapatJ.6prpwo"ll .. Bt.6'tl attx~EA£~at ltvtXlJ.eaa. (1' E.v(x'V axoAaCTt"tx6 cXxcx(5"IJlJ.dtov-6 xed crttS a7tOao!l"fJ'ttxe~ ~ SE. ...

x.cxp~ (1.AW't"'- XE C; aax€'t'o"t""f)'t"E<;.

To 1tWr; t-L1topoutJ.e va 1tpooe:yy(aoU(lE -djv Imopia ~C; cp~Aoao-

q>Lac;. 87jAaBit "to epyo 'tW'V (JYUJ.(Xv"t"txwv cp~Ao(J6cp61v 'too 1tapeAG6- V'to~. Elven cpuatxa eva 't"Epao'ttO ~1rt1lI.u:x" aAAa Bev !l1tOpoulJ.E: \JcX 1tPOxwpiJaoulJ.E:. xwp£~ \10; -r6 O:.\ftLtJ,e't"W1ttaoulJ,e eo-rw Ked O"UV01t't~-

Xli.

~'Evac; cptA60"ocpo~ ypa.<PEt xed. a'1tJ.OO~E.UeL .. a~&tt 1tL(f't'E.Ue:t o'tt. EXE.!.

va 1tE~ o"IJ (laver-xit )(Xf aAlle ~ va: 1tpaYlla-rCl 1 aAAO: E:1tiOlJ c; t5r.6'tL t1t~eUfl€i: va y(vou" av"t'LXE:!(J.&VO au~"IJ"t'Y]a"'lS am&: 1tOU 1ttO''t"EU€~. «Net yfvouv aVt'txe:~(lEVO O"u~~'t"fJOl1~» Ul"Ul(l(ve~ veX U1toU'touv x.pr:ttx'iJ xCli evae:xo~tvwc; va. (xv{XLpe:6ou\J. Ked OAOr. 01 llEyO:AOL (fHAocrOcpot 'IOU 1tapeAa6vt'o~" llEXP~ Xctt --roue; Kav't, <j)[xrE Ka( :EtAALVyX .. au~Yrt'loa", nCtv't'Cf: p"f}'ta. €)«(lvav x.pt'ttxil xed auxveX a"oJ(XtpEoav ~ 't'oo~ 1tpoxa""t0XQuc; "tou~. KL r.tl)'t6 YLtXTt flewpouoav, 1toM otumO:. an X(X( ot rB~o~ avl]xouv ri' cxl)"t'ip" Tfi auxxpov~x~ l\yopci, a' (xlYt"OV '"t6v XOt\lWVtXO- to'top(.x6 a7J1-l6a~o xwpo, 01tOU aaxEt1:"(lt 6 o'toxaov·os xal6 alYtocnoxaoll0<;.ll (Xu'to 1tOU Eta ~1topouO"av.t va 6vo~aO"ou!-1€ «OtV<XXAClOYl», llE'tCXq>p6J;oV"ta; -r6 ~'Jo retleaion. Ked o-n a~ ~ a1]tJ.6a~a xPt'ttx'Y] "twv a.AAW'V cptAOao<pwv e:l.".a.l <X1t"OAU't(t)C; Quota-

18

01 OMIAIE:E ETHN EAAADA

t7ttx~ y~tX va C5tut"i}Mee:t x 0:; ( 'Va BteopuvEts:t a&-t6t; 6 xwpo~ we; xw.po~ tAe:Uee:p(a~~ ~ta(X o'tov D1toIa Btv l)1tapx,ouv ('.(ofh::vtte:.~ ~ aev ll1teXrxouv A7toxajuJ~E:t~, c;tv unapx.ouv le\ltxoi rpa:tlflo:tt'e:U;~ CSiv U1tcipx.ouv IIp6tapo~, aEV ll1taVX,ouv <I>u(JE:P xa.t Btv ll1tclPXE:t xai Mo(pa 'tOU EIv~~. exAM (),tOU Bta.cpopE"'t't xec; a6l;E~ 1 B11ft.. Buxcpope"ttxe~ yvwlle~, auyxpOUOVTc(~ )(ctt 01tOU 6 xa6tvfXC;; eX£t 't'6 a~xcx(w- 110: t rpva~x6: (It at~ -rou eu6uv"l1 xa( IlE Btx6 'tou ptOXO tva: EXcpPciae: ~ Tr2 a ta.cp<.U vta 'tou.

Al.)'to<; e:.IVCXt 6 A6yo~ yta "t'6\1 orcoIo YLa Eva c.ptA6aocpo liev (J.1tOper va tntiqJ;et 7tapa: 1J.6vo J(P'T"<~ la-ropLtx 'tYlr; cpLAoootpfru;, 87):.\0:&1 OXt a:rtAw<; 1tcx.p&.6eoY) "t'WV lBe:w\I ~ b).) .. ti a.v6.J..uol'l1to6 auvoaltuETCH Ct1tO X(>l'tLX1}. 'H XPL"ttX~ cpuatx6. 1tpoU1toBe:-rE:t 't~v t1tLI-LOV"Il xed a\l~ato't€A~ 1tpomrti6eto: xa"t'av6"1lOy}; "tOU xe~llt"ou 7tOU 1tpOO1taBoullE veX avaAUaOUllE.. ~7dO'Tj~ npoU7to8E"tE.t Il(a auve:.xiJ E:1taypu- 1tV~<11} 000'V Wpopa ""tou; evC5£X6tJ.EVOU; 1tE:ptOp~alloo<; 'tou xe:r.(J.t_,_ VOU, 1te:ptOptO'(J.ouC; nOll C(1tOPPe.ouv an' 'tov axe<56\1 ltv<X1t6<pe:UK'tO tyxAe~ap.d )(6:6E e:pyDu axt$'1t; 7tOU €x,€t ~btLq>E.pe:t eno" 7tp0'1YOulle:.vo E:yxMt GilD.

J\AA.r.X yt' (lu't'Crv E1tta"f}~ rov A6yo ~ 7rpi1re' va tnttipxer. y~a e:~a qlLAOOOCPO lJ-ta l(prttx~ tU't'opta r7i~ CPLAoao<p(ac;~ "'Av aUn1 ~ Lmop£a i5i:v Elven KP~'t~>a1, 't6't'E airt6c; 6 yatO~ at\) €lvar. cptA6aocpo~ - erva~ 1cn9ptxo;. epIlYlve:uTi]C;, xax6.; tP!l~'VE~S' tXAAWO-re. Ka£ eXv (5e'V lntapxe~ to--ropLa, l-l€ -n1\J 1tA"1]p1J evvo&a rii<; A€l;1]<;. 't6re <xmoc; 6 qnA.6aot:poc; e:.pya.~'t'al EXOYt(X<; -n1l1otpa(a a.lYt1X1ta:t"l) {S't't sav(XPXi~t 'to: 1ta'VTCl '!~C(mc;, TIlv rxu't'CX1ta.'O] n}~ tsbut« rasa. ·H cp~Aooo.-.p(a s:1'Vcu (l£a. eXv(XxAaO''t[.x'fl xa~ a&t-omOXctcTn~ i5p&O"f} 'ti]c; axetfJ"t}~. 1tOV a.VeA(aae"tfX~ xat tAEuBepa xai (lEO'O: crov auv€~ 1tEp~op!.af16 8v6~ 1tapeA6oV'tot;. ~H ql~ooocpt(X at\' e:lvcu awp€-u't'lx-rl, e.rvC(~ ~cxfhti lm;op~K~.

(DeaVOu!lE €'tO't ae €V(XV XUXAO. £VClV XUXAO 0 o7toIot; atv e:Ivctt cpa.UAOC; xed 6 01tOtOC; Btv tX&JA~'I!;:L Kavivct Aoytx6 EAa:n:wv.a.. 'Ellcpav[~ti:t -nJv 1tpaYllcx't'tx~ oua£a. 'tOU mOXClollou ~ "tOU au"totTtuXO:OlJ,OU t 'ril~ aln;OaV6;XACXoYl~ v.toCl o't6v 6p(~ovtCX -r"1l~ q>~AoO'Oq>tK"ij~ OxEtV7)t;+ Miex KPL""t~~ iU'topta. 't'ij~ q>tAOaocp£o:~ 8tv e:.lva~ liu-

19

Vct"n1 xwp(C; ~'cx tz,tah'€p111tpOOW7tLX-q 't'o7to6~7)oYl. At\' LJ.1tOpe:t \l1X a.aX'fJoE.~ XO:V!;:Lt; O:Al1e~vIt xP~'t'!.>n1 anD 6noumr1tO't"EA "rilv lxaxe:t ano Eva CT'f]tJ.Ei:O O"tO 61tOLO 'to1to6e.t't'ut xat 't'6 07toto B!ve:.~ llta. auvoxiJ crtL~ XPt't~)(tc; 'ttr; 61toIe:C; tvlJeXO(.LEvw<; excp€plt~. ~AA6; t-t(a Xpt't'LX-q lO'top(cx Tfi; cp!.Aooorp£ac; €1tlG7JS" ae" c:h~aL 8uv(X~ xwp(t; xcX1tota avtiA'l~7J yr.&. 't6 't~ €tVctt ~ to't'op(a, !l& "t'"T)V 1tAa't'tYtEp"f) Ka~ ~r.dhhEPl1 €VVOtCX ((umi) 'tOU opou Ked ~ e1t(m'1S~ Xa1tOLCl a'V'dAy}«PYI YLa ,;6 1tota e:lvct!. ~ 6€al1 Ti}e; cp!.AoootpfCU; llEoa <Tl"'1]v to'topt:a.. (1\1t' alrtij TIl" cbtotfrrr &atp~c;, xed 6 Xeyxe).. xat 6 Xa~\I'te:yxep exouve ro- 1ttxa ar:Xto). A&to <pUGtXQ; a~'V orUla{vet x(X'teX xavE'V(Xv 'tpon:o o't'r. 7tpoa1taaou~e: va «tS7JrflOOU(.L~» 11 vO: CxvtX~peaoul-le: "t6v IIAmwvC( )Cat "to-v i\pta'tO'ttA1] llioC¥ -r-qC; u1tapSl1S -rijr; aOl)A£(a~, 11 -eov Nrsx&pt xa( 1:6v AOK flEOCP 'ri]~ av6Bou ti]<; Il1tOu{X;ouai';(oo; xaL oAw\.! "t'wv yvw O'tW\l lxvaAoywv avo"t]O'twv. ~"J']lJ.at 'Ve~ ixacpaAitO'-ro:ra 5'tt xa! ~ 1tap€A6oua(t cptAoao<plex xal ft aYnLe:.ptV~ cptAOOOq>(o: 1tpt1te~ veX (3pouv n1 6EG7J 'touc; t-ltOct o'tYIv to'top(a ,,["OU a\l6phl7twou qJaV"taaUXl(OU xed (outun (Jn1v i.o'top(a 'tOU e7tttJ,ovou ~ lhax!.A~E"tOU~ xo:( ftAeOV, ayhlvr.J. tilt; t'te:p6vo~"'l~ e€.al!~mss: -rils )(Ot'Jw'JtCXC;.

S6: CP~Phl l)uo 1tapalieL)1J.lX'ta ytiX va Y(V(r) xa:'[avo"1J't6~. Sa i]'tCtve: ttAEiwt; av6~"to va ixP\llJeou[le axc:'t~)(a !lIS rov IIAa'twva an 'ttl x(YYI-rpa roo elvcxt xa:t' Quota\! 1tOAt"t'LXO: .. 01npooBtopLO'!J.ot 'tou eiv(u 1tON:tLXO( Kat au"t'o~ 011tOAL'tLXO~ 1tpoaC5tOpt0(10L xa( "ta 1tOArrr.xa K£\I'1"tpa e:.lvat ~ AuoawBl1t; 1lt.Xx"fl t,,(X'V't'(ov 'ri)<; lil1 [J.O Kpa-rfo:<; ~ -n1V bnofa JlLa~i: a1to 'ttl J3ti8'1) -ri1~ tiJuxi]~ "'tOU. Aum oovat&"t'a~ {3af}u"ta:t'a (lE. OA'l -n1 axe$7) 'tOU nAa'twvo<; xa£ cpUGtxa (J-e 1"11V OV't'OAoy£a. 'too. ~AM E:~(aoo (xVO"lfC'O 6a ij"t'o:.'Ve va apV7JeOU[.LE- B-t~ 6 IIAcX~\I l;avaZhU.LtoUpy1]O'E xcx( savaeeolltoe y~a. IltCX Be:&te:P'1) <popa ~ 'Lhooocp£a xaf o"tt I.!EVet ~ w~ m1l-le:pa TOUAO:XtO-rov, 6 llE:YaAU'tEPOt:; qnhbaotpoc; 'tYic; LatOp(W;.

Mit "[ov't(lta -rP{)1tO xed, cpuotxa~ aE apxE'"ta U1tOBEeo'tepo E1ti1tEftn Ofi ~tXVE &v61l'to \,,x apv'l6oUlle o"t'~ (; XaLvte:,"YK~P xtve:.l"tcxt IIUIP)(b)~ CX1tO ~(.dhcX lxvtLZiprxanxa Kat b.V"tt(5Y]~oxpo:'t~x& XL""J']'t'pa, ~'t't r.dYrt~ 01 1tAE:upec; "ti;t; crxi:$e:WC; 'tOU X6.tvtey>eep elv(Xt ~a:7J ~ )(~Yli\c::C; O'-ro Elva, xa! Xp6voq ~ Est x.pOVt(X np£\J eee' "C6v ne::p£q>ruJ.o

01 OMIAliEI: I:1 HN EA,AAAA

n:po-r(Xvnc6-rou A6yo {nte:p 'TOU vC(~t,cr-:nxou x.o:.I8Ieu't":;)1:0~. xfd ,o·n 1tapoq.tE'VOIJ'V XC(£ tJ.€'ta ''t'OV fj,ava:t'Q. TOri;), b;,<pourpp6,v'tu,€VcX ,O'W(J€{, GT.o Spiegel tJ-tct ouviv't£U'~11 ~ (J.:e: rp11-n1 E:vtOA~ v&aTl~oGI~eu6~i ,[1,e:,'!Ct "to", e o:vat'o 'tOU, C1-rJ]V 01tO La AEE t 01:"t Bt\) ;[It!'tavo~l yt,a "t'f'n:o-r.e. Ked ,cpua~xa la\l ,ata,fj.<iae:~ XCtve:fC; 1tPOOEX1:'ILXCt 'to Elvcaxai Xpdvor;, X(X-raAC(~(dvEL '-07 o·,uv(5,E:(j'y] od)"tfj~ til,~ o-r,ci,aytrC; [.L,t -nl ,aOVOAU(~ qn.AOOO''Pia 'toU Xat'VT,e:yx,e:p :)«:d ~t ,00u1'o 1tOuf}ti\e;,& 'va oixoao(1~ae,,~ ,w~ o'"rroAo)ia,. Ked O~JAjj~; GO: ~Tav 't'.6 ratO Ctv6vp:ova 0:p'v"16o;()~;1!; 'O'tl~ b Xa~v'teTX€p~1'av :~VQ; arco'toor; (J~rt,[J.a\rtI~:xo6r; !pt'Aoo6cpov~ 1t'OU 200u cdwva xat va L'oxupto6ouv>£ ,Dirt ,ev(Xc;tpltA6ao€po~ ,ela 1J.1t0POUQE 'm111!tpa Ct1tA,W.c; va. 4eOV aY'YO~O"~lt. BpL!aK6( .. ux'a1:~ I3t(3c(I~(X, I11tPOOt'l'X at l1-tatpall VO[.Li~vLKa 1tap&,BO~l1 :Xct"!Ct01:ao'l'1 nor) U& U.1tfXtl"OUOe '1t€pCtt't:ep,w ,o~a6ya'(J1}, "ti]'v .on;o(ot ,o:ev ;fJ,1tOPW ouo"tux:wr;

T J' ','$;: ....

'va e1ttXEtP"liO"ICi) tuW.

YEAe;ya 1t'PtV ,o-n ~ cp1tAOao<pla OE'V €lv'rx,~OrWPEU1CI~X~; Qnw~: lela p.1topooae va. n:e:t xave(<; o'tt etVlctt '~i1rIL(1-nJ~IJYl, (XVXG(t [:x;e:;l (X,x6p.a Lr6:. 1tpa.Y(1'(X'to~ ,olt:Ve:lVCtil rooo xaJj,apa 000 CPC(IL'VO'V'ta'L. IItivt,wl;, cn,qv 1tpa~':r) '. (J.1tope:l't£ valJ.6:[ee1t'~ c:puO'tx,q ~ ~.ux'6~U.ta1CI~x6:;. Ot,a[3,a~o~ \rta~ 'O"'tJ~ep~'va eyxe:l~p~,alCt. fur" ~Xi'ti:xc(~J.'kx o:vayx"q'vo< b~ya:t"pE;~'t"€ (rtO'v E:OKAell5-lJ) errov i\pxl~:!J.~a"1 ~ OT'OV N,eu'it'<uvIO(; orov rxaouc;. 01:'OV :A~va'"t,6xv ~ crrov K,ti'vl'op. Ao'trO b:'xpt}3'ws r(J1]~;p.ah~,€t OWpe::O'tlt"" XOl'1]'to: ~,'t6 yeyov6c; OY}A(x'O~ Q1't xa:ta x,anOltov -lP01CO x!Q;,i 'tOUAOrXt,o'tOVCt1tO bpr.a:l-lev.ec; axo1it~ir; (yt.' aUT,Q A€W o't~ U1I',aPXEt 1tp61~All~~' (.ta),~ (5ta8txaat,C( Kcx'tapyei,"tctl~ ~t~ 0'1'.0, ,&1to't"€ka:~dt 't'"11'C;,. '1'6 cXno-

~" ~' . ,_

't'e.Ae:(J~rrxap:)(,~:~ •

j\ .. 1t() [J.ia&AAY( an:oq,-q.xal( ~ 1C~XV"fl i5!tv eh~(u o·'{.)peu'ttx~ ~ ~v X[XI( CXlyce) 1tPE1tE~, 7ttXAt v& '"to 1t,O;pou[J.e, [J.E ,O~A.x!cpOPE'tLX~ evyo~C(. LXe:-obv nav't(l., yt<i vrO! x(t:1'aJ\&,~~n x,a\J€£~, aXil 'O;nAW~ :e~w1t'~,pouX. tVIC(" EIPYO 'tEXV'1J~. elvar. r(X1tapal't))'tov&tll(3orTC"tLaHe,t II-lE~ orov 1t.oi\L,'tt:o~6 IJ:tOCt <11'6", 01to[o Y!VVl1fhp<E atn:6 ""to ,epyo 'tixv1JC;. 1\AAa 0:0·'1',6 0,8\1

r ~:r.~., £l, I . _ ,,-.. .. l " ''!II G '(\ ..... ~I;JJ

O"-q lJ-'O: ~ ve-:~ o"t"t oe V 'va .ll:1tO()Ol)oe: :){(xve:: ~,; Vet € VuOUOUJU1\J:E: t1t • X. CX1't'O

-r6v B.ciy)(v~p, tbciv Q,E:V ~tpe~ OA:~ l'irvt!~.t:Ar.;l1 aRO 1:"0 'Yp~:yop~,av,6 aa~C( lJ.ta~'to G U(xAeo"tpf\Hl ,. 1:ouMov't'e~ epV1't,. 'tOU M n6:x. "tou, M 1tE1"'O ~8V K .An.

21

~1ii TIj (p'I~Aoaocpfo:. ~ XlX'tacrt('UJ'Yj elvaL ota<pop&'t'~)(l1. To y£yov6.; ,(j'1:I~ '-q qnAoaocpb:x f!:tVCtt O:XPt~hlS cu)"toa'"to)f}x(f'r~x~ xa£ o:irroavaxAa.a:'t"tx-il clpa;o"t"f),p~6T"frta 'rij!~ axt$-"r;, O'UVE;'ltcXYE""tC(t tBE(X1:C( o"t~ KafJe v.opcp~, axslllfj!<;: 1tOU lXe:,t UlIt1.p~,Et; exst tJ.1toxpeur'ttxa o1Jl-lCtotC( yt' (xu,'tl1'V. Euve;:,1twC;, yt,a e::V(l, (p'LA6aoql'Q ~ xQ/ta XCt1tOLOV ,tp61to, etvrxt

~ _ _ _ ~ _. _ _ _ __ _ _ _, . 'I _" .I- _f' __ ~. _ t ~.~: '"l ~ . - _ - 1. _I' _ __

01r0Xp,e:WT,€j((/)~ o11!1ctv"t:tx(X aULa 'tCl orrovx Ot C(fl.AOf. q>tl\OaocpOL

exouv 'ijo~ ax~cp6e:L }\.AA6: f3t~cu(X. 01tW~ &11tDt. cdYr~ ~ cdyroCt'wxxAotO"ttX.Ort"l1"tOr:, aUI1:~ 11 (Xur"tO crt0XClO'1' txo't"IJ"ta, OYJ [lcd VE,t 'tClVTO:;«lO ~ V(.)'~ xpt.'t't,x,~:, Ehi lJ,1topouae vCi 1titl(aY$~C;, E,vas qJlAOOOqlOC; nov ttaX8.t, KPt,'ttX~! a'to6~ (ptAoa6<pou~ 1'OU napEA6oV'toC;, KCKtcX xt.i1tO~OV 'tp07tO aoxe:!: nJV qV't'OKPt,'ttX~ 'TOU. To, av n1V aaxEL Ka:AW~ 11 ')(O:x(;)~ cdrr6~lv(xl (i,AAYjI la'Lopta.. "O'""tuv aCJ)f(,71 XPt,'tLX.r, O"'tov K'c{v't.

~' . L., . _. 1" _ _ ~ 11 .J _ _ _ ;.." ~ _ _ _, _ .r

, XtX't(1 Xu.7tOLOV' '1:pOrro aaxw e:.1ttOl1t; XPt'ttXl1 orov e:o:.U1:'O !:too xat

ttlrtO tJ:t 6BYf(8.t \16: eIllCt~ ax61clct 1tto. ctua"t'~p6~ 1tp6<; ,'t6v e<lU'to

;, , j' "" ~ "l.'" ~ $;l< if A Y - -6' K'I - A' '" r 10: - ,I' ,

1:'00" ot1ll:: 1"0 a"'~· c(1'tj\U)~ ~ota'fJ a~C( T \I, cevr , L1€ vtJ:rcopw va sU1tvatu

J...O J. t' ~ t '., ~ J' J' ~ _ /r __ _ _.:J' rr;, ~ _ ,.

)(lkU£1t'(lU)t. 11& !Jtc( Xa,t:voupyta tuea 1tOI:) (Xv'ttq>aO"x€:t, lJ.e Ol\~r; 't"tC;

1!tpO"i}yo~)ileve:r; to:ee:~: !:lOU xed veX, 01tEtJO:(,J' va TI}'V Cc.vc('7t"t6~Wr, ~exvwV'tIX,<; 1'£ axe'ql'to,lloovo: at a,A.., 't-'~v 1tPOl1youtJ.&V1J ~wil v.oo. :E; cdJul'V CXXPt.~'WIS nl fltto"fj ~,p((jixe."'tat ~va; <ptA6aocpor; cr~ oXeoi1 tJ.t oh('l TO:

JI _ __ _, _ '" ~ t: ~' 't ,. - - ~I' - 'i)~ - 6 - - " "------1" :I _ '"l - . i'

HStlJ.~vct nov "I1'u~ U'1CC(PXOVV O'tO!Y e;pxs't'(l~ a't 'v xoopo , :__ (.( nOVAte(.

X£Aal]aaV€ aH6)I(X xaB€ 1tpu)£~ a.AAfJ. t::h~cx~ nouAux. Ked xaee 1tpWt KIA<X'I1:o,(ive 'to. 'to~o 'tpayouB;t. 'E1do~s:~ at" !l:itOpW va &yvo~(rw 1'0 ytyov6S 01.'L ~~ TaLa llOO ~ axE:c.tJr'l1. 000 xat: liv -oJ \lolJ.(~w 1tpw"t6'tu~ ft"tI. BtV' elvat 1tapa €'va. Ctvrxpiytol-lCt ~, O'~~v xO!~t)~.e::P"ll nept1n;wuYl, I,\'ac;. XU~.Hx'tLa!:l6r:; ana Vu) Q' atr~6 't6 'te:pao"ttO xo LVWVtXO - ~al'optx.6 ft{n6:,(J.~ '1tou.1tij:ycuJ"€ aTijv ~I(_~)vta eow xed, 25 ah;rv~s~ "Eror ~p((Jxo~ ",cu, ~TIpoa't& oTfl: a;~1tA.q e:-nt:taYi1: va O"xt~or,.to:t iA~66epC( xat vet oxebt'to!J,a~ xa'tw an::l' "t'o'V 1tE~t.opto!J.6 tile; ~la't"optot<;. A&"n1 .~ q>at~ VoI;otEV,LX1j xed, 1tpay~.ux:tt,x"t1 &v'tvvo!;.tta.~ 0XL [.LOVO atv elv«r. elL1t6~to,

~1\·'Ll.. ~ -,.,.J.. I' "" . ,'I ."'l. ' " ,",IIJ-·, {_

"'''''(I. elVct,~ n11 I II: xat e:v(.(uol1-a yta ""t11 qnl\oaoqJtxY} OXE.'fIl, e::t.va~ 1)

tn1yq Kaf ,"t6 evauO'flGC €v6t; Quva~et a1ts;tpw~ TIAOuotOU cptA.oaoqn.,of), (lUVOAOy~XOU' BLQ;AOYO!) -I] a:t,aA,oY~KOfi ~ovoA6you.

A,~')'t(~, a11~!J:alvet e1t~o~<;, E:V't'iA~~ . Ol't~ n-ptn8.t vae:xV} ~ va oXl1[J.a"d~ nld, ~'1rxUI:l~at« l-Lta o:\rt"tAJ1tV'11 'tOU 'd, e:lvGtt ~ <p~AOOOq:>t(X." 1:( el:v(xL a&~

22

0] OMIAIEI: ::ETHN EAAA6A

-q al)'t'O(x'V(xxAO:<Tt~X~ K(lL a&too .. t"OxaO''t'uc~ BpaO"t11PLO"CY}'tCl'til'; OxE:tVt1<;. <l1uatxcX:o )CaBe: cpopa 1tOU E.1J.<PlXVtOTt})(E: evcxr; xcuvoupy~o~ rp~A6aocpoc;~ EBwaE eva" xcu'Voupyr.o OPLoIJ.6 't"ilc; qltAoOOtp(ru;. Ked amos 6 OPLOIl6C; EXEt x&.6e: rpopa -n1v nr.o e,,(561J.UX7J O'XEQ"I} IJ-t "t6 1tEp~Ex6LJ.e\lo TYit; cp~Aoaotp(ac; «mou "tou <ptAoa6q>ou. LUVE1tWC;, V-OU E!V(x~ &8uva:"Cov va xCt'taAaf3w 1:'( Elva~ qn)..oaocpfa, (iv atv )((1- "taAa.~w at ev(Xv 6ptOIJ.EVO ~a61l6 -rf £xouv net OL r.p~A6aolPo~ «(Xu't6 elvaL 't'aU"tOAoyia:o ~t~a~a) ~ ~Aa e:lv(xL ,bdCJ1}<; a(5u\loctO\J \Ja xa-mM~(u, xwp(C; XPt"'t~x~ O''taoy} a1ttvaV't~ (J~ ottrt6 1tOO qouv -neL KPL"t'~)f:1i tJtaO'lJ ~ o1tofcx.ll1tope:i: cpuotxci va Ka"taA~SEt Cx1tAWC; at ~t:a ex VEOU E1tL~!!~(X£wa7J amou not) EXe:L AexfjeL ~o\Je:7tw<;, "il a\l"'Co...."t!Jl) 7tOll OX'tULCX"tL?;CU yux Ttj lpLAoaol'pLa ~rVCt~ U'tEVCt. auvB€aEllEV1) (lE -n1V aVdAYI$~ TIOU axY}~(X"t~(U y~& ~v tmop(a T71S !pLAoomp£as Xf.d a.\I't'La'tp6l'pw~. ~A&' xaL yta n1v l<Ttop(a tv ytVEL t i5e«5o(J.tvQU mL +r cptAoaocpla el~aL ~"a XO~V<tlVLXO-LO'tOp~x6 (5.e::BOllS:\lo. @€.Aw va. 1tW ll-€ au't6 o"tt e:lvaL tJ.faxOtVWV~KO - LO'TOptX"11 npO:yt.La:t'tx&tTj""C(X. "0- 7tor.ealiYl1to"tE: xcx£ av elvctt ot a~~wa.e:LS: 1:'7]<; «lntep~a"t'[.x~t;» crtaoYjS, e6: a-rav.a:touoa lxtJlawc; n1 au~1rt1]ol1 ~e XcX7tO~OV 6 61toro~ BOt e:Aeye m~ () ~pLa't'O'tiA.",~ 66: lJ.1topouae va ~"t(XV K[.ve~oc;~ ~ &x6(la an 6 xtYKE/.. e6. !J.1topouae: veX ~"tave:. "I 'taAOt; ~ AU"t6 CTY}~cx(ve:t o'tt 01 qnJ..6cro<poL e:lv(X~ )CaBs: cpopa ~cx6ux p[.~w~evoL {ltoa OTQV XOLVWVLGt 'tou~ XCtt o-rqv E:noXJ1 'touc;~ xat ~ <ptAooorp£a "tou~, art' nU-nl-n1v a1tO~"f}, 6:V11)C€~ ma xor.\lW"tXO-~tnop[.)(a BeliolJ.tva. Ka( D:irt6 lJ.Ct<; BC:(XVEL (XfXL xAEtVOUtJ.E ((&-to" rov XUxAO) o-n ~ qnAoaocp(a e:!va~ ld5uVCl'tY} xwpU;' (lLa cptAOootp(n '"tOU xor.'Vwvtxo-~a"t"opL)(OU.

* • *

Kat "twpa 6a au"ocp~aw ""tt~ lt1t6$€t~ ~ou 1toAu oOV"to~a xaL 1tOAU BoytJ.cx"ttxa anavttl (J' o.u't6 't'6 aU~1tAeylla e:PIJYt-qos:wv.

II~G'te:.uhl lYn e:L'y(Xt aBuva'to~ veX xa"taAa~E~ xo:ve:(r; "tf e:.1",cH npayIl£t"tuca ~ qnAoaocpfa, xwp(c; va Mf3€~ ll'1t6$'r) 'tou ~v xeV'tptx~ TY]~ 6eOTl aTI1 ytW1'lCTfJ xed "rilv ava1t"tUS71 "'tou XOLVWVLKO - uJ't'op~xou 7tpmaYl-la:t'oc; Tijc; &"1'0 IJ. LX~C; xal KO LVW Vt x"ij r; alrtOVO I-da,r; . '1> tAOao-

TO (TEAO!: THE (J)IAOEOa.IAI.»;

23

!pla xa( BYllloxpa"da YEVV116"!Jxav 1:am6xpo'V(X xa£ rrrov "{(5tO "t61to· 'i] aAA7]Ae;Cqn"l}m1 'tou.; xai 6 O'u\laE.a~6~ 'tOUt; ~yaSou\J art' 'to yeyov6C; o'tt X(XL ol BUD E:.x<ppa~ouv ~v a1t6pp~$1j tile; ttepovo~£ac;, -nl" Ct7tOpptt}»"f} "tWV &~tWOEW\l laxuoc; )(aL VO(J.Lflo't"IJ°t"OS 'tWV EX6:rrrors eeol-L ~a(J.t'"j W\I xavovwv Xl.x( 1tapcx.maoE.WV ~ "'t"fj'V Ct1tOppttJ.rtJ )(6:6£ t~W'tS:pLX~C; au6€V1"(cr.~, xed !B(w; x6:6E et::l('.(~ a.U6EV"da:C;~ -nl'V aTt6pp~$'1) )CaSE tr;_c:uxOtVWVtK71C; 1t"l}yi]t; a):"eeLa~ xa£ BtxctLoO"uV"IJt;:o

:. crovu.6vtt ~hte1v, n1v a.tuPtO~iJ'tl1a"1j 't'WV tntcxpx'6vrcuv 6eO'(lwv xed 't'fJv <X1tOliOxil Tij r:; b{(Xv6-t~"tac; 'to U )to" VO 0, "to U Aaou ~ -ri}c; XO L vat"!] - me; x.a~ 'ti]~ axt$eU}~ va. alrtOe EOlJ.t rTt'OUV , p'1)"ta xat c(tyt'oo-rDXa- crtLxa .. 6 rta. va XMOtl-l01tOtl1ow CiA-All Ext.ppaoY}: 6 ay6>va.<; y~~ -n1 lhI~oxp(rd(X e!va~ &yWVctC; y~a 7tpaylJ.C('ttxy] xa( CXllEOlJ CX&tOXU~EP"'1011 ~ 'D at6xos: 1:l]S au"to)(u~tpv"J']a"IJS Bev t1t~Btx~'tcx.~ Xa\lEVa tl;wupLx6 OplO. ~uve;1tw~~ -fJ 1tp(ly~a't"tx~ au'toxu~€Pv"IJm'} aoV€1tayt::'KIt nl Pl'ft'll cxtYto6ea(llo'Y} -rijr:; Kotv(iJvia~" 7tP&y~cx 1tOl> CPUO'tKti ftpoti1toet't~t oon a.1J.<p(.a~Y(t'oulle ~ iYn qOUIJ.€ lxtJ.<Pta~'71nlm:~ -o1v (m6.pxouaCl eealJ.~all ~ xed o'tt lL1tOpoullE x(.("t" ~v vii TIlV allt.pt_"rnluoul1€ art xt'x6e: a1:LY(L~. T6 1tp6't<X"'«(J.a: "tiit; aui\Aoy~~C; O:UL'O!vo1J.(a~ crm.J.CXL'VE!. mt ~ KOLV6t"IJ'to::. 1tOll at x(XlJ.~a 1Cept:7t1:Wol] lltv ILftOps:t va. unapse:t av Biv elvctL eEa~~olleVl1, It,,ayvwpi~e~ M'tt.X ica( avcxxtCi "t£~ eE:OlJ.t~ouaec; [x(lv6"nrt't~ Tl1t:; xa! -r6v 6EOIJ,G;OvtCl 1JIPr.t~pa "t"l}<;. 11to~w...kL l'OV eam6 TIle; XUL 'dt; apa<n'1p~6-tYj~ 't"fl; O"tO KP[.Tilp~O 'tOU Btxct.tou xa.£ 'tOU exlHxou ~ "'tou 6p6ou )(CX( FU l.l~ op6ou. M' a.AA(X Aoyta t ~ 5"11!-lDXp(rda. ~ E:rXv "n1 axeqrroulle: .. aM 't6 ~CteO~ xed Tt)'V EX"tCXO'Y] ~ Bev Elv(xl t.pUOtxO: 01 ~OUAc:U"tLxtt; IIcAoYtc;, £Lvat "t6 xa6eO''tw~ 'tou 1tOAt't~XOU au't'OCTt'OX(xOllOU xat Ilk: alJTo(XvaxAao't'Lxm7J"ta<;. IIo~ou~ \l6~ouC; 1tpE.1tE:L va EXOUiJ.E iii' yta 1to~6 A6yo; A&t6 66: 1tei (5lJ~oKpa .. t£a. dluO'tx&.~ on:v a1ta~a'1 0' a&-t6 "t'6 tpW't"J1~a. mJ{-t(lE."ttXe:t 'to auvoAo ~.:; XOL'J&t"fl"ta:~.

t ~)'Aa "t'6 ia~o axp~[3cJq e:lvat xed 6 1tuPllvar:; -ri]~ qJr.Aoaocplac;. T~

6. UA, -r1J xe.f~e.vo IJ.OU «~H ~EAAllV~Xl} II6A~t; xa( 'fl Zhul.toupyta TIic; 87}(10- MI"lT{rx~~) m6 Xw~ TOU .'4118pwnou - ETaupo8pdp...ta -roD Aa{3upiv8ou n (l(" rxll-C)(JEtC; ·'l"tJ.ni\ov.

24

or OMIArE:E I.THN EAAA~A

TO «TRAGI:. THI: (()IAO::EO~IA~»;

25

tpLAoaOtp~a Bev -n]V &<popa ~ epw"C"'lal'l «T£ e:lvcu 'to EIVClt». ~ «Tt e.lvc(l 'to v6"J1~a -rou Elvat»~ 01t'W~ AE.e~ 6 Xat~'t'~YXEP, ~ «I"La:ti U1tr.Xpxe l xa't t avti va. lJ. ~v u7t&pxet 'tbto't!X». UArx a.iJ'tcX --ceX E:PW~(J.Ct"tCX €lv(X~ C5eU""t'~pEuov't'a; ~ (lE: r/lv evvoLa o't~ OAa e;o:p-twV1'CXt a1tD n1V CxlJa(5uoYl ~.Ha~ 1t~6 Pt~LXYi~ ep(U't"fJcre:c.u~, E:p{ir'r~aE:w<; nou elvcu &(5UVlX"MJ at IJ,£C( e::re: p6vo tJ. 71 xo ~ vwv£a: « Tt 1t pinel va axe1t"to _ t!Clt ;». Aurq EL-Ven 1] apxL)(~ tpw't"l)oY} '"tile; cp~AOoocpi.CXt;: (T( 7tpt1t&t v6. axe:mofla~ y~ri "to Elv(Xt, yt6. n1 rpuC1YJt yr.a -n,v noittv xa~ n1 6lxccloauVrJ t YLeX. n)v ~iata (l00"n1 axt~Y} x.o .x.».

A~ ~ epw't71o"f} ~tee:'t(Xt GUvtXELa Ked u7tOxpe~l'tt)Ca xwP~'; 'tEfl-oS .. yr.6: Evav Ct1tAOU(Jt'(X'tO Myo: eva: 0\1 1tOLl oxE1t"!'€"tctL. 01tW~ x.a.l xci- 6e. ov nor) U1teXPXEt y~a 'to" Eau't'o -rou, U1titpxe:t X(l£ <5tv Il7tOp&i~ v<X U7tapseL 1tapa MEaa a' fvC( XktOq.LO, a' E'Vav tyxAE.tG!l6. To ra~o >ea( 'il x.o~'Vwv£a xtd -r6 xO~'YwvLx6 ct't'otlo. 'H BY}(1.oxpa"Cia e::Ivcx.~ 'to 1tp6't'(;(y~a MSllS xa.( atapp1J~7JS au't'ou 'toG tYXAeLO'lloU rrt'6 xorVW'JtXQ entne.50. ~H lptAoaocpia. 1tOU B"1)I . .uoupye:r -n}v alnOol'OXa.Ct'ttX11 {nto)cE~!-levlx6nrra, ~lvO:t 1'0 1tp&tay~.Hx tiic; P~S"f}~ xai tii.:; a~6tppY}S"l1~ (Xl1'tOO -rou ~yxAeto~ov, m6 ne:Bio TI1~ mcttVE(ij~~ j\_AM. cpuatxa~ "aBe ~S"'l 'tou tyxAEtollou. i:x't'6~ E:ti~ !-live" eva xaivo'V tpw't11~cxt'~x6 TO 61tOLO !pOG!.xa atv Myvuet Or.1t'OAtYtWr; -rtnO'tE, y~a va s:IV{xL 1tP«Yllct"t~x~ MS"f}, 7tpEne~ va 6eae~ xci::n. 1tpt7tE~ va cp6aa.e:~ aE xano[.(X a.no"teAe:O[la"'C'Cl xaC ~E a&t6v 'TOV 'tpono .. Xt VliUVItUEt va XO::TIlox€uaae:t YUX TO'" trxu'to TYlC; eva:v xcuvo6py~o E.yxAe~O'(lO. I:UV~1tWC;~ i} aU'veX~O'"I} )(a.t ~ Ct'Y(z'VEWO''fl 't~~ aU't'oa1'OX(x<Tt~X~~ (5pa<Tt'"'lp~mTffa~. oX~ Cit6't't ~ aVClvItWO'71 e:lvcu cxtrtoaxo7t6C;, (tAM Bt6'n o:&t6 e:lvC(~ ~ ouofa 'riit; cl(Jl'oa't'oxC(mLx~C; Bp(Xa~pt6'tY1·rcx~. auve- 1tayel'lXt nJ'V a:lJ.cp~a{3~-c~a'71 'tW'V 1tP0"1you(levw'V a.no"teAeOIl6t't'Ulv, 1tptXy~a 7tOV atv CTT}[J.(X(v~t XJX't" &vciyx.7Jv 'tilv aTC6pp~tlJ7) TOUt;, 07tW~ 'to ytyO"J6~ ()'tt oe: J.tia 1t:pan.l(X'nx~ BYUJ.oxpa;t£a. DE v61l0~ elvcxL ouvexwc; ava.ee:w¢lat~ot. Bt'V o'1{J.aivtL avCtyxaa"CLKa (rn 'tou'S" ava- 6e:wpof)1le: (3AOUC; xri6e: 1tpruL .Euve7tw.~~ -ij ytVV"'1aYJ tile; cp~AOOOt.pCC(~~ OxL (lOVO OUll7tt7tu:t tl£ n1 ytWl]o-q Tile; {}l1lloxpa:tlac;~ cXAJ..cX xa.i GUV-ol1flatv€t, (XV tJ.1tOpt;) va 1thl .. EIvctt Xc(L ol auo tXq>priOELC; xed xeVt'p~xE.~ E;voapx(.)aE.~r; 'tOU npo"tay[..L(X'toC; tile; a:u.'t'o\.lo!J.ia.~ + KaC

tBw 1t'pE1tE-r. xa~eu; -va O'XOALcXa€l lLL(x CiAA." ano "de:; 7tCtpa~opqlwaEt~ 1tOV u7teo'ty} '1) Cxpxcda ~EAi\6.t:; x(Xt es(XxoADU6e:'L 'VeX ucptO''tr.t:tG..L a1t6 'tOUC; t1u-r,-x.our;, ol 61to1o~. aU(ITUXW~~ oU(5t1tO"'CE a7tOxpto't'tav(O'tl'lxC(v 'tUoe:lwc:;. AYJAc((}~ €saxoAou6ouv veX a.Vct~"f]"'Couv Eva lloV,,[,EAo Kat eva a6y~a, iiv oxt {twx tEpa B!.~Ato.

'H ei\A"f)VtX~ 1tOAt"t~X-.] B7J~toupyio:.. t5-qAaBij ~ ra~tx ~ nOAlt;. w~ cuyrovo1l'1l ~ Cllrt6atx~ )((X[ (xl)"t'O'tEA~C; XOtVO'tTrra .. Kat .,. lil1tL0xpa:'da e£wp~&tp((XV 1taV'to'te: x(d auve:xw~ &7t6 'tic; !lo\''tepvE:.c; t<TtOp(e:.~ xat ep(!7JvEte:.S; aav eva m(X't!'XQ rX1to't'ItAzOl.·l(x. ~o~"Y]'tiJe"llxc<v xai (fUsYl't[.OOV't'Clt Ct:t€A.etw't(X 'ta xaAa xed 'tu x(Xxa TIle; ~e"1)\lriLx~C; ~l1tJ.oxpa'''da.c;~ aav va E1tp6xE-t"to ~ aav va. e:lxe: nEt xa\Je:(~ 7tO'tE o'n A.X., il ~ellvdtxij L\.'rU.lOxpa"'tt((., €1:'o!. 07tWC; ~'t'av 1:0 431 1t.X .. €tVlXt 1'0 (,dW'VLO (.J.Ovt&AO xat u1t6(5etyr.to:. yux x:6:0€ 1t'OAL'te:(a.1 ~vd va. aouv (x(d (linD. 'tOAlLw v& n:M, xaveLS Btv 't6 EXE:t Bet -1l ~ a'V 'to ex~~ Be t ~ "to €Xe:~ 5eI w~ e:Aa"t"twlla)~ o'n a&t6 TtOU e:1'Vc.tt 1tpaYfJ.artxa lil'HIOKpa"'t~xo ~v ~e~v(X neXvw Ct1t' oAct 'tel &AAa.~ xext ab-t6 1tOU EXE:r. 1Ce:ptOao'tE{YfI mU.Lacr£cx lUX lJ.nC;, (;E\J td'V(XL X(l\JEvac; U5tcd 1:'epoc; li"l1- [..loxp(x"tLx6~ BE:0'~6C;. nov tyxaBLBpu6"f]X8 cr€ ~[C( 6p~allg'V'l O"ttYf1~. a'J xai U1ttipxouv 1tOAAo( "te'COtOl 6EOlLOL a.:rr:' 'toue; 01to(ou~ 1tOAAeX IJ.1tOpOU(.LE va ll6.eoulle. iiAAa e:lvcH ~ ouvexYl~ Bt.ali!.xf.Wtcx "rijc; BYJlloKpa'ttxilc; aU'to6eafl tal) C;. 01 E vt'&xa €1tcx\la:U't'tia~L~ ( «~e"t"o:~ 0- Nxt») 'tou J\p~a"C(YtEA1l 0"nlv :Ath}vQ{cuv Ilossteia, 1'tOU OUVEX£~O\J"tc(t lt1t't "t'pelc; (X~WVE:~. 'Exei E.L'VlXl +t a7]~toUpYLK6nytCX1 ixel e::Ivat ~ Au'to<Tt'oxacrttxQ-t'vrtCc. sxef e:lvat il B"f)(loxpa."rt:a. xed eXel e:lva~ 't6 (.LafhULCX. KC('ta 'to'V lato 'tp07to .. fXtrr6 1tOU e.!vcu a"l)(lav't~x6 YLa n1v Ct(!Xa.£o:. ~AAYl'\l~K~ <ptAoaoql£CX .. 1tEpa CUt' oAa'to. Cx1tCYtwov.a:'t(.( ma onoia lJ.7tOpE:i: wi EqYtaae. xc.d ~tpou(lE. mt oAa 'tCt a1to't'e:Ata~a:t(x lt~axoAouaOU~ va E.XOUV Eva -re:pao'tto f1.rXpoc_;, €'iva.t 1: CJuve~.; 8ul.-

7. 1\.x0tLo: Xetp&u:pa, 'dr; 1'[Ep~oa6-tq>E-C; qlOptc; ot aU't~xo£ 1t'o:\~:rtxo( cptA6- aocpot-'7t.X. 6 Ato ~'r{laouc;- o't'{xV iJ.tAa.ve y~ci -riJv «1t'OAt~U{" axttJn1 '[wv ~EAAfjVWV}>' E:VVOOUV ouvi]Owc; xup(w-; -rov IIAt.X"twvo:. (xcd, 1tOAIJ A~y6-re;po. "t'ov Ap~O'''CO't'EA"r']). A&t6 elvcu lao('luvatl0 tie "ti, wi llthcXet xavdc; yui TJ1v «1tO At'1' ~~ O'xt4n1 Tijc:; n:XAA& xll C; 'E 1tavao"tl'XOl}C;)' 1t tXpa1tE.lJ. 7to).rtac; trt'ov ~1 rro'VaAvt • TOV N"t€ MauJ"tp 11 'to\) EapA Mwppar;.

26

01 OMIAIEZ ::ETHN EAAAfiA

(5~Kao£a Q:va1t'"tU~"1J~ xcd ~ 5.v Jl1tOpW ~a 7tW, a&t06e:GIlL07lS6 Atv 1tp6qnaoe 'Va t~CPctVUTte: 1 0 eaA1i~, Kat lx~Eawc; Etlcpav(oTytxe Eva~ O:AAOS' xo.J 1J.E:,tlt evets- tXAAoc;qnA6aocpot;, xex( E.'tGt a&nl ~ (XlrtoO'to-

xaCTt'tx~ (5~aBt)(aaicx tiJ~ axt$"Il~ Cqlxf~t ~Eaa ae lliex npaYfla't'txa tG't'optx-q ~ [.Le TI1 ~apu~ouaa E'VVOLa 'tOt) opOU, B~ao't'(la"fl, 1tOV eVOWI-UxTWVE't'CU p.tpCUtx "tCtut'oXp6vw~ O'E avo!.xn} xed B'i1l6a~ct ou~~'tlJ0'"1] )Cat XPt'ttX~ •

AtYn'j ~ oU~~TI']aYl xa( xptt'~x~ Bt.,., er'Vo:~ [,ta"'t'CUll (5Lc(X~PU;'1} TIlS" a'totlLx6't"1ft'o~ 'tou x(Xee:v6~~ at6-r~ xa6t'Vac; an' aU't"our:; "tou.:; qlLAoo6cpouc; yvwply:t OUVEXWC; xal ixvayvwpf~~ "to6~ aUour; t AaI-lJ3~ve~ {)1totPYl ""tau 'tit; Beaet.; 'roue; )«Xi 1tpO~aAAe:t e:1ttxe:.LriI~a'ta, 'to: o1tota E~aXOAOOaOU\tl va loxUou'J, 1CPtxW(X"t01rotwV'ta~ ~aL. 5xt IJ.fex i5~r.tA~X't'tX~ np608o ~ nAoAa axp~~w~ !-liC( au6evl'uc~ lCJ'"t'OP~K~ a u't 0 a:v a- 1t"tU~Yl 'ri]<; axri$l)C;. L1tv uTCapxouv (500 ~ -rpeLr; '«axoAt<;)}~ a1toxpuO'W.AAwtJ.E.VEC; y~ri 1tavta~ 1tOU aXOAta~ou~ ixevc«ur; "tiC; a~aaaxaA~e.; "tou KOllCPOUXtou Y} "tou Aao-Toe: j] Tfjv lIEV"ta:reUX,o. ~Y1tapxOU~E ~E)C6:ae:~ ave~ap-t'1"t'wv O'['OXaCTtwv. :E~ GUAAoy-;] 'tou N"tO.r; aw~o'VTat 90 1tpoawxpa'ttxof. ~lJ.cpavta't"'l'iX('(\I ~ a~a.px!;:t(x (5vo atwVW-V, Jj€O'ct a' fvav 1tA7JBuolJ.6 ?too an6 -nl M~AYftO w~ -rov J\xpaya.V't"Ct Ga €((J"tave: 'to 1tOAU art Eva e:xa'tOlJ.llup~o a:vapt:>1tOu~. ~E;CJ) ano "t'o6~ IIueay6pe:~ouS" Btv u7tap)(ouv axoMc; - un!Xpxou\J [3e(3cxta auyytVE:u::S, aAAO: aE'.) &rc!Xpxouv oxoi\ec;. ~xoAt~ llE -n]v 1tpay[la'n~ evvoLa 5:~cpaVL~OV1'at ~6vo o"t'av ixpxf~t ~ 7tCtpaxll~, a71Aaa~ CUto '[6~ IIAa-twva: ){at ll€'ta. dlUOLX«, [J.€ -o1V 7t'tMaYJ -ri}~ ~lJ.oxpa"t£ar;t +I, !ptAoO'ocp(a UBtat-tepa lle 'touS L'tW~XOUC;, aAM ~a"fl KCxt ~e TOU'; IIAa-twvtxoo<; xa( 'tou~ )\ptO''tO'tet..txoUC;) Y£VE.'tcu (xXCXl-lrrt"t} ~iaCiJ "t'wv OX,OAWV Ka~ o"Aotva xa£ 1teptuaO-repo E1ttBC8e:TO:~ at'ov axoA~a.O'fl6 xal o-njv eplJ.7J'Veia. T6 't"tAo~ (Xlm1~ Ti}<; rrept6Bou c:1'Val auyxpovo ~E 'to 't'eAoS Tij~ 7tE.pt6Bou n?~ (5"IJlloxpa'ttxj]c;' 1tOA~'t~xi1~ a"1llJ.r.oupy£a.~. MnopOU!-lE va napOUl-le "t'6 404 ~ Ti]v ofl-rm 'tW\i )\e~'Va(wv, ii 't"O 399 ~ -rqv xcttaBbc'tJ at etivCl't"O "tOU LCUxpa't'l1. Wt; r07]~ O1'l~cta~a<; OU[.l(3oA~)(a 6p6o"'111f.X. ~O l;wxpCt't"Yl~ e:lVC<L 6 'teAe:U'UXLOC; qJtMaocpoS:-1tOAf"t'iC;. cptA6oocpo~ nou 1C1Jya(ve:t onJv a.yopa xa£ au~.,. .. tlte:!. l-l€ l5"Aov 't6v _x6CJl.1.o. ~O a1)llO~ 'tW\I ~e7J-

TO «TEAO::E TH1: $IAO::EOtDIAl:»;

27

va(wv, a&t6~ 1tOU Xa.VE!. rov IIeAo1towYlO'taK6 n6Arq).o, aAAa xat (xV"tO<; not) xa'to:a~x6:~~, ecrrw Kat IJ.t lltxpTj 7tA£.too/rlcp(a, rov :Ewxp&-t"J'l ~ BEV E-tv{Xt 1ttO; 6 BijlJ.oC; 'tOU 60u xcx£ 'tOU 50u alwva:. M7tOPEt va eEWp~C1e:t xa"e£~ WC; 1tcxptiBol;o an CXlrnllxXPL[3wc; ~ nep£oBoc; 1tap(XxtJ.1i~ ~ 1t 06 tXpxQ;€ ~ 'tme:., E: lltpeXvLOE. C5 00 CUtO "tou r:; l.u~yaAme:.pooc; qnAoa6q:tOUr; T1jc; lU"topiac;, 'to", IIAa't'wva xai 't6v Apr.mo'ttAYj ~ l:!.).._A6. 5tv 1tpi7t€:~ va ~X\Ja(lE O"tL 6 IlYJ"tPaAota~ IIAti-rwv ex1tcu(3e:.uT7JXE xa( avctn-ruxEhlxe !lE-OCX o~ o:&nlv 'til a"f)~oX(la'"C(cx~ TlJv (ntofa

... ~ '"

IlLOOUae;: XCXl ar.xa.Lvma.V£.

Mt 'tov IIAcx-twv(X ap;(i~t ~ 1tAo:"tWV'-K~ a't{Joq>~ (6& (J.'1topoooa lowe; wi 1tW !J.ExP~ xr.d a~(XO'tpocp~, rM; 1tOUfl€ "tooAax.r.o-rov x<XIJ.-ml) ~ 01toi.cx Ct7t6 -ro't'€ xup~tiPXl1ae:. ~v to"top(a 'rile; qnAoaotpttxc; 11 'tooMX~utOV o-r6 XUPLO pe:o(.La '"t7J~. ·0 cp~A6aoq>ot:; 1t(xUE~ va e:lvat 1tOAt1:7JS. BYCttv€t a.1tO -n1'V 7tOALV, q:rt~rix'Vet nl'V ~x(XB~IJ.Ux et;cu b.1t~ au-dJv. o'tri optci 1:l1~. L'teXE'tCXt u1tepavcu TYit; 1tOAc:wt:; xed unayop£ue:~ mOtH; avBpwrrou<; 't"f 1tpeneL va xo:vouv + K~ otmo 7tOU 'tOUt; MEt .1tpox6rt't'E.~ lx1t~ n1 eE:WP'1O"YJ "too. oV"t'o~, TIOU e.lvar. a1tOXAeM]"t~x6 npov6(J.to xext E1tt~ll"l1 "tou qHAoa6cpoo. 'VaXV€" 'Va ~pet xed vO(.L(~t O't'L ~p(crX€~ lLtav €vt(xCex, evaa~x'fl xae EVW'ttK~ OvtOAoyCa, B"I]Acx.B~ <TO}v ouaCa ~!'cX 6eoAoytxiJ OvtOAoy(a. Ka( G't6 xevrpo cxtYrY}C; 'tYl~ c}vtOAoytac;, ihrw; xed 'tOU 7tavt6c;~ 't01tOBE't€1: n1v U3-Itcx, ~ t.tCxAAOV 'tit l-l~a-f.5E.a, 'tOU KaeOp~O~ou, 'too 1ttpct"toS~ "Mis Bestimmtheit 1tOU AE.ve: ol rEPll-avol. Ked npo01tC<.6ei: va. auvayay.e:L ana -n1V ovroAoy(a -d]v taeu)~ IIoAL'te:ta. A£yo ex.pymEpo:., ~E "tour; ~'t'Wtxouc; ~ Kat 1to'AU 7tEptoa6-rE:{Jo lle 't'6v Xp~m~(XvtaIJ.6. xct"ta).i]ye.t va l(a.erxyLa~€.~ nlv 7tpaYIJ.Cl't"LXD-t"t}'tCt) B"flArWl1 apxCSe~ va iXAoyr.Xe:.UEt ((61:0 reor) U1t&'px'e:~ aE OAOU~ 'tou.:; 'to~E:r;~. Au't'6 nov eSEqlpaOE: 6 IIauAoS:, Ileyw..os auyypacp€u~ Ko:t 1tpo1taya"a~<TO}~, 0"[(.(\1 eAEye:. o't-qv II pdq Peauaioi»; ~E7t~<1"t'OAil: «oo yap eO'ttV t~oua[a e:.! t..t~ OTtO 8e:ou· cd ae o6aat E.~ouG(a!. rJ1tO 'tOU 8~ou 1:e'tay~tvcu e:Lah}». lla.oC( (5;uvallLC; itat 7ttXaa ~~ooma: xaL 'roo X!"tAE:P xrxi -roD X0l-UitVL xat 'tou :E't&A~'V xa( "too otou(51ptO'te tXAAou. "Ex -Seal). Kat (iv et'oacrt'e: XptO't'~(X.vol, 1tpt1tE-t va 1ttO''tE:U€''tE. cdn6.

dlv 1l1t0POUllE: tiS&, va. E1tEX'ta6ouv-e:. (5ta [.La.xp6lV ~ liEyai\~

28

01 OMIAIE::E :ETHN EAAA&A

e:VaUX~EO'1 1t~p(080 nor) ltxo}..OUe€~ nJ'V avoBo -riJs- xpta't'~av~xi1c; ~ap~ap6nyro~. M~ck xcuvoupytCX YEvv-qar: auvteAe~'tat ~ ~U"t~x1] Eupw~ a.rt' '"tov 12o~ 130 a!wwx, J.I.€ "n1 ouyxpo-ry}ID1 ~t; rrperro ~ [l1touPSoua';Ja~~ 'ril~ 1tPM"t'"fJ~ ao't'txi}; 't'od;'YJ~~ 1tot} auyxpo,:eI 1toi\~·n KEC; )(0 L vO"t"l1't'e<; o'tfC; Ka.t vo UPY~ES 11 &"avEw (lEVe: C; 7tO Ac: t~, 1tOU t7tr.Xe:.tpouv wi (Xmoxu~€ pVl1 6ouv. 1\ 1t6 xe:.tvll ~ <TtLYll"rl, .,., tpF.AOao<pia, ncxp' DAD O'tL tpya~~at u1t6 ~ap&ta'touS XP~CJ't't(XVOeEOAOY~xouC; 1teptOpLa(-lou~. savaPX¥t veX O'utLtl€"texet 01'0 eAeU6ephl't'tx6 xiv'llJ.<l -rile; a.vepW1t6t"l11:,(t.~. 1tOV E:xe£V"q n1~ ne:p(050 evto1t~at on1 ft.lYt'LXl) EUPhl1t'1] ~ llo-r€ o~wr; 8€.v cut'EAEu6ep6'>ve'taF. "'teAetWc; Cxno 'to xup~apx6 "tYl~ Xc(pcxX't"1lptO"t~x6 i 'to xapaK"t,.p~(rnx6 Tiis 1tAa'tw~ucYi<; xa£ til~ xptc:rt'ta'V~xll~ XC.((l1ri1.c; Blli\aB~, xat TIi; tvw'tLX~S" il EvaBtx"ij; O\l'tOAOyta.C; llE rov 6S:0AOYLX6 TY]~ x.apaxn1pa, xa( 'tou Kcdk.tytcxo[.lou "tYlC; 1tpay~a-rt)(6nrrC(.s~ ~vt'o6to~c:;~ Cx1t6 'tov 160 cdw\J(x xaL ~E'ta, 6 b.ywvo:~ txCi"f}AWve'tOtt ~Eoa m6 tatO "to r.p~_ Aoaoqnx6 1te:l~Ho E't'Or. wO'tE: al)'to~ 6 ESeA~aa6l-1.e:'VoC; rptAoaoqn)fo~ ya;AaS(a~ TIi~ Bu,rtx7lS qnAOOOcp£txC; tX1t6 't6v "Dxx(X~ Xctt 1"OV N"'t6.v~ Lx6t foot; 'tOV XOUOOEPA xo:~ 't6\t1 X6:r.v"t'E)"XE.P ~ 1tapoua~aSe~ 7taV"ta a"V'tLvo~~iC&: XCtpctX'tl']p~crt'~)(a. IIo"t'€ -rrors , ~aAAOV O'1tc('''~Wt;, 6 cp~ ~ A6oocpoC; Gu,..qJ.el'tXe:.t O'"tour; tAEu6E:pw'ttK06S ayw\J.e:<;. T(~ 1tep~aaOTep€t; cpopt~ e:rVCt~ aBtchpopor; a1t€vavtt a't au-rOUC; 'tou; ayWv€<; xed lleptxt~ cpope.; 'tou~ a.V'nlle't'(u1t~t llE 1te:p~<pp6v~CT7j xaL tx.6p&t7j-ra:~ ~H (J"tao7) aU-n1 -xcc'Caaxe0Yt aum~l-lri'twv, xot6ayta°fl6~ 'rile; 1tPayllcx'ttx6-nytac;, o:cp' u$"t1Aofi 6e:wP'YJo-q 'rile; xo[.v(r)v(at; xaf 't'W'V Ao:w1f_j_~(le~'Ve xeer' oualav ~ xoplapx.,.., O"taa.,. 1:WV cptAoa6-

qJW\J )(at TY1~ q>~AOO"OCP£ct~ G'tOUt; ve:oTepooC; x.pOVOUC; xed. Ile:P~)(ES cpope~, [.Lt 'trX 1ttO 1tapaBo;a Cx1tO-rEAEo{l(l'ta. IIapaaE:lYIl(X't"o~ xap~"'. qnAOaOqlO~-a't"oxaal't~ 1t'OU e~wpouvtar. xp~'tLxol, 01t'WC; 6 Map!; xaf 6 Ni"'t'oe:, 1-t.e:'tEx,ouv cracpw<;, a' Ot&n1v n1 voo-rpo1tfa tile; sancta reslites, 'tijc; «Ctyiac; 7tpC(.ytJ.a't'~x&t1)"t"o~»" ~O Map~ IJ.~Aae:t y~6: -roue:; "0tL0UC; Tijc; ~1<Ttop(a.C; xo;£,. aUilCPW\Ja ~E -r(~ 6tae:tC; "'tou, yui 't"ov McXp~, tav 6 xO(J.llouv~af1.6~ el-VlXL xaA6~, B€\} elva~ Bt&t~ elva: xaA6C; 1} a~6't'L oxerctouaoe« an el-vaL XaAOC;, Ct."AA6.. 5to1:'t el'Vat TO 1tpoaqtc; tTtalho 7tOO t1t~~aAAOU\l ol VO(J.OL 'ri1; '1ImoptctS. (A&t6

TO «TEAO'E TH::E (()IAOI:O({)IA::E»;

29

1:0 O"OIl6:~w «&yta. 1tpaYtlfX'tr.x&tYJ'to:»). ·0 iato~ 6 N(-roe. llr.Aae:.t yux 't"iJv «a6w6t"l}'t'Ct. "tOU y£yvea6cu»: 0. ,'t~ Y[VE.'t(Xt e:!V(l~ a8wo, ?A_6C>o AOL1C6v xa( 't6 'j\oua~L'tc;. lxBwo Kat 'rO rxouAayx. acpou a:v~xouve crr6 y(yve:a6cu" "H )(UP~CX au~[3oi\1) 't¥i; <ptAOOOcpt(l~ a&n1 -0)\1 1teptoBo o-r6 €AE.uBe:p{lrtLX6 xlv7J(l<X t5tv ~p£axe'totr. "toao o'to 1tE.p~EX6t.te:vo "'t'7jc; cptAoaocp£a:c;~ ixAAeX O"t'O ~v6~ &n~ 1tCXp~ OAa. .oocCtOw.. xed qJoatxo: (leoa O'~ yev~ x.~ ti\e:u6epw'tLxY] a"t'(l6aqla~pot 1tOU 6m;rxe: an] tUJmJ ~ x<X'top6wm: 'Va ata."t1}~aE:t lJ.ta. &VOt~ au~irt1JO'"I} X(lt Eva xpL'ttx6 1tVEUi!CX ~ a.,.)..a(5l1 Kcx"C6p6wae ~ eo'tw xc.d art lx.vtttpao7J flE: 'to 1tEP~EX611E\)6 't"l)<;. va E1ttXvr.Bpuae:L de facto .-rr, rptAoaot.pr.x-q )\ yopa.

* * *

Ao-ra 'tiL Xctpa.X't'YlPLO'''tLxa nov U7toypa.lJ.lltoex. 7tLO 1t«Xvw, aav xapaX't'"1Jptcrn xa. 't'1j<; 1tAa.'tw Vt x~ c; xed Q"tW ~)(O -XP ~O't ~a.v ~Kii<; xa ~:1t~C; e tva.t e:(J<pavYj xat o't6v Xa~ vtEYxe:p Xc.(( ~pl.axovtar. 1dow a.no -nl" ESayycl.t(X 'tau 't'tAOU~ -ri)c; cp~Aoaoq>Lar:;. 4>ua~Ka., 't6 o:~(wfla 't"i1~ « exyine; 7tpaylJ.a"'tlx6'tY(to~» (sancta realitas) e:'lvaL (5uxXtrCo O'''t'ov Xar.v-re:yxep. '10 tOXUptOllOC; -rou aUlJ.q>cuvct ~t -eov ()Ttoio 11 a~rx1tAa.vryt'txYi xuptapxta ~t; '[e:xvo-€1t~cmltl7)<; EI'V(Xt aVU1ttp~AYJ"t"l1, Bev

~,._ - I

~(.(aLi;E'tcu crn1 6ewp7IoY} 'tW\I XOf.vw'J~XO-tat'optx.wv 1tpay~a:ttXoTIl-

.orcuv x(d au-v tX(l€WV, Be: wPYJolJ 1tOV, otrrwt; 11 5) .. AulS. Btv en fl1tOpouoe: \1« !p't'aaE:~ at X(l't"t)yop~xa fj xGt-r"l}YO(lYUJ.a"t'txa Ot1t'o"CeMotJ.cxTO: OU'tE va a1tocpaa£oEt YLci -r6 -rl 6& yl'VE.~. Bam~'tar. at. xa6apa lle:'tacpuatxe:<;~ ~t ~v l)7tO'tt~"I}"t'~>n1 e'Vvoux 'tOU 8pou, xai "C'e:Ae:fwc:; (Xu6aipe-cEC; a~aX'YJpuseLC; nor) aq>opou'V -n] I).otpa ""tOU E!v(.u. AlYdJ fJ maO''1l cru\'''I]x€,I Kat (7t)vBua~'t'a~ !J,€. njv 1tt6 av'tr.-xp~'t"r.x~ xed TJ1v 1tt6 lx7t'A"flpocp6p1]'t"l} ii-rt0tV7J ytfi'n1 o6yxpOV"I'J 't'eXVtX~ xC(t e:1tl~I-l1}, etlJ.ct tJ.E "t6 61toto C3E'V I-l1tOpW va. aaxoA;l]ew e:Bw.8

8. '0 Xar."V'tEyxap yp6:CPE-L (<Tt"'I]v ELactywYJ1 r.no Elva: xat XpdllDq, 1964) ~t; tav 11 t1t~OTtlf.t~ va ~Ptax6t(lV o'tr1 1tp6Gupa Tij~ &.Vc(XaAu~1'J-; Tfi~ lltac;;. !t0vaB~xT1~ xed ,[eAEtw't~xY]; E~lawcrl1C; not) 6a. E;1ffc:l '1'6 aUll1t£IV, )Cat UTCa.t~tua€:tcu O'n ll' a.t"rnl-nlV l:t:\la.X6;AU~ aaxoAouv-tfXV "'1'6r£ 6 X6;t~"IJ~1tepyK.

3f)

01 OMIAIEE ETHN EAAA.6A

M~6. "1'E.'tor.a ol'aCTrl, 1tOO 6lilJyet a~ atax~pu;7} "tou "t'tAour; Tq<; cpLAoaoq>(cxC;. (5~X.CUOAOY~~'ttXt an6 -rov X6;~,,"t!tyx€P ~e -rr,v LBta &tl ~ cp~Aoaolpfa "t'atn£~'t1Xt III Tfj llEw:cpuotxTJ xat an ~ LJ.e:'t'acpuar.x'; exe.~ x(Xe~ 6}..oXA"I1p(av tXnoppocp7)6e't a1t6 nj aUYXPOV7l e1tt~llY1. Awo 11;00 i\ie:.~ 6 Xatv'teyxep Elva~: Ttf 1tPO~A~lla'ta 7tOV au~1]'t'OUO'O:V aAAo-rE: ol !-lE:'t'CtcpuO'Lxoi, 'ttl. OU~'11'touv xa( "'['6: AOVOU\I m1fle- po: ol t1t~~I-LOVEC;. LU'V€1tWt;, Btv lJ1tapx€t nAtov xwpo~ yta n1 r.p~Aoaoq>ttx. ea 1tpt7te:.~ va 1tW EV 1tap6a~ O'tL elvat lxBu\I(X-rov va. (.til CJ'1)lJ,EH{)O'E:t xave(~ ~v 7tA~(J1i aUl-l1n'wo"l1 Ot&ri}c; -n;~ t(3ta.c; (J.t -nl'V la-Eta "til". 1t~6 XU(}o:fc..J'V O'y}f.LeptvWv fht"tLXLO"t'WV t1ttO'tl'l(J.O\lLO''thlV ot 61totOt E.1tLG'YJ~ ).Eve O't'L ~ <ptAoO'o<pfa el'VClt 1tEPL~ BLO'tt 't'6 1tEpLeX0tl£'lJO til~ aAAo't€ qnAOaoql(w; 't6 €Xer. a1tOPPOqn1o€!. ~ O'Y](le:ptvYl t1t~~~l1 . .LuvE:nwC; Bltv Xpe:.~ru;6llO:at'€ 1tr.a Til cp~A.oCJocpfa.

A&n1 ~ mt2CJ"t] .x'V"tAe: I 't'6 v07JtLtX "'t"f}; a1tOKA8.tQ'1:'~Xa a1t~ -n1 eta.,. 'tou Xcu\J"te:yxs:p aU(lq>wva tJ,e 1"'i1v 61tOLa lJ.1t'ope:I xed 1tpe1te~ va U1C&px'e:.~ «Ilia OXEtP7l 'tOU Elva.~», «ax.Ettfn1 'tOU vO~flrx'to.:; 'tou EIlJCXL» woe; "t€'tOtOU ~ a1tOKolLlltVl) Cx7tO xa6E <Tt0XtX01l6 1[00 acpopa "ell o~'t'a ij -r6 ov ij 1'0 EI1Jc.n 'tW-V o\rtwv. A~ iI fhto7J etvCt.t xed O't'E.tpa ){at X(.)ptt:; v6'f}lLa. I[H o-r€t.p6tY}'t<k "tTJ~ cpafvE"tCXt a~ia(,,)c; a1t' "to YEYO'Y6~ o'n ~ orov tatO 'to", Xan}"tEyxep ~ ~ ala"/} BE" 6BirrTJO'E 7tCtpa at $EuBo1to r.l'j't'~xe~ xcd tPe.o.3onpo q»l't~xtc; f3apuy<5o U1t'e:c; At;£L~ xat aE. 'tbto"t'E. a.AAo 1 xed B'n 1tou6ev& xav.e:U; "tv ~Al1tEL oU't'.e:: xC('ta

·YrcaP'X,Et. 1tpay!J.a-r~. !J.tU Gt-vaADyll CjJptXO"'I1 O'''d~ Gifford Lectures 'tou Xrn~Y(.L1te:pyx (t900'). GtAAcX. !11tpoO"'t'a at (.ua mOta U5ia, eva~ qnA6oocpo; aa .E1tpene: va E.x.e:t avttBpci:OE.l (..I.' eva eA~llJd'1JO X(X1l6yu..o. xed yux. Myouc; ~c:;, xed yuxTi 86: ~1tpe1tt va ~tret 5n. 0::1t6 "t6v NE.Lhwva. 7rEpvrirvmc; Ct1t~ -ro'J A6pBo KE.A~~\I xed -rov TI;wp-t's rlCa.f.l6~ ~ lJ.tXPt 'tou-c; a1']~e:p~vm}t; 6~(lcr6ne;c; Tijc; T .D.E. «d3e;wpfaxa6e rrptXw.{X'toC;»). ol rpUO'LXOC )«X'teX rtep~6aou~. (5~aJ('I}puaoouv Tljv tlJ.cpa\ltCTl} l.uiiC; 6e:wplru; 1tOU 66; f3aAE,t -reAo,; at oAe~ -ru; 6EWp£eS-)(a( oi a-q!.1.oO'toypacpo~, cpuauca. O1teUaOUV xa6e:: cpopa -va aux6wO'ouv w e:uayye:Ato\l" I:-djov 1tpaYlla:rtx6'nrta, 6 Xat"V-r.e:Yit:e:p rrt<rrEUE~ DTil aUyxpo"V7J f:1t~an1lll'J )Cal TSXVtx~ (le n}v arptA.e:~a E:VO~ TPa.1te~~xou a~ayYw(it'fJ <<.E1t't<Tt'll!J.O\ltxCl-y» e.XAri~KEI.)'tf.ICW\l e::!KO\lOYP(Xcpl1~e-vwv 1tePtOStxw~. TIme BE\, rl:"V'tEATJtpB'l"] Tlt; ~C(e~tr:; eaw't'ep~xt~ &v-rt\lol-L£e;~ Kai O:.nopie:c; 1tOU a<p6o'Vou"V o~ aUYXPovlJ i'ITt~I-l'11.

p-

31

7tPOaiyyr.011 at 't£ O'uv£mcrocu ~ axt$"1] 'tOll Elva.~ i} 't6 VO'1llC( "Cou Elva~. Ka.t CPUOLXti, 5tv E:.tvGtY. xrx66Aou rx:nopLa:.:; a~tO" ~6 Y€lov6~ o"tt 01. E1tiyovot. 'tou XOxy't€yxep 0:1t08Elxr1}XO:V a'V(x(Xvo~ va 1tr.xpo:ytiyouv 6'tta"111tm~ 1tp6; a&n1 nlV xcx-rE.u6uv07J xa( avaYXtXO'"'t7jx(Xv veX 1t~PtOPL(f't'OUV a"t"!Jv fx-rEAe:lW't'1l gPtl "f}V e;:t a X(xL tl:1toB611,,]a7) "tl~V CP~AOO'OCPWV "tau 7tapE:A66Vt'oC; ~

l>Aa a&t6: o~(U<; Bev Sa [.L1topouaClv va (X1tOX-n10'OUV K6.1tO~O 'V6l111C( napa Ct1'7JP~Y[J.t,,(X ~v e:acpaAlJ.€v"l1 npou7t66E<1l1 o't't 'to O:Vtr.Ke:.L(,J.EVO -ril; cp~Aoaocp£ac; 6a. repener. va e:.tv(Xt 1t .x.. 'to epw"Cl'Jll(X yt.a. 'to 'd e!va~, ~ y~6. 'to. VOl]!l(.( 1'OU ElvlXL l) YL(;(,tt U1ttXpxe:L xcX"n av-rl va. (l~v U1ttipxe:t 't£nO't'Ct. E!1ta ~~ O't'L "to a.\I'tr.X€(~e:.vo 'ri]~ cp~i\oaocptac; 8lv e:IVClt au-ro. To aV't~XEt[..l£,,6 Tll<; e:.lvaL: 'd 1tpe7rE.L wi oxsq>6w .. "t'L n:PE1tEL va aXE:q>6oulJ,e. 'Y~a "1'6 ov, yux 'tiJ YVW07l 1:'00 ov'to~, yt6: llg~a~ yt6. lJ.a~, y~a rIIv n6ihv. ytri Til5ulat.oauVTJ. Ka~ rpuauax, eva li!JE:oO CX1tcrt'€AE:O(la. 'tau Xri&v-reyxe:ptavou 1te:ptOPLollOU €l~(l.t fur. >eaBE. (Tt'oxaat-t0C; Ti]r; 1tOAt"t'LX-qt; ~ T1j; Y}8LXijC; 1t .X. Xtte~O'"t'a"t'tXt &auva:t'o~ 't6ao yta A6you~ oua(a.;~ C5t6n, 01tWC; e:tna{lE: xa[ np(\J xa£ ()1tWC; ypaq>€t 0 X6:r.'V"t'.e::yxe:p va XtiVOUl-lE ~ €lv(.u a1tAWC; va rrspiI-l€VQUll8. va s(x\lrdp8ouv ot eeoi A~X. xed Cll)'tO el\}aL iI litJ.EO''I} oovs- 1t€LrI n]S aUAAT}tP1}~ tij~ to-cop[ac; we; Bwpou "t'ou El"'<XL.OOO xa.t yta. il.6youC; [J.€.66<5ou, B~6tl1t .X.1t 1t6At.;"' xa£ DAn. "'ta 1tap6IJ.o~tX avilxouv o'ta Qv-ra. xat. aU\tlE1tw.c;. "i] 6e::wPl1m1 'tYJ-t; e.lvaL «ov"tr.x~ »» XCXt OXr. 6vroAOY~xYl ~ ibc0l-ux at i\~y6'te:po r.puouca 6ehlPlJGlJ "tOU Elv<XL. I1tv ~lvar. a~ul avttxELlleva. tJ.~at; axt$~w.r; 1tOV oxt1t"'t'E."t'cn "to. E!vcu. Mui axetlrq1tou axE1t't€'ta~ 'to EI"'Q:t 8tv €X€L X(xVE.VClV 1tEP~OO6-t€PO Myo va axecp6e't TJ1V 1tOALV anD 'tout:;: lJ.nJAAouoe; ~ 'ta lJ.oaxCqna.

"Oi\a aiYt'o: cpuar.xa 't'aLpta~Ouv f}autlaato:: (l' amo 1tOU ol re:.pt-Lcxvo! ea Cx.1tOXCXAOUO'(XV die geistige und poiitiscne Situation der Zeit, '"t"'IJv 7tVEUllo:'ttX~ xed 1tOAr.'t~X~ xo:-raa-mo'71 't"ijc; It1tO~C;. <l>uOLX.a 1 atrt6 aev lla~ ana.AAcXOOItL a1to n1v U7tOx.p€wGY} wi aUS"f}-rqaoull£ 1tota E:l-V(Xt ~ 000£0: '"tou;. 'A"AAa. OUTE: )«(xL llac; e:~7toaf~e:t va lioul-lE: o'tt OA(X o:uLa. e!up(X\}a;ov"CCXt at Ilia E:1toXt1 01tOU 'ta epcu.:n]lJ.cx-ra. «"t't 1tpe 1tE:t va. GXEt:p6ooIJ.E») x('(t «"tL 1tpt1tE: t veX. Xa.'JOU lJ.E » Gt1tO xto u'V eva~ 'tprxyu{tx €T[€(YO\l'ta xapaxTilpa.. j\1t~ alYn) 't1]v tX1tOlJ.f1]. Kat ~

01 OMIAIEl: ETHN EAAA6A

x.diV1'Cy')(&ptcx~ <ptAOaOrpta. x.a~ ol Eniyovot Ked 1'& <puvtavt<x TYJ~ erva~ a7tOXAEtO'ttXcX tKCPP&O€~<; TI}~ YE'V~X&tItPl1':; "taCT'1J~ 1tp6~ Ttlv Cl1tOOU\i{Je:07J ti)<; atYttX~c; KOtVWV!cxr; Ka( 'tou t'5lrnxou 1tOA~TtOIlOU ~ al1AcxB~ 'ri1~ 'taoYlC; 1tOV a1tELAe:t veX arpav£ae:L 'to 7tp6"taytlu 'ril.:; amo'V°llia.~. A&n1 -nlv -rtXoy}. &.val-lcp!.a~1rt1]'t'a 1tP<XYIJ.(X-r~KlJ xed 6J...oEVa. xai nept.oa6't"E:po a.1tEtA""'ttX~ (xed Bt'V nepLtLi'Joq..tE '"t6v Xar.vteyxe:p yt6. 'Va 't6 BOU!Je: xal va oro 1tOU~£') )CavE:'~ m1~e:.pa Btv 111ropet va n1 6e(UP"1ae:~ w~ 'teAet6l"Ct)(a xai a.ve7tta-rpe:~ 'V~~q>6- pel. LUVE)..6v-rr. Ehretv .. Blv ~OU~E &.)(.6(.10. o-nl P~(l1] "fj a"tiJ'V Ktova-t(l.vttVOU7tOA'l 'tOU 50u a~w",a (.L .X.9

* If!: *

at", l)7tapxE~ ouaL(Xo'tLXtX X(XIlLCl npa)1la."t'LxYJ BUVC("tat"l1't(X va 0:1toPPOcp1}8e:I ~ cptAoO'or.p(a a1tO "tiJv 'te:x.voe:7t~un1Il"f}. AUTO 1tOV

9. Mepuct~ ({loPEC; ~ e:tA~)(ptVE.rc; xr.d 't£lJ.tO~ aVepW1tO~ AE:'JE:: C5t'J lJ.1tOpd't'E. eyt'o6-to~~. va. ~ee:tTe mt b XO:tvT£YXep dvcn 6 XCXT' E:t;oxlJv xpt"t'L)(6C; ~C; ot>'YXPO\i~t; -rex. v~J('i1; - Airr6 txcpp&~ r, tpuatxa. «e11'0X,taxci» t1t(.(px~(r) ~ 't'tO'!lo x((( iiyvota. (H XPt't'tX"l1 Til<; (.lovrrtPVCU; 'tE.x.v~}(i1; avx.~~ 't'ouAaXLO'"'COV liE TO'" Pouoco )(at 'rOU-C; POIJ.(xY'nXou.c;. au'Je~ttt d om 't6\1 190 oJwva Cn·x- paoxLv. rouii\Ata~ M6pp~C; x.Im.) xo:t y(ve~t xonJ~ rolroq ~ Tepllav(a yupw o'tGt 1900 IlE -ro6~ Mat; BEf17tep. A. Bt!J.7rEp. Tatvvt.:;, Z([J.(J.d x .An:. T6 xecpaAc.t&O «"H np<r(IJ,07tOL1l0"'1J xa£ fr m.rve: ~alJ 'tou npoM."t'apux'tou» 'tOU f1t~AiOl) 1'OU Fx. AmJ.xct"t'c; 'krtopia xa{ Tagrxtl auve(lJYJC11J (1923). nov Ctv(xTM'ucroer. ta€£~ "too Map; xed 'l'OU Mri; Bell1tEp ~ 1tepttxe~, ~tf3ata (.1toa 0' VJfX llap~~}(6 ev8ullcx."ttl. 1[ep~oo6't'Epa CTYlf1eiC( QUOta;: "to; oxe'ttxa (1' otUT6 "t6 (ijT7JllCX nov ~pta)(oy"tcn OLD Elva~ xat Xpo',lVf; (1927) )fat 0't'"Il-v ElaaYlU)i cm1 MCTIXqmauq (1935). I1p.bret £1ttm]~ va tXvatpEp6Er d aln'O TO O1'J'll~i:o ~ ~XOA'1] ri1c; t]lpayxr.pOl)fJ1'7J~ (1927). (KttVEvrxC; aey q_l(dVETat 'Ja fXEt 1tap(X't"r'](J1']O€~ mt E:VCllJ.£Y&AO tJ.tpoc; an""tO: ypO:1t"ta TOU (J)OUKW auvtO"t'<XV"t(U oE JltCt Ct1'C/..:r} bpap~O"Y'I1 'twv X€V'tptXWV LC5£w\I 'tou Aouxa"tc; xa£ "ti1c; LXOA:ijC; 'ri}; tDpayx~oupt'7JS 1ttXv(.) at. lLE.p~}(a auY)(:E:)«Jtll€v(X 1te.BCa. I:I)YeA6vn EbtEtV: 1J xptnx~ Tijc; (l0vtepva<; 't'EX_VLX:YlS }Cal 'tou O'UVlXtpOUC; x60'[J.ol). Tfjc; «1tpaY!J.o1to~"l-1iv1'J';» }(ot'Vwvtac;. "tou «SE~aytl-Ux"t'oe; "Toil xoo!J.ou» x .A1t ., XUAOOO€ O't"a POa.XtlX 'twv 1t.e:~oapOl-Lt(..)y ~r; rep~avCa-c; rile:; Bdt·!J.~C; (x(d aAAW\I £Opr..)1t((·t·xw'J xwpWv· rrp(3A., 1"6\1 N-r. X. AWPEVr:;) xed aOKouvraoy Toao an' -rii <d~e~t(b) 000 Kat ano TIlV «ap~O"te:p~) mtpuyo; 'twv eXvtt1taAwV rile:; Xc(1tt't'a:Ata·nx~~ XOlVWVlaC;. ~H a1tpoafh}x'l1» '"tOU

TO «TEAOE THl: CllIAOI.Oc:bIAE » ~

33

s:.lv<tL Buv{X""tov ~ Kat O:;l)"tO TCOU 1tpaylJ.C('t't CFUlJ.~(Xtve~. E{VaL lS'tt ol cxu6evnxtc; cp~AOaOt.p~X~C; gpw-dJaEt~ ea~O'J'to;L OAD xa~ 1tL6 ~a6[.a. XOCtW O:1t'O "'to. 1tCXXU O'tpW[..J.f.X aLW7n1POU xa~ lla_AaXOU BOY(.la'tto(lou 1 Ilt(it; ee:TtXtO''t~)(~.c; l-lE.'tcxcpuatx'lS. Kat (Xu"to aUI-Li3CXL\lE:L aE llUO"TtX-q ouv:e:voxYJ (J.t Evav ixvo:pxt0t10 -ax€1t't'~x~a~6. 01t(U~ m6v lJ>cxye.pa- 117tevr. lltav x(X'Ve(t; AE.E.~. 01tW~ 6 (f>ayEpa[..t1t€vt O"u~'Y]"tw'V'ta.; Yla -nlv aSia -0;; E1t~aTillly}; .. «'ttl. 7taVtct XOAAii'V~». (anything goes) i:xcpp6;~t v.ux J3a(h& ee:'t"lX~O,.tXr, cbt0tV~. «Ttl. 1t{Xlrra xoAAave:.» 071IJ.CX£VEt: Tt7tO"tct. liev XOAAa.tt~ aA7]lhva,. o'ttB"t]no'["e;. lJ.1tope:i \leX XOAAiJaeL 7tpoO'wpt.va. (Ju\Je:1t&~ il EPW'O'lQ"IJ YLa n)'V o.A~eEL(l E(vat lJ.(a ltE.'tat.puatx~ EPW't'JlOTJ ~ e:.pw't1]O""I] xwp£C; v6"fJIJ.Ct llEoa o~ a&n1v TTj voo"'tpo1da. Tau"'t'6xpovo;~ at. Xtl1tOltX MAa X.'ttPLa. 'ril~ ~xaB'11llia.c; 11 'tou rra\,&1tL(f"t"f)~£OU, ol to"t'OPLXO£ 't1]~ CPlAoooqJ(as ESCtxoAOu6ouv va ixVCtllCloOUV 'tOOS S'lPOUS XCXp1tOU~ Tq<; ~la~x.6t""tft"ac; 'toue;, evw, CTn1V eAeuBe:prj ayopa '"twv tBEWV ~ (3t(icpopE.~ 1taVx-r.ptAO(JOq>~)(ES ol){'tee; 1tA(Xoapouv.e;: ideo-clip y~a -rq'V Kcx:tavaAWGy} 'tW\I (5~{Xt.p6pwv v.eowv tJa~~xl1~ 1tA'1lpoq>6p71 OY}<;.

Sa rtpocma.flfJow va. C5e:it;w ll-t e:vC( 7tctpaa~~y~a. yux"tt (Xu'to !tOU 6 XCXtV'tEyx€P a~ClKl1pUOae~ w~ «ESw.p6:VtOy} Tij.; iptAoaocpi(X~ IlEaa crt6v x6ollo n)t; 'teXV01to~Y111eV1l.c; ~1Uan1tJ.71C;» (c(u'to EI"at 't6 "t'O"t"ta-ro) 1'0 GEtupw de jure ix8u'Jc('tO. Sa 1trXpw eva Cx7tAO 7t(Xpaae~y-

X6;T.Y't'~Y}(E:P CJUv(ma'tat <Trlj\l rBe.(X. an iJ 'teXVtx~ Elva~ 't'6 CnroTrtkop.a n}C) «.6.t)T~Kijc; lle'"1'cupuou{"ij~»). AUTO 1t."apayv(')p£~t. lLEro~O aAAWV. a) &n ~ yrt'JV1]<J""11 'tOU )(a1tt1:"aA~al-l0f) )Cat ~ E:~cpa'na'Y1 'tOll Nrsxdpr xat ,"[OU Aa~(l- 1tvt't~. A.X .• frrav 1tCXptiAAl}AEt; E:)(al1AWoe:~C; Ev6~ veoo KOtVWVtxO-f.01'Op~KOU cpo::vtau~txxo U ( iJ [l e::tatp uat x.ij 'tou n Nx-rw\loc:; 'ij 't'of) 8w!1 &: A){~ va"t'1 BE-v «1tttt.n1yexy.e:» oth;t ~v 't~X\l t xYj 0 u"tt 'to\! KCX1tt'taAt0(.10). }((X( ~) o'tt. 't'GtlITOxpO\la, xa~ a.\)ttvo~t)(fi._ TO 1tp("tay~a. ri1~ at'.ttoVOll£a~ (r6 £AE:06e:pw''t'tx6 ~ aYl ~oxpa:-n x6 xi V'YHIU) 0 uS e1ro-CE: itn:cni>E ~ ~v t(ITopCa -ti]c; VemEp1lC; 86- o'lS, va ExBYJA6rvE'ta.t xa( va atctmpaaOE~ "ilion at ~£a. E.~atp&"tLx6: 1tOAU- 1tAoXTJ rr'J.ioYJ tl.v'taYWVtOllou xa( O:Af..TlAe1t"il5pa07J~- '"Co x(.(1tt-mA~o"t~x6

. np6-tcxy[J.(X. -rijc; a7tepT.6pt(J't11~ E7rE.X'tfXO"'l.c; "ri1c; c.IJ£:uBoopeO~OY~K~~ tP.e:u(5oxupt ccvx,.tac;. ~AAtX yui 'tOV X 6:~ vtcyxep. ~ E.~a ~a."'Co fu}t1oxpCt't ~)(6 xhrrul.[{ lStv I.I.1tOPEI va e!va~ Tt"fIpa I .. wi t1tL'1tA£OV Excppaa"t] Til; !l-ovripvac; A i]6'r!c; 'tou ElvfXL

or OMIAIEI: .ETHN EAAA~A

I-UX• Kavtvac; qnA6aorpo; i5tv tJ.7t6p.e:ac: 1tO'rE va a1tocpuye~ va SE)(~~~OE~ &7tO 'to: 7tpcX)1Jrl'tn - "tel «UA~x6:.», <d:~1ter.pLXtX» 1tpaYlLtl;·ra. Kax.w~~ raU}~. 1\)..M o1t&pxer. aU"n11J 1tep(~py'1 rata, xed a-rou~ 00- Ar.tV~mt~ ixx6l-la, a' alyt"Ou~ &lAaB~ 1tot,) 7t~CTt'eUOUV mt lSE'V {ntapXE!. e;6J'tEptx6t; x60IlOC;, v' aPXi~ou" va 1CaA.e:Uou~ (.I.E 't6\' EStJJ'te:Pt)(6 x6a~o yta. vei Ct.1tOaE:'~OUV o'tr. ail' U1tO:px.EL tsuYrE:p~)(6c; x6a!lor;~ ""E"tO't ot t.ptAOOOCPOt apxL~Duv va l.uAaV€ yui ·tpCt.1ttt:ta, yux lXAAOOt; (xvepW1tOU~, yux 'to" EV(X(TtPO OUptXvO" 6 M1ttpxAe:ij~ A.X. t fAt.YE 5-rt -rtf 1tn'V-ra c:Iven a,ode; 1tapaa'taa.e:!.~ !La~. 'O ~6;l-.ttOUe:A TI;6voov 0-00 Aov6tvo xAo'taa€~ l-ua 7tE'tPtX~ xed &n6 't6 ys:yov6r; lYtt T6 1t65t 'tou

1t6ve:.o.e: (UtOlieLx'Vue:r. iYn 6 M1tEpX.AeU EXer. lil3txo. .

~r1t&pxe:.~ naV't'C( I-lr.a (xV't'£A'1tfnJ 'thlV TtpaY(l(X-t'w" xat: 'tou xoollOU IJ-E.C; CTt'il !ptAoO'oq:Jta. Too", cpuatxwv ltpaYlla-nuv xed 'tOU <pUOlXOU x6ol-lou. Ka£ alJ.(l XOt -ca~outJ.e:. 61totovB~1t<Yt€ t'pLI..6aoq>O. 'tov nAu'tW'VO: , -eov 1\pt.G-rO't€A71 ~ "to'V N'tEX.cXp-r .. -r6v Ktivt t -eov XouoaepA ~ "'t'6v Xa~ vreyxe.p XCt-r' t~oxnv ~ Ba (5oUIl€ o-n EX€~ 7teXvt'OTE: (lie; 0't6 XEepaAt 'tou xa1tOta avcupopa ae xa"t~ nov e!v(Xt (Xu-ra "t'Ct 1tprXyt.A.a-m xcx( alrt6~ 6 x6a(J.o~, eat'w XL av BeAEt va -ret i)1to~aell£ae:t. Tt el"ltL 'tEAuux airta; 'EC5CJ ~AE1tOufle Buo «X7toxpwa.e:te; tXVcXlJE:o(x (TtOUC; qnAoa6cpou~. at\' VO~t~W c3't"!. lnta.pxE:~ aAAYl. El'tE: e:fv(u 6 xooll0t; TIlS ~wljs t 6 xa&f)ll€pLV().:_; xoo(los: 'to. "tpa'Jte~t(X~ -"to: 7to't'i]pLa. "t<X <pGl'ttt x~A1t., aUTO 7tOU 6 XouaaepA 6v6lJ.a~ Lebenswelt~ xed o:;~ e:.!VCH ~ 7tEPt7tl'WGY} OX€36'V OAWV 't"WV Cx(J)(a£wv r.ptAoa6<pwv~ tv lLepe:~ -rou K{X\rr, aa<paA(;)~ -rou 'twu'tcx:tou XouaaepA xal 'tou XaLvt'eyxep. Et'te: (1] Be:.lrt~ a.n6xphlO".,,) , /) x6a~oc; ~ ~E 1:'0'1} 01t'Otov 6 cp lA6ao<poe; 1taAe:U€L y~a va cnto8e(;er. eo'tw lYt~ Bt\' l)7tapxE~ ij <h't EIva~ a.aoveXp't"1J"to<;. Erven 0 x6ol-toC; 6 e1tr.rrt'YlIlOlJLx6s, &}AaBij xcer' oU(JUx'V 6 x.6ol-loC; rile; {J.a61](J.c("C'LxYlS t.pu(JLxlic;. Kcx( (Xu-r6 oU(l(3CdVEt l8fwC; ~t "t'ov N't~x&p-t )((X£ t-Le:.-rtX ano -eov N't&xap-r.

Kat a-de; Buo 7tepr.'Jt"t'wO'e:L';~ a~ ~ elxova, "h xa.eap~ elxova ~ 't'6 xa6apa q>f.Xv-raol.(Xx6 ~ e ..... 6t:; xoouoo 'tWV 7tpaYl-.ux'twv E1tat~e: 1teXVTO'te: Evav a1tocpa.ar.o'ttx6 (16).0 xat M~ 1tapaBE~Y~(X "t'ot) OVtO~ (Seiendes, Aee:r. 6 Xa~"Teyxep) xa{ we; ~6.o"f)!i !J.~&.r; {J.e:.66Bou. II.X. ~ (Xv (5~af3aae-1'e: nl\l Kp~'t~x-4 TOU KafJapou Adyou, Eta Be~'tE O't'l OA~ 1]

TO «TEAOI: TH:E tllIAO::E00IAE»;

35

1tPOG'TUXfJELCt 'tOU Kavt e!'Va& va <p-rtCt;tL lJ.~ci GJtAoaocp£a. nov aa 1tpoacpip€t "ta ae:ll&A~a tilr; VElnl.)"e:La~ r.puatx~;, "rile; CPUU~)(OIla.aY)~a'tt)(.7Jt; E:1ttCTt'ill-Lr,t; ti}<; E1tOxYiC; "tou. ~v Btcxf3acrt't'e 'tov ytpo XoUOaEPA~ 66: Be:t't& B-n 7tpocmcx6s:i: ",6: ~per: ex v!tou -r6 VOYlIlCl OAWV '"t'wv 1tpay~a"t'wv xat 'tWV Ulewv a~ extol] ~.l(xt; !l€ n1v Lebenswelt, IJ.t 'tov x00!l0 TIic; ~wl}<;. A&t6~ 6 xoalL0C; tijc; ~(U~~<o aU-n1 i] LebensweJt~ nou E:lva~ xa:ra )(a:TCO~o'J -rp67to ~ E1ttO-rpOqn1 -rou yEpou XOOooe:;PA UTO (T1Ul€io a1t~ -r6 01toi:o e1xe ;exnnlUel b i\PLO'tOttA"'~, Ct.u"t'6~ 0 x601l0t; 'tYl~ ~wilt; s:l\l(Xt <puu&xa Eva a.1tcxpat't"fl't'o 7tPM'tO x.o~v6 eBotcpoc;~ exAAcX elva.t E1t~01j~, 01tw.; ~tpouv BAot l)oot axliq>tlrp((xv €atW xat ~£a anw~, fva BttX"tP"'J't'o e:Ba.cpOS1 0YlIle.i<x 1tOAU OAto6"1)pa. O:vtttpt:XO'e:t~, aCJUvaP'"la£e:~ x.o.x,

IIape:.vBE""tr.xO:, CiC; O"~Ile:r.tiJeet o-n i &tav 6 XCXtv'te:yxe:p Ilr.Aaet yux '[6 Desein, &J)..aB'fJ yr.a u,v ixv9pw7tLV7) r)1tap~"tJ xaL "de; oxEOE~S 't"q'; Ilt 'tov xOCJllo, (X~ ~ Civ6p611tt V"r'J U1tap;l1 xed a&t6~ b x6o{.lo.c; EI\la~ ~ a.v6pt:>1ttvl) lhtapSYJ xa£ 6 x6a~or; Tijt; x(Xe'llleptv1i~ ~wli.;· Erva.~ 'ttl BtvBpa. 't6 (5aaOt;, 01 Xct~t\'OL Bp6lJ.or. tle; O"-ro (Saao;, 't6 f3ouv6 nor) op8hl'V€'t'at aTo ~cX6o~, 6 ~vo~. f} AtlJ.Vl'j K.An-. ~ e:.l'V(xL ~Aa.(5~ axpt[3ooc; '1"6: 1tpC>-rcx tl.V"ttl(E£(lEva 'tOU )(cdhU.lepLVOU 1tpaylla"tt)(OU xoopou. AUTo,:; 6 x.6op.oC; 1.l(X(; t~U'V~t aacpO:Awc; lL~a 1tpwn, npoU1t66e0'l. J\)"Ati li'V BeAoul..lE. va oxe:<p6oullE, Bev lL7tOpOOLJ.E va rna.6oulLe:. Exe:I. Ka( xcee' (XvcXyX'Y]v ~ q>tAOooq>(a 1te.PVCceL uta\.' t7t~o't'rJl.Lo\nx6 x60lLO ~ -rov x6a~o TI)c; l-lae1J~ctttX'ii~ tpuau6Jc;. 'E7U1tA£ov xa1to~o~ ALy&tepo aTCA'1pocp6pY}'to~ )Cal r.ut6 -r6'V Xat'V't£Yxep, xaf a1tO 'tou,:; 1tEp~(Ja&tEpou<; aUXpovoo.; tpLAOo6l'pouC;~ ·Bit ~'tav UlCOXp£w ~tvo~ va 6r.cntUTtWO€L ()'tL cxu-rOC; 6 €1ttO't'1Jf.LDvtx6S. 0 <pUOtXO(.UXfuJIJ.Cl'tr.XOC; x6oIlOC;. ~X~t m1lJ.EPO: x(X'ta.ppeua£t. Ta 1tpay[1.a'ta~ 6 xwpoC;~ b xp6vo~, 1} oAT), oXt. ~6vo EXOUV ~(lvayLvE.t aivty(1.C('tot~ aAAa. tllrpavi7;o\l'tfXt 1CEptOa&te:po ahnYlla-rtxa. a7t6 7tmt. T£ xave:r. ~ aU'YXPOv"f1 CPUOtx"ll €'1ttCTt'ilIJ.'1, KC~:ta. x(Xv6\1t.X tv aY\lo(Q. 'tw'V l~U6)'V 'thl\l qluatxwv <I 01 61tolot e!v<XL lx8a.Elc; a1tO xa6e cp~Aoaor.pU{~ 6ewp710""f} ; AuT!J ~ cpuaLx~ t1ttCTt'illll1 elva!. .. av tJ.1tOpG> va 1tW, xa6tO]J.t"'Ti -raO"toxp6vw~ 1teXvru o"ta "tEOaEpa ~uY"l1 "t'WV xavna.\lw\I CtVTLVOlltWV: 1) ~O XGJpoC; xed {) x_p6voc; Elva.t )((Xf a1tlttpOL xa( 1te1t.E:-

36

01 OMIAIEE ETHN EAAA6.A

paOlltVOt ~ ~ 7tmE 't6 E.Va Xat 1t6-tE: 't6 aAi..o ~ ~ E:r;cxpta'to:~ 1tWC; 8a 'to 1tape~ X(XVe:L~. 2) 'O, Tt 6na.px€~ elvctL Ct1te:fpwS" Bu:npE1:6 ~ illha(peml roc O"taflrxi'tae~ xcntou. o"t'& cx"tOllct, (j'['ou~ 7tOP~VE:<; ~ <Tt'Ct xouwpx~ ~ c:n!<; xop8t r; )co: L ut'[«; u1tep -xop Bte; J(. a .X • 3) f H cd t't 6TYJ 'tC< td'V(xt xaeOAtxil ~ Be\} Elv(xt xaeOAno~. 4) ~o x60'~o<; auve:1tay~'t'a.~ xa"t'L w~ Ot7t6AlYt(X avayxo:i:o et 'fa: w~ aI'do; 'tou eI -rE: wr; ~tpoc; 'tou. ~ 'tbtOTE: Be\l elvtXt lx1t6AU'tr1 avayxai:o xai 't'a naV'ttx E.I\la~ €~'te:A.w~ 'tuXaICl. T6 tX1tOAlYttx avayxai:o e:lvcu CPUOLXti BAll +r 1tAEUpa ~t:; <puaucij~ .. -nou t:1;axoAouBeI \16. e.l\,(.'u cxt'noxpa'!~~ xcd VCe:Te:PI-Lr.Vto-tLX1). TO. o'tt La. ntX\.ITct elvat a'J'toAoTw<; 't'uxaia etvo:~ ol "teAe:.Ul'C(i:e:C; 6EWp£s:.t:; YLa Ttl ytvV1}011 'tOU aUIJ.1tavtor:;, xa-ra. 1:"(~ 61tole:<; auTt1 ~ ytw']O"/l 'tOU aUfl1tavtOC; Oq:tE.tAe-rClt a' €vav 'tUXato XUllt'l.',ttotJ.6 'tou x~av"t'!.)(oij x!tvoU.

A~ ~ cpootX~ <Tt7)Pt~e:'t(X~ ~ao~xa o'ttX [.!cxfhU...ta1"txa xat -rrX XPl1- oLl-l0TtoteI O'u'Vex(;)~. ~AAri "t'a raLa 'Tn (la6l}(lctnxa (Xa.L e1t~ tXu"too~ 01 IJ(]JJ.,,~a·nxot: 01 y(5LO~ e:lvcxL auvilaw~ o:awo~~ 8to'tt +r BOUAE:UX 1:0U~ Btv e:fvcu 'Ja. aXClAG;oU'V 'ta 6E.f1.E.ALa -rij~ €1t~OT11IJYJ~ .. MAti va 50UAeuouve. 't'o6-t; a ..... uO'I-l(X'tLX.OUc; xwpour; 't£'tOtOU "tU1tOU il 'tYtv 'to- 1tOAOyta. -rGrv XWpCU\l 'tou <Pox x.o.x.) ~p(a)(OVtCu DE 1tA~p7J 6.~E:(3cUD-tYft(x "a{ we; 7tp6c; 1:"& eE.lJ.rtA~a 'tOUt; xat w~ 1tpO'; ~ I.L~ avt~<pct'tLx6'nyta 'tOU~. ~E1t~1tAiO\l, oulkLr; Y\lwp(~et Y~fl:ti 'ta lla6.,,~a.'t~xa ~7tOpOU\l xat E:CPtxP1l6~oV"tat I-LE 't'E't'O~tx a1t£o'tElYt7) E:1tt'tux[a 0'n1 lPuatXl11tpetY{.L(l'ttx6-nyra.

KA(XOt~it; X(XT'1iyop£e:~ T7is qJoat)()j~. a'i1Aa8~ ~ exl"t'toTY(t'(X. ~ xwptaqJ.6"ty}'th., ~ 0PtO}lE\ll1 OiG'~ 'tw'V cpar.~o~evwv 1 [3pio)Cov'!clf. epet1twlJ.€ve~. E-n1 O"Yl(J-'tP~\JiJ cpuatx-IJ U1tCtpx.ouv Buo ~aO'Lxtr; 6ewp(€S: ~ ~Xtn'tx6-r"l}'t'o: ~ xed -r<X K~6:vta. Kat 01 Buo elvctt E1tt"t'UX€O''tCX't€C;· oU'VE,XWC; t(.lcp(Xv(~ov'taL cpo:~'V6IJ.e,,(X 'nx 6noIa "de; 5:1t~~e:~I:XLWVOUV ~ elXtxv 1tpO~Ae:lP6e:L an' a&-rec;. (Tci 'te:AI::vt'Ctia ErVeU 01. ql(xXOL ~apu't'Yrro<; o-ro a ~ayaAa Su:xxo a ~ rXU"tl'] ~a) . ~E 7t t WXeO'''C'o::"'tE.C; f3 t(3 C( ~ ex . aAAa; 't'wiwr; aV'ttcpa'nKEC; ~e't(.(';u "touC;. ~E1t~1tAiov, x(x't<X'tpuXo- 'J'ta~ ano fja6t.'rt'al'cx llae~lJ.a't'~xa 1tPO~A~lla'ta, a.i..A6; ama Cit; l-l~v 'to: O'u~1fU1aou~E.. ::Euvomtxa: ~xoulle: xa;'tcta)(.E'.UaOEt ILia. Xc(TlX- 1tA1pc:nK"ll tlYlXtX\I'f], nov t~ClxoAou6ei va 1to:p6:yg~ 6autlaOTa 1tpo'(o-

TO «TEAO~ TH:E ({)IAO~OcltIA:E.)};

37

vre , E.VW, OUl-lCPc.uv(X ~t OA(,t oaa r;lpou(J.€ ~ auTiJ ~ l1'1lXcxv/J B6. En(1e- 1t'E va ~lxe E:Xpf.Xy~r alto xar.po. AtYt-il el",(u YJ CPOOLXi] E1ttO'tiuJ.YJ at1- IJ.Epa.

Ukx cxu"ta 66. 1rt<Xv 'teAe~WC; av&rrro va -ra ovofLaae:t xa~e:~ tX1tAW<; 1tpO~A~~o:.'t'a E1t~aTIHJ.oAOY~Xa.. yvwa~OaE:wP'l't"txci, ij alCo!-ta )(O:( 1J.€'tacpoo~xa. Au'tt~ E !v(X~ at AE.~E.~-t; 1tOU 01 auyxpovot XaXvc€yxeptavol xed /) tBtoc; 0 XtitvtEYXEP XPllOtf.L01tOtouv O'to::V 6tAOUV va. l)7to~ael-lfoouv x.a1tot.o tpW'tYJllCl. Airta OIJW~ ora 1tPO~A~llfX'ta J.1.(i~ 6311YDuv X(X'tt:U6EtCXV 0'1'0 xtv'tpo -rile; 6~'tOAOyia.s Kat x6:6e:

OXEtPYlC;. T[ e:.!vcu 'to Ervrn (Xumu 'tOO ()VCO~ ('tou tXV6P6)1tDU) nov (J.1tOPEt E:)..eu6e:pa va. a1Jllloupyei lloptpt; 01tWC; "ta lJ.(.d}y}l!a'ttxtX XCXt ol cpua~)(t~ 6ewp£!tc; .1tOU q>a.ivov'ta~ va Exouv Kci1to~cx OXEO'"I] XO;1tO't€ ~€. (lu't6 TIOU elvcu, )((X( nou q>aivovuu,. 'de; 1t~ptO'a6-t€pE~ cpoptc;, Ox" va a7te:ucovL~OUV OU'tE XtXv tawe; vO; aV'ttX1toxp('Jo'V"t'r:x~, tXAAa va OUVCtv-rouv (alm1 e:tV(U i} (3CXOLX"t) At~"I): auv&VTTJ07() x6:rL 1tOt) c:l'V(;(~ Er;tlft~~xa aOCJtl.e~o; T6 1te:p~O"a6'te::po 1t'OU 1l7t0pOU~E 'VeX 1tOUlJ.E: y~&. TrJ" ~btu,Ti]flYl l1o:.C; ~!vo:~ ern BEV ~1'V(X.L 1tr..tpa.A~Pl1lla. LUVfl\rta xa'tt 1tOU ElvctL av.e:~a.p1''1"to a1t' cdyt"'~v )Cl.d 1taAEUE~ llE Cllrt6 - aAAa. 'to auvCt'i'ta. 1rpayf1a:rl. J\ v'tL6t-cwc:; (lE .5 ;tt Met {) <l>ayepali1te'V"t' )(0:.£ b b1totoaa~1tO't€ aXE:1t"t~x~o~6~ yui "'tel 1tPO~AiillC('t"a. ROU U1t&'pxouv alYtil'J "n1 <Tt~yf.l"'. n.):. 0'111 tpuauctl ~ tJ.1tOP€L'tE va. xcx'taoxe:uaaet£ 1, 2 ~ 5 e~wpr:e:.S 7tOU va E lovclL EX 1tP6),t'11; o~a:(.)r:; aE:X;'t'e~ ~ 5iv IJ.1tOpd'te va. XrLorcwxEuaae-u: 67to~rxa~1to't'e:. flE.wp£cx.. 01 1te:p~OptCfl.lOt xat ol xa'tavayxaof,.lo£ 7tOU uncXpxouve xed «11:6 nl (5o~~ -"t'wv 6EWptWV (nov (J.a~ '1tapa1tE(.J,1ter. q>uatxa crt6 7tVE-Ullfl !lac;) xai a1t6 "to: SE(5otJ.E.va~ E.!Vc.u "t'epa.o'ttot. ~EV"t'ou"t'OtC;, 1tepL1tOU XneE cpopa, xcn:cxoxe:uat~'t(u (l~a ee:wpfa~ y} o1tofa O'uv(lvtii "teX 1tpay!J.t:X't(X 7j ouvav't'a. , yui va 't6 1tW xaAO-re:pa. €vC( liAAO O''tpWllcx 'tou ()v'to~.

T£ e:t",a~ AOt7tOV "t6 DV a&t6 'tOU ()vt'o~~ 1tOU ~7tOPEL xcer' fXlrr6v "t6v -rporro va. au\Jl'.X~'['ti:l'CU (lE. 5.'tt elvaL; Kat 'd ~1"(Xt .or6 ()V a.Utwv "t'hlV llo(XpW'V 1tOU (5l1tJ.~oupye:i aiYto 't6 QV (1'"6 av6pw1ttvo); Kat n e:lv(.u 'to OV ((mOO 1tOV 01teXPXE-t aav Bei5011€VQ t~w'tep~x6:; Kat 't( 1tpt1t~t va axe:cp6ou(.lE: yta 1:"6 Elvo:t aav Etvo:.~, EtXV 1:0 Etvat avfp(E-t S:1tkTn~ at eva. DV ~ tx(.(v6 y~Ct. €Aeu6e:pYl &J~Loupyia) -ij 07tOLCX xed

38

OJ OMIAIE::E ETHN EAAAAA

ouvav'ta.€~ aiYt6 1tOU E:!Va~ xcd &7tO't'UYX&'VEL a' (xU-n1v ~ oovavt"fl- 0"'1 ; Au't€<; 01 tpc,,:rn1ae:L~ elva~ ol {3aBma'te:c; CPtAoOOI.p!.xt~ tpwti}aer.c; ~ "t£~ 67tote; !laS' ~ci~£L ~ a7)~e:pLV1j xa:t'aa'tCta~ ~ 1t .X. "tw.v Q)Ua~X6)V €7tto'ty}{J.wv. ea 1J.r.A~aw txpymepa YLcl n1" x(x'ttXo-rCXOYl an1v (l1tota p.ac; ~a~L 1] BewPl1~ !!CX~ 'tOU XOtVWVtXo-tO't'opn,oU. Ka( .e:lvar. aO'"t£lo va oxe:qn6I-lctQ'te lS'tL (X&tt~ 01 epwTljoELC; tXl-L7jBev£~oV'tCXL cXn6 TiJv lata -rii~ OV'tOAOYLXYi.; 8LacpopCu; ~ Cx1t6 ~v ep(:yt"7~a"f1 yux TO v6~l-la "tou Elvat. ~H tpw't7Jal1 yta "to v6't1f.uX "'roo. Eiva~ elvat (J.L& Epc;rt'YlCfYl xwp[t; v6'r}[.La, E:x-r6.; av ~v 7tapoU1L€ w~ tXv6pw1tolLOPCPr.x~ ~ a.VepW1tOAOYr.X~ ~ eeoAoy~>OJ Ep~a". nOL6~ llaC; tyyuOCtat Ott l17t6;px~t Eva V01Ula TOU E!vat; Kal 1toL6~ lJ.a.C; el1tE: lYn aOn] ~ CPp«<Tr} yui 't6 v6J}llcx 'tOU Etva~ ~Xe:L XCX1tOr.O v6"UJ.a; 'O j\pr.m'oteA'1<; Bev pw-rouae yux 'to VO"1llltX 'tou Elva~· pW'touae «'tt 'to QV», 'd au ~1t€PtixEL, Tl eO'tt, 't£ e: IVotL 't6 0\1, xed 'to OV iStv E r'Va~ EVot auyxE:xptl..LtVQ ov, i5tv e:L\lC.U "t'6 Y€Pll«\luc6 Siendes~ ae" E:!V(l~ "to yaAA[.XO etsnt, DU"te: lStJ.w; eivat ""to OV XWptollEVO iut' "t'o 0\1 Ked Ct1t6 'ta. lS'V"trl. EI\llXr. au"t'o 7tOU 6a e:Aeye: xave:U; ma yahAtX6. I '~tre/ etsnt, C571Aao-q m e:lvaL xaB6aov amo -r6 ElvC(t «7tpaY!l(X'"t01to~€ t'to: r» o'teX l'hrta. «Tt 'to Oli n is\I>>, Ate: t 6 )\ptO'tO-rEA'1 r;. «i«X 1 'ta 'to6t~ u1tapx'ov'ta xae' cdJ't'o». rux "to EI'Vr.([.~ 6 ,,(BLaS 6 ~p~(Tto't'tA'IC; Aie:~ (rn «1tOAACt7tAWC; Aeye"t'(xL», exet 1tOAAtX vO~l-La'to:. ~Aa. ~6; nOAA&: \loy,lJ.a:ta 'tou Elva~ ~ yr.a -reX 61tOLC( Jl.tAa 6 ~PtO"'to-reAllC;, EI'Vat 'ta 1tOAAa VO"ljIlCl-r(X "tou (J~paTCk; «a:L"<Xt» lJ.E:alX m-q yAhlO"oa. IItpa a1t' a.u't'6. 6 AptO"t'O'teA'1~ 6t't€t '[0 OV Ked yt' aUT6 pW't'aE:L Ktt -rb ov n O~>i·~ dev PW't&E~ yt6: 't6 v6YU.LCX 'tou ov'tOC; OOC; Dv'to.:;· (J,ta't'e'tota i:PM"t'"1]O"l) 3€v 6Ct e:IXE VOy}lJ.CX ~ Br.mL &tv u1tapxe:~ v6Yl~a TOU ov'to~ we; OV1'O~. To VO'llllX e:.I'VClt Cxv6p(ir1ttv'1l {5"'1lJ.~oupyia: - tlJ.€r:~ (5£VOU~E v6~~a mtX 1tPayllfX"t(X~ xa:tw a7to 6p~a~Evou,; 1tEptOpLGI..L0ur; ~ {3ef3O:UX9 ytti '"t'ou~ 6noious; 3EV 1l1t0POUIlE \la llt).:flO'ou~e: 't"u)P(X~ xed 01 onotot axe·d~OV'tctL xcd IJ.£ nJv la'top~a J.1.aC;. xcd Il€ C<tYt6 1t'OU elvcxr.J xaf tawS' xa~ llt a.AAa. 7tpaylla't'a.

1}7twr; i5ev ~1tOpou~e: va IJ-r.A"i]OOUIJE YUX v6lJ~C( 'too e:l\lC(L~ no~ i5tv ~1tOpOUlJ.E va 1··uATlaOUI.LE: y~a O'\f't'OAOYLX~ a~a.tpopa t 7tOU elvat V-LeX xwpl.:; 1te:ptex.611evo 6poAoy~ax~ $tAoAoyia. 1!H OV"t'OAOYtx~

TO «TEAOE TH:E q,.IAOEOCll-IA-:E»;

39

i~hacpopa9 0"riJ (5uv,zX't'o 1:'hlV cp~Aoa6cpwv a1t6 1:0V Xcuv'tC'{'Ke:.p Ka( (lE"CcX t 1£1\l(x'L ~ (5trupopa ava~Eoa c:rt6 E!\'a~ Kat 01:6 QV xed 'ta 5vtc<. i\Uo alr't6 1tOV 1tapoua~6:~cu xa£ a}..'Ao 't6 yt::yov6C; -rilt; 1tCXpOUaiac;. ~H 1tCt.pouofa Btv 1tapouatCt~E't"af. 7t0't'E. w; TIapouota. - TI(XPOUOt~1:'CU ~ xo:p6.cpa, 't'o poM!., 6 -ro 1:xo~ x.Arc. ~H iBLt~x ~ 1tapoua£o: elvat (x1tapouo(run"fJ. AuvcX~e~ O(lUlt; alrrYi~ Tile; a1tapouo(aCTt7}r; 1tapoua(ar; 1t(Xpouat(x~oV"t'tx.r. "'ta 1tp&y~a'ta. T6 ra[.o laxuet )Cat IJ.E -r6 Erven: "ta 5v't'C( etVctL, -r6 ElvaL lii\) e:lvat, aAAa 't'<X ovrct E I ",a~ 3uv eXilE ~ 'to U E! va t •

:E'ti}v Ttpayf.Loct'LXO"t"ll'tCX ~ 'to Elv(.u €1\'(xL CqwPtCJ'to cX7t6 ""tOO~ 'tpO- 1tOUC; 'tOU Etv(l~. 01 61tOtOL e:tva~ aXWp~(TtOL a1t6 "ta l:hrt(x. (])uauux, ~ 1tClpooaia (5tcuptPEf. a:It' a&t6 1tOU etvcu x&.6e cpopa na.pav. ~)"M ~ tBr.a ~ 7tcxpouoir.t U7teXPXEt lJ.' E.v(X'\} ar.acpop€'t~x6 "tp61to crt ax€m'l Itt am6 1tOU 7tapouoLCi~g'tat. n .x. ~ napouoLCl Ev6C; tpa.mi} aE~ elvtlt YB[.a ~E ~v '1tcxpouo(a t,,6~ bt1to7tO"t'tXllOU ~ iSX~ xcrr:' &",Uyx"1]v 'tou)"O:Xr.o'tov. 9fA<u v6. 1tW mt attv elvat lata, 0XL ~6vo I-Le niv EWOUX fXtYtOU 1tOU 7tapouO'l~'t(X.~ .w...Aa -ri1c; OX€CT'lS noo B"t)(ltoupYEL'tcn III 't"IJv E!J.<p6:'VLO"l) "'tOU tpaml) llllE TIl" E:lUPa:vto'r] 'tOt) bt1to- 1to'tt:X(lou. ~uve1t(;)'i, t, tata ~ 7tapOUOLa aTfJv OUO-lex Ked aUcrt'CLmj ""l~ E.lvcu atC«popE1't~. <:H 1tapouata E:v6r; acn{Jou, ~ 1to:pouO'ia. IJ.LiiC; axtq,ew~ ~ il 1ta.pouata 'rile; "'E~(}o~7ir; l:U(lcpw'V(W; ~ elvaL ~l~(Xux OAE<; 7tapOUOte:.r;, ixAAa lloVO IJ.t I-Ua. AoytX1] xa( xe:.vf] ewor.a ~ 01tWC; 66; e)..e:ye 6 1\PLG'!01:EA7Jt;. &!Aa.B~ &7t;"w~ 'tu1t~xa x(d acpa~pe:.'tLxa. (H 1Capouafa elveu x&ee. !popa ~ 1tcxpouma amou 1tOU ncxfJou(JLa~e:'m.~ xaL <puatxCt; €.!va~ 1tcxpoua(a y~& xanotov ~ yux "t6v ()7toiov t)'JtcXPXEL ~ 7to:pouma xa£ yta 'tov 6noto BEV U1tapx€L ~ 7tCtpouoLa 1rap& llE amov 't6'V 'tp07to. II ~x~ i] na.pouota 't'MV f3t~A((r)" l-uii<; f3['~ALOe-qX"IJS yux !J.E.va '1 yta O'a~ e:.{vC(~ 't'e:i£lwC; ato:q>OpE,[LX~ a1t6 ~v 7tapouo(a "tWV l5iwv ~r.~M(Uv yta 'tel axouAipu(X ",[,Ct 01tOLCX 'tp&tve: 'ttX f3L~A(fX.

~i1tapxe:t Aor.nov (.(u't1J ~ x6.6e cpopa nPfXYlla't01tOt'Y]O"f) 'rii<; 7t(XPOUOLa.C; y~cX xa'1tor.o\l, yux 't6v 01tOLOV 01tO:pxe:.L ~ napouaia ~c; opr.a~t\loc; 'tp01to<; 1tapoua£cx~ K(d (5UVeXlL€L ~l[.(X~ ouyxe:XPt(.LtV1]~ 7t(lpoumcxt;, K(x~ (Xu"to elvf.Xt 1tOU (lac; ~1l1tOat~EL veX xwplaoutJ.E ~v

40

01 OMIAIE::E l:THN EAAA~A

Dv'toAoyia, tXx6!J.cx xed Cx1t6 n1v E:1'nm'Y]~o'Vtx~ eEWp~alJ ~ ""twv oV'tw'V. Ka( r1lyr6, aAAwrrte:, 't6 Sftpouv vaOL e:.lV(xt 1tAllPO<poPYUJ.€'Jor. yta -ro 'tl au!J.~Ct!ve:.~. 01'ci y6v~~a t -rtX oX~ 1:000 yvwG't'a. oUvopa ti1c; aUyxpov,,~ tbno'rln.L1]~ : at €:P{U-n1(JE~S ol 61t 0 i:E.S- C1UVe:XhlC; avaXL vouv-rcu o"t'J)v rrsp tOxfl aUn1, sav<xo81JYOuv OUV&XWC; ae qni\o-

~ . ~

aot.p !.xa ep (.,)'"t1]l-ux't'a •

EI1tet 1tPt~: x(itt e,(vaL BeBOlltvo. )fa't~ etveu. x&-n 7tpEne~ wi (50- 6€L j\_AM at 1tot6~ xa£ 7tWC;; TO: !J.ae"{la'ttxa ~aC; elvcx~ t5s:(5o(,J.tv(X ij 1'& (571lJ.tOUpyouV.E; 1100 k3p&ax.O\}'t(X~ ae:Bo~evot t 1t .X, at (Ute:~poBuiom'tot xwpot TOU XO .. ~1t.e:p-t'; Ka.t 1to~6~ aKlbt"teT(u"'to DV; Elva~ 1tpocpa:V€~ O'tL liv 1tpaYIl(xn CPtAOOOt.poU~e:, 1tpE.1ter. va B~EPW"t'Y}eOUlJ.e: «IIot6 e:lv(Xt amo 't'6 Eyw, 1:'0 !I-lEi:S» Ka( ~8fwr;: «T { e:lven aireD TO tyw ~ 'to Elle:i:C; (x1tO TI] O't"tyf.l~ 1tOV apxt~w va. a'toxa.~ollat 't'i E, I [.lex t xcx£ no to C; E. I fla ~ ». Kat tliw !J.1tcd VOU IJ.E: o"to 'teA£u'tcdo G"fl ~ l1ero TtOU (lID; Ev8tr.xcpEpet. &i?A(Xl5ij -n? aU\i(5eo"1] ~r; CPtAoO'oqnKY}c; oxc:$-q C; [.it ();n ~flepa lJ.1tOpOUlJ.E: 'ila O'xeqnOU~E xat yt& nlv $uxfl xed y~ri "to XOtVwvLxo-r.o'toptx6.

'Door 1tapO:XOAOUeouv, €o'tw xat a1t6 llo::xp~a? ~'V meu!J.a:nx"J'l [.L65a, 6Ce 7tpooE.;av o'tt e:n( 25 x.p6vr.a 1:wpa &ve(oave: x(Xl el;axoAouBouv va aVeU;OUVE ~ (Xv xat ~i aAAEC; 1l0pt.pEtC;~ xeX"t't 7tEpiE:pyo:. qnn&.. ~·H .. YUX \J' aAAa;w -n1 J.Le:l'a:q>op~X"r1 Bta:tu1tWOl1, 6<i e:AEya: o'n 1tpoocpepE'tfXL auve:xwr; €va aau-vrip-t"l}TO payo6, 7tOO t;ayytAAE~ 't6'V 6a\lcl"t'o 'tOll tntoxe~[J.tvou. 1:'0" 6ciVct"to 't'Ol> ixv6phl1tOU, 'tOV 66;~a'to TOU(_'VOr,J.I,Ct'to;, 'to" 66:V(xTO "ri1c; ~I<Ttop£a; x.A1t., U1tO n1v E:7r£XATJ°"'1 -r6u Maps ~ 'tou Nh'oe: ~ "tou WpOUVt, aAm lJ.t t.ptAoaoqltx6 b(yu"ll-n1 napa56~~ """"1t~aw a1t~ rov Map~. 't6v Nf-raE xcd rov <Pp6uVt- TOV XcXtV"teyKE.p. A&-t6 'to 01tOtO AEy€'tQJ ~ al]Ao:B~. e:lvcxr. an ~ tVuxavciAua.,. Ct1tea€d;e: m~ (5;tv tntcXpxe~ 't6 cpLAoaocp~x6 U1tOxe:f[J.€\io 151t'w.; 'to v611!.~e -q XAaatx-q cp~Aoaorpia (~ 61tola. QU8E1tO-rE V6Jl~O'E xcX'n '['~"t'o~o), mJve:1tW.c; TO:: Tt6:'J't'a tfJuxavCXAUOvtcu xa£ &qri10'tE !1Ct.~ ~O'UXOUC; "i} IJ.-tl ~a; OOpYfVtte:. llauXOU<;, ea $uxa\,JO:AU~ GOUllE "to(~f(; 1t(i'\rre.; x.Xrr. '1{ OTt, 01tW~ 't6 rx1teae:L~e: 6 Map~. Ked 0

~E.ya~ a~aaoX6~ "tou 1\A'touO'aip1 tntCqJxoov mpouxroupe; xed U1toO'tpouxroup!;:<; xat V1te:pCTtpouxroup.e:S xal ol o-rpouxrouper;

TO «TEAOE TH::E -<pIAO:!:00IAI:»;

41

a'tpouXtOuPt~o,,'t'(U ~E't(X;6 'touS, x(d taets 6 '£a~OC; xat 00'(% Ag't~ s:taaa-tE xa6opta[.Lt\Jo,; Ct.7tO -nJv (xv<iAoY"I1 mpouxroupa:. ....H lyt'L, lhew.; ernE. 6 N~1:'ae ~ at", u1tarxouvE YEyov6ta aAAa.. fL6vov tpllllveLEt;, auve1tw~ 6 xaf:ht~(Xc; EXe::t -n1V e:pJ.l"fl",e:(a 'tou xaf aAA"l au~.,yr"l1al} atv xwpe L

Bt~ar.a, 'tOOAcXXr.o't'ov "t6'IJ xa.r.p6 1tOU "ijlJ.ouv e:yw a-r6 ruv-vaoto (cpavtasOllaL o'n 'to: 1tpaylla't£x atv exouv XCXL 1tOAU aAAr.il;el.). e:6:v 'to; E.Ae:ye: am&. xavets a' E.v(X-v "t'eAEtoCPOt'to ~ ae Eva a~x(X1tEvtciXPOVO 1tCXta" 66. 'tau ix1t'c(''V''t'ouO'€ ~t &1top[a: «MrX xaA6:., XL alrta 1tOU m€ eaele; 'tt el\JctL; 8.ev (3y(.dVQUV a1t~ 't6 aGUvELBYl't6 a(X~; At-v s:l\lotL xcd30ptO'!leva XOtv(J)v~xa; l1s.v e,IvaL gp(lllve:~ec:; ;). t'Pua~Kai cx.Un1 ~ avct£pe.o"l) OAW\I ctl)"tWV 't'w ...... fl€yw..o<put7.w xfX't(Xaxs;:ua0!la'[W\} ~'ta\le ~al1 Y"w~ e(5w ~ ~v ~e~v(X, 1tept 'to 450 rr .X_

~AM "to oOa~tXa't'Lx6 np6J3A"Il(.La ~dv(Xt aAAou xrx( 'to ao~(Xp6 ~t llACl aU't(x 'ta cppotrtn Elvar. o"tt 8Yll.uoupyTjoav fva. 'tepaa-t'Lo )(.011- CPOU~tO y6pw- (t1t~ 'to npay[.L(xttXQ 1tp6~A"'Hla. To npay[J.Ct:"t'tx6 1tp6- ~Ay}Il(l elvtxL "to b.xoAou90: Be8o(.LEvOO D·n elva.r. b.A'Jlee~, xed 1tpay~a"tL aAl]e€U€L~ ern ~v xapBui x6:6e irnOXEtl-ut'VOu irrtapx.e:t Eva aou ..... e(B7]'t"o ~ 1tOO a~vel O"XE.B6v 1t<xvr(l "t"cX x£vrrtpa 'twv 7tpat;Ewv 'tou xcd q>ua~xa xa£ 'tWV xp(ae:w\I 'tau· BEl)0tJ.E.VOU o'tt c:1'VClt CxA"I)6tr;, xed 7tptXy(.L(x""t~ cXA'Y]6euE:L ~ 5'tt x(l('Vet~ at" [.L1tOpe:t va m]a~~et nuv{i) a7t6 TJl'" !1tox/i 'tou ~ (yn Kave:.£; Bt'V 111tOPc:i: 'Va a1to01t<xoBet anD 'ti]v XOt"wv[a: (L€oa OTYJ\I into(cx ye:'Vvqfh]xe:· Be:Bo!J.EVOU o't~ elvcxr. exA'"IJOte;, xat B"n w.."f)BEUe:.~ Ct1tOAlYtWt;<t OTt x<i6e: Cr:n6<pClVCTJ] rtx_e:t E:vex &v£;akt1ITo a't"O~xe:tO l:PI-lYlVE£c(~ 1tOU avtcx1toxp(V&"tCXt CJ~ otO"IJ, one; a:tc6G>e:~r;, Q'tCt oul-lt.ptpov-ra 'tOO eptJ.y}vE.uTq - Be5011evwv (jAwv

. aU"thlV ~ 1tW~ yt'Je'!(X~ va et[.LcxO'-re bcavor. \la ox~1t"t'611C((J'tE ~ 7tW~ ElvaL lJiuv(X'tov vo: qOUIlE: ll'Y1l.HOOmaer. a~ -n]v alrtoo't'OXC(crtr.xYl Bpa.O't'y}pr.O-tl1"t(x, aUfl1te:p~Aat-t~c(\lOll~v11~ xai Tile; (5p(Xcrt'"I1p~61:"1]'tCX'; 1tOO "a.; 6Btrr-qoe: a'de; 1tcxpan6.vw aA~eE.te<;; ~Exe~ elvat 't6 sif't71lla. 611AtxCSiJ ~ {3p~ax6lJ-am€ tJ.1tporn:a anlv lxXDAoU6"1l xpiotll"l1 epw'tl}oTj: nt~S EI\JcxL Buva-r6v Eva ov, noo e:1"cf.L tlJux.~x6 (O"t'DV· 1tuf»1va 'tou) xa£ nor) eIvcn 't'o!lyt'oXp6\}w~ itOlVWv~xo-tmoptx6 ~ 31]AaB-n &!vcu }((nvwv~x01tOt"fJ(lEVO (>1toX£.LllEVO <t 1twt:; e:!va~ (5uvfX't'6v eva "tE.orOLO QV

42

or OMIAIE~ ETHN EAAA.t\A

va yf'VE.~ ~fa au"t'oO''toxCXO't~x~ lntOXE.tll£VLx&t'l't(X ~ 7tOU E\l8ux.cptpE.'teu Y['O: T'ilv tXA:f}8€ux xai. n)v laxU a&'t'wv 7tOll A~L~ xat aXL &7tA&>~ YLcX -n1V cdnaKl1 'touc; t~~Y"IJOl1; Me ID.."Aa AOy~(l: (xlJ't6 nou 1tpircEL va axe:cpaOU~€ e:lvctt o't'[. l;epo'uv.E xaf Btv 111t0poU!lE. va 1tPOO1tOt"'1- 6oul-l€ o'n ~E.xva!J.e: 1 o·n yta. OAe:r; ~oo; 't(C; 1tp&~t; >caf ytfX OA£t; ~.uxt; 'tiC; xp£aE~C; U1teXpx.00VE l5po~ $uX~xo( xcx~ XOLVWVtxo-to"t'opr.xoL uo_ POL, Dxr. aL"des. Kat €1ttO"flC;1 BE-v ~1tOPOUIlE \'& 1tpOO1Ca6-i1aoolJ.€ va ay\iO~O'OU~E: O't'L 1tavro: BE)..oulle: vo; axeqrt'OUlJ.&. va aU~Tl-n1000~€ ~ -...a XP£VOUl-1~ a,yeSrXpTYfia a1tD 'toue; opour;, O'tL lt1tO~A€1tOUllE O'tTrV CtA-r,6€ux ~ on]v tax.v. au'twv nov MilE auxc-ra cX7tD -r6v "t'P01tO 1tOV 'to M~e. a1t9 'tel X(""1T't"Pcx. nov v.&~ 6B-qyouv va 'to 1tOUIlE xat anD "touC; opou~ 'tOU. IIpe1tEt au"c:1twc; va a'Vctyvc.upi.aoOI-l€ o'tt o1tapx.et cu)'t'6 1tOU (l1tOP€t va o"o~aoe:t xct\'ef.:; 1f:(Jctyp.tntxf} tmo</J"Il ~ 1tOU (.uMe& y~a Tfiv tfJuX"1 'I yui n}'V )COt'VWVtcx. ~v to"top£a~ o'tr. lJ1t&PXe:t Kat ~ aUTOOTOxaurl.X" ii1r:ot/J"Il ~ 1tOV 6eAe:t 61tttl(J(5'11t(YtE va ~It~atw- 6eI mt ~1tOpe:P; v6. tp't6tO£~ OE iLLCX lax6 KaL at IJ.f(X aA~a€r.a: }to:£ mt 1tpe:1te:~ X(X'ta. )(a1to~ov 'tp01tO (lUT€e; at Buo aTtoq,€tC; \In OUllqJLALtJlBouv. Kat 1tpE7tE~ \1«. (.L1topeoooJ.L€ va aV't'q . .l.€"tWTttaDUJlE. Eu8tw<; "to yeyov6r; o't'~ 110'V0 Ilto(X 0''t'6 Kot'V(uv~xO-~atop~x6 X(xL 8ux 'tou )(OLVWV~XO-~<TtOp~XOU, (lit CitY]PLY~a. 6ptoL-tlVE~ b,a,,6~'TI't'e:<; ti1c; tPuxtl~, au'tij ~ o:iYtomoXClO'ttX'fl C5tao-w:O'7l xed aO\lE1tC>~, .,., w..."ae:~a~ 111tOpe: t: va y£ ~e L 1tpaYllll't'[.)c'fl. t 0

10. "H xav't~avfj 'to1to6t-r7]G1} el'JfXt «ve:1t(xpx~ r;. "H «lJ1tep~ aa~a:>n1 » (transzendentaJ) qlto1tta, ~ lntATz auhcp~al'] (XvO;!-lE.ua ~v quaestio teal xa:£ rJ""t1}v quaestio iuH's libJ Ctpxet. 8tirn 't6 «U1toxe::(lJ.E.vo» nov v.ar; £"Vataq>Epe~ a€v e.lva:~ 'to «u1tc:p~a(1tax6» aAAtl 1'0 1rpaYflC!'rtxO U1tOKd.~tVO. 1J1t(.)C; dvat yvwcn6 ~ 0 Kavr Cxllqn-rtxAlX.v-reu£'t(Xt 1tO:vw a' CtLrt-6 1'0 etv.a. MtMe:L au"'J&)({;)r; y~a «e !lfx.~ 'tou t; a ..... epW1tOU~» xaf ytri "tit «t\lBuupE.povta 'tou vo U uac;» - xa-raaxe:urii;,et e'Yct «(u1tep~aaLa.x6 u1toxdlle:VO» yta -r6 6rcoEo 1tO'TE: BEV 9fpOUIJ..E. av IXvno"!'O~xet e-eov 'tp01tO IJ.t mv 01to"io 1tp<Xy~aTt Ael."t'ouPYOUtLE Tl amv 'l'P01t'O IJ-E. -rov 6noio 66. G:1tP€.7tE: va Al;:tTOUPYOU~ .. u:;. ~H «u1tep~acrta.~» a1trXVtl'lO'Y] BEV llW:; Met ,tbtmrx rJXtl'~x6 tJ.t 't6 OvtOAOY~xo status 'tOU U1tOKE~(levou TIj~ yvWm']C;. BA. "ta xE(llevt:X IJ.OU: </H OV't'OAOr~Xl1 J3,aptYr"ll"tO:. Tij~ !(TIOPW:C; -rile; t1t~(n:iU1Y]~» (XcJPOl -roo riv(JptJnou) xo:( -ro ITpw"t'o Mepoc;. «'Fum», ara LTavpotp6!J.~a 1'ou Aa{3up(v(}ou xcd 't'a (Suo ot'CC; Ex36a.s:&c; ~rq.tAoV. xaew~ xa! "t'6 KEqlaACXtO VI TIle; c])alJTaO',ax~q 8ia{1!G7}r; Tilq xowwlJ{at;.

(3

M' aAAa. A6yto:, yta va l-L1topeaoulJ.E va t~axoAouBoU(l~ va aKE- 1t"'C'6(J.cxat'e:, npeneL va l-l1topeooufJ.:E: va O'xerp6ou(lE nl BU\l(X't'&t~'t(X xed -djv 7tpaylla"t~x6t"Jta t'V6~ yCilLou ixvatJ.&ao: O'"t'O jus Ked G"t'o factum, It,,6:v.eaa a~ edJ't6 1tOU elvar. ol e€Wp'iJa.e:L~ lax6o~ xa( a' a&t6 1tot> elvaL ol 6e:wP11CJet; 1tpaylJ.octtKii~ E:.~aPn1oew.;. "Eav at" IJ..1tOpOU~E. va xavou(.l€ a~'J ~ aUvBe:Ol'}, BAa '!' aAAa e:!\lClt flti'tcua.. AU-nl "i] aUv(5e:.071 8t'J eyr.vE 1tO'tE o'tYJ'V tU'top£o: 'rii<; qnJ..oaorplat;, 1tapa {-L6\1o itt I).op<pe<) 6EO hoyt XE.C; (XtyxeA x(d M ap~, 7t .. X.)· E'Jtx &7t6 'to. xUpr.a xaa~XOV'T&. tJ.a.s o1n.u~pa. ~!V(xL va T1J-V e1t['",[E:AE:-

ooulJ.e.

8€pou~.ut o-n CXUnl ~ mtetJn1, YJ au-roa\'axAaO't'~Kll i1 ctlrroG't'OXa- crt't>n1, 07t(U~ Ka( ~ 8"1) Ilo xpct"t'ta , atv u'1tYlP'Xe a\lEXae€~. ~ ve:(5ue." ~ Cxvcx(5UE"tCtt, (5l)~~oupyer;m:~ a.1t6 't"IJ'V tl.VapW1tLV"I] BpaO'tY)(Jtat"fJ'M at I-lUx OPLOllE:V'1) a'ttylJ.~ ~ r:1' EV(XV 6pr.u~€vO 't'61to. tlJuO'txa lJ.e"t'a an' cx.&t6 ~ y(vemL (5uvaflEt Et.ptxTIl y~a oAa 'tit rl.VepW1tLVa Dv"ta. 1:u'Ve1tw~ ~ 7tpt1te:~ \1& (x'VayvwpfooulJ.£ G-nl'V ra~a -n1 axttJJT~ tlta. av6pw- 1tt"'1 871(.J.toupy(o: xcxL 1tEpa cnt' (XlrrO ~ \J' lxvayvwp(aoul1~ 'to yeya\i6C; mt ij av6pw1tr.v1) ~IO'"t'opLa. .e:lvat 8l']tJ.toupyflX: 87JlAtoupyla 01)[.lcxor.w\.!. 81Jl1~oopyla 6eollw\I nou E:vO'apx6lvQu'J tXl)"rec; 'tLc; a~Ila.aLEC;, all~~oupy£a anD n1v 1tpw't"t] UA1) Ti]c; ~~~ XOLVWVLXWV a.1:"6- ll(a)v ~ xed eXx6l-u:x 5"fll.1toupy&a au"oj.:; 'rile; a&'t'oO't0XCUTttKYit; l)1tO)(EL(.LEvr.xml1"'tru;. 1)mv "to1to6€'t"fl 60ulle an1 ax01tLa ~~ 1t cxpaBoO"y)c; wi) 1tpo'tcXWcx'to~ ~~ a&to"o~.d.ac; oTI,'V 61tOLO: aVl1}(oull€~ "t'D1:E ~1topOUlle "ti x(X1:aAa.[30Ul-LE an OAE:C; oxelS6v 01 KO~'Jwv(ec; i:8tol.J.taav "t'ov E.alYt6 't'ou.r; aav £tEpOvollEC;. ~E:aa a't6v tyxAtnoI-L6 "rwv 6.e:0llwV Kcxt 't'WV CJ1111(XO'tw".r 'to"t'€ fl1tOpOUIJ.E va )«(X'ta.M~oufle o'n ~ aYJl..loxpa1:ta. xat: i} <ptAOaocp(a el'Va.L l3£Bullec; E:K<ppao~LC; ~La.<; xoiveovoeo - ~<TtO P ~ X1] t; piJ;'"I)<; • 7tOU BY) [J. t 0 upyEt -r6 1tp&rctYl-LCl 'rile; xo r. vw\'uc~C;; xo:.( Ct-rOllr.xi]C; a&toVO(lLa;,. )Cat BTL 'to ~6"t1(la Gto'tou TOU rrpo'taY(la't'oc; e:lva.t ~ &.1t6pp~lJ>1l "Cou EyxA.e:LO'~OU xed ~ t.yxa.6tBpurJ"l ~t(ie; lU.A"1]~ axeO'"1]~ ixva[.1e:aa 0'''t'6 e€.all(~ov xed o-ro ec:allt~6l-Le:.vo crt6 XO~Vu)\nx6 1t&B£o, aVc:Xl-'e:ocx o-n1 pr.~f.X~ cpavmaCcx "rilt:; tfJUXil; xaL o-r6 XOLVWVtX01tOr.Tlt!EVO U7toxe:tI-LEVO o't6 Cl'to(,'ux.o 1te:B£o, xa[ &vCilJ.eaa a"tiJ\I b.i5~a.X.07t'J1 amoO'"toXctOTLKll BpaCTt'1ipt6nyta .rq~

44

or OMIAIE~ I:THN EAAA6.A

ox:e$"f}t; xed O''ta fx.1tO"t&AE.Ollcrt'ct xa( x.cx"t'op6w!-ltx"t'o: o-ra 61toto: t.p-rave~ at. Il(a opta~eV1l O'ttYt-t~.

UAa; ama elva: 1l1n.uoupyte~. 6t'V U1tapxEL xavtvac; -rp61to~ ,,& t5e:fSe:L xave£c; lS't'!. ~ aUIl1tuxvwffi1 l'W'V yaAn~~wv 1j 'to big bang ~ 0 [ CJUvaucurnxic; ((~~6't'l'ft"gc; 'tOU &:V6pClXO~ ~'tav avay)(ai:€~ xed Lxcx'V€; aoV6"i}XEC; yta ~~ Ct~CtaE!.s"t) n;.:; t5ll[.Loxprxdnr; xat Tij~ q:nAoooq>LCX;-. ~ 1t:> nl tua I-lepui. Sava.oalJyou~a.Q'te: o-n1v OV'tOAOYLK~ epw't"f}OYl xcx( on1v OvtOAOY~X~ Wrt:lIlTI'jOY} ~ aTil (3e~(Xt&t.,,'t'a.: ll1taPXEt "t'ou/..axta'tov eVCtr; 'tU1tOC; ov't'o~ 1tOV etv(xt txav6 \la aAAO!'WQE~ 't6v "1'p07tO 'tOU EIvcu 'tou. Kat alrn1 ~ CXmOaAAo(w07) 'tou "tp67toU "tou E!vcu E:v6c:; l)\.I't'0C; tXvip(et auvE:7tt7l<; 0' lXrYt6 rcou 1tpt1te~ \la axEqrt'ou~e yta 'to EIVfXt. 1\7t' -n1v (1/..A"'1 I·U~p~ci, a.un} 1i 87J!-ltoupyta auve1trXYE'tGu TJ1 OrjlltOupylCl eva.:; XOtVWV~KO-t(TtOpLXOU xwpou, xed t~6~ "t'U1tOU u1toxet!-Lltvou ~ 'rile; aO'tO(TtOX('(CttLxijt; lntOXe:l!J.e:.V!.X&t,.'tCU;~ YLa 't6 67tolo epwnULCl 'ti}s rXA1J6e:~ac; exet 't~ee:L xed ex,E.L ~<; EVa. O'"1]IJ,€i:o 5LctuycxaEhd. A&t6 01]llcxlve:~ Ott ~ amoo'toxcuTtLx6nrtex aw1xe:L xaL aUn1 0't"6 1tpC(YflaT~x6. )Cal O"t"L 't6 7tpaYlJ.a't~x6 /11ropef 'VeX a't"l']pC~t -n1v a.uTocnoxaanXOT"l1m. Au-ro 5tv ex€~ xa~ta. oxtm, (lE "to Geschick des Seins, xal -rov 1tpoop~a(J.6Iawpo -rou Elva!.. ~H BYtlLt-

, ... " .._.." f It

oupy~a "to u npol'aYll(X'toc;: T7}t; norovo ~ tac; , "I} o:u'toO'toXCtrrt' L x--q

(5pcHn-qpto't7J""t'a: 'ri1~ axttPTlS~ ~ 1tcu.:q yLa -n1 al1!J.toupy~ (Xu'tO(f"tOxao't~Khlv Be.av.w\', BYlAaa~ 51lt-L0Xpa'tLxwv, efvcxt ixno"t'e:AeOlla'ta xed txBlJAwac~C; 1'00 a"BpW1ttvou 1tOLEr'V/1tpanE~". AU't6 't6 avBpW1UVO 1tO~e:tvl1tp6:ne:Lv ye:VV"11oe: ~v 6:~fwO'"f) y~a "rll'V tU:t1eE~{'.(, xcx't6pB~e va a~a.pp7jSe~ "t'o6~ 'tor:xou~ ""tOU eyXAe:t0I-l0U nov )(6:6e: !pop a B')'}(ltoupyou\J 01 es:a~Ot KCX( ol 1ta.p{'(&t"aae:~~ TJ1~ CPOAY1C;, cx&-t6 't6 1tD~e:Iv/1tpaTIetv a"fl(J.~oupyY}ae 't'L~ &~twae:t~ YL6; Tilv ta6-t"'l'ID~ Tfr 5tXaLoaUVI1. ElvfXt E'V{X flepo-t; anD n'] 5~~ (las xA"I1pOVO~t(x 1tOU (laC; 681]ye:t O-n)'V eAeu6'!P"'l xal 'tamoXpovCl lmoptx"i} lxvayvwp~aYl tile:; laxuot; aol'ou -rou 1tpo't'ay~a-ro~ xat 'rije:; 1tpay[.Lcx·nxo'tY('tcxC; -rile:; !-le:p~xij~ 7tpaY(lrct07tO~l1mlC; "tou we; 'twpa, nov (.tlXl; O<5l{y.e:t va 00- vEx(aou(l€ CXtYtEt:; 'ttC; Cx1t'aL-n1aEtC; )((.(! v& 'tout:; BwO'ou(le TI1 all[.le:p~Vt} 1'0 U r; [.J.op<pil.

8a ij6e:ACX va auvotfJ(ow 'tEAe~U)'VO\rtC(C;, 1tPOOTta:[)Wvtr:xt:; vr.x xapcx-

TO «TEAO::E TH"E ~IAOEOq,IA::E»;

45

K"tl}p(OW ~l e:Aax~OTE:~ AiSe~<; Ctirto 7tOU llOU cpa("e-t'a~ va e:lV(xt ~tJepa 6 lxvot)')'6S xwpoC; 'tOU CPLAoOOt_ptitOU xa[ ''t"OU 1toJ...L't~)(OU

~.

epyoo.

d>~Aoao<ptx6::> exou!JE: va !;avo:eplLllve:uaoulLe: xaL 'Vet ;avaepe:uvfiaoullE: xpt'ttxa OA6xA"1)p1J TI] q>tAoaocptx1] 1tap6.Bool]. ~Ai1tovta~ oTfJv tmopta. tile:; cptAOoocp(a<; ( .. uti oUO'T.C(U'ttX~ (5~acrtnO'Y) "tou 1tPO't <Xy(la--ro c; 'tf] c:; a&tovo~ lac; ~ ~ Ae:1tov-ca~ 't'Clut'OXpovw ~ • ta to: ["tep a (lE"ta -n1'V 1tAa.'tWVtx~ x(X[.L1t-q Ked "dt; QUV€7tetlt<; 't11C; ~ --di Bt(Xpj{~ po1t"lj ~~ <ptAoaorpt:a~ va U1tOKUt.}le:t G'tov E:VlrtLO €'J(Xa~)(6 xr.d E:V<U't'tXQ 1teLpa:.ollO xal a-cilv 'talYtL(tnx~ AOY~K~, X~ E.'tOt va ExcpuJ...~a8eL at. q>tAOooqnK~ e~oAoyia xed va E:V"u.xX6e:i o-r6 t.pavraotaxo TI1S E:"t'E:PO~ vO(ltac;. llVE-net va b.va~woyovilaou1-Le: -n1 cptAoao<p~xil aAAa. xa'Tilv E:7tL<Tt''1l(J.OVtx~ oxttJ.tYl, tpe:u'V(inrro,~ 'tel 'tEpao'tLa xa( (3apuaTJ(lav"t"cx 1tpof3A~fla'to:. rrou arUJ.tOupyoo\J fJ O'7)llep~ vi] xa.wBYJt; xa-rOOn(xGY} "t'wv €1t!.ot'"1]lLwV )(0;( ol E:7tT.rrtwoetC; TII~ OTt] qnAoao<p[a. "pETtet ~(~h(Xt'ttpw~ va U7tO[3aAOU~E: OE 1tpaylJ.(x'TtX~ cp~Aoaoqnx.J1 e:peuva'toue; x(Xt~oupytOuC; xwpooc; 1tOU l-LaC; avo(ye:L 1:000 ~ ~uxavaAua1j 500 x(Xt f} avayvw.pr.o1'J 't'ii~ OV"tOAoy!.X~C; l8tO'tU1'do:C; 'tOU x.OtvwV~XO-L(Tt0PLXOU. va BLo:uyaaoulle -n1 o11ll(t.ma au"'Cou 1tOU xa:t"flyop7J(la"ttxti !lCts B€lXVE~ 6 aVepW7ttVOC; xwpoc;, ()l1Aaa~ 't6 ye:yov6<; o'n 't6 6" elvc((. (51UJ.tOupy(a xo:t o't~ il C5"1J(lLoupyla, we; Ovt'OAoy['X~ llrUHoupy(a, O7ll.UX(\iE:t BpulJ-tJ.r.t'tr.O(lO 'too oV't'oC;. A LO't't ~t~(.ucx elvat fJpo[J.JlCX:t'tO'floC; "tou ovtO~ an U1C!XpxOUV (ivepW1tOL ot onoiot O'xe:- 1t'tOVtf.tt "1'6v xDallO xat O'tt, ate' TJ1V aAA"I) llepta, tntCtpx'E:t Evac:; )(6- a~oc; 1 Iltoo:: 0't6v 01tOto'Y U1tapx'E~ lx1tAW~ Ked lloVOV i} OLW1t'Y] t1 6 66pu(3oc; 't'WV yaAa~tWv. npE.7t£t, 'reAoe;, va Bets,oul-lE m~ ~ aAlJ8tVl1 tptAoaocp£U (5~v i5EollEUEL. MArx E.A.e:OeEpWVe~ n1v 1tOAt'"t~X~ axi$"1), axptf3wc; E7tE.L<5ll el'Vru lxywVCl.~ ~'V(Xv'tiov 1'OU eyxAeLG[.LOu.

llOA!.1:"tXcX ~ 7tPE1tEt aa<pctAWC; va BtauyaaoullE "1'6 1tpmaYI-Lt.x -rij~ cdn:ovo ll(a~, a'"to ~ LXYiC; xat xo ~ veo v r.xi] t;. I:iAAO. xC( ~ va (5etSo U Ile. nooo €1tt"tctK'tLx6 )(,txt XPLO'tllo xapaxn1pa1tcdpvE.t '"to 1tp6-ecxYll(l a&t6 aiJflEpa ~ o'tiJ ln1~€ptvil E:1tOX11 xa[ lJ-E -n1 CJl]tlE:p~vq xr.t.'t'ao"tcxo"fJ ri)s av6pw1tm"1J'tW;. ~01tWC; ~At1te'te:, mav XOt't'oqJ.e: "t'Ct ~{(5ta 7tpcXy~a'ta~ t;"t]flepWV€t xat atv (3pa:BLay;r.. Bpo::a[.(x~e~ floVO yui xeLvouc; nou

46

01 OMIAIE!: :ETHN EAAA.6.A

iupEe~Ka.V Va. f3u6to-rouv an] vuXtCl. ~AAa yui 50ouC; e:lvaL ~wV"tavot ~At.oq veoi; erp ~ ~f.1eprl ecn(v (6 ljAtO~ el'lc(t xcu voupy~o~ xaBe: (lEpa) eHpax.Ae:t'to<;, Diels, 22 ~ B6).

H qrrXANAATEH KAI TO IIPOTArMA TH:E AYTONOMIA1:

OlrteptaamepOl tx1t~ l>aouc; EXOUV ypriq.H~t ytci 'ttr; (JxtaEL~ 'Iii; q..uxaVtXAuo71S Ile: n1V 1tOAt't'~Xl1 0''tri6rp{av" !loV01tAE:UPa.. 7tavw at ll~lJ.ovw{-tE.\le:.:; Bt(X'tU1tula.e:r.c; "tou Cl>p6ov't. 11 7t&.VW (Ita. yparr'ta -rou not> Cx1tO'tEAoO\' 7to:p~xf3&oe:~c; xat E.f.lCPLAOXWp-q(JE;L~ 01:a 7te8(Ot 'ri1c; cpr.i\oaocp£o:~. Li)~ Kat vwvitX~ xed 'riic; tCTtoplas (.duotpopta f.liq aTOY IIoAf.T'0l10. To [..li)J.ov ! . .ua~ aVTa1UiTYJC;~ M6Jua'ijt;). Kat a.rt" au'ta "to: XE(llE~a aoV;;ycx'V. OXlt86v 7teX'VTct. «a1ta~ar.6{5oSa)) ~ «a'V't'~Bpr.x<nr.xa» OUIJ.1tEpaGflCl:to:: axe'tr.xti ~t 'de; aUVE1te:LE~ til.:; q..UX{lVaAUO"f]~ w.e; rcp6C; ,'tix 7tpmaY[.1Cl-ra xOtVWV~xou xed 1tOAt'ttxOu (l€'tr.x~~a:t·ta~ou. at ra~o~ ot ~ux.Ctv(XA.U1:'e~, rrro -ei..axr.o't'o- llt'tpo 1COU EX<ppasouv {.LLa yvw~"t) yr.' tXl.rta 'ta. ~7J't'fJIJ.(x't(l ~ cpa£voV'tlXt vel ixPKOUV't'CXt 0' alrca -e6. «aull1tep6.alla:t'(X»~ lnt01tt'Ct at xat oxvYlpa. XA£'VOUV ~cme;ua~E.va. 't6 etl--lrx. ntpa Ct.1t' «&to. e:h~lXt 1tOAU 7tt6 uo~(Xp6 .. -r6 o·tL XPE~6:crt'"t]xe veX (Juyx(XA.ucp6ouv llltptxa eElleA~wB"1J Kcd ouOUXO't'UflX epwn111ct'tCX, 7tOU !3apa.£\,ouv 7tOAU 1tE:p~aa6't"epo an' "tLC; «YVW-IJ.E:C;» 'tou <llpou'J't. fIota €tV(lt ij olUJ.aoia Til; "{l;Lac; TIl~ tfJuXClvCtAual)~. w~ 6e:wp(at; xat w~ 1tpa;71~; IIot!tt; tdv(X~ 01 auv€- 1tetE~ TIle;, TCOU aacpaAWC; i5tv epEuv~&qKct'J Oi\Et; a.1t~ "to" tllp6uv1"; PH tVuxavaAuO""fJ BE') EXE.f. xa~iCl axtoll t-tE'to E:Ae:u6epc.u,ttx6 XtV'JUJ.ct "t'ii~ ~6a7JC;; PH 1tpocmaee:ta va yivet yvru01:'O "to aau'J€(B'I't'o, Kcd va &AAo!.we~1 'to av6pw7ttvo lntOXSLt-LE:VO, 8EV eXEt Kctl1La. OXeo7J ll€ 1:0 ~~'t1j~a tiit; E:A.e:uespiac; Ka~ liE 'to: tpb:rtiUJ.Ct1'lX 'tile; q>tAOuocp£ac;; "H $uxavaAu011 6ti lJ.1topouae: vo. elxe U1ttiP;Et E~W an' 't~ XO~VCU"LKO-LO'tOptxi~ auVeiiXE~ T1jt; Eupw1t7)~; "R yvwoYl 'too aau\led3frtou Btv ll1topet va. ~iXC; ata6.~~ 'd1tO'tcx ax~'t~)(a (.I.e "t"1]v KOlVWV~X01to(~m'l "tOU &:t"6~ou. X(l£ iipo: (J.e TOUr:; XOtVhlVtKOUr; ee:allo~<;; r~a:d 6 7tprxK"t~K6~ a't6XD~ Tij~ $uxavaAUtTti~ <no CxtOIl~x6 1tE8£o 6& 1tpe- 7te~ va 1J1}i5ev~rxL a&tolJ.6c'twC; mav 1tepvallr:: m6 aUAAoytx6 reeis [0; g{ l-U:XO't€ {rrroxpE.CiJ ~e"o ~ va. (5 let 1t to't'W (JOVIl-E i)-rt 't"tX epwnlV-Cl-

86

01 OMIAIEE ETHN EAAAAA

'ta au'tcl aVCXXLltIOUVtcu O1t'avuJ."t'oc1'tX!O xed 7tO'te lx(Xvo7tonrrtxa..

I:'t"~ aEAUSe:.C; 1tot) lxX.OAoUtlouv auvoq,~w~ Xat (5t€UPUVW, 'ta O"U(lTte:pa.o'(J.Ot't'Ct E'Cxoa~ 1t€V't'e:. XPO\lw\, 8oUAe:ui~.

* '* *

Sa a.px~aw ano Ilia rppaoll 'tOU «DpOU\I't nov TIJ 6ewpw fjcdh& xcd aA7i6~~. ~O «Dp6u\''t' eypexq.e: KanOT€: o'tt ~ tJ.tuxavcXAua~ 1 ~ 1ta~lkxy(!Jytx~ xa:( '1 1tOAt'ttX~ e:lv(lt 'ta ~(o: &(5uv<x-ra £.1tayytAIJ.Oi"tCX. 'H tppaa"'1 (3pLaxe'tcH me) Xe.LllE\lO y~& nlv IIepaT~ xai antpavn'] av&AUaTJ· ~r1rilpxE ~a7} aE I!va 1tpoYlYOUIJ.€VO xei!JEvo "tou <l>p6uV't' , 1tp6AOYO O€ ~tf3A(O CiAAOU ooypacpea. ~O «DpOU\I"t cpctive-raL '16. til 6E:MPEE O"cXv eva E:!a:o<; 1tapai5oo~C(x~~ Excppaaewt;.

npE1tEt va. OYJLJ.E:twBei is-rt 6 ¢p6uV't' (Stv tJ.~AaE~ y&ti $uxo:.vaAuoy] ~ 1t(X~aaywytX~ xat 1tOA~'t~X-q ~ etA)'6. y~a $ux(XvaAum'}. 1tcuBaycuyt)c~ xat xu~tpVY}01J (Regierung). j\AAa ).lOlLG;w o"tt o-n1'U OUOta. ~.u.Aae:t y~6. aireD 1:'0 1tp6~A7111a 1tOU [.lac; evat(xcpipe~ Ked ttta.~. 1\ 'VrxcpEper. IJ.tv 't'a "tPLCX (lu'ta E7tccyyeAl-.ux'ta ~ aA)"Ct at'V Ate r. y ta'd 't'cX e E: W pc: t aB UVtX-m . ~O lSpOt; &BuVC(-roS np€1te: L taw va AllCPSe:. I, VOflL~c.u, xa( XUptoAe:x:nxa xed !-LETa X.6X.KOU aAa'tor:; ~ 5e(5olJ,evou (S'n t'V'tEAet 6 <Dp6uv-r «5'l {lto UPY"llOE -niv rpuxavaAua-q xa£ -n1v aaxouaE auvEXw~.

~AAa \lo~a;w O'tL IJ.1tOpou~e: va axeqnoulle O;7teXvw 0'-01 XPl1CT1J aUTDu 't'OU OPOl): a~uvaTo. ·0 <bp6Uvt Bev A~e:~ O'tL cxlrrn 'ta LpLa !btayYEAtl(X'[a rdv(u -cpolJ.€p& 8uaxoAa~ 01tWC;, n.x., ~ VE:Up0x.e:~pouPY~X-r1, 7} 1& va EIO'o:~ 1tLaV~(f't'ac; xat va Bfve~~ KOv't"oip-ra., ij \1& Elaar. sharpa. xed wi ixve:~&.~e:tc; '[ou~ a"apW1tOU~ 1tavw o-ra 'IpzxAO:ta. ElnE b.Buvo:.'t(X. M ~1tW~ 1-l7t0POUIlE \Ja axeC(Yt"ou~e (j'n el'Y<XL aBuvC(m y~a'tt: EXOU~ va xcicvou'V l-te: ro 1t~6 a(56:llacno anD OM -ra uAtxa ~ "1"0 av6pw1t't vo 5'J ;

ou't€ fXmo vO(l(~w o't't (f1'€X£'tCt~. (5to'[t "t'eA~x&. x(Xt ol O''tpctt"llYO( xcd Ol1tOAL'ttXaV"tlJ(5e:t; Ked ot 1t6p"Ve~ (xoXOAOUV't'CU 1lE: 't6 Ct\J6PW1tL\10 UAtx6, xaf C5ev e& AEyafJ.€ O'tt TO E7!a.yye:A!lO: ""tile; 1t6pv"'1~ Yi 'tOU TtOA.t'tLXOU 11 -rou o-rpa'"C'"I}"'(ou el'VClt &~t)Vct'to. Btf3cucx I-L1tOPOUllE. veX aXE:qnou~e Eva A6yo r~a 'to'V intoto ~ $ux«vaAUC11} en tl7tOPOUO'E

H 'l'TXANAAYEH KAI TO npOTArMA THE A YTONOMIAI:

87

veX xapaxt"l}plae~i aBuvrl't'l ~ 'to. ye:yovoC; o'n 6 axo1t6~ 't"f]~ e:!v(X~ 'J6. MA6..~£t )«lL Oll &1tAWS va lL£'tax~"ptQ"t"ei: 11 ,,& X£t(JLO''te"t -ra av6p6l ~ 1twa QV't(X 51tw~ e:lv<xt.

U!-lW~ 'to: 1tpay~a"ta Bc:v Elvcx~ -roaD EUKOAa. napaBetYllr.t. EVCX~ $uxtCt-rpo<; 6 01totor; axoAou6€t n1 Xe:y61-olE:vY} ~1texa~LOpt(1"ttX~ 6epa1tE(a ~ 6 67to1o~ VOIlL~t o-n ee:pcx1teue~ "'roue; appwcrt'ouC; !lit not'VEe; xed a!l0L~ec;. ~ Eva.:; «1ta~Bt:.(ywy6.:;»'t l57tW~ /) 1tct'[€pa.~ "'tOu 1tpoe3pou EpltlJ.1ttp, y} ol q>UAaKe~ t'V6~ \laStO'-rtXOU 'ij <TtaA~'V&)(OU O'''tpo:to1teBou auyxevtpwae:w~. e:t't€ O''to 1984 'tou "'OPYOUeA 01 1tpax:ropec; -rou Ml'IltM{3 xcx( {) r(5~Ot; 6 '0 'M1tpa~e'V. t'OAOL fXtrto( apou'V yta wx aANX;ouv 't'a avfJpW1tLVa Dv'ta xcx£ aoxvtX 'to. 7tE:"tU-

..

xo..T.VOU\l~

:E' 5AE: C; tttYt€t; 'tU; 1tE P ~ 1t1:"Wae:. ~C; 6 oxorro r; -ri}c; a PO:O''ty}PLO''t''1}1:6.C; 'touc; e:lvcxt Yia.,. 1tA:iip(i)~ xodlop~ov-ivoC; o-n1 O'xt~ 'tOU Bpwv'toC;. :E'ta 1tctpa(5E(Y!-L(X't(x 7tot> (xviq>epa 6 axo1t6~ a.u't'6~ elvat va !;ttpt~waE:i (xn6 111 axitlrrl xed anD n]v tVuxiJ ""tou 1taaxoVt'or; .lX~ 1toi)v.e: ~ xa6e: txvor; [3ouAiJaeUl~ xai H5Lac:; axe:$er.u<;. ~1dO"Y]C; 6 5Phl\l Xp7JOtlL01to~et xo:eOptO"{-LEV(x ~to(X xed u1to't'f8e--taL &t~ aaxeL 1tAllPl1 e:i\e;yxo )C(,d 'tW\, !J.tow'V xed -ri]<; OA1JC; Sto:Btxaatat;. ~'(}'n Il1tOPEt cpuatxa va Ct1tO'tuxeL xa( (rn OAEC; aU"t't~ 01 a.1tO'tuxlJ::c; «5tv et\ia~ )(ae6i\ou 't'uxaIe~. ae:BollE\llJS 'riJr:; <pUOEW<; -rou a.'VapW1t(~ou oV"toC;. al.rt6 £.lvaL 1J.£a. lXAAYJ u1to6e:oy}. T€AOt;. at Ctu-riC; ,odS 1tEPt1t .. ·tl~OeLC;. xed 01 OX07to( xed 'to: (J-eaa U1tO'deE"'t"a~ o"tt ~p(axOvt(xL at (.utiv op60AOYLx~ xat., xa.'ta 'n1 (5~K~ llOO 6poAoy£a, O'U\iOA~O''tLx~-'t'au't'ta't'Lx~ axe- 0Yl. Al1Aali'fJ: BeBo(J.E'VwV "tMV O'uv6"f]xwv xat 'tWV i)pwv, au~7tE:pf.Aall~cx\JotJ.E"YYlC; Kat lJ7tOLCXC; YVWO'1)S 111tOpEt va Exe:L aULD; 1tOV Bpft. aEaO~EVWV 'twv ax01tWV "t'OU, aelSo(J.€vou 'tou '"tt YVWp£C;EL ~ 'VOll£Se:~ O"t'L yvwP~& yto: '"to a.V't'tXE([J.E\l6 'tOU, YLa 't6v o;'VepCV1tO 1tOU Exe~ o'ta XepLa ""tou ~ (5pa. i1 an lt1tp€1C€ 'Va 8pa IJ.€ "t'OV 1tr.O Op6oAoytXa a1tO"tEAEO'lJa't~x6 'tp6no ~

lDuO'txa a&n1 ~ yvwO'~ 1tot) X{J)1al~01tOtE:r-ta~ epyaAe~cuca, xa£ XfJYlat~o1toL.e:i'ta~ tvBe:xo!J.€vwc;: y~a ax01tOU; 7tOV 'to6~ 6e,wpou!-lE: "rpo~&pcX &1ta.vepW1tOu~. tJ.7tOPE~ va. 1tEp~EX.Et, XCXL O1.>xva 7tep~ex.£:t, yvwaY} ~r.dhwv q,OXtXWV lhaB~xaO'~wv - A&t6 1:0 eBt:;t!;e 7t .x. ()

88

or OMIAIEE ETHN EAAAAA

M1tPOU~O M1tE1:'EAXE!-l avaAuovrac; TIJ" l1e:'tCt'Xe:t:P~Ol1 -rwv (XlX~aAC:>rtov O''ttl va~~mtxa o-rpa-r01t.e:8a, 01tOU ~ x6pta lJ.t8o(5o.:; 1r"tav "1] ouv1(n13~ tile; e:b(6v(X~ nov e1xe 6 atx~aAw'to~ y~a "'to-v tau-ro 'too. t'~;- o:u"'COE.tx6vf.XS' "roo cpuACOCtatJ.E.vou t av ll1topCl va -n1V 6vo{.tO:aw E:'tOt. IIp6xe:~-mt yui XCX"tClO''tpocpr, 'twv (Tt'OtXefw\I 1tOU auyxpo-rouv -nlV -rau't&rrrta 'tou. Ked 6 ''''OPYOUeA MAwme .. aElX\l€~ tl-€ nOAu J3aeo~ n}'V t5ta a~oo5~xaoict <Tt6 1984. Twpa av 6eWPl1aOU(.LE -n1~ <PUX(JvliAuoY}, f3Ai:1tou~e o"t't "t'ino"t'(X O:1tO 6Aa alrux Bev taxU€r.. ~O- 1to~a3~1t0"te:. xa~ ,,6. E:lv(Xt ~ iX1tOA"fl;7) 'tWV aUS"1Jn1CJEw\J yv.x 't'ou~ axorroU.C; ~ 't6 't€AO~ ti1~ aVCtAUOews, b aV't"xet!J.e::\}tXO~ axo1t6C; 1tOU 1tpomtlX6el va <p'taae:r. 6 ixV(xA~C; 8tv IJ.1tOpE:'t va 1tpoaa~op!.al'e:E €.l»)(oA.a tL€ xcdlopt01-l.ItvouC; Kcd auyxE:)(ptl-'-evoo~ oPOOt;.

(0 D 'M1tpatev, G-rD 1984 "tOU ""OpyoueA, qna.ve:t mo-v axo1to roo o-rav 6 Ellie, 6 6notoc; elvuL 6 ~p(U(XC; xed 'to fhJv.a 't'~C; lmopta.~, OX~ CX1tAW~ O~OAOYEr OAa oaa ""tou ~ll'touaav va Ol-lOAoY"'10€t. w..,)"l.x 7t(Xpa5txttCl!. lJ.eO'fl TOU (Yt'& 7tpaYll-o:.'t~xa Cxy(X1tDUO'e: 'to" Big Brother. ~H 'tWlJttxfa Ked ~a:amep-r] (f'tr.Yll~ 'tou ~ ~~A(OU t elvcu ~ TE:AElYta(a rppaoYJ (~v onoia ouvfJ6w~ 01 xp~·n)(ol TllV 1tapct~A€1tOUV y~a;t~ ~ii7touV 'to: aAACX) 1 QTCQU 6 tlJ.£G XNx(e:.~ tiV{xXO:AU1t'"tOVl'ac; (Yn aya.- 7ta~t 1"OV Big Brother.

To va x.tXVOf)tlE '"roue:; a\l6pul7tOU~ npa:ytJ.Ct't'[.X<X va ecyt:X1tav.e: ""to'V 'E-raN. v ~ rov Xf't'Aep ~ 01tOLovBij1tO'tE tXAAO\l (EUXOAO il 3uaxOAo elva, (tAA'1 l)'JtoBe:o't]) ~ e:lvat Ilr.a xa"t&rrt-C(O'Yl TOi) u1t"oxeqJ.tvQu TI1'-' orcoLa tJ.1tOpOU~E: \let 1te::pr.ypa$o0lJ.€ xa! va 1tpoaBtop(aou~~: ~Bou b OK07t6~~ Atv 111topou~e va 1tou(J.e: 'd1to'ta "t6 i:t'VO:AOYO y!.ti ~v

tlJuxavO:mo'71.

1J1tW~ ~tpou(J.e, 6 ([lp6uV't E:1ttO'tpe$~ aux'Va OTO ~frtrHla "tou 'tE.A.OU; Kcx.~ 't"W\I QX01tWV 'riis aw:Uu07J~, xcd "too eBwat! (5 !.arpo pec; , )Caf 'touIifX~O"'to\l cpat VOl-L~VLx.a, i5~ct.qJope"t~xE<; Gt1tavnlae.~<; xr.d BtacpopE"t'tlt:D 6~ bp LOIlO u~ .

Sa ara!-lc("tilow ~ux CTtr.Yl-lii aE l-uO:\J &no "dt; ""teAeu'tcxte; tt1tCXvn1- aEt~ tWO ltBwa£ , yta'tf VOlJ.t~w o-n el\lcn i11ttO 1tEP&e:X't't)(~, 1j 1t~6 volltll~ xa( ~ 'lone) E:'Jt'udvBuvYl. E!\Ja~ ~ 1tep(rp7J~y} rppaD"'1l (rd~ Neex; (3uxJ&;eu; €laaywyij~ un]v fjJuxavW.VO'1j: «01tOU ~"t'av AU1"6 ~ 7t(lE-

H qrTXANAAYl:.H KAl TO npOTArMA THE AYTONOMIAl!

89

1tE!. "Eyw ~a yi\lw». "~Exw aU~'1lnlC1eL O:AAoU (mYi cPaVTaataXlj fJiGf1.lGYj -rijr; Kouuuv{aq) C5ta ~axpw\J (X.unlv 'nl C5r.o::'tu1twcr~ ~ xa£ Sa Bwaw taw tJ.OVO 'tcX OU{l1tEpao"{J,(X-ra Tijc; cru~~'t'"'1CfYl~. "}\\I 6eUl¢iaou[.LE:. 01tWC; 5u(TtuxwS ~iiC; 681]YOuv va. EwoilaoullE oi &( .. ufowC; t1to(J.evEC; a~cx'tU7twa~~~ 'tOO «bp6uV"t ~ an ~ ~paaYj alrn1 O'Yl[.LC((vet: "to. A&-t6 1tP€1t€t va xcx:"C'ax:t'l'}8et a1t6 "1"6 'Eyw, 0&\1 va. M(lf: 1tpE:1tE.t 'Va a1to;"I1pave~i xa( E.",aEXolJ.tV(U~ va xtxAAtepYY16€I lhtwC; i} ZOOLvrep-Zse, /) OAA(XVatx6~ x.6A1to~. IIpayl-la"t~, e'Jet ~e.pOC; ~C; D)"A(X'V8£ru; elvat a01:"o<; 6 Cx1tO;7)poq.ttvoS xed KaAA!.e:.PYl1~.utvos )(6}"- 1tO~, Ked. 0' cxtnO xUptoAe.x"'t'~xa a.vaq:u::pe:tr.u 6 «Dp6u\J't· Civawaoull€ u&ta 'to V0l111tx Onl qlp6.oY}. ""to't€ 6p~~oulJ.e: O"'t'ov eau"to lLaC; EVa. (1)(07tO 0 01tOtOC; e:lv(1t xed &BUVClT0C;, BY}Aa(5~ ixvE.1tt'tE.uX"toC;, xa£ "['epa:""twlhl~. ?A5uv(X"t'o;: xa( ave:.1t~'te:.uX'to~ a~6tt Bev lJ,7topeI 'Va u1tapSE.~ a'VepW1t'tVO ov TOU 61to(ou ro aau'Ve£B"1)"t'o EXE.~ xa""tfl.X"tlJBe1 &::t6 "to O"u\lEr.furt6, 'too 01tOLOU 0 t eVDp(l-r1OE~<; E.xou'J 'tEA££WC; t5ta- 7to"'ttaBe:.I xed eAEYXov't(U a1tD 'tt-tOLE~ AOy~xt~ eE:Wp-qaet~, 1tOU Ex€~ CTta.tJ.a~oet va cpcxVto:ar.wve:t Kaf va o~eLpeue"t'cu.

T~p(X"'t'wa"J']~~ tiuyn av U1te:1"te~'to m~ 6a (L7topouacqJ.e:. va ql'raaooIll:: as: auTIJ -n]'V XIX"'t'O:O-r(la7], Ba e:~{xa~£ lxacpaAwc; BOAOQlOv-qaet "'to aTOtXE.rO nor) flat; x.aVE:t rXvflpw1tr.\J(X Qv-rcx xa£ 1tor) liev e1vat ~ cpuar.xa, oore ~ AOr~X~ ou-re xa.£ 1] Aoy~x6"t'"l1"'t'C(, llE "t"IJ a"t"€v~ E.\J\'O~{x 1 Ct.AAa 1} lx~e~€kyX"t'1J xat a'ViliYS[.~l1 auVE:01<; (x'V6:Buo"f] ti]~ &rJ!J.t- oupy~xi]t; pt~tx.iJr; <pav'taotoo; ~ tJ.Eoa at'6'V pou "twv 7tapaCTtaa€wv, '"t"wv edae"1]f1a't'wv xa~ 'tWov E:7t~eU{.Lt(;''V. ('''O''t'av hEW (Xlaa~~a.'t(x t5tv evvow 'to; cdofh1l-J.(x'tcx 1'OU POI1WTOOU, EVVOW ~a affects). Kat 1tPay(la"1"~, fva~ a1t6 't'ou~ axo1touc; 'tftc; aVaA,uae:wt; e:lv{X[. aKp"f3w; veX a:7teAeUe€pwm:~ aowv 't6v napao-ra:nx6 poil a7to n1V fxTIt:l61]o"f] Trlv OTtOtCt: ucp£o'ta:t(lt auv~ac.us ex ~if:pouc; tv6~ 'Eyw nov elvar., XC('tCt xo:.'V6v(X, xa~ xa'ta 1tpw't"l} 1tpoae:yy~aY}, cbcalL1t'tO )CaL,ouar.Cto-rLxti, ){O ~ \1(.)\1 ~x6 Xtx""ta.oxe:uo:alJ.<X.

r~~ o:.&t6 lXAAwO"'tE 1tp&tE.~va x(d 1tpo'te.£vw 1tavra va OU!l7tA'lpwBet ~ cppa07J 'tau <l>p6Uvt !It eva: E:xet nOll S:LI-l(Xt 'Eyw 7tpt1te.~ xed Au'to va CtvaBu8€t. T6 &vnxe:tI-lEvO "TIlt; CtVaAuO'"11C;, 6 oxo1t6~ TflS a~6:Aua"fjC;. Betv elva." va tX1"ordae:~ iJ.r.a tlJux.~}{il am (instance) 1tp6~

90

01 OMIAIEE :tTHN EAAAa.A

iSqJEAO<; lJ.~ar; aAA"'1~. Etv(u va aAAa~~ -n1 ax,t071 lJ.e"ta~6 ar;rxwv + rf.<X. va 'to 1'C~'tUXe:.L np£1tEt v&. tXAAol.w6e'i ououxmtxa I-.tLCt anD atrtec; "t£<; apxec;, 't'6 ~yw ~ 'to oU'VE-t~'t6 «Xv 6i:AE"te:. 'Et5w litv r-tiiC; e:~8~a.cpipe{. ~ Btacpopa Tilt; 7tpw"ty}C; xa.i -riic; Be:ltte:.p1j~ 1:01tuC'ijc; "tou <l>p6u\rr.

nWt; CtAAOu . .l"Vc::'t'o.t a&t6 "to ~Eyw : ~e:XOIl~vO'l 1tpOaaex_6tJ,E'VO ~ avexAa.!J.I3&VO'IJ "reX 1te:pt.~x.6ilev(X ""tou aauvE-tffi1't"ou, rX'J(XX(lAWV'tllS >cal crtoxa~6!l~vo xat (XmotYtOXa~6(J.EVO 1tavw at (Xma, xaf )Ca6~<TtaIJ.EVO txav6 va E:1nM~.e::t IJ.t ax£'ttK"1) a~Gtuye:r.a ava~ea(X m£~ evop .. ~ilOe:LC; xed a'de; ratf:~, y~a vet rX1tocpaa[oe~ 1tOtE~ aCt 7tpoO"1tae~aer.

; ,

va 1tpo:y~ctt01tOt"OE.~ .

Me: aAAa AOyta, 1'6 ~yw 1tPE1tEt wi yiVEt ~t6; alrtoa.vcucAcxO'nK'IJ x.a( fX.l)"toO'toxexanKil U1tOXE.t~e:-VlX&t7)'t'(X, bctXvr1 y!.cX 01'oXao(.t6 xat 8taJ3ouAe:uo"11. 1:0 ax.01tOc; tile; av6.Aua.,.c; cpucHxfi litv E t'VC(t x(Xvev6c; E:Y8ouc; &y~6't1!~. ~'01tWC; el1tE: aAAUlO"t'E 6 Kavt e:vav cd.wva 1tptV anD 't'6v q,p6uV't", KavevCt~ i5tv ervo;~ 7tmE iXyLO;. Al)'tO 1"6 mnJ.E:to. nov' ~ 1top,d va cpa:tVETCU xor vororro t £xet !1e:yaAll O""t}(.Lo::o£a, ytcx't£ Be:fxvE.~ ot:: nOLO ~(Xe~6 1] $uxav~ua,. a~'t"t'tLee"'C'at P"ll't"u ae OAES '·dt; ~8txe~ not> a"t"7jp£~ovtC(L 1ta'Vw On1V xamBtX1l 'tTl~ E7tt6ul-ltac; xai O"u'VeTIw~ nt.Xvw- G""tijv &voxn. "1\ v ~ 1tOpW oxt va aU\Jot1J~a(,) MAti va. 7tapaa~a(U -n}v ~et)(~ 1tOU elvat 'VollLSw it ~auc~ tijc; $UX.a\JeXAuO-q<; .. e a EAeyr:t.: E7t ~eu(lW va oro; oxoroioto 11 va oat:; P ~aaw ~ aAAa 5tv 't6 xavw. I:uyxp~va:u: a&to IJt 'to\} xp~(rnct"Vtx6 )..6yo. 'Ex 'tou xa-ta M cx't6a: tov ~IE(Joi) Euayye:ALOO -ro aVcXyvwa~a: 5,27-28. «lIxouoC(-re o't'~ tQr1t871 'TOL; apxa'o~<;" ou tl0txe:uaet<;. ~Eyw Bt M.yw u(ltV O'tL 1tiX<; J3MTIWV yu'Vo;(xa npoc;; 'to E1ttBullilacu ctu-rl}v l1B71 Ello(xe:.uaev (XU-rfrV E:V 't] l(flpa£~ au-rou).

Owe; e& lJ.7topouae 1to't"e ~ $uxavaAu011 'Va ~xaae:t Ol'~ -r6 8€1le:At(XXQ yEyOvOC; 1ta .... w a-t6 o1toio ~aoa;e: .. raL elvat 'to yeYO\J6<; o"tt apx'(~ou[J.~ '"OJ ~w-t} lJ.cxC; ~At1tOVtoo; J . .u.6. yuvo;(xa 1tp6~ 'to ~bn6u~J':Ylactt a~v ~ e!'te e:tl-l(XG"'te:. (X'V'tpe:.C; e,r"tE. c:t(.lrlITt'E yuvarxe~;

- .-

Ka! ouve:Xa;ou(le:, e:"C'tE. YUVa.IXE~ ,t~(XO'"t£ e:t-re:. liyt'PEt;~ {3AE7tOV'taS

xru Evav (iVtpa 1tPOt; 1:0 I!1tL8u(J..:qacH <XLl'tOV; Kat a'n at'.r'ri~ ~ €7tt6ujlLa atv ~ltopei: TCO'tt va EX't'07ttO't€i:, 07tWC; 'to. lie:tXVDUV 'ret QVEtpa

H 'P'TXANAATl:H RAJ TO IIPQTArMA THE AITONOMJA:E

91

ltv6puj1twv 61tO~(X0"(hl1tott ~AL)cta:C;, xat" ax6~a 1t~6 orULavnx6 ~ O'tL xwP(c; at'YdJ Ti]v E1tLtl0tJ.(a 1tO'tE liE" 6a YLVOtJ.cx.OOOCE av6p(..}1CtVa. QV1:a xext ~ 6& eAEya, at\) 6ti lL7t0POUOClIl€ xav wx E1tt~~aouf.Le: ;

Ai.Ytil TiJv aAAOLIJl(.LEVYJ axto"t} tt"a~e.aC( a'de; ~uxt)d~ cXpxe~ t: "t'iiv o7to(a r.LO~~Qa. I-l1tOP€~ 'Va ~v 1tEptypa$e:t x.CtV~tC; IJ,t 't6v ES"t]~ "tp07to: ~ Cx7tw&t]aYl avt1XaeLrt't'Ct''t(Xt anD TfJv lXVCX:Y\lWpt0"ll 'twv 1tE:P~E:XOllEVWV 'too dauVE.t(5:~'t"ou )(0:( anD nlV Ct'JaxAClO"y), amoa'VtlxAao"1) xaL amoO'tOl(lO"(.Lo 1tlxvw at (Iu'ta 'teX 1teptex6~eva. 'H Ctvaax£O"Yj i) ~ xtrto:vayxa:a-rt>01 {x1to<puyIJ ~ ~ x<X"t'avayxC«Tnxl] 1tpaSl1 t lrnoxwpe:i: xed avo(ye~ 't6v t5p6lJ.o ae Ilta OXe:'ttx&' a~auyaolJ.tvy} (5~cxJ3oukoO'7l. ~H ~lJ.aa(a a~S" 'ril~ aAAayijc; aft" EyXE~'t(l~ cn6 o·n (l€ cdrt6-v "t'ov ""tP01tO tX't01ta;OU~E: 't(~ $ox.txet:; auyxpouae:.t.;. QuaE-is 1tO't'E Ila~ lJ7tEOXt6-q v'n €XOUIJ-E a~xcr.tw!l(.( ~ ex yeve-rijr;, at ll~a tVUXtX~ ~w~ (X'Veu auyxpouo"E:tr.)~. ~H O'YJllctO-[rx 't"fl~ e.yxe:t"r~t crn1v tyx(X B£apoO'l} tJ.di.C; (Xu'toU'toXa<Tt"t x"i]c; xCtt a~a~ouM:vnX"1] ~ lJ1tOX£[.flev~K6Trp:a~~ ~ 01tOLct <5tv exe~ ri\,E:~ tPEO'"t"OAoytX-IJ xa.i xorvwv!.xU 1tPOOCXPllooll E:V'i Il"1)XCLvw1, iiAM a.vnfl E'tWS q£t lxvayvwp(ae:~ xat tku6e:pt::>t1Et -n1 PL~tX"l1 cpaV'taoicx. 1tOU (3p(ax£'tcu c:rt6v 1tUpiJva -ri]<; ~ux71C;. ~7tqlEVW (jon aTIJ cppaC1l} 'too. «Dp6uv't", ctu't6 't6 nepUpyu.Lo werden 1tpt1tEt va. 1lE.'tacppCXC7-reL «yfv0tJ.ctt» t 01tOU ~'ta.v A&t6 1tpt1t¢~ 'Ey~ va y(vw, ~ va y(VOl-lo..L"I 8t6'tt t:X.trtTj ~ U1tOxe:!.~£.vtXO't"Y(t"fX TIOe) 1tpomtaf)w Vcl1tepr.ypatfJ<u e:lvtXL lJ.~a 5~a(jtxaa~a xai oX~ !.It<X X(X'taa-ta:OlI OnlV 01to(a rpta"OU~E ~~6. yui 1taVl'CL.

rt~ Clu't6 E:1ttoYlt; 6& ~AEya mt ~7topoul-1e a1tAWC; va 8uxoyaaoutJ.€ 'to\l Gxo7t6 'rii~ a~flAua1jC:; xc.tl axt va "tOl' 0P(oOUllE: auCTt7]pa. A&r6 TIOU ovo(La.~w 1tpatctYlla -rijt; au'tovo(J.((X~, m6 7tE:Bio "tOU rn-°tlt.xoo &\l6pU>1tLVOU oV'tor;, rdvat ~ MAotW01], ~ (lE'tCl(lOpCPWO"Yl 'toG U1tOXE~~tvOU. llE 'tE-tmov 'tpOTtO 1tOO \let !J.1CopEae~ va I-l1tE1 xed va llELvet (.LEo-a at a&TlJv TIJ SLo:8txa.a[a.

~7t6 a.U-n1-n1V il1totVYJ 6 axo1t6~ -ri]~ ~uxavaAuo"1]~ EI\}a~ 6(loou~

(noc;. ltv (l1tOpW va 7tW, ~E '(6 1tp<h'aYlla ~r; cxmovo(Ltcts-. Alrt6~ 6 axo1t6~ <pua~Ka cstv lJ.7topel va. E.1tL'teux6e1. xai olh'e x<iv va 1tA1}OtctO"'tE:t, XW p(~ n1'J tvtp-y€~Cl '[00 avcxAoo ~g'Vou, Bl'}Aa8~ -n1V o:wx-

92

01 OMIAIE~ ETHN EAAA~A

~~"11 t:n'l. -n1V E1t(lVCtA1}4>'Y1 ~ TYj 8tepyao(cx 'twv 1tE:PL€XD ll€VWV --rOll aauvet5~1'ou. ~O o.VGCAoOIJ.e:VOr; S::!Vtn tpOOtKCt 6 xuproo<; apwv ~ta(X oTtj'V tVux.ct'vaAU1'tX~ Bta8Lxaafa.

~u""'E.1tWC; eal) &v 111topoOlJ.e veX [3pOU(l.E: tJ.toa XWptoflev(X (x1t6 'tour:; axo1tous:. Ot at6::cpope:~ oq.tett; 'tOU 7tAatolou xC(t ~S pUe[.l~aYjC; Tij c; a'V(xAU'ttX~<; a ~O:a LXI'XO'(a<; -1'6 V"tt[3 O:\J t ~ 0 t w pe c; X +An . - latv e: I vcu 't"a ~E.aa .or",!':;, e:lya~ at OPOt xa't'U) tX7t6 -roue; 61CO(OU~ tt1tOpel ~ Buxa~XDtaia VO: txtUAtX6e:i:. ~H 'G5~a ~ a~aB~Kaat:a e:tV(XL CtVCXAtrnX1) 8uxatxaO'~a ~6\1o Q-ro ~t-tpo 1tOU €-lvo:~ -r(lu-r0XPO\lCt. xai !-leaO xed oxo- 1t6t;. ILX. ol lli66e:pOL auv€~p(loL 'tou aVctAUOlle:vou C5tv e:.lva~ eva I-lEaO 'til~ 6:~aAua&CUC;. Kaf)w~ ol tAe66EPO~ auvEtp(lOL E:xt"ui\taao\rraL 1 ~a" edno 'to Se'tuAtYllCX excppa~t xed npaYlJtX1'o1tote r n1V avamuaa6(.L&V'rJ bcav6t'Y}'tcx "TOU lxVctAU0IJ..EVOU wi EAeUee:pW(f£~ "t'ov 1tapa(itaa~cxx6 rou poD xal OUVE1tWC;, a~6't'!. CclYta 'tel 1tPayll(X"'tct 1t'Y}Yr.t[vouv aoux(71tao'tcx ll~', veX avrxyv(Up~oe:t xed 'ta ata6~lla't'cX "to u xa.t 't£r:; S:1tt 6 Ul-liEC; 'to U •

Ka~ aUn1 .q f:Aeu6epwG-q 1'00 1tap(Xcrt'o:.O'~Ctxou poi). nou YLVlttCU ~v ~UXfXV(lAU·ttX~ ouve5p£a, t1taYE:t rqv e:tooBo E:1t£ Q'l(7]vY1~~ ~uO'ucci ttl! ~ ooyxe:xpqJ.E.VYj crn}P~S'1) TWV Etp!ly}\Jetwv "tou &vaAuti}. ril~ a1'Oxcxo'tLX~~ BpaCtt"llPtcrt71'tas; 'tou rX'VcxAuoli£vou. ~O a.vaAu6- [J.EVO':; crtOX6;~t·'L(lt, Q""t'OXcX~1'CX~ 1'6", e:ClO"t'O -eoo xa( -nav(U crt6v E:exo't6 1'ou a.vaxAil-tt:u fl.\! lJ.1tO~ va 1thl, €7ttO"t"pape:L 7tcX\Jw <11:'6 UAU'f() xa£ 'to €1tC('VaAaJ1~av€t 'ij 't6 E:TIava8£XE"tn~.

rta aU1:ou; cix.pt~wC; "tou~ A6yoor; ~ tPUXfX'VaAuO'"I1 8ev el"Va~ (J.teX 't€XVtx~ Xd.L}vo!lf~w O't"L s:l\l(u eocpaiq.LEVO va fltA&!J€ yttx $UXava.AU"tLX'rJ 't"exv~;a1. ~H $uxavaAUmJ ei\JG(t ~f(X npaxrtXo-1torrrnx-q Bpcta't"l1p~6'tTrca, orrou xaL 01 (500 OUllIlE1iXOvte.C; €lva~ <5pc:7nrrec;, €(J"t'w xed Q.v 6 ~'JaAu6lJ.e:\Jor; e:lvat {) x6p&o~ C5pwv, (5~6Tt a.u't6~ lxvrxmuoO'Et tJ.E TIlV au"t'E\ltpy~La 'tOl) -n1 C5:ulBLxaafa.

Tytv QVOllaSw 1t"Ot71't"t)(~ yt.a-ri elvat &t([ . .uoUPyoc-;J. To (x1toTekQI-uf "t'Y}~ elva~ ~ ~ 1tpbtEL wi e!vCtt ~ ~ (llnOaAAofwoYJ 1:'OU ava:Auo~EVOU, aYlAaa~, itv ~6(la.m;E: aOr:rt'l}{JO:, ~ rXva(}uO'Yl t,,6~ tXAAOV O'VTOC;. TYtv OVO~HX~W 1t~K'ttX~, y~a"t& ovolla~(r) 1tpaS71 e'V yEve~ Tfj l)uxuyaO'~EVY1 (lpctoT'tjptm'1Tcx ~ 1:6 O:\J't'~)(€(~E'VO 'riic; 67tola.~ elvct~ il uv8pw-

H '¥l'XANAAfl:H KAI TO IIPOT ArMA THE AITONOMIA::E

93

1t'tv'l ffll'to'Vollta xed y~6; -nl\i 01to(r:x 'to lJ.6vo lJtoo y~6; wx rpTaaEL ctin:o -r6 a\l't~xE:flJ.evo el'Jc(L 1] ~Ct5ta of] au-rovOllta xa6wr; EX'tuAfaae:'tat.

* * *

1\7tO al)"nl Tilv li1toqr~ <t YLeX v~ nE:pciGoutJ.E 'twpa at Eva Beu"tE(Jo CTYJJle:~o, -ra. 1tptiytltX"ta: el\la!. rXpX£1'a avaAoya aTljv 1tcu(5ctywytX~. 'H 1t(UBaywYlx.q lxrxi~e:t. ~v iJA~X£CX IlYli5tV. K(X~ xCt.v~£t; Btv !;tPE:~ '1t6-re 'tEAE.tWve:~. 'Eyw VO~t~W o'tt el;axoAou6hl xr.l( 1tcu~aywyou[.L(xL~ XClTrX XcX1tOto\, "'tP01tO, xrx( lx1t6 't'6v e:ctu't6 !-LOO xa( lx1C6 'tour; aAAOU<;. 0:0 oxo-rco C; 't'i}<; 1tat8aywytx"1lC;. Il~Mw q>uar.xa de iure, 5e:o'V'toAoytXa, e:lvcu va f3o"t]e~ae:t (.(u'to "t6 \lEOyEW'1]"tO Eue:ian xa.t "tE.pcrt'wi5e:t; DV, "['6 hopeful xcx( dreadful monster, 'Ja Y(V€t. E\Jtt aV6pW1tL-

~~

vo ov.

A&t6~ €lv(X~ 6 oxonoc; ri]~ 1tctt(5E.Las: va 1-l£'ta~op<pwa£L. va aAAOl(~aE:L ttlYn1V 'TI1 (5Ea~'1 "Cwv E:VoptJ.'11aEW\I xa( o:u-n1 -n1V Ct.X(J.A('Vhl'tl'J q>txVWO'L«X, yt a \){x y( ve: ~ eva.; iiv6p WTC0t; (J.e n)v 1tA YJP'l ev'Vo ux 1'00 opou. 'Av6pli)1to~, opo; 7tOV --r6", X,"tY10t~01tOtW ei5w oxt ~E nl ~~OAoYlXi] "TOU ol'Ultxoia aAAa IJ-E nl o1}~ao£a e.\lOs o:&to'Vol-lou 5vto~, IJ,t -d]v e:vvota "t'ijc; Ctl)'tovollta.:_; 1tOU lBwoa 1t~6 navw ~ xcx( Sa IJ.7tOpouooqJ.E- vit 1tOUlle: ~ yta va 6ulL1]6oUll-E Ked 'tov APtO"t'O"tE.A'1, E:\'6t; OvtO; tlt n]v txctvmYJ't'(x va. XU~E.p\la. xed ~& xu~e:pva'ta~. ~ If: x&6e mLY(l~ ~ 1tat5aywytx"1) 7tpt1tE~ va ava1t'tUr;e~ TJ1V amevtpye:lCt 'tOU- U7tOKE~~E.VOU ~ XPYlGtl101tor.wvroo; a~ -n;v tBta ni'" ctu'tevtpyg!.a,. A&to e:!va~ OAO 1'6 1tp6~AYl~UX Tijc; 7tC(t(SaywY~id]~. '"0 exo- 1to<; TIi<; 7tC(tC5aywytxi1~ Btv elvaL ~t~at(l va Bta&;eL lBr.al'tEpa TIPayIJ.Ct"t'ct, tBuxhEpa (la:HfUJ.cx:r(X, MAo. va. a.'VCX1t'tU~e:.f. o't'6 tJ1toxs;(Ile.vo rlJv lx(Xvo'tY(1'ct va Ilaacdv~t, v«X llcx6exl\n!:t veX avo:)(aAt)1t'!e:~~ \'a_ lLa6a(vet va e1tL voel,

d>uatx.6: ~ cdn6 +t 1tatBaywyocil atv {.t1tope:i: va 't6 xci-VE:L xcup£<; va Bt.Base:.t lle:p~xa 1tpayv.ctm, 01tWC; xcd ~ ixVcIAUO"1] Btv· ~1tOp£i: va 1tpOxwPlloet xwp[; ·d~ epllYlVetec; 1:0U eXV(XAuti}. )\AAa (j1tW~ xed cn-iiv a'VaAoQ"I] , -ra 6E:~ .. urt(x ~ Ta CTtOtXeLa. 7tOO yt:\lo"V'tCXt lxVnxe£IJ.EVO

01 OMIAIE:t l:THN EAAA6.A

i5Lliaxijt;9 np€1t€t 1taV'ta \Ja 1:eX 6EUlPOUIlE OCt\} OTtlP(Y~a-ca. 7taVW <11'& 01tO ra 1tpOxwpal.J.E." Ked at\! 1t(>OXtupalle Ot1tAWC; yux va IJ 1tOp~aoo[.lE 'Va a:taci~ou~E. I-l~ ar)~a'V61le:'V7J 1tOamrftC( yvt:loe:wv. aAArX y~6: va IJ.1tOptOOUIJE: va ixvarrrusoutlE 't'U; bcaVQ-tYlU'; -rou 1tatBLOO~ "tou onotouBip'tO'te e:1'Va~ -r6 lxv'nxc:(v.evo T7js; 1t'ataaywy~xijt; Bpo:O'"tYlP,,&t7)Tas; -- ytci I-l ae7j OY} , en ~ 'JO'l OY} , tt.pe: uP£Oll ~

~mpaAMC; i1 1to:t(5aywYLx'fI 1tpe:n-e:t ..... a {)L<16:OXEt npttYIl (l-ra xa(. a7t6 atYn] TIJv a1toq,y) ~ 1tOAAtt; &rcep~oi\ir; Opt0I-lE,\lw'J (lOVl'EPVWV 1tcxr.BcxyevytxWV axo")..f;)v elvar. Xot't'Ot -oj yvhllJ.'t1 !J.OU xcx:tai5tXao't'iE«;. Au6 o:px€S llDU qJcdvovt'(Xt OIlW~ O:1tOAlrrWC; a'Va~cptaf3~"tY}'tEC;. K6:6E: 1tcnf5«ywyucll Bt(xt5txaO'~(X 1t'Or) Bi" a1tOOX01tEt a-nlv xtx-ra 1:0 ~ey~o'tO BU\ltT't'6v a~t.X1t't'uSVl tij~ au-r£'Vtpy~ta:c; "t'WV 1t(uBaywyoulltvwv e:lvcxt xax~· xed xa6e:. nar.(5aywyuco ooonn.!tt nov i5E.V t . .t7tOPEt "a a7tcxvn)oltt fAAoycx ~V E:v(5eXOlLe:.v'l e~T'11O'J1 'twv 1t(lLBaywyouV.E:Vhl'V: y~a"t'( aa E1tP~1te: va r.ux6ai voutJ.e:. au't'6 "to 7tpaytJa;- )(6;6e "tE't'OtO 1tar.Baywytx6 aucrt"tU.u:x Elv(.(~ eAa't't'(r,)~a't'tx6.

at.v (i1topc7l taw 'Va tJ. 7tW o-ro "tepa.m~o 6tllcx 'tW\) O'XEO.e:UlV avo.Ileaa O'nlV $uxavtiAu011 xed -nJv 1ttXtaaywyr.x"1], aAAa 'tooAaxtO''[ov (lLn 1tcxpavo7JoY1 1tpe1tEt va BtO:Au6eL ([>uauux 11 ~uxa"tXAuo'1} Btv lmOern~, C5i'J ~a~e~ 06.'1 &.l;(wlJ.cx ~ a6.v ar'tl1P.Ct~ eva £vBoyevwC; xaA6 (x:Vepu:r7uvo ov. Ou't£ 7t~(TtE.UeL, 01tWt; /) FaLX ~ {) Mapxou~ ~ ll€P~)(O£ raAAO~ laeoA&yo~ ~~ t1t~eUtL(ac;~ O'tL "t6 l!OVO 1tOU 66. elXlXlle: ~a xrX"ou~~ Sa trrtx'V va aqniaOUlJ-E 'tLr; t1t~aU~£eS xal "t(~ t"opl-l"iJae~~ va. txrpp<xO"touv €Aeufhtpa, yr.a va B"f1I.L~oupy1'l6E.r ~ net-

t'

yx6o!J.ux ~ liiux~a. 9.'A V OOp~VCq.LE "t'£~ EvoPfl ~ae: tC; xa£ 'Tfr; E1tLB UIl£Er; ~

oX~ va e:XlP(J(l(J'tOU\I, va 7tpaWQ-ro1Cot'l6ouv tAeUeepa, atv 6a etxa{J£ TrlV 1ta.YK00tLUX Eirtuxta MAn Tl]v 1tayx.oo!-.ua. a<p<xyij. rux TfiY «puxaVCtAU(7), lhtwC; aAAwG'tE. xcd yta 'tOV xowo VOl) xat yux i)i\o uC; "to u ~ 0'1} lJ. cxv"ttXOUC; O"toXao'teC; ~ a.px~oV'tcx.~ ex 1t6 -r6", IINX'tcuVtX xed TOV )\pLO-rO'tEA'1 EW':; ""tov Pouaaw. xcd -r6v N't~vtl£p6. €v(X t"'11AtXtWlJ.evo Q;v6pC.tl1tt'Jo QV ExE~ xa:t9 .xvaYK11v taw"teptl(e:uae~ EV(l" 'tEpao"t'tO apt6110 1t€P~Opt(JtJ.wv nov "tou EXOUV t7t!.~A116Et E: l;w.'t'~p~x&, xed no u OtnateAO uv E: q>e ~'i r:; ((vento a1tcxO'-ro "rll"ij IJ.cx 'rij~ $uxY1C; "tau. l\._n6 -oJ'" tVUXCXVaAtytlx~ axo1tux~ aiYt6 "t'6 E.V1JAtXLWl .. uf\lo

H WTXANAArI:H KAI TO ITPOTArMA THI: ATTONOMIA:E

95

DV €X€L xo.,.' Cxv6:yXY} 1CapCXt'"t'716E.t ano ~v 1ta""toBu~a(JJo:: ~ EXe:.t BExu:i: Ci"C'L ol MH;Et~ -3tv (T1U.r.cdVOU\I aLrt6 noV. eD.e:t \1& O"flt.J.(XLVQUV .. 01tW'i i\ee:.L b X«X1l mu - N'tO:r,.L 1tt'U a-nl~ l\_)"bcY}, tXAACt oY)(Lcd vo uv a&t6 1tOU ~ xow61:'Y}'tCX Cx1tOq>tiOLOE. o"tt CTtlv-a.(vouv ~ Exe:~ avayvwp(aet n]\J ihuxpl;l} aAM...>V a,,6pwn£vwv lhrtwv 'tWV 61totw~ ol e1neUll£E.~ auxva, l11tEphtou 1C&V'tCX~ etV(l~ tXV't'La€"Ce~ tJ.E "tU; BtXEC; 'tou E1tt6u~(e~~ XOt( OU't"lU xaB.e:S¥ic; ~

AUnl ~ $uxcxvw...U'ttx.~ 1t€PLYPacp~ lJ.1'Copet va (l€"t"C«PpctO't'Et xoiV(uV rxo - to'toptxa. ~ va. [3 ps r"'to cXV"tLG't'O t x6 Tl1~ <n6 xo t VWVt xo - to't'O - ptx6 1tE-15fo! li" 1touLJ.E. o't~ cxt.Yr6 't6 8", EXet eoW"t'EpLXEUOet aUvall€~ "to 0'6\10)..0 "tijc; ()'Jtapx.ouaac; 6ea!J.~CiI']C; 't'Yic; KO~ \lWV(OC<; 1 xai el(5tx6-rEpcx 'tic; cpa'vtaa~C()CEC; G1]tJ.a.afc::c; 7tOU ot x6;6€ ta~(.d't'epY} )(otvwv(a opyavwvouv -eov aV6pW7tLVO xat (t"l) Ctv6pw1ttvo XOOflo xal "tou 6(-

<I' ~

vouv Eva voru.ux.

YE'ta~, b.n6 -nl" tfJuxavClAtYtt x~ li7to4nl ~ 1tatBaywytK~ elvat ij eXVCl't'P0qn1 "tOU ve:oytVV"f}"tou, 1tOU 'to cpepvc.t ~v xCl-raa-ra07) ~v 67tOLa 1tEptypa$cxlJ.€, ~E. TIlv EAa.Xt0"t11 auva-dJ lxvao'toA~ "tile; pt~LXllC; 'tou tpa.V't'ama~ xed 't'f: ~tyr.(Tt71 auv~ aV(x7tu~1J 'ri1~ CltYtO(Tt'OX(.uTtt x6t '1] 'tOO; 'tou.

~Ol-l w c; ano TIl\' XOLVWVr.X.O- LmOptx-Q a 1tot!J"I) , a:v 7ta.pOUIJ,E: 't£~ XOLvwv(ec; €'tOt rhtUl'i uneXpx.ou\I, ~ 1taL(jaywy~x~ e&. €TCPE7tE t Ka.£ 1tpt .. ?ter. • O'ltW c; XI'X£ au (J.f3 c<! ve L a-nl" 1tpaylJ.tTtt XOTI'J"t(X. va &'va.6pe$Et -rov 7tad5aywyoo(.L€VO Ile 'rE't'oLOV 'tpOnD wa"t€ va E:O'w'te:p~x€6a€r. xat aoVE1tW; va (5E.X6e:1:, xa.£ [J.cXALO''t'Ct 'Va &1toaex.e~1 ~ 'tOU~ U1ttlPlovtec; 6:e:GllOUC; lhtOLOt xed va. e:lvcu. Elv<XL aacpt«; O"t'L tBicl Ex.ou~e: tp't"aoet at ~ux 1'OUNXXLO"tOV cpat'JotlEv~~ lxvt~vol-lf(X, aAAa xed at ( . .uri ~aa~ci xcd l)uoxOAl1 e:pc.:l't"l1O"'i1. Al)'ro tLaC; qlep'VE~ axpr.t3wc; m6 7tp6- ~AT)(la: 'too 'tp['tou aBuvct-rou E:1tayytA~a:'tOS, Tije; 1tOAt't"Lxi1c;~ Kcxt &t6 1tp6"t"(Xy~a ti}c; amo'VolJ.fru; we; lxvayxao'tLxci xo; vUl'V~x6 xGtt:

OX~ lx1tA&u; tt'tOlltK6 1tp6tay(J.O: .. ITptV va ne:paaOVIJ.E ae amo 't6 U1}[J.£~o .. au ~eeAct va: 0"'1[J.tttwaw xa't~ E:1tt1t'AeOV y~ck -eov cppoUt5tx6 0(10 Tfj<; &auva.{J(ac; ~ aauvfX't6'tY)l'cxC; ~e LO (nto io cxpxLoa ~

U7tW~ J3)J1tou~. c(U-n1 ~ fd)uvC("C'm7J-ra ~ 't6ao TIj; tPuX(Xv6) .. UOll~ oao Ked Tij~ 1tcu(jaywy~X'ijc;, fyxEt""tCU. at6 01'L xal at BUD npe1tet va

96

or OMIArEE ::ETHN EAAAaA

XP""lGtlL01tOT..OUV llux:v r.dnovofl(cx t 1tOV Btv U7t6;px'E~ axo(la, y~a 'Va ~O"l1e~Oou\l Til a'Yl~(,Oopy((x ~~ o:&tovo~.das '"tou a.VtLX€t~tvou. rta n1 OlJvl'JeLCJ(.l.6Jl~ AOYLX--1, n1V 't(ltYtt<TttKYl O'U'VOA~mtX-r1, amo cpa(ve:.'tat arXv I-Utl. Aoyt>n1 aaU"C('t'&t"fl't'a.~ }\AAa cpuatxcX ~ av6pu':rrn'V.,. 1tp ayv.Cl'tf.xc)'t"/ftct l>1CE:pJ3 cltvet ~\I 'trxlYtUTttX~ Kat au~OAtcrttXi] AD-

~

ytXl1.

'H &6uvtl."TD-t'Y}"ta t!lc.pa"(~"'t'a.t E:1tto7)S, 'touAaXtO'to'V E'tO'~ cpa(ve:"taL, da~Ka on1V 1tepht1;waY) 'tile; 1tcxtlkxy(.)ytx¥jC;. llE "to yeyov6t; o'tt 1j 1tpoCJ1tCt6Eta va B'tJt-LLOUmOOU(lE: fXmovolla li"totJ.(X y£\i£'t(X~ lJ,tocx o'to 1tAo:.tatO lJ.Lac; tte:p6vo~1JC; xor.VW\I(ru;, xaL 1ttpo: ano cdna .. taws 7tOAU Pt~t)(&tEpa t IJ.t ~'V rcpoCJ1ta6e:t(x va qnaaou~E an1'V aVt01JOll(a Evil ~ ~ napa "t'6 O't'L, a'TCoppot'poUlL€ Ked €aw"'t'e:ptx€UOUlLe ae~o~tvoor; ee:alJ.ou~.

~H AUOy}. ~ 'tOUAtXXtO'tOV f} 1Cpocnt(x6e~Cl TqC; AU07J~ amou 'tou 'tpOIJ.e:pou cdv(YI-l0:toc_;, Elvat ~ nAiov b.8uv{X't7] aOUA£~6:, 'to 1tA€OV b.s,uva-m xcx6i}xov, fl1tOPW \Ja 1tW, 'til ~ '1tOAt't &xiic;· (~ua~xa t-tE 'nl Mt;"sl 1tOAt'ttX"'ll a£~ E.VVOW edna 'teX {)1tota at(.(~aC;oul-le o'tU; e:<prU..Le:p£B£t; x&.6e (lEpa, !8£w.; cx&t6v "tDv xc(f.p6). T6ao 1tEptOoo'tepo b;iiu'VaTIJ, 1tOU xa£ ~ t(}[.(l. ~ 7tOAL'tt)(~ ~ t.pua~xa. Ttpe1te:.r. va CTty}ptXte:I OE ~(a v.~ &rt&pxouoa ixx6t-t1l (lU'tO'VOIl(a 'tW\I av6pc.:l1tW\I w~ xo ~VCtl'V LX(;}V Cfl'0llCiJ V" 1tpoxe: qJ.E vo u va 57] ll-!.O UPY'l ae: t onlV cxum vo (J.£cx +

* * *

~H tVUXrxvaAod~ axo1tc:ue~ va ~o"t}ar,(Ji.~ 't6 il-tolJ.O va Y(VEt a&-tovn ~O, t5YjAC(B-IJ ~ 01tw<; e:htcx~ tXf.X\J6 y~a alrtorrtoxaa'r[')c~ apa<n1]p~6'[*1J 'tC( xat Br.a{30uAEU01). 1\ no ab-n1 TJiv a.1\PtP"Il ~ 1] ~uxaV&AuCil1 avfixc ,. 1tA€OV 1tA-qPWt; O"t'D 't'Epao"t'[.O XOtVWv~xo~~a"t'op~x6 pEu(la xat o.:yr;) va yta n]v atYto\lo~d(X, a-r6 tAe.U6ep<UTLxo' 1tp6'tay~.l(x. C1t'6 01((H.U avlptouv !bd01']C; 1} &J{loxpa't'Ux xed ~ ql r. AO 00 rp(a .

A;"M, 01t(U~ ~{5Y1 e:X7tcqUt xcd ll1tcxiBa.yw.yr.x-q xed ~ ~ux(XvaAI J(Hj. ano ~v aPXt] ~p(axoV't'a~ Gt.v'tt~e'tW1tE<; ~t 1'6 np6J3A"I}(la 'tr.~\J lntapx6'V'twv 6e: 0liWV ~C; )(0 t vwv£ac; . ETftv 1tc(.LBaywyr.xil. tl j"J l t • cpcdve"'Ccxt li!l€O'ct xed <xv-to-we;. r~a ~v $ux(XvaAUOl'] aUn1 Tj 01 nn f

H Wl'XANAAY::EH KAI TO ilPOTArMA TH:I: A YTONOMIAE

97

VLYJrJY} ~lvc(L 1tL6 XPU~I-.ut'Vll, tawe; YLa-rt BEv (3AEnou(1.€ "'t'cX 1tpaYllct-rGt apxE:-rtl. xa6apa ~ 0:),,),,0: elvaL K(l't' ouoiav ~ au'VaVTfla7J tlE TO 00- yxex.P~lJ.tvo 'Eyw "tOU aVctAUOfl€Vou. dt6't't (;(u't0't6 'Eyw el\l(Xt XCt't'a E"a "tepao't'Lo ~tpo.r;, E:'V(x XOtvwv~x6 xa-moxeuaoflrx.. E!va~ xcer' ~v 7tpoaxeBu:xo!le'Vo y~a va M:L'tOUPYE.1: ~Eaa aE. llr.a (}e(50fl€V7l XOLVW"tK~ pU6[J.t<TI] xed y~a va. Tfr (JUVt"flpei:, va TIl auveX(~t xr.x~ veX -nlV avaTtcxpayet. AY}ACtt5~ va avCntapayEt 1;OUS un:apxoV't'€C; He: ... OlloU~. Au-ro( OL aea~of (lev Quv't"l}pOUV"t'ClL xed CSt" (XWX1totf'6.yov't'cu 't6ao II It &'Vo~ xn1 [3£a xed p1ytO E SClVrxYXfWlLo El<:t6C; lut6 O1t6:v~e:.; 7tEP ~7ITMoe~;· ouvrnpo U\i't(X~ xa£ lxvcutcxpayo'J'tO:;~ (5uyn pue flfsouv xed 1tpo~M1touv xal opyavw\louv TIJ" Eaw'tEptXE:Um1 -rooe; Ct7t6 "t'a a'to(J.a -reX 6not(X ol YBf.ot ol 6EO[J.of xa't'aaxeua~ouv.

Airt6 nov €Aeye: 6 ~ ~(lurv(a"'1~ 6e:'ttxa, LaXU€L xcxf, a:v B€Ae-cE. va &~Loi\orilaE-'te:, ~1ft~Ka. y~a OAe~ "'t'f~ 1t~p~1t't'WO'EtC;: 1t'dA~~ rfv8pa ~,aaoX€t. T6 «a~aaaxe:t» taw il€v G'Y1!!ar:V€L 'tOU ~aea(v€t ypalJ,~crta+ ~H 1t6A['~ <p1:'LeXXVe:t "t'ov avBpa~ xcd nl yovcxbco: <puatxa. T6v ~epW1to.

T( El'Vcx~ amol ol ee:ollo£ xa£ ol XOr.vUlvLxe<; cpavt'C(atotxe~ O"flI .. L<X; E!v(X~ B"fJI,UouPyte:<; 'tOU XO~V(u'V&)(OU q>o:.VtcxO'tC()(Qu .. 'tou 6€0'(ltpr.~txou cpctvtaor.rLxou. Au'TO "to rpavtfX.oLax6 e:!vcu ~ 8lJl.l.tlXCXvO-t7J'tcx TI)<; b.vwvu(l"'~ KOt voTqt'ar; 1 ~'t'Ot 01tUlt; Ottrdj ~(Xt x(X6cxpa 1t ,x. IJ.toa an1 aYjI-L~oupyt:a xat TlJv eSEAtS"t]

y).!tloaas, ~ --rClv ~opq>C>v otxoye:\letaxYl~ ~wil~, 'twv ~eWV1 'twv . Ab-n1 ~ xor.v6't'7J't{( (5€V ~7topEI 1tO't€ va (ntcXp~e:t napa 6l~ . ~AM 01 eEG~O£ 't"flr:;; x&6€ cpop& e:lvcu B[.x~ 't11«; 57J(l!.• tXAAa €1t(o"1]C; x&.ee <papa, 116At~ B-qlltOUPY116ou" ~ 118." n1 ~ -rr;~ aru.uoopy(cxr;. tlJ.cpav(~o\l'ta!. 0'n1v XOLvm"J1"tG<, i1 "h xowo'tOU.C; 1tap~G'ta.V€t a1:'O" eamo TYl~ o6:v 80 O'IJ.E:VOu.:; • LioOlLE.VOUC; 'touC; 1tpoy6vouc;, a1to 't'ouc; ee:OUt;. O:7tO rov 0e6, <x1t6 -n] tpUO'1] , 1'6v ).oyo, a1t6 'toor; v6~ouC; 'rile; lo"t'opfro;, anD ""tic; (5talhK(Xa(e~ o(XO'VO~lLXOU auvaywv[.0llOU,. x.Mt. ~'taL YLVOVt'Clt O'ttPS:Ot, t xed, xeer oua(or;\,. 7tavtOU Xctt navto't'£ ax.EB6v~ avnxe,(Nx"tpe£I'l.~. Ka( lleo(X. at o:.&tOUC; -roue; ee:a~ou<; {l1tapx'E.~ naV"tct

.. XEvtPLx6 laxup6 Kat: a1t<Yt'e:.AEo(lunx6 a .. rot XC: to, C(u"t'oB La~WVt-

98

or OMIAIE~ ~THN EAAA6A

011~ ~ i1 E1tavtXA'1~YJ~ 51tws ea htyall£ ~v tPuxawXAUOl1. tl>uatxa 't'O x6ptO OPYflVD aut'ij~ 'tile; liLct;r.C:rvr.ol1<; elven (xlrnx 'ta tBr.a ""ta XOtvltlVtx.a 8ta~optpw~tva xaf au ll~Oprpw!Le:\la U1tOX£t!lE.vex.

Au.q ~v XOt'VU)v~)(~ )((x'tao-raO'"'l -o1V 6vo(.L6.~(U he:pov0lJ.Y1. (0 E:1:e:.poc; taw, 6 fiAAo~, au-r6c; 1tor) eBwoc: 'to" 'V6110~ Btv €rva:~ na.pa ~ t8~a ~ 8e:.0'tJ.(~ooaa iCOt\lWVttX ~ YJ 01to(a yux ~a6l)"t'(J[TOOC; A6you~ 1tpE1tEr. va cruyxaM~~L (XtYt6 ""to YEyovo<;. Kat 6vo( .. uxsw alrco'Vo(J.Y} !-It<X Xotvwv(a ~ 61to~ OXt !lOVO l;tPEt plI'teX o-rr. ~ ra~a. B'1I,Uoupyl'lOE 'tou<; Be:alLouc:; 't'YJ~, aAAa exer. eeo(l£aeL 't'6v ltau't'6 "t7)r; xa:t'a "'C't'to~ov -rp67CO waTe va tku8£pwOE:L 't'6 pt~Lx6 TI1~ cpav'tcxot(Xx6, xa~ va. e:lvoo. lxctVlJ va &Uolt:lac:~ 'tou; eeo(.tou~ TI1~ ~ {.J.€ ~La. Bp<Xa-tYJP&m7J"t(X auAAoy~)(.~ (ll)"tOctV(xxAaO't'LX-q ~ au"'CoO"toX(XO'tt)(~ ~ xat ata~ou-

Ae:1Yt't xil.

DvofJ.tXZ;w 7tOA~"t'~lOJ Til B~(l.uy(XOtJ.ev"t1 ap(Xm71p~m7J1:'a, not} E:x.e:~ a6.v o.Vttxe:tlJ.e:vo nl e~0l-u011 ~diC; aU1:'OVOllll'; xot\'wvfoo; xed 'ttC; aTCoc.paoe~~ 1tOU acpopouv 1'eX aUAAoytKa E:.YXE~Pl1~(Xta ~La~ 'tl'tor.a.~ )(ot'Jwvfoo;. El\Ja~ all~aws: 1tpocpavt~ o'on ain6 ,;6 npO'tctytJ.!X yui &tux:v a&-t6vo[.L"tl XOtVW\ltct XaVEt x6:6c: VO'lIJ(X., yfv&'t'a~ a-ro1to, Civ Bt\' e:lv(Xt 'to:u'toXp6vw~ 1tp6t'cxytlcx 1tOO a1tOOX01tEt cn6 veX BllllLoumat L ('(l)"'tDVO 1Ja. <X't'o lJ.Ct. Ked ltVT~O'tP6fp w.; .

11t6.pxe:~ 'Vo(J.~w ~ ll~a apxE't'a a~aq>w"'t'tO't'tX~ (XvClAoyin lle xavlva "tp67tO, cpualxa., 'tfllnO't"f(t'<X om€. Kav aO(l~Kl1 oltOAoy£a, ixvatleaa; uta. ~"l1~(J..fX·t(X xa( o'ta xa~xoV'tCl1tOU aVtt!J.e't'w1t£~et "to 1tp6'taylJ.a "t'YjS al.rtovo(l(a~ 01'0 &'t0l"HXO xa( m6 xot'Vw'Vnco 1te:B£o. L't"t]V 1tE.pbt'tGio"fl Tij~ ttq>Ovo!J.to:~~ i} lix(X!17t"t'll (50lllJ 'toG 6e0lJ.0u xai ij ouyxaAu$~ 't'OU, ~ ooyxaAu£P"f}, 'tOU PL~~XOU XOLVWVtl(OU rpfXV"tCXar.axou, 1tOO €1t~tcld 6 6E.O'lL6C;, avrr.CTto~xOUV ~v aXctllcfJfo: 'tOU xo~"wvtxa xa'ttlC1XEua:ollE.VOU a't6llou x.a[ aTilv tX1tw6"1}017 'twv e.pywv Tile; p~~~x~~ «pctvmaictS ti1~ tVuxtJ~ .

MEaa O'n]v 1tpOO1tt~ia) 'tou 7tpo'tay(J.(X"'toc; 'ri]~ (Xlrrov0l-l£oo;:o npoO1ta6"IJaal-'-E. 'Va 1tpoa3top£aoufl€ -rov exorro 't"ijc; tlJuX(X\laAuo'1C; xai 1.'iic; 1tatBaywy~xil~, w~ ~ 1tpt7Yt'o\J, TIJ'V e:yxa6(BpuCFY} tv6~ aAAOU "tu- 1tOU O'x€aew~ a"Vtlp€o'(I m6 o:.u'tO(Tt'OX(X~6tLEVO U1toxe:(!-lE:\lO, tntoXc:t:~EVO e~ilO'e:w~ xed axE:$Y}~, Xctt: "to aauv~£a"fl'"t'6 "tou. B"I1Aaait TI1

H qrrXANAA l'EH KAI TO rrror ArMA TH~ AITONOMIA::E

99

PLSLX~ "tOU cpavtao(a, xa( ~ Be:6tE.pov, l()((J~~G>C; 't'iJ'V cX1tu'e:u6tpwOl1 -rii~ buxv6nyt'6:~ 'tOU wx 1totel xaf va 7tpc:h'te:.t, B7]AaB~ \la OX·"UJ.a'tt~~ EVa. avor.xr6 1tp6't'ay~a y~& -n1 ~(l)Yt 'tou xat wi BOUAeue:t lJ-€aa. at aUT6 T6 1tp6mytLC(.

Kcx't<X "to" YBLO ~67to (.L1tOpoU~e:. va op£OOUIJ.E "t6v axo7t6 Tii; 7tpay~a'tr.K11,:;, cXA7jet~~ 7tOAt't~XTj~, wt; t '1tp6Yto~, 'tYIV tyxr.d}flJpuOT] t'V6~ iiAAOU "'t'rJ-7tOU axeo£wt; iXvatJ.eaa aTfJ eeall(~ouatx xed ~ 6Eo(ltso(lE.Vl1 xo~vwvla, al1AaB~ lxvCtll-£oa o'tou~ 'J6~ouC; nOLl el\lar. xaSe cpop& BoolJ.tvot xed r:rn1 a'toxo:.at'~x"7l Kat Btaf3oUMO"'tLxiJ Bpam"'1P['01:'ll'ta 'tOU 7tOAL't'LXOU OWLJ.Cl'tOC;, xat:,. 3eme:po'V ~ w; -riJv a1tEku6tp walJ Tij~ aOAAoytxft~ B"'n .. UOUpyLX&t'Yl't'~ , 1tOU E7tf. '!pE 1tE: L r:rn1v )(OL vtYt"YJ"ta 'Va O'xYlllC('t'Lm:r. au)..Aoyr.xa 7tp<Ytlcy~ata. yux aUAhOYLx.a e1tr.XE~M~a-m xal va €pyaa"tEt y~" aU'tli.

Ka£ l-L7t0poUIlE: taw va O"tUJ.e:~waoU~E: o'n 6 OUOLo:atLX6C; Bc:ot-L6; O;vt:Xlle:aa ma auo ~pi(J)(e"taL a.xptf3Cl-r; o-rqv 1ttxu'5ayU)r~~, BYlAaaiJ 0T7]\I 7tcu8e:ta, 07tW~ &04'.paAWC; at ixpxaLOt ~AA"I1V£~ 'to ~Sepav A rux'd 7tWC; e&. IlTtOPOUOE va U1tap~t ~ui a&toa-tox(Xanx~ Ko~,,6- 'tYJ'ta XWptC; alYroO'"t'oxaO"'t'~xa a:tolJ.cx; Mta C(u"t'OVOlJ."1l ){O~'VwvUx, 6.lt; xo Lv6nrta nou amoe EOI-l(~'tar. )((1£ alYto )('u~Epv(i't(Xt ~ 7tpoU7t06e"tE t Ttl v a v6.1t"'tU~ 7J -rij r; tx(XvD-t1l'tar; o)w)'V 'tw'V lJeAW'V 'tYl~ va GU!-lI-lE"'tEXOUV mLC; t5paO't'YlPt&t'1l'tE:'; 'tou aUAAOYU{OU o'tOXCWJlou 8~a~ouAeU a11~ xa£ a.nocp(.((Jl'] C;, ~ 1t6 au-ni on1v a1totV7J ~ Bl'} ~OKpc.("tia., (.I.E TIlV 1tA~P'Yl Moul, lL1tOPE:L v& 6ptO't£L w~ -r6 )(cdlE:O't'w~ Tiic; aUAAOYLX~t; a'toxaG"'t'~x6nrtw;. Ked Il1tOPe:~ xave((; va BEit;Et, atv e:lvat "'t6 BElLa ~oo; e:liCl, O't'L OAa. 'ttl. ifAAa. a1topptoov tX1t6 a.O-rt,v. Ked q>uatXel t5l\i ~1tOPE:i: va 01t&p~Et a~lJ.oxpo:'t£a xwp(~ B"tllloxp!X-ruca a"'to(.La,ou'te (J.1tOPOUv va U'Tt'(xp;ouv B"t)(loxpa:nxa li"to~a xwp~C; t5Y1I..L0- xpana. Ked ~a.vae:.px6~Cl(TtE o't6v XUXAo ~~ a.,U .. uoupyioo;.

'E1t£ol}r; e6: I-l1tOpooO'E: va aE(~L )(xw::(~, O:XOllCX 1t~6 }(lXaapa~-dtv f3-cdh.c:X auvaq>Eta &VtXlLeoa. lTtt~ a."tO~~XEC; xat: (Tttc; xo~v~v~xet; Bta(J"taoE.tC; "Co U 1tpo"t'ay(.L(X"'to r; -riit; aowvo I..L(CXC;. f H )(0 ~ V{J)V t X01tOt 11 07) tile; $u:O;t;, xai &xolJ.a KCXt ~ &7tA~ n'lC; i:7t~~(WtTll ~ Tijc; bttf3-aAAoUV va avayvc.uplOEL xat '1& 1tapa8Ex6€L i5'tt ol 1tU(JllVtxtr; nphl'ttxpXpCES' "t"'~ e.1tteUlJ.te~ Btv 111tOpoUV 1tOTt va 1tpaYllc.t'to1tO~"1Jeou". at ttt-

1(J)

OJ OMIAIE:I. I:THN EAAAaA

pOVO(LE.c; XO"VW\J(S:~ xCl-rop6wvoov a&t6 "t6 a7tO't'E.AeO'll(l" nov e:lv(xL [3ctatx.6 yux ~ KOt v(uvl)(o1tofl1lTY] 'rii~ tlJuxjit;, DXL O:7thWC; Ct1tayoprumrra~ 'tU; 1tpa;e: L~, a.""AAft. Cl7ttxyope uovt'a~ 'tU; oxttf1c:tt; ~ is'1AaBij (5EO'~ uov-rac; 'to", 1ta:p(XO"t(Xa~ax6 pou Kat xtl."ta(5t xa~oV"t'oo; at. O'~w~ -01 Pt~tx-q <pcx'V'tCt.ma ~ ~H ouofa T'7i~ t-t&p6vo~:1lC; KO~ \lcuv(ac; at" e:lllCXL mL O:7ta:yope:UOVttXL 011tpo:!;etS a~&n u1tapxou'V xwpo<pUAaXE~ ~ 3lxaO-nlpta ~ q>uA(.U(e~. ~H OUO(CX ltlvcu mt b.1tC(yope:UoV"t'(X~ ot axetlJe:tc; 1tOU aa. !J.1topouaav. va. o~ooo" o'de; 1tpaSEt~ 1:'L.c; 01tOiES r, XOLV6lVUx BEV 1'tCXpouStx,€"tf.Xt..

Kat taw O'otJ.~(X(ve:t -r6 €;T}~ a!;LomU.Le(cu'to: t.pCXLVE"'tCtL 'tel. 1tp6:yllCL""t(X va oUlLf3cdvouv 06:'V iJ xo~vwvta va. bp&.PIlO~ 'tlr; ya~Ec; (l£66- BouC; I-ti b:vdo-rpocpo -rp67tO a.n' a&t6'V 7tOV ecpap~6~et 1:0 tXOUVIt£B"1j"t'o xed i} Ct7tw6"1}<Tf} . .6.lJAa.a~, lTt"i}v 7t(XV't'o(5uvO,lJ£a -rile; axE$,.~. aTljv 1tav'toBuVCLll(ex Tijt; OtOUVEt&qtljt; <JXEtVlJS. ~ £'te:p6vol-l"fl XO~\lWvfa «X1t(XV'"'CaeL 1tpOmta8bl'lnCXC; vo; t.1t~'tUXE:t ~v 7tA~P'l aau'V<X~tCX, T/rJ av&xav6~'tcx a~r; 'rile; aXE~I1C;,. xed "teAtxci '!Yi.; ox€o/Jl<; a1tAhl~. w-t; en'll alml ~ l't}..iJp7]~ atluvClllfa -ri1s t7XetfJTJC; va Yrtc£v 6 {J.6vor; "tp6- no.; YLci va 1teptopuTtOUV ol1tpa~tc;.

A&t6 1t"t]y(dv~t 1tOAU 7t~6 ~axpL(i a7to a&t6 1tOU 6 cDp6u'V"t ovol·ui~€t «auo't'lpO xa( tiyptO 07t€pey&l». ~H to'toptC( iSlttX'JEt o-tt +t a[.(Xa~xaoLa a1thl6"f1CJl1'; xed a1toxAc:~a(lou ~ ?tou x(X.e~(tt'& lx8u\laTIJ yux'to U1toxe:t(.1e:vo xat n1 OXEtP71 xa.v "t'wv a1to:yops:uLJ.EVhlV 7tpay!leX"t'hlV, CJUve7ttl'peps:~ E:'Vot'V axpw"t1'lpLaO'lLo y} evctv euvouXLO'~6 'ri1; p[.~tx1}~ cpavta.a~oo; Til~ q,u~~. Au-r6 ROO OeAoullE: elvcxt (X&t6vo~(X U1tOXEt~e:.J~, 811AaB~ U1tOxE(~E:Va, ti'tOll(X tX(lVtt yui cd.n:-IJ ~v c(lrrOO'tOX(XtTt'LX"I] Bpcxo"t'y}ptmrrra, MAti ext6c; (Xv 1tp6)(e::~"t(U 'Va lt1tOUIl€ at t-tt(x ouvc:xfJ e1t(xveXA1]ttnl ~ --ra 7teptE.x611EVa. xaf "reX lxvnxd~evCt (X~<; ~~ BpO:a-tljptm7J"too;,. xa( fJ a"amu~l1 'tWV l-L80<UV 'ty}<; xed 't'WV (le:6o(}wv "tl1~, atv IJ.1tOpOU\I va lio6ouv napa a7t6 -dJv p ~~t x~ q;»cxvtCtota 'ti1.:; $ uxj1s: .

AuTiJ e:lvr.tL -q 1t"t))"i T1it; oOIlf3oA:r;c; "toG a,;6~ou OTTJv XOLVWVtXO-ta-roptx~ &r}lL~OUPY((x. Ked am6~ e:!vcu 6 i\6yoC; yta 'to", cntoi:o Ilttl 1t(ltao:ywy~x1t 7tOU Bt'V xcx8to-rCt 1:'OU; tX~apW1tOus: &'Va1t7JPou~ ~ l1UX aA7Je~Yl11tr.(t(5e:.i(X, Ex€~ T7jv 1:EpaO'"ttfX O''1IJ.(Xo~ot ~v into(a e:Xe:t.

H lJ"iXANAAIEH KAI TO npOTArMA TH:E AYTONOMIAE

101

* * ..

"E1tcx\'E:px'OIl('.(L O't'O atvtytltx 't'i]c; 1tOAr."tLX~C;. (H CX&t6vOll"f) xor.\lw\l~a 1tpoU1tOatt£.~ xexL auve7taye'Ca~ a.u't6vo~a a'tolla. T6: ii:tOILa. yivo\I"ta~ txu-r6 1tOo. tdv(Xt cX1tOppOCPWV't'oo:; Ka~ e:.ow"tE.ptxe:UOvtoo; "tOUt; ee:a~o6c;. ME llUX EWOttX, 'ttl. a"tolLtx elven ~ auYXEXPLlli'V"fJ tvoapKUlOl1 'twv Be:at.J.wv. Etpou(J.E: o"t~ aUnl ~ eaw"te:.ptK£UOl] el'J,n xaBe aAAo napa ~btttpavELa)(-q. Ol 'tp67to~ axe~Y)<;" at -rp61tot BpaCi1]t;, ol xC(.v6vE-~, ol a~LE:r;~ .q rata iJ 'tCtu't'01:"1)'ta "twv ix-r6tJ.wv auv X.OLVhlVtKWV OvtWV, t5Aa t1;(X{Ytwvtat anD aim] T'lJv to'W"t€p£XEUCTY] ~

~e I-lta he:p6VOIl Yl xor vwv(o;, il eacu'tEpbt€uaY} BAw'V 'tW'V VOIlWV, (lE. Tilv EUPlrrE:p1l !WOttX "tou opou vOlJ.oC;, OAWV "twv e~alJ.(;)v, eo: frrav a.axo1tYl ea'V Btv OUVOBEUOt<X'V ano nlv eat.ytEp(X€UGY] o:&tou 'tou {le'ta. -volloU ~ 'tou U1t£pt'Ot'too VOIJ.OU ~ Bev 66. a[.1'Ptaf3'1l-n1O'E:tt; 1to-rE. '[oue; 'VotJ.ouC;. AiYt6 8t" e:tvat ypa~IlE\lo 1tOU6EVa a.AA6.. O't"qp(~~ oAo 'to o!xoB61171l-la. Twp(X~ at l-LUXV (XlrtOVO!l7J Ko~\.'w\'(a~ {) ll£m-VO[.LOr; Btv 66: fL7topoUac: va €lva~ -r£1to"tct aAAO 1tapa: en U7totxooe:t~ atOU~ VOllouC; fx:A")"6. EXet<; "to iltx(lLWll(X va E7te:pCUniaE~C; 't6 v vO!-lo xed va 'tOV O:lJ.qna~~(J£r.-c;. M7tOpe:.rc; va eye:~peLC; 'to epw- 1:7J~a 'rijc; 8tK(x~oO'u'V'l~ 'tOU \J6~ou ~:> av lLOU £1tL'tpt1tE."t<Xt (l£a: &pxaia AeSl1, Tile; ETnV/oetOTt]'rar; 'too· By}NxBij, av e:.!vC(~ 6 1tPE1tW'V 'V6flo~. 8ev 6& ~1tW crc6 6t(.ux 'twv "tU7ttXLnl Pl'rtpwv 1tOU Il1tOPOUV x,d 1tpe1tEt va ouvoae:oouv (Xu't6v rov (J.e."t'a -vollo .

"'E't'Ot (l7tOPOUllE 'lawe; va 8tCl'tU1tWOOUflf: "t"'IJv Ct1tavT'Iloll m6 CitVLYlJ.tX 1tOU 6EOa~E.. Kat va 3tcx'tu1twcroUll€ xaL "to 1tPw."to lxvnXE:ttJ.t;:\lO I-LLa~ 1tOA~'t'LXYiC; 'tii~ au"tovOIJJa.:;, &J)..cd5iJ ~J.[.a~ i5l1[.1oxprx'ttxYi~ 1tOAl't'LXij;: va. ~o71e7)ee:! ~ xor.v6t1]'t<X y~a. 'Va Bl111tOUmaEL 'tOUt; eEalJ.o6~ 'thlV 01tOLWV +, €aw'teptxe:u~ ano 1:<X a:to~a atv rrsPLOP~L aAAti a~eupuvE~ -n1v buxvo"t1)'t'a -roue; va: y(vouv aiYto\l0l-la.

Elv(X~ cpavE-po, Y16YJ O:7tO aUn1\1 n1 a,L(X"tlrnWC1y} ~ av n1 6ewp-qaoulLE.

Ilcxt£ IJ.t TJ1V aPXiJ ri)<; ta6't"f}'t1l.C; 1tOU t~1te:p~txe-raL mO\l 1tA."'16uvnx6 i5't(XV 1J.~A&Ile. YLt.X a-tOllf.(, O"tL 111topoUI-lE: va cru'VayayoUll€ 'tOU.C; xuptOUC; X(XV6VEt; y~ci lJ.~Ct. 7tA~PW~ (57Jl-loxpa"t~x'l1 etalJ.~O'Yl Tile; XOLVOO-

102

01 OMIAIE::E I:THN EAAA6A

vfoo;. AAM. Btv aU~"Il'taw 1tep~aa6-te:po 't6 et~(X Otm6 ~ BtOt~ BE-v I-la; eupopa al1!J.epo:. M6vo IJ.L6. 1ta.pcro1Py}0l]. E!1ta. O'tL a&t6 e:tva~ -r6 1tpiYro ee:fl((. xcd 't6 1tpW'to avnxe(lJ.evo ti]~ 7tOAr;'tLxfl~, 6'1AaOl1 v6; ~07Je71ee:t ~ xotv6tytt'(l va a7Jfl~DUm(JEL 6€op.ouc; 1:tt-OLOU~ 1tOV, mav 'ttl. a'tolJ,ot "t'o6C; E.oc..,ytE.p[.xe:uouv" 01 t)(av6-t~"t'E~ (Xlrto'J0lJfru;

'11".1 , , ~ "I

't'ou<;, (XV'tt vex O"'t'E:veuou'J t eupuvoY't'l'.Xt. AU't6c; Elvat 6 7tpw'to-t; O:7tO

'toUs ax01toU~. npwm~ YLa::d, Elvcu ~ 1tpotl7t66e011 (JAw'J 'twv aAAcu'V, xa( i5LQ-tL Bu'V6:lte~ 'ta ElL1te:PLtxe.t. «llOGLXa intapxouv K(x( aAAo~ oxorroi xaL aAACX &~'ttxeLlle:va "t'a. o1tota 8EvelvaL BEuTepe:uO\rt(X+ 01tW~ t yta 1tapaa£tYfla, ~ (57JI-LLOUPY£a. £l5txwv 6e:OllWV 1tOU aV'tct1toxpfVOV't'(xL at. (lu't6 1:'6 astfJ)IlCX Kcd 't6 auyxexpLllE.V01tOLOUV llEO(x o't'£~ Bs:8oll€VEC; OUVe~KE:<;~ (bt"wr; e:lvcxL qJuaLxa xa.( fJ alttOKOf3tPV'YjCTll, 07tWC; xed 01 1tprYt6caet; xed ol lx1tocpaaeL~ nov C((POPOUV "'ta OUAAoy~)(&. lpya xaf"'ttl. auAAoy~)(& tYXE~M~a'to:.

rta"'t( T} a.U"t'oVD(.Lta atv E:tvcu au"'toaxo1t6~~ OUTE O''tO lx'tolJ.~x6 OlYrE: tl"t6 )COt\,wvr.xo 1te5io· 11 tJ.O:.AAo\,l Kat elvc(L (XtYroaxO-1t6~ xo:£ rd"a~ )(OCtL A~y6-'CE:PO lut6 a;u"t'oaxo1t6r;~ .a7)Aa&) BeA-DUlLE --o1v amovo[J.(a. yux n1v '(Bta -o1V ctu't'ovo~(a:, etAoulJ1t -niv EAe:u6Ep(o; lho-n etAOUliE -u1v EAeu6ep£o:, eXAM ~ 6eAoull€ €7t£a"1lt; y~&. va. et(.Lcxo'tE SAe:u6e:pot wi 1tOtOuflE xed va 1tpanoofJ.E ~ xat 'VeX 1to~ouv.e xal va 1tp6.noulJ.e auyxltxptlLEva 1tp<iy~(X"t'a.

Kal ot. Bi\e:.C; alrrE~ 't(~ tpyaofe:c;, 'to. xafh2xo'V't(X~ 1tpt1tEt va QUIllle't6;OXE~ IJLcX 7tpay~a:nxiJ, «Kqat'V~ 7tOAL1:tX"ti. ~H 1toAt"l"ucil litv e!vat oU't'~ 9rtlJuXCXVCX~t;"ri]c; xo~vwvfcu;~ OtJ'tE 6 1t(.([.Baywy6.; ttic; XOtvwv(a.~, om-E. ~ auve£81?a'l 't'ijc; )(OLVhlVLtX~~ Elvett IlL& ~aaLxYJ xed OUO'LW&}~ BLaO't'CW'll tile; (Xlrtoa·roxaat"Lx&t7j'to.~ "t''1~ xcd ~r:; ama(X'VaxAfXO"tf. K6t,Y}1'<Xt; 't'l t; .

Ka£ w~ 'tE'tOUX €I'Va[. U1tOXPEW(J.Evq va (Spa nave.> at'eX av(}pw1tf.VCX o'V'tct, ee:wpwV't'(x~ "t'cx 6,)C; amovolJ.(( xa( J30l}8wvrat; 't'tX 'Va qnaaouv 'to: tBtet. O~\I (({navOI.da 'tou~ t xwp£C; 1tm'e wi ~'Ja.e:L o-n ~ 1:eAE.U'tabx 'tOO'Irq 't"iir; la'toptx71~ a'Y}lltOupy(C(~ elv(Xt ~ P['~tX"ij CP<X'V't(Xo£a. tile; &vwvu~l1~ x.o~v&t'1't(Xt;. Mit aUTfJ n1'V ewo~a \,J0llo;oo 111topoUIlE: 'J& xcttaAa~ouJ:Le y~a't£ ~ 1tOAL't~X~ ~rvcu EVa. b.Buv(X'to, ~ fl~ (SuvtX"t'6

H WYXANAAYEH KAJ TO npOTArMA THE AY'TONOMIA:E

103

e1tayy&AI-UX, 01tWC; II tVuXCX\ltXAOO"f), lhtw.:; "it 1t(X~[5aywyu(l1 Kat ~lawc; ax6lJ.Ct 1t~6 aB6vcx""tcx aBuv(x1:o ~ aeBo~tv"1J~ TI)~ cpuoew-c; xed "t(;)V BLCX(l'C'aaE.Wv"tou 6ttlcx"t'6C; '"tlJC;.

* * !Ie

Tektwvw ~ IlEP~XtC; napa't"l}p1]ae:LC; a7tavw O''t'O 7tLO aYnJ.aV't'~K6 Ct1t6 OAct "t'tX epcu-nll-Lcx'tfX 'to 07tOLO e:!V(lt KOt vo xat <Tt""J1v tlJuXa.VaAU- 0Yl xa( aTIJ'" 7tOAL'tLX~ ~

Ot xOt.v{J)\I~XOt eeollo( XUptapxouv 1tavw ma OCr0t-La lx1tAWt; Btan xamaxe:ua1;ouv "ta cx'tOlJ.cx xed 'ttl BLctllOPCP.wvouv. T& xa'tf.WX£UCt", ~ouv xat TrX 8uXIlOPcpwvouv, 1CA"'PW~ G't£; 1tapaaoa~c()c£.c; XOLVWV[ec:; xed 'tt.X xo:'tr.taxe:uasoov xat "to: BLalLoPCPwvouv .. a€ EVO:V 1tOAU 0'lJlJ.(Xvt~xo [3a.6lJ.6 t at'LC; tpLAE:As:u6epe.; KO!.'V(UVt€C; O"'dr; 01tOtES" soulleA ~x6~1) fluX cpapa alYnl s:lv(lt Y} ta(U't'Epb(~uo'1J 't'WV ee:a~&v anD 't6 a't'o~o 1tOU B~apKE.i lJA1] -eou "tiJ £;wl}. A&t6 nov EX€t o'1)(.Laaia at O:lYnl n]\I E:.aw"t£p£j(~UO'l1 e:.lvcu ~ totv't'eptxE:ual'] 'twv O"7]llaoLwv, 'twv KOLVtuV~KWV cpCXvtaaLaxw~ GYltlCXO'LWV ol 61to'tc:<; Evaapxw'VoV't'aL ~E.O'(X at au'touc; 1:ou<; 6e:o(J.ouC;. ~H xOt VWVLCt. ano01tii"t6 CJUYKEX(ltIlE:VO b,vSpc.:l1nvo 0\1 ano 't6 KAEtO'tO aUll1tct'V -riit; Ctpx'LXij<; ~ux~>rii~ lJ.ovaliar;, "to U7t0XP€c,J\I€ L lJ-E IJ. u:X €VVO La 1ta.V'tcx ~ LCXtW<; va. tJ.1tE: i: lJ.toex tTtO\J OXAYlP6 x6a~o Tijr; XOt'Vwv~Ki1c; 7tpaY!J.(x'TLx&t'1J'too;~ B'1Aa(5~ a1tA-We; TflS 7tpaYlJ.cx:tLXm7]'tru;, yta'tt iJ 1tpayv-cx-rtx6nyta E.lva~ 1taV'"t'CX KO~\lW'J~>n1 7tp(ly~a'tt}t6nrta· itA-ha "tou 1t{JoacpepE.t x6:'t"~ oav av'taAAaYllCX •

Au"t6 7tOV 'tou 1tpO(J(pepeL aav O:V'taAAay(la e:lva~, liv Jl1top&t va 1tW; eva ~1le:PLV6 v6"1Jt-tcx~ t5'1}Aa5i] Eva v61}(..lcx 1tOll BEv €t'Ja~ YLO: 'ta iSV£Lp<X, f.VCX v07Jtlcx nov mexE"'t"C(t Ilt 'to cpw<;. ~"t6v 1tpaylla't~x6 x60llO,. "t'E-tOtOV '1tOU KaeE r.popa "to" lhU.l.toupyet ~ xo~vw"fa, "ttJ. 'JtP6:yIl(X't(X exouv 'V6lJlJ.cx~ ol axea€tC; E.XOUV vOYllla ~ ol aAAoL av6pw- 7tOL t iJ 6tCTtJ ~ac; <Tt""J1v xo~vUJv~a, ~ OXeo"f) (LE. 'tou~ aAAoUC; a.v6p6J.- 1tOU; E:x.1t~ V6"'lIJ.Cl. ~H ~w~ ~Xe:L Eva vO'1]l-ux ~ U1to't(ee:'t'ct~ lYtt ax6(la xed 0 6a'Vcx"'t'oc; EXE:L fvct vO'1l11a. ~XE:r.peer't'e okC; 't~C; )COt vwvter; ax_eB6v 1tA~V -djc; O'rUJ.€pL vile;·

T6 v6'ru.LCX e!va~ w.e:; 1tp6.:; 'TO li"tol-lo t 'to. aY'tta·t"O~Xo 'tWV XO~\lW-

J04

01 OMIAIE~ I:THN EAAAAA

VtKWV mUHxOLhlV we; np6c; 't'6 XO[.\lUlVtXO-tO'l'0PUCO. "Ercn y£ve't'a~ 0:1t6 TIlV xo~vwvia (!ta Sinagetnmg, [.ltcX vO~lla'toa6'"t1'JCTYJ .. t] CtXOllfX K{xAU"t'Epcl tl~a Sinnschoptung, ~r.a B"t}~ . .uoupy(tX 'J0lJl-.UX1:WV xai oYlllaOtc71V, 1tOU elv{X[. ""to xa£p~o xa.( 3UaxoAO O')'UleW . .o.t6"tL 1tpocpavw~ fj $UxaVaAUOl1 5tv (5(\leL~ Btv 1tpoorpepe:t xed (lev a~a&aX€t xaveva vo"t]llcx yt& -n1 ~WYr ~1topet (lova va ~olJ6iJaE.t '"t6'V avaAu6~e:vo va ~PEi:, va eq>€UpEt ~ va. i5Yl!J.LOVmm:& 6 "{atO~ eva \,01JI-HX yu~ Tij C;w~ 'tou. Ked aln"6 -r6 v6"fl(la 7tOU Ba ~1tOpE.r b lx'JaAUO!lEVOC; va B~~uoumae~ y~a n1 ~w'" 'tou t anoxAet:e:--rO!t va lL1tOpeO'E&. xctvevcx.c; va 't6 6p~C1e~ tx 'twv 1tpo'"tepw.v )(CX( Ilt xaeOA~KO -rp61to. :EE l .. uav lx1t6 ""tt~ 1ttO a1t(uO't6ao~.; ~~pe<; -eou ~ 0 1tcttptapx'Y]~, EWO~ {) ¢lp6u~"t ~ e:ypa$e o'tt ~ a~w..uc,.,. Btv E1ttr.pepe~ n]v e:ln~ux.(a, aAAO. ~1topgI "to '}toM vei lle:mr.L0pcpwae:L ~ veupw't~)C~ ll~~epr.a at XO~\J&tU1n1 C5ucTtUxta, at 00Vl16tOIlEVy) (5ua-rux(a, at. 'te;-cPt~lltv'1) BUG-CuX(CX. N 0(.1£~w o'n OE au-ro ~mv i)1tEpa1tatu~6ao;o~. ¢1ua~Ka ~ tVUXClVa.AUG"fl aEV 7tPOOtpipe:L nl'V e:.u-rux£a O:AAO: J30Y}6ru:L 't'6v tX'VaAu6(J.E:'VO Qxt t-t6- vo va O:1taAAa.yt.r a7t6 ~ veupu)"nx~ li~stpta, ixXNi wi 5~cxlJop<pwaet 1'6 atXa 'tOU 1tp6-tCXyp.lX yux 't1j ~wiJ "tOU.

~AAcX tXln:6 8tv EsaV't'Aer 'to ~~"'t''1}lla. rurtt auxveX, yui v& !l~\J 7tW 1to/..u GOxva. ~ ixv6.AUUl1 b.1to"tuYXa'Ve~ il y~a'd xaEHmc(l'a~ a'tU£tw"t71-il Ct1tspav't'Y] ; ~vo: (x7tO TO: 'teAEUm:LCX ypctma ""tOU 4>pOU\l1: €hUXL ~ n epaTI] xat thrtpa1)TYl aVaAuO"y], 01tOU 6 Cl>p6u'V't ~bn){(xAe:I't(Xt 1tOAAoU~ A6you~ y~Ct alrtijv n1 axe'tLx~ a7to-ruXta:, xed 'tw ~WV€L EltLGY1lLtdvov't(l~ ctu't6 1tOU 6vol-la~t (3paXD. () 61toi:oC; 1to:paa6~w.; xed a'de; atJo e:xcppaGet<; 1tOU 'tOU ai'V€~ ~ a'VtXyE'ttxL m6 ra~o. 'O ~paX0t; el'V(X~ ~ a7to)(~puSl1 't7js e~AUX&t"'rrw;, G-d! yuva(xa. (J.t n1 ~oprp~ 'tou q>66vou (aY}IlEtWCTYl: fJ-t Tr1v D:pxaia tAAY}VUC~ OYHltxot:a: r;~~ Ae~a. t1tteu~i(l a1t6x:tYlaYJt;) "rnu 1ttouc;, errov av{}prx lout n1 [J.oPCfYr1 Ule; (nt6ppLq,11~ ~C; 1tlX6"t}-rr.xY}C; o-raoy}c; ~ 11 «Br,AuxllC;» mao'1}C; ~ omv -o1V ExBlJAr.lVe:t €va~ aAAOC; ixpO'e'V~)(6s. 'E1t(ffi']~, o't6 nho xe:{~€\lo. a.\larpepe:~ ·tt~ xamo-rpe:rrrtxt; X(X( t1t~aa:'ttxtc; tvop~iJoe~c; xed -n1'J E:1t~6u(.da 6av<XTou. No~(~w 5'n 1tpaylttX'tt 6 6&va-roc; 1tr.d~~ E~a" 'te:pao"CtO pOAO aE a:u~ n}v i.a"top~a, aAAcX. 'tOAlJ.W -va 1tW, lSx~ llE 't6\1 -rp01tO nov "to oxttp"tE't"a~ 6 cll'p6uv!.

H wrXANAA "fEH KAI TO DPOT ArMA THE AITONOMIA:E

105

Au--r6 reOll xapc()ct7)p~e:L I-uav O:1tepa,rt"l) a\laAU07) ~tvC(~ cpua~xa i] e7tctvC<A"I]$1). ElvfXL OtXV I.uti ~e:up{UO'7l at aVWTepo E:7ttne:i5o ~ [J.a.AAO'V 06:\1 llteX ~eupoo<7rJ CTt6 TE""tpaycu'Vo. r~(l'"d lXtrn'J il E1t(xV<XAy}$"1}; rt~ va 1thl auV01t't'LXO:, ~ Ibt(X'VaAlltP1I lJ-E -djv E'V'VOta 1tOU llii~ E:'VBtacpipe:.t taw, t51}Aa3ij ~ the small change of death, 't'cX lJltM -rou 60::va'too, £tV(l~ ~ ~geOaor:; nlv 01to(o:; XMGLfl01tOteI 6 ava.l-.o6lJ.E:voC; y~ri va «lIlUvee:.i EVfXV'tio\, Tijc; 7tPayll(X't~x6'trrt"(Xt; 'tOu 1tA'ilpOU~ aaVtX"tou. 'EBt;) ExOUIJ.E: Eva" xAaar.x6 CPUXtx6 llYJxavr.alLo, aAAcX ai lJ.ta 1tOAU !-l€y6}"1l Buxotao.,...

'O M.rt0~ y~a -eov OrcOLO ~ iIVaAuo'Yl b.1tmuyx6;'V~~, ~ yive:.-ra~ a1tE.pav"tYl. EI\JCll fjoif3-aL(l 1tpwm. 1tpw'"t"(x ~ aVLXtl.\lm7J-r(X "too &vMuo(.Li\IOU xed 1'0u. aVctAlYt'ij ~ nor) BouAeuet tJ.a~( 'tOU. veX a~€.E -rov 6tX\la"to IJ.E: flt6: 1tpw't'l llOPCP~ .. C511i\a(5~ rov G6:vcX'tO exmou 1tOV ~'tav 1tpo)Ce~(1iyou va rivet xa7totOr;; eXAAOC;. Au--co ~€~at(x 6 <l>p6u'V't' 't6 YlSepe: 1tOAU xaM Kat 'to Me:t~ "'['0 Tte:.p~ypaq>e:.t ~i aAAOUC; opouC;. 1\io.A& 'VO!l(~w Ott 'to ae:&tepo x(Xt 'to 1t~6 aYUJ.tXvt'Lx6 S:L\I<xt ~ avr.xa\lo-nrCCt -roo. tX\laAuo(l£vou, xa.( at aUTO xa:t~ awxyx"t}v e:: lva~ o:pxpca X(X[ "t~tX& llO\lOC; "tOU, va BEXt'e't n1V TtpanUX"tLxm'Y']'t<X 'tou 1tPcxy~ lla-rLxou~ 1tA~pOUr; 6ava"tou.

NOlJisw iYt~ 6 e6:v(X-roC; Elw:u <rn1v ouoLa "t'ou 6 eaxa:toc; ~p&xoC; 1Cavw atOv 01tO to ~ a'J6.AUol} (J.1tOpltt va. E:~Ol(e:o..e:L 1j 'Va auv'tp~I3It1:. . ~IO AD ~ lJ. o:~ l;tpo U 1J.e: OTt ~ swij EV.1tE P ~ tx e: t -ril ouve;xW.c; E:1t L KpE (la I-l e: - \I"IJ 1tPOQXC,upOt·'r'C'(.( 'TOU vo1n·l.Ct"toc;. T1Jv 1tpoaxCL~p6TI(tcx -rwv E:1tE.VBUI_J.t'l)wv ixV'tL)(et~8.Vwv, TIl'" 1tpooxatpD-t"IJ'ta -rw.v e:1tE:'Vllu!ltvwv Bpaa1"Ylp~~'twv nou EXOUV v6"1J~a. )\).1..& 6 eavcx'to~ el'Jcu, ontu<; ,;6 ~tpoulJ.e: oAoL tla~ t7tlO1'1C;~ 11 (xvo"lola xed ~ a-vo1J'ttYt1]'tf.X 1"OU tatOU '[00 voiH .. urtO~. ·0 x.pOVOt; (lac; atv E.L\I(Xt Xp6vo~, 6 Xp6voC; I-ttXC; (5EV E.I'Va~ 6 Xp6'VoC;, 6 X(l6voc; [.Lac; t5e:v e:Xet x(Xveva Xp6vo. ~EltallE.pOL (tcrn1~epo~).

'1H (XVaAOG'1l ~ (htwS X(l.[ ft WpL(J.&t"rrtx ~ 8rtv qnave:t txe't nov 1tpE1tE.t va !p'taatt napa ~ovo (ha:v, xcx£ &reo '!ov opo va, yt~€t 1"6 lxVo:AU6 ... lJ.e'Vo a:rOllo txav6 va ~e:I ov\jexwr; ~v oxB7J Ujr; &~6aaou, (leo-a at a&t6 t6~ eox,(X1'o xai a\lU1tEp[3Al)'tO Bt1tA6 ae:OlJO, tX'V tl1tOpoufle: va lJ.e'to:~aaou(le e'ta~ "t6 double bind: ~7ja.e: aa\l 6v"q-r6C;, ~91oe OtXV

106

01 OM IAIEI: };THN EAAAl!.A

va ~aouv a6ava'to~. 'E8w ~ 1ttXA~, 0 J\.pt(J"t"o-rEAJ1t; e1XE xa:t"(X1tA7pc:nxci aO\Jo$U7Ef. -n]V xa:t'cia'ta~ ,.IJ.€ "'to «ttl)' (SOOV EvBtxe-ta~ lt6avc('tf~LV» mt:X "Hfhxrj No,op.axela.

AmES ol 6pUAtxtC; xotvmo1tfe~, 01t6)~ 6& EAeYE 6 ZUA Aacp6pyx. !3pfaxouv e:\}(l OUO'LaatLx6-ta."t'O taolhJvallO om Ko~vwvuc6 1t£8£o xed auVE:7tw.c; rn6 1tOAt'tLXD 7teB£o. Ol ~:·t€POVO~E~ XOtvwv(e:.C; e1tL"t'eAOUY IJta 07n.uxO'LoB6't'YlOl1 xa£ {J.ux m·UJ.aa&Oa~llr.oupy(a~ av Il1tOPW veX 1[&. yta (5)..ou.:; xat U1t0XPI£WVOU\, OAOU~ va -nl'V e:ow"'Ce:ptxe:uaouv. Kat a.U1'tc; ol "(5~E; ol E-te:p6VOIJ.E~ Xotvwv(e~ 6e:olLi1;ouv 1tPay)J.f.X"t'txouC; ~ aull~ohLxoue:; tx1tpoaw1touc; tv6<; txlw'V~ou vm1lLa'to~ X(X( !J.La~ tp(XVtrxut~Kiit; aeav(Xo£ru;~ AEW cpavt'C(O'"ttxYjt; Ox.~ cpav-raouxxTjc:; aeavaa£a~, crt6 61toto tx~w'V~o v6'rUJ.·a. xal O'~'V 61to(a q>o:v'Ccunaxil &8avao[a., OAO~ 0 )C6a~o~ J,te Bt&q:lopouc; ~61tou~ u7to"de~a~ O'tL oU~f.L€"'tE.XE&. Au't'ot ol 'tp61tOL ll7topei: 'Va e:1"(xL 6 IlU- 6oc; rij; 1tpoaw1ttx~t; a.6avao(as, 11 ril~ !l£'t£tJ.r.f>ux~aewc; Yi 'til.; &\'ao"t'cXOE:WC; 'Vexpwv t Wo..j\a Il1tOpe:i: t1d<l11~ va el'V(xL 6 lJ.u6o~ 'til; fXLW"r.O"t7J"ta.s: 'tou 6EOJLt0IJ.E\,ou "tExvoupyfJ (J.(X-rOt;. rr, X. 'to U ~ aOtAtfr, "tou xPO:'t"ou", "too t:6vouC;, -rile; CPUA-qC;, 'too. x6!J.l-Lrrto~. T6 6EoI-lLOllE\lO "t'EXVOUPYl'l!J.(l ~E. '"to 01tOLO b xa6tvac; (l1topEi, 0.00 Y£VE""tat, va 'tctU-

~

"tt(f"t'e L •

IILa't'euw o"t't ~(a Clm6'Vo(l7] KOtV(UVtCX 8E:v 6& 111tOPOUOS: va a:ye: ... xre:i: 't!1tO't(X &.1t6 ofl-a aUT<X, tvvow <n6 <l'1IJ.OOtO 1t&5t:o ~ 1:'0 'ti xa6tvat; 117tOPe:i: va. 1t~(Tte:.uet e:.lv(Xt aAA~ {)1t66eO'Yl ~ xal o'tt (lla a7to "t'l-; XUpLE<; aUc:nc~A[ec:;, IXV oX~ ~ i5um(oALa, nou &V'tL~U:"t'W1t(~t "1'6 1tp6- "MYllCl tii~ Ixlrtovol-lfru;~ ~1'V(X~ il (5uaxoALex. yui 'to; «xv6pwTnvo: oven \.'a BexBouv xcupiC; r.p~i\oAoy(gC;~ XWptt; O"'toAio(la"tc( xcx( 1t(XP'Ylyopte;'t -n1 6vYl't'mlJ't(X 'tou a:t6(.Lou ~ n1 eV'1"t'onrrcx Tijc; )cotv6·nrt'a~ )C(Xf &.xo~a xed -n1 6'V1]'t6'OJ"'t(x "'twv e:pyw'J 'tooe;.

·0 X6~1t; etXE: (5(XtO t av xed. VOIJ.(~{U 5Xt YLa. LOU~ aW(TtOUS A6- you~. IIp&)1Ltx'tL 'to XUptO ~pty~a TClv 6e:oIlWV e:lvaL 6 q>6~oC; 'tOU Bava-rou, oXt 6 tp6(3ot; (j'n 66: IJ.t oxO"twos:r. 6 a~1tAav6C;, 6 (j~xa:tOAOY7lIl€VOC; cp6~o~ o"tt 't<X 7taV'ta, ax6~(X xa£ 't6 \,6.,.v.a, 'tEA&Xa 6a Btw...u6ouv. Ka'JEVt2t; cpuatxa .5tv {-t7topei va Auaet a&t6 'to 1tp6- ~A7)[ .. UX· cxirto Btv Sa ~1topiae:.~ va Au6e:i ~ cx:v xa! lhtO"'t'€ AuBeL, TIapa

H qtrxANAAl'~H KAI TO nror AfMA TH~ ATTONOMIA::E

107

~tO'a an6 l-lLcl. XCUVOUpyLa. )CO~'VCJ)'V~xo-ta'toptxiJ &JtJ.LOUpytcx xed lJ.ux aV't£onHXYJ ahAotwO'71 "Coo Clv6pCD1tt'VOU o'V'tOS xat -rii~ G't'aOl1C; "t'ou O:1teVCtv"t"L ~ ~W"11 xa£ mov e&vcx:to.

rui (l7tOtOV 6tAet va OXEtp"rEL 1ta(Ja7tEpa 't6 ~~T1l1.1(l 6£i 1rtCll' xaAD 'Va. utoxacrtei "'tU; ~€P~)Ctc; lut(xvn1O'£tC; <1't'O 1tp6[3f..7J!J.lX a&t6 7tOU Bwoav€ 01 Buo xO~'Vw'V(€C; 07tOU ""t6 1tp6-ray(la Til~ a&tovo(llar; B11- 1,.uoupyfJeYlxe: xaf O'uvqja'ty}xE ~ l3"f1AaOl1 ~ ltpxafa eAA7)\lt)(~ xat .q atYt~xoEupw7tdr:x~. Kat elBtx6'tEpet xavef~ BEV ~1tapEi 'Va t-t~\J eV't'u1tcuotC(o'te't c(1t6 "t'i]v 'tEpao'ttCX Br.acpopa -"t'wv auo lutctvn1CJt:wv. TEpao'tLO 6E(.L(X (lill't"t1C; xai (fXEtfn1C;. IIwC; ot aP'.X,cxiOL ~AAYiVe~ 0\)'Ve{3£[3C(o(Xv niv cX7te:paV"t'"t) ~W'ttK6-cl'l'tot x(XL (5'YUJ.LOOPYUCCrt7j'ta. 'toor; (ie nl ~a:e~a YVhlrTI1 ~~ 9'V'Y]'tM"1]-rac; "'tour:; (lik~ at lmop(~c; 1te:pf a.6avaa(a~ x.m.; lxeavaotcx~ «1lE. c:muX(ot» .. (xp"XJ~ouv ~e'ta "t'Dv 50 a1.wvo:· 7tPLV, u1tapx.0u\I ol cppLK"ttb; tXELvec; axutc; 1tOU auVCXV'tcXEt 6 '06uaoE:cxt; ~ Nexuta)~ xed 1tW~ ol lllYtf.xOE:upUl1taLoL t l)mv atya aty&. IJ-Loof3yTjxav b.rr:' 't6v xpuTtt.a"'J~aIl6 ~ 1t'POC1TC&~<1(x'V wi ~POU\} iiAACl aVtL~Gtpa xcx( aAk~ olxo'VollLE~ -roo 6rxva't'ou; MEa e:pe:.u'V(X 1tOD e&. npoo7trx6oUO'E. va Bet 1tWr; ol 7tOAL'ttXtt; rtpocm:a8e:.u::.:; xed at 1tOA~'t'LXO( 6.e:0llo( xed ol1toAL"ttxg-c; WxE~ a&t'wv ""tWV 860 xo~"(Uvr.wv el\ltxt ~o:.eux mJ\lBeBElJtV€t; flE ~ o-raO"tl "t'OUC; tX1te:vavn m6 rrpo~Al}lla 'ti}c; eV1ft6'tY(tcx~, 6a e:!X€ napa 1CoM o'1JIl('.('V'TtxtX Cxnme:Ma~o:;'t(X.

~AAa (Xlrt6 ~ ()7tWC; ~Ae:ye E:VOO; IlOetO'"t'optoypacpoc; t e:lvat llL(X aAAYJ

lCJ"t'o pia ~

108

or OMIAIEI: .ETHN EAAAAA

Bt.PAl.oypaq>tx6 mU.Le::t6lp.a

Tti ~~TJ](.ta."t'a 'tou xeq.lE'Vou 'fa f.XW aU~1ln?O'E:t an] C1Jav-raatax'J] BeUf-HUTJ Tilr; J{o~v(U,,{aq (00'. 150-160 xcd 387-450) xed aE 560 loCdt-LEwx:, «'E1ttAey6- !J.E:vrx aE (l~a eewpiCt "ri}e; tPuxfj~ ... » xa~ «H $uxa:vaAUDl'i: rrpo't<XYlla xed:

BtCluyamp>. TIOU O'ult'1tepv..all-~6;vovmt O"t'tt Enxvp08p6p.ta 1'OU Aa{jup(y- 8ov, crtl~ ExB6oEU; r$LAov_

"H q>pa0"lj 'tou 4Jp6Uvt yux n1V q,uxa:vaAuoy! wt:; «&l$uva-t'o E1tCcyYEAI1O:» Lnt<xvxe:t ~aYJ ~ np£v an:' Tt]V II e:prrr/J }la{ anepaliLl} OOIlfAUa?7 (1973) t O'"tov 1tp6i..oyo 1COU fyprope 6 cllp6uV"t' y~a "to ~tt3ALO Verwahrloste Jugend'too Aichhom (t 925). 01'tOU 6 c:Dp60vt -n1\i 1tapOUO't~L w;: YV(iHTtO tr)tpuoA6~ Y"Illla.

TI :EHMAINEI EIIANA:ETAI:H;

~'t(XV au~'J1"tOUll~ yux -nJv E;1tCXVaO'Mo,] 1tpe1te~ 'Va eXOUllE. Cx1taAAayet 'tEAElw~ into 1:(~ E:tX6VEC; 1tOV Etxa~€ a-c6 ~uaA6 ~aC; yr.n 6(50- cppay~.u:X'ta, y~a ~v x(x'taA"Il<P"l 'tWV «X£LIJ,s:ptV(;)v &vaxt6pwv», y~6; E.IlI.pUALout; 1toAtIJ.OU~, y~a aq>ayt~ ~ '"t'polloxpa:des >C'tA. 1\ v Kat xee"ta reooo +t ~(a elva~ a1tapah7J"to a't'o~xe:tO 11 cX\layxaio x(tx6 ~ ba: )..W<; a:r6):ruJ.(x (accident) 01' ~~ e1t tXV C(Ctt a oe tt;, !J.1tOpoUIle: va "'to au ~"tJ'T"Il aou l.tE 1tcxpaxa:t'cu ~

86. ~6E:Aa. va E7tW<pEAlJ6& cnt6 a~ 'TIlV S:UX(Xtp((X~ y&Ci va e5wow, lawe; YLa 1tpw"C'1} rpopa at 000.; exw ypatlJeL w~ "t'Mpa, EVa." xa.VOVti(O XNxCHXO OPLO'IJ.O "tOU "tt e\lvow e1t(Xv6.oTao'l. "EnavalITQUTJ elvca ~ prrnl 'Kat (Jux.uyar1!:lelly/ ~ rWli fJeq.uJv f.utiJ; XOUJ6.W {a~, 6alsJv O€oP.CJ'JJ qJucnxo: t~ap't'wvTa~ Wro prrn] (}iaf.l~oYl~ fJ.t n] OUMor'X~ 5p&CTYj a~ "rij~ xowwv (a; ij TOO fJeyak}repou fLepouq ~. P7JTil xed atauy(xoll~'V'l al"Aocril ~ YLa"t'i a.AAayE~ 't'WV 6e:ollwV tntapx.0uv cpuoLxa navto'tE. No~~w npoxOt.:; ~tA~oalle: y~a 't'6~ Mwucrij, xat YLa 't'6v Mwa~E:e ~ or. o1toiot aANx;'O:'V art "t"epO;c;no ~ae~6 "t'o6C; 6e:O(.LOU~ 'twv XO~VO"t"J1'tWV: 'tOte Ct.u'to "to ovo~a~U) &1tAW~ aMo(6)Oi']~ WUlXYl7 1'hlV eea~w",. ~aw !-ttAfif.lE yta -n1v XOt\lOtYl-rCt 7tOU ~tp€~ (nJ"ta Ott BtAE:t veX aAMl;e:~ 'tou~ U1CtXpx.oV'tec; ee:alJou~. KUL &ta\J AeW Bu:xuyaalleV1J-Jucide, Bt" ewohl oms: atCl<pa\l~~ xed ome: XtX'V e:l;avtA1j1'~Ka aUV€La~, YLa:d LJ.ou cpa£\'e-tcxt Ka~ U7tE:p~oAtx6 xed aVE:7tapxl:<;. ~'Vvow (yn O''tox.a~'t(Xt xct'ta xa1totov 'tp61tO CXll"'t'O nou XcXV€~ xai YL(X-rt "'Co xa\le~. lDua~x6: 6 nepr.opto!-loC; U'touC; 6EO(lOUt; nou E:sap-rwvtat {x1t6 PTI-n1 etO'~~O'1} !ttva~ npotp(Xv.q.;, B~&n~ 57tw; Et1tall!!~ U1t&pxouv 'te:p6:O'"tLE~ 'JtAEupet; "rYlr; XOt'VWVLX'i1~ 6ea~&CJYlt; 7tOV a€~ e:;ap-rWVtClL a.1tO p1J'tE.~ 1tpa~u; -rC)'v ee:.0'(lL~6v't'wv, 't'WV vOlJ.oBt"t'c7lv X'tA. Ked <poatxa 1tp6)(e:~m~ yta auAAor~Xl1 evt{J~ y~t(X •

r[ve't'a~ \l0tlU;w <pavepo O't'L fl' txlml -01\1 evvota iI E:1tavaam0'1l e:IVClt O"t~va au'V3&t5E:l-LtvYl ",-t -r6 GXtdlO -01tWC; Ate~ {; x. M1touya~,

110

01 OMIAIEE ::ETHN EAAAl1A

~ W 'lrpmr.:tn1fX J -r6 yaAAtKO projet ~ -r6 YEp~a;v~x6 Entwurf, -ri}~ atYto\Olltac;. ~1:t1Aa~hl; 1J.6vo av v0"l1aoulJE: E.'tO'L ~V e1t(Xv6:<Tt£Xm'1. I-l7tO{JOU~~ va Bte;p(tyt7JeOU~E x(X'ta rcooov l)7tiip~E: t-tt& ij 1tEpLOo6- 'te:pE:~ E:Tt(Ivo:o't'ao€~c; 0Ttj\J 'Ia-ropfa. ~'Exoo~e: cX)(Ptf3&~ -nl" rrpocmtl6e:ta 'rile; Xotv6'tYlme; ~ va. aM.aSet "t'ou~ e€alJ.ou~, a"f1Aaa~ va. 1tCq:>E~ "ttl: xtp~« 'tYl<; TIJ (lOLpa 't"'1t:; t ~ 61to(a e;ap't'a'to:~ ~(xO'Lxa ano 'tovc; {JEa(lOU~ 't"l}~, xcx( va -roue; &AAa~t Btauyaa~eva xai 5x~ u1t6 1;0 KprX-rO<; eE£rx.~ (l(.(V(cx.; 11 6e:(w; &7tO)(aAuo/Y]~. 4to'tt (IToxa~"m~ xa£ OxE1t't'E:"tOtL (yn at 6e::0I-L0t 1tOU t)1tCtpx.ouv Bev elven aw(7to£, BEv €lvar. B£xato~, ae" e:ivcu at 1tp€1tov't'ec:; xaL 1tpE1t.e:~ va. lntap~ou" CXAAot eeolJot A&t6 elvat Ilia npw't'Y} antxpo:£'t"11'tYJ 'to1toB~aTJ, yta va SEPoull£ ytcx·t£ t-ttAat-te: .

M~ a&n1 -n1v e:wou.t, VOIJ.~~W (S'n 7tpC<ytJ.CX"t'L U1tYlP;ctV E:1tr.tvao'tCt(JEt';. (Y'1t"ijp!;o:v 11-6\10 OTtjv cXpxa(a ~EUaaa, xtXf B-q OTtjv ~6~v(X, xaf ~ vg6t'E.pYJ EOpw1t1J. bOOO\l iupopCi ~v apx,a(a ~E:u6:aa 't6 6EI-L(X ~1tope:.I va. tpavel liuaxoAo ixn6 -nlV O:'Jt'otP"I1 'ri1<; 6pOAoyi:o:t; -ot &pxrxi:Ot ~.UAOUV yta. "'ECJ.)-reptaIlOu~ )C"tA.-~ yui tltV(l 0IlWC; ~ Lcrropia 'tW\J al1J.!oxpa'ttxwv )\Bljvwv e:lvat 1t~p£7toU ~ tmop(X ou'Vc:x.W\I E1t(x'JaO'taaewv ~ 1tOU Bto:BtxoV"taf. ~ ElLa. TJ1V aAAll. Airto aPl~t Til aj(m£~"~ tX€ivy} E:1toxfj nou 01 ~e'Yi'VatOt a7tocp(Xa~~ou\i va ExM~ouv Be:.0llo6&cEr:;. a"'Aaa~ va ~u'V Cx1t6 -r6 1tapalioO't(Xx6 8tXfUO XC(( Ot1t6 't'fjv 1ta.paaoa~C(xil et<1~~01'l (6EO'{lt0"11 KCX( <>x& 6 emt tGll , y~a''d ol ~e"tjvarOL EIxa\l ~yQk;~ «6e:olJ.o66e:.C;»· ES OU Kat 6 opo~ «Bea[.l6~», 1tO~ ae.tXve:t MAcuG't'E O"t'L .ortfJe-riXl a:&-to "to 1tptXYIJCl, i5lJAalhl &'tt e:!va:f B"'1l.UDUPY"t]IlCl 'ri1c; xo~'VU}v~a~ xa£ at~ EXe:.t tEpa xapo:~pa). ~r1tapxet tlU1. OE!.p6; aAAaywv· 'to 'Ttl}.::; cxo't'e:C; at iYJ..:Aa:yt.~ 1tpa:nJ.C('t01toto[nrta~ tsap"di"Ca~ q>UO'LX~ cnr6 "tU; 1tep~(ttaO€tC;: 'O LOAwV eI"ClL eva: e~a.lp€'t~x6 7tp6ow1to nou 01 av-ttp.a.X6llEveC; 't'aSe:LC; GU~tp(,.:lVOUV va. "'tou ava6tooov va aAAa~e:t 1tOAAOUC; geOflOU~-i(CXt eXAAO:SEt, 01tWC; SEpE'tE., '1tOAh06C; tlE0tJ.0UC;. l\AAa~t -n1'V KOt VWVLx-r; Xct"t(xVOllll, E.loayet 'n1 aE.tGax6e:~Gt, Bfve:~ a~xatWfla1:a; cn6v B~lJ-O X"t'A. Ka( fx.OOIJ-€ -tij fleyaAY} ,bt(xVtXuttxoy} 'tOU KALttaBEtV"fl, 508 - 506 7t. X. ~ 1tO U e 1 va ~ ~ ixp;ol Tile; npC(YlJa't'~xi1c; Bl'} llO xpa'tLCX-t; (.LE:-ra ~~ 1t'tl~al) 'twv rre~aLa'tpCX"t'ta6l" +

TI~HMAINEIErrANA~TAEH;

111

IIap€v6e'nxa, GX.E'ttxa. (It 't6 GtllCl -ri1c; ~tac;, 1] E:7t(Xvcio"t(UT7J 'tOO liMLo6tv"fl etv(l~ 'tw£w,; &\'aflJ-aX'tTJ, art' is ,'tL ~tPOUtle:. Kat t~axoAou6ouv va uTIapxou'V aAAcxyiC; 'tw-V 6e;o(lwv tX1tO 't6 480 xexLllE'tci, xed x(X.'tct 'tl1 aUlpxe:~a 'tOU DEl.01tO\lV"t)0LCtXOu 1tOAE~OU -ihtou 01Cap:(oU\I Kat avte:1ta.'Jacrt'cXaE~C;, 01 -rt-rp(Xx60tot, ol 1tEVtE: XtAtaBe; xat ut6 'ttAO~ q>uoLxa ol 'tp~&.)(oV'tC{ 1:'UpaVVOL- a.AAa XtxL cnov 40 atwva., 7tOU EyW 't6v 6e:wpCl 1tAEOV ~v 1tapCt.x~li Ti}e; 811[J.oxPrx"t'(Xt;. Aln'6 rtOU y(ve't(.(L xed 1tOV a1tO'tEkr "'to llEYaA£rO xa[ "TI1 07J~aaicr; cx&ci1~ tiic; 1toi\t't~xjjr; &ttlltouPY[oo; e:.IvCt~ O'tL 1:0 7toAi'tEOll(l l}1t6:pxe~ en: xaeE. cTnYll~ a.AAO.. xed xavtva~ 8tv 'to BEWfud: a~Bollevo IlLn yta 7taV'tC(. ~utJ.<pw",a IJ.t -n1 l5tXT] !LOU 6pOAOyio:: t)7tapx'e:.~ x.a.'ta Xa1tOLOV "tP01tO IJ-L6. OUVE::01C; Buva:rmrrux t'1tClvcx.6eOlLtO"J]c;-ri1~ Xotvwv(ac; IJ-E Ct1t6$~t~ 'tou )(O~VOU 1 BY}AaB~ '"tou a~tlou+

~-n1 \le6't€p1l ~1tOxr1 EXOU[.l.E -r£C; BLar.popE~ E.1tavcxcttWx~<; 7tOU ;tpE.'tt. ~ )tat KUpLW~ -rl; 'ttaoEp~~ xAaO'-KEt;. CO x. M 1touyiiC; I-lO"'l}OE Bt)(Cliw~ y!.a avo ~ YLCl'tt elwu rGwt; ol 1tt6 e:lJ.CPC(V€i:~ xcd 1te~Cit'~KE.~. Ka-ra xa1tO~OV 'tp01tO €XOUV acppay£ae:t n1 mJYXPOV'1} E:1toxll). IIap' OAES "de; aLaq>opt~ nov 7tOtfJoua~a~~ Xct£ "t6 1tOAU CTYlIlCXV'ttx.6 BMOXEUTLXO -r11<; <TtOtXE:LO, ~ ~yYAtX~ ~E1t(lvcXa'taa7j 'too 1640-49 elva.t (3i~(xLa ilL&. t1t('(VcXG"'tCXGl] (J-t Tljv e'lvo~a. 1tOU 6p£oav.e:: t)1ttipXet GUAAoytX.~ aUllllE'toxYl, €1ttsrrtEr"t'c(t CtAAtl:y~ -ri1.; eeall~011C; rijc; xot "Vwvf.oo;, 'tel. Bt~a'ttX au~Yl"t'o [)V"mt. l\AAwo'te aev Elvcu 'tuxa~o o-t't €X£[V71 -dJv €1tOxn U'1ttXPX€L 'tEpao'tt(X r.ptAO Aoy£ a , xa( b:rr.6 "roue; lLo- vapxtKOU~ xat tX7tO -rout:; cX\I'ttl-lov(xpx'~Xou<; xed O'tL 't6te: e:llcpa\l~~'ta~ /) Hobbes X"tA. Me'ta, ~e~ar.a, EPX€'tfXL "iJ ~~gpLxa v r.K11 ~E1t(Xwx(Tt'txCTt1, rijt; 01tO~oo; Be" npE1t€t va ~€XVafle n1 07]l-laaia. Kat e(5w 1taAt en E1tctVeA8w a-c6 Btl-lct Tijt; ~LtxC; + 'Eav 6 I3cxa~ALti~ ti}c; 1\ yYA~a~ xed 01 C5~£uauvovl'e~ XUXAOt TI]~ yUpw a-r6 17751rta~ i..oytx.6- 'te:pOt· liv E.1XC<v fjpe't ix:m1x7la"t) (iv6pw1tot 01tW~ () lJ.e1't'Jt'~t't'a avnBpaO't'tx&ta.'toC; M 1t€PX, 0 01tO iDe; EAc.YE (yn « E<p6aov 01 a1totxo~ -rMV 7tOA"'tE~WV 'rile; Nea::c; A.yy;..tac; etAouv \'a odyto~OllYleOuv, Bev !-l1topoulJ.e ?tapa va -roue; aqn1aou~e: va cxu-rovo(J.1l{)OUv»+ a;v Btv e:IX~ e1tE{lfj,c::r. ~ 'AYYAfa w; 1l"fJ'tp6rtOA1j ~ 1tpo01ta:6c;nrrat:; v~ x(X't'(;(- 1tVU;eL -nl" E.1t(XvaG't'ct011 -rwv 6:.1tOtKt~"" 1ttBav6'tO:'ttX iSev 6a e:.!Xav

112

OJ OMIAIE:I: :ETHN EAAAAA

U1ttiP~E~ 1tOAEI,J.LXE~ t7t~Xe:tp~(J£~<;. 01 e~~ytpoe: ~~ au't'E<; qJ(.d'Vovt'(X~ xaeapa aEt OAoU~~ (l€ t~aLp€a'1l €A6:X'-G'te:~ nep&1t"twaEtt; a't'ollwv nor) 1ttpOtoav ~v liAA7J DX6'1 ~ aa~ ltl;eytpOELS' ~J.LaC; 6MxAl]P1JS XO~V6)v((.(t; tvarno\l Ii~a~ 1J"t}'tp67tOAl']~ 1tOU 6tAE:L va Tij; e7tt~A"'lee~" Me:'ta €.px,E"t'CXt cpuO',-xa. ~ raAA~x~ ~1ta'Vam:a:O'Y] xed I-u::-ra ~ Promx~. Nov.Q;w mr.. av 6e:wp1]aoullE: xed 'tiC; -rioDEptC; au-r€~ E:7tuvaO'Ta.O£L~, M~ alHJ.ClV"nxe~ (n1 Po aLx~ crnlv 7tpw't')'} <pao7) 'tl1~ ~ 1:0UAaXtmOlJ an' 'tOV q,e:.~pouap~o we; -eov 'Ox-cwJ3ptO 1:0U "17 xlXllxxolJ.'l (lCt'cX .or6v ·Ox'twJ3.P'1l 'too ~18, 50'0 Btv e;1~ "t'EAe:.t:W<; 'te:.ee:~ &rc6 't6v EA£YXO 'TOU ~1toAae:.~buxou x61l~Ct'toc;) 1tapa"t'lpOUIlE: 1taAL a&tijv 'nl OUAAOYtK~ C5pcu:Tt71p~6'tl]'ta "tii; XOtvwv(cxc; ~ (l€yaA.w'V "t'lJ.",~Otl'WV Tijc; KOI.Vwv(a~~ nou 7tpo07ta6ouv wi aAM~ou~ -rout:; 6e:o(louS· xed aUn1 ~ npoarccdJs:r.a lxAAayj]~ 't'W\, 6£G[.1&>v auvoae:ue:-w:;~ (x7tO "to mo~xe:~o nov OVOlJ.&~'taL a71lloxpa:t~x6nyta, nor] txrppru;~at tJ.€ "tEe; a~oopoptc; YVWllWV, 't£~ aut;l']~OEt~, 't6\J &\,'t'fAoyo X"t'A.. Atv l)7t«ipxe:.~ a"'Aa(5~ xa.7tOto<; 6 o-noi:oC; hEEL: « 160u b 'Vto~ A6yoC; "tou BEOU •.. »

IIavw a' alYr61 6a lj8EAct va. u1tev6u(.L(ow a1tAW«; ~ Xwp£~ va 't6 ixv{X1't'tuSUJ ~ eva 07)(lELO y~tX 't6 Dno to (l~A-qO'C(lle x6tC; "'to ~palju ~ IIp6x€L'tcu yui -n1V -re:.pao'tux C5taq>opa 't'ijc; 7tOArretr.u; 'twv l\6J1vaiwv ~ crnlv 61tota c:L[.lCX<Tt'E l11toxpewll e:"o~ va lxvacpep6oulle: taw. 1:71- ~e:LWO"t'€ e'1tt1tAiO\l X(lt a&t6 ~ nov Erven eva. Cx-n6 'ta 3pa(.L<X'tGt ~c; t<Tt'OP~)(~C; xc.tt qnAoaorptX~C; yvwoYl<;: l,u.Aa~E auve:xw~ y~a rt1v apx.Otla tEAAa8a xat Ex,OU(.LE floAtt; 'to 1/50 'tWV 1tA~pOq>Op~(;)v "'t£~ onotec; ed"~1tpe:1tE va e:1:'xalle: yux va (l1tOpEO'OUJ.Le: va I-lLA~aoutl£ IJ.€ lxx{l£~€ta. MtACt(lE: yui a"IJflO)(p(X"t'~xtc; 7tOAt'tete~ xat yvWp£~OU[J.E 1J.6vo, xed cx&t6 5XL napa 1tOAU xa;AO: ~ .or6 1tOAtl'EU~a 't'hlV ~fu}vwv Kat TiJv E:seAt;~ 't'OU. 't}rrw~ ~tp€"1'€ 6 ~pL(1't'o't'eA"1l~ Idxe aUAAe:se:t ~ e:IXe: f3an~ TOU; !Ja&rrCE.C; -rou cn6 A6xE:to va aUAM;ouv uA~x6 y~a va ypaqrtE:'L iva crUyypalJ[.LCX 1te:plnOAt"tE&WV, &1t6 "'t6 61toto llOVO ~ «J\thr .... odwlJ nOA~"t'tdct» aw~c(t, xed T6 6noto 1tep~tXE:t ne:pi1tou E:xct't6v ti.;~v'ta 1te:p typacpEtt:; TIOAl TE LW'V Ileacx aT£; 6no ie~ (l1'tOpO U [lit va u1to6eaoulJ.e: o-tt xovtptxa tnriJPXctv 6y5oV"t'cx rceptypacpe<; C5"'1ll0~ xpaTLXW\I )tal oX~ OA~yC(PXtx.wv 1t'OA~Te:tWV. 'H llE.yaA'r} (3u.xtpopr.X

TI~HMAINEIEnANAETAEH;

113

~v 1tOAt"'te:.£a "twv J\6rfvwv AOL1tOV e!v(u an liE-v tl7tapx.ouv €1tcxv(xcrt'aO'e:~r; (.J.t 't-qv evvotcx Tl1'V eKPl1Xl't)(~ )(a.L n1V 7t<xpot;UOlJ.tx." 'tw~ vemgpw\I XpOVWlJ. BS:{3atwr; Otcapx.0u'V O''ttYllt~ CU«(l:qs: TIle; 1tOA~'tLX71; ap(XO't'"I}p~&t"1J't'(XC;:t aANX ~ (le-rappu6tlL07) 'twv l>7tapx6\''tw\J 6eo(.J.w'V yiVE.'t(X~, Oitws: gIna, KenO; 'tp67tO 1tE.pbtou ouvem. Ka( (Xu't'o aUlL(3ar.v€r. we; 't6 ttAOr; t w~ -n) llaxYl ti]~ Xa~p!Al'V€~r.tC;, tJ.€ u1'V lvvo ~(l 'ri1~ Bte:pr;: u'V'l 0"1)<; "t'hl\l xp<X"C ~ xwv 6e:0tJ.w v ~ 'to u txB'YJ IJ.. OXpCX't t - OIJ-OU 'tou~. TtxlITox.pov(X E.xouv.e: -n1 auve::m OUllllE."tOX"1 'tW'V 1tOAt'ti:lV aTIJv 7tOA~'t'tX1J apaa'tl1pt6nr~C(. ~E'V&) <rt'o6t; ve:.6-repouc; XP6- vouc; exou~€ 1:0 EX B~a(lE'tpou tX\lTf6n-o cpa~\'61lE:vo, Ct.XOll"fl xed O'"t'ouC; ActOU<; 1tot> ttJ.q>(Xv(~ovt'aL a' alrn1v -n1 O'u~iln'101] wr:; ol 1tt6 0lJIJ.IXV't'tXO( «(J.tAa~E XUpt(U~ y~a "tour; raAAous )Cat TOU~ ~lleptx(Ivo6.:;~ at PwaOL elvat aAA'1J u7t6e~0''r1 My6) 'ri;t; t;tAt~"1]C; 1[06 1t~pe: ~ Pwa~KTj "E1t(Xvacrt'cxol}). Kat 0' amoue; tl.xoll"tJ 'touS Aaouc;, EVW l>1tclpx,E:t cut6 "t'6v 130-140 al. evoo; a'Ja~paO'll6<; iBewv, E\I W 1tOAAa 1tpay(lcx-ra. 'd6c:vrcu l.l1t6 lx[.Lq>taf3~'t."Ol} --U1t&pxouv 01 6p"t)OXEU't'LKot Tt6Ae:ll-0t nov 1taG;ouv 't'e::p&.a't~o .p6AO, U1ttXpx.£t 6 1tpo't€a"tavt~a~6r:; 1tOV E1t(011':; 1t'a~t -repao'tto p6i\.o anD n1v ii1totV~ Ti'ic; ~o'V-rtpvar:; tB€C(~ "tou. a'tollou xat E.'t'ot 8rtv ll7tOPe:i: va: '1tE~ xo:vei~ o"t''- l)7teXpx.€'(H a XOt veo VLa. 11 tnt ota e: l v at a't~y<xv~, "teA!, (X:tW fl€\}l'J - ~ ~ 1t 0 At 't r.>Oj apaa't'1JP~6TIft'a 1tCXtpVE:L xup[wr; n1 floP'Pll EXPliSEWV ~ G1ttlotJ.wa~xwv Y1 0X'-. a..AAa 7ttXv'tWC; E:v-r6vwv xp(oewv not,) 1t'pOXaAOUV EKpiJ~e:,-C; .

YE'tot ~1tOpe.L xavdc; 'Va -net o"t't cXVC(rrtuO'aE"ta~ au-r6 1tov: lxoulJe:

VAOt uta fluaAD ~ac; yui ~ {.1o'V't'ipvcx E:nO;m xat 'to onoio Be'V e:!vo:.~ e:mpaA[.tEvo 7tE:p~ypo:r.ptxtX: a"l1A(la~ ~ (lui Ko~v{Uvla ~ o1tofa €!v(X~ (.(no-rpaJ3YlYlJe'V"tJ anD 'ttl. 1tOAt't'-X&' xa:( a~v o7tota ~t6: XPLO"q e;W1:epLxYJ (oX'- IJ-E -nlv EVVOta 'tou e:~w't€P~XOU 1tOAellOU crAM. rr ·x·, flUX a.1t6cpaUll 'too pCXO~A~a, +1 i] U1to$(a. O'tr. 6 f3aa~A~cit; etM:.~ 'Va E1tav(XqJepet "'to" xa60AtKtO[.l6. 07tVJS fytVE: ~v ~YYAfa, ~ 'to ye:"yov6~ i5'tL 't'6 xaBE:O"'t(J)<;'; rp6avE.~ a' eva OtXOVOllLx6 xai xOt.'JwvLx6 aaLt~oao Kat auyx<XAe:I "to 'catO 'tel. etets genereux, 07tw"C; yfVe:'tC<L ~ raAA~a., "fj TO €1tE:LO'ociLo "'tou J..qJ.CtVtOU 'rile; Boo't'WVYl~, 1tOV Y'Ve1:ctt 't6 EvauO'(.LCX y~n '"t1]V €'Vap~'1} ~~ e1tClvacnrxtTr'}S ~v l\l-leptx~) AEt-

114

01 OMIAIE::E ETHN EAAAl1A

'toup-yet 7tPI'XYlJ,.ct't'LXa 0<1" cnttVeY]pext; ?too 1t'tqnc:r. ae ,,!La ~1tapou'ta7toO~x1)· xa( (]'to a7J~E:(o (lU-CO t;eO'llXWvE.'t(u 6 x60~ot;, Se0.,pcwVE:'Ult ~ x.oLvwvla xaC xa6wt; g.orp(wvE"'t'Gtr., avtx7t"t'uO'oc:t 'It(JayllCl'tt llta. auAi\OyU'~ B7]!lLOUpytxii apC(CJ't'-qp~&t"m. .6.'1HJ.LO UpyE'L opyava 8tX'ijc; "t7JS el;oumoo; oTIJ'" 1\1le:.P~X'1i 1:6. town halJ meetings, -ca 8Y1llo't~xa OU(J.13 OOMCt , 'fa 61tota l)llwC; E:lvcu xa"t" ouoiav «txx):r'Jottx» "tOU AaD U, l-lE n]v Ctvx.a:ta EAA"f1'VtX1} EWOtct ~ 11 a~ DxAAto:. -rU; sections "tou IIapLotou. No~U;(i) B-n am6 EXer. (leyw...-q Ci1Ulcto(a, Br.6t'r. (lu't'o iuept~i3<; tLa~ 6&tet "t'6 ~1rtYnJ.a 'til.; O'XEm'l<; ·t'Ou 4U"t'ucoeupw1ta~ou ~E -ro txa.o-rO'te:. e:.yxa6r.Bpullevo XCX6EO"t'Wt;. .6.~AaB~, 01tW~ ~Bl] Itt 1tall~ t lnt&px.e:L ~ lBtex mt -r6 xpa-roc; Woe; xpa:'t'oc; l.ui; e:lvcu ;evo, erVCXL ~'Vo O'-rov 7tOAL'tYJ. TtXU't'6Xpov(X 5~(UC; e:lvar. &.va- 1t6t.pEOxtO ~ tvBEXolltvw~ 'tltpa'tw8e:.s;, xal an 1'6 XaAVtEPO nov 111tOP€L va yfVEt, elva:t va 'to 1tqJ~oP(oooll€ d Eva !1avtp( ~e ye¢ l;uJ..a rUpcu y6pw xaf lYrav (3yatVeL U1t€P~OALXlx lut6 "t6 lJ.aV"tp(~ ~ tTIaV 6tAeL va [J.O:~ p,aAe~ Ella.; 'tEM:(Wt; ~E.aa. o-ro (!avtpC 'to-te: ~Emt'CXllE: )tat ;ea"l])(WVOIlCXO't'!:. A&t6 €!v(X~ la£w<; xapaK"tY1p~a'ttx6 "tilt; ta"t"opfa~ -ri1~ raAAta~, Tilv 61to~cx f5txa~w~ aAAwcttE 0 MapS lutoxaAouae «~ )(Arunx~ yi] "t'ij~ 1t"oAt""ttX~'i» CaE av"t'f6e:0'Yl IJ.€ TIl TepI-ta-v(a) , 01tOU 1tPtXylJ.O:'t~ CX1t6 1'6 1789 lJ.tXPL 't6 1936, av oXt (J.€Xpt xed -cov Mci.,. 1"OU 1968, exou(J.e: aiYn] "n1V 1tEpLOaLX~ 8pWTt7jp~o1tof'1I<Ti1 ~C; )(ot'Vw'Vtar:; t ~ o1to(a we; -r6-rE. aq,l1v&tav a'JtAW'; va o:v'tt1tpoOfJ)1teoe:"t'o:~ an6 'to xpa:to~, 'tou~ [30UAt.u-rtc; X-rA+

"ExoUile €no(,J.€.Vc.tl«; ~~a 'teAe£W~ C:haq>opE.'ttX~ a'V6pW7tOAoytxf] xa( cpa\l"'t'adr.'rxXll OXtO'1l 'tWV 7tOAt""tWV, 6Ehlp1Tt~xa "tW\I l)1tO't~et~evwv lJ,eAW'V 'tOU 7tOAr.-rr.XOU aW!la'to~~ (.ut 'ti}v tl;oua~(X. rux -rouS 1\- 6"t}vr.t:louC; lJ Esouafa e:lvcu ol '(Btot, y~cX 'tour; v€mepour:; ~ e:~ouo(a e:lvat 0 ;tL YL6: 1J.fu; TO V't'of3Attt ~ ahA&; 't6 VTO[3At1't Twpa (5ev elvo:~ oTIJv n6A'1, elvcxt oTIJv A~va. (orne. XtXV O'n1v ~e~v(X~ a.AA6. 0"t6 Ka(J'tp~ ~ crnlv ~EKCcA1}, oTIJ t.pWAr.6. ""tOU aPXYlYou) evw G"t'U; o) .. Ae.~ xwpe:C; e:lvcu 1 ~Etat, 'to Kpa-roC; ~ the Government X"tA.

~pxo~at -rwpa 0't"6 8e:&re:.po epw"'t"f)(J.<X 'tou it. M 1touyCi: 1tOLa Yrc(Xv 'to: cnto-reA£o!J.cttct <XlrtWV "tWV E:7t(X\Jao-raaehlv. NOllt7;w Ott '1 cutavTf}CTY] a' a&t-6 -r6 E:pW"tl'llLtx (aqrt,vov't(X~ 1tp6~ O"t~)1lYj'V -nl Pco-

TIEHMAINEIEnANA~TAEH;

115

ar.>n1 'Entxv6.m-ao"l) 1tOU ~a~r. &AM ~'YfC"Ill.l.a:ta, tvaS:X0l1EvWt; 6& t1tavtAtlou~E:) OUV8EIt"CCXL lLE. 't6 tp~lJ.a ?tou e:6eacx 'twpa a(J.eaw~. l17JNxi5i1 ~ €VW 7t ,X. 11 raAAr.Kl) 'E7tavaU"taa71 ""tou 1 789 (~ KofJ.~ou",a elvClt 1tcXAt t-tta &A)''1 &11:66£0'11, lSt&t't Xrl'ttX1tVLYE't(xL ow a1lla) ~XLV6:EL 1tOAO ItlaUAALOO(6:~ llE 'tU; tBEEC; "tou AaOU au(.tcpcuva (lE 'de; 07totE<; 6 ~aaLAr.ac; elvar. XaAo1tpOa£pe:.-roc; xat Sa BEx6e:i va &AAri~t 'to; 1tpay1J,oct(X xt'A., OLYck atya 6 A(X6~ xed ol IlLXpo( xat lieaato~ acrro£, 1tOU lbttu;av lleYcXAo p6Ao crnlv E;7tavao-raCTll -roo 1789, auvetOrJ-ro1tOtOUV &tt 8tv elvOtt ~"tOL 'ttl; 1tPt.Xyllat(X XfXL Btv IJ.1tOPEt va U1tcXp;e:L a1tAWt; lJ.LO: Et{YflVLK"J1 e;eAL;7J (xa( "to O'uVEtlSl'l"t01tor.OU\I tljlwc; -Ka( airt6 EXEL axEO'lJ ~t 't6 9tp.a. -rile; ~(ar;- ~M- 1tOvt~ 't'll CTtQ:O'1) tilt; AUA~~ i1 61to(a pott5toupyEi, iI 01tOLa 1tpoO'1to:6e:L v6; xtvIJaet >eo:( x.tve't 1tpaW<X"tL 't'ou~ EUphl1tafouc; {.Lovapx,e:.c;; Evav·dov TIle; raAAiac; )('"tA.) 0 11t&px.£~ hat IJ.ta yevtx~ Xtvl}'t01to(l'}- 0"1} ~ u7tapx£t V-ux Up&.O'tLCX lhU.uoupy~X'l1 apacrt"flp~&t"l1't(X )(Xt, IJ,E'tC< (UtO lL~a OptO}lEV-q (J"t'ty(.L~, xed ain:6 e!vat -r6 TCe:.p£e:pyO -q>UOtxa ~ lCTtop£a el"ar. q>o~e:pa 1tOAU1tAoKl1-~ 6 Aa6c; Ka-ta xanotov -rp61tO apx~L va. a.1toaOpttCXt a1t6 ~v 1tOA~'tLX-q Bpft011 . .6.'1Aalhl ~ an' 'nl a"tLYIl~ x(X'ta"t'1]v oTto£a ~ ~(.(aLAe(X xa-rapyijBYJxE., xa.pa:tOlL~ellXE 6 [3a.ar.Atro;, xa-rap~e"fJKot'Y -rel 7tPOV6~Ul, $1}cpt<Tn1XE. -r6 1tpw'to auVtay(la xat iSm ""ta liAAa., uav va Cx.px~~ 'Va U1ta.PXEt t.J.UX lx1t0llaxpU'VO'Yl "tou xoav.ou O:1tO TfJv 1tOAL"rtX~ BpaCTY], a.7to~axpuvOlJ 1tOU a1tmEi\eO'e xa:rti Tt1 yvw~"1l ~ou Ttl\' ava-yxaLcx auv&fp('1 yux \1& ouyxe:v-rpw6eE 61..1111 tsouo£a <net Xtpt(X 'tWV rLax(U~fvw'V xed yt6: va o:px£oe:t nAtov llLO; 'tfJOllOXpa."do: liAAoU e:raou~: ouanU.la"ttx~ "'Cpol-Loxpa-rta;, iJ Terreur, we; oUCTtlJ lJ.a 1t!.0:. xa£ llXt w~ £1teta6ato, E.XP");'11 , E:)(t"po~ 'tou 1tA:~aOUr; xt'A.

To iUtmiAeol-lr.t rils lCTt'opt:a.~ nota e:lva.L; Kat BE\, ~!.Aacn f3E(3a~a y~ti -r6 a(leoo Xpo'Vuux Cx7tO"t€Ae:O).l.(X 1tot} trra'V 6 NanoAi:oV"t'ru; xa( lJ£'ta /) AouBo[3£xot; 6 t8or;. Ela. 1l'tav noM xovtocp6aAlJ.0C; Cll)'tOt; nov 6a EAe:.ys: m~ ey~\'av 5Aet; aiYttr; ol e1t'a.vam&O€~<; YL&' va lx\lClae:LXeE~ e:'VC(~ cttYroxpa'topro; il EVo:t; ~aoLAL6:t;. T6 o:no'ttAEoll(X axpt~w~ "'ri1~ tmop£(.(~ e!v(u (jon, napa. '"t'ov Na1toMoVta Xa.L 1:0" AouaoJ3(xo 't6'V 180 xa.t 't6 1830 t fut&px.E:L fva 'te:priO"'t~o XlX"ttXAot-

116

01 OMIAIE::E ::ETHN EAAAtlA

7tO: '"ta dLXa~ulll(X't'a 'tOU )\v6pw1tou, ~ Atax~pui;Yl 'rile; i\p)j]e; 'ri]s Kl)p~(lpxfo:r; 'tou Aaou - (Xu"t'o va Il11V "t6 ;qva~e, YLct"tL Wt; 't6'te: ol ~aatAEI<; Yr'tav ~(Xa~Ae:tC; fh::tt:y l;~Ka£q>. "H i5r.ax~pu;7j m!. xaae: e:!;ouo(rx 1tY}Y~L an' 'to", Aa6 xed Btv IJ.1tOpe:'L 'Jex aax'1l6e: t napa EV ov6- !-.ltx't't 'tou c:!V(U ~~&. tXn' 'tU; 1tPW-rE~ 7tpo"tam:~~ "ci1~ At(t)olpUr;"fJ~ 'twv .6.~K(.u(U~.uhwv 'tou Av6pw7toU xat: 'tau IIOAh-fl. J\7t~ DAY} a.Unl Tijv lxv(x"tcxpaX'1 (.lEver. €7tO!J.EVWt; ~ cptAclsuee:{J'Y] )(OL'VW"((x, 01tW~ 1te:p£- 1tOU ~ ,..,,(UpU;ou~e.

T6 'tt ( .. Uh~~L fx.1t' -n1 PWO~X"I] ~1CCX,,6:(J"t'CXOY), fdvat llUX aAAll ou~irclJa~ - Btv ali ~6e:Aa WI u1te:r.oeA6Ul "t'W-pa. Ain:o 1tot) Ile.ve~ elva~ a1tAW<; Kat 116vo 1-UtX Tepao-rux apv7J'ttX~ 7tE:~pa, 811Aa(5~ ·d (5EV 1tPE:1tE:L va Elvf.u ~~a. €1tC(\'aGt'C(Q'Y] ~ 't'L 8EV 1tpt1tEt va )(ave.~, 1tW~ 8tv 1tpt1te:~ va E:sEAtXee1 K'tA+ ~PV7)'tLX~ 1tEtpa Ox~ a.1tAWe; llE nlllopq>"il cru!L7tEpaa~OCtUl'V I:.iAAa. 1lE: ~ Ilop<p~ YEtyov6'twV! llTIOPOUllE va. ~6.i\o U 1J.e: "t6 tici::cruAO 0' eva acup6 ~ IJ.~ to:, IJ. y}x(XV ~atJ.o u~ ~ 1tPtX~e: tC;, e Eallo6c;~ ol 61tolo~ 6B'1iY71oa\l a~ aiYt6 1tOU ov6~a~av napaBoar.axti ExcpuA~afl6 ~~ Pcoa~xi1c; ~1tCX\l<iat"«xo7);. rraVtco~ xcx( ani'J 1t€(lLrrrco all "t'YjC; ra)..) .. [ar; xed G-n1'V ne:pL1t't'wG't] Tij.; P<uofac; ~ !lEVE: ~ 't6 YEyov6~~ OTt OAct OUJ.L~a.(",ou" ~ hlC; e&.\1 6 veme:poc; aVepW1tOC; va ~'tcxv b((xv6~ 'lei ~1tE:i at lluX c.paa"l} E:Vt0Vl1':; 1tOA~"t~K'ijS apam:7jp~&t7J'too; y~&. Eva X,POvtx6 BtacrtrUlQ. t l .. LltO'(X 0't6 61totO (x\la1t't'Uaa£L X(X'tct- 1tA'1X't'~Xt~ C5TJV.r.OUPYLx€S lx([v<Yt'l'tE:;. r~a:d amo nov eytve ani rCtAALa (J.e"tflSU TOO 1789-92 elva~ 7tpexYtl(X-rLxli cpa'J'tatTttx6, w~ aui\).:1f3«57J'V CtAAcxy-t] 'tot) )(001l0U9 ii aOtO nOD EyLVe: on) Pwa£a~ ~ alrr6~ nov eyt'VE on]v Oiryya.pla ·de; EAtXXtrrt'€C; ~(lEpe~ 7tor) AeL ~ "t'oupy7]oa:\J 'ta :EU~~OUAt(X 't6 1956. B).tnOOl-LE a7JAaa~ 1tW; 01 liv6pw7tOL a~aeE't'OUV eva "t'eparyno XCX"'tct1tLE.O'Il€VO Buvall~x6 all~~oupytx6: opya:vW'"t'~x6 ~ aUAAoytx1jt; cXAAl1i\eyy&q<; X'tA~ 1tOU 1'6 a..vrJ.- 7ITUaaouv (l£ x(X't'a7tAy}x'tLX6 'tp61tO 0' CUYt€C; 'tic; 1t€pt6(5ou<; xa.t 1tOU an, au"tx.e.~cx. l)1tOxwpet. ~1t" au1'ou 6a fl6e:)..a {lOVO vO: 1tW o'tt iJ t)1toX,WP"'1O'Tl alro1 atv elvat avexyxafa. Ucp€G\EtCXt 'Vot.J.U;w m6 YEyov6~, 't'6 01tOtO ~e~cu(X 6tv elvcn 'tuxcito, Ott 1t<Yt't w~ 'twpa atv eyt'VE xa6<X{J'fJ auvE.tBY)01] 't'wv aVepW1tWV o't'r. 1Ir.0: E:'lt(lveXo"t'a.O"fJ X(x'awe; 1tpOxwp6:€~, B'1lAa&] xaBw; 7tpOxw{J&e:~ I .. uti tpaO'"fl apa<Tt~p~6-

TI~HMArNEIErrANA~TA~H;

117

"tT]'[a~, 7tpene~ x6.ee G'ttytJ.~ va 'Jtayr.WVEt tXu'tGt not} ~Xe:t ByU.uoupyqOEL we; f)€a~ou; aU'tovol-.t,(a~, we; 8e:.0IJ-0uc; auhAoY~Xj]~ OUl-lllfI'toxij~. Nit 'tit 1taytwve.~ oXt ll€ -n1V €vvota Tile; G.P,U.1 "tWV cpuAaxl}v xai 'tw-v xupwaecuv, va 't'rX 7tayLWVc.t hl~ a~aB~xaa~c; 1tOU t1tt'tpl- 1tOUV <TtOUC; lxv8pw7toor:; va aU!1Vo€'t€XOUV ani~ 1tOAr."t~X~ xed on1 a~axuJ3Epvy}~ "t'wv XOtv&>v~ XUlPU; veX e!ven U1tOXPItcJ)~tVOL va. Se;vuXt(XVE. aapa'V't'a. ox't'w c:!Jpe:t; ou'JExEta, 1tpay~a 1:0 67to~o yive:'ta~ E:1tc(VEtA"t]lllJ.tVt»t; ani-v ~Icrtop(a. Ol la-tot «iv6pw1tOt, 01 61to1o~ CxpvouV'ta.r. va xavouv 't6 1tapa~~xp6 ~E.aa a' eva aUo't'1Ilcx' 1tOU atv 't6 7tapcxtitxoV'tCXt t e: 1 va ~ txa\lot va. I-l ~ tpii\'E xed va fl ~v xo ~IJ. "i}- 60uv yta lltO: t~ao(J.6.aa, n.x. a-rav Xatt 'tou~ 1taBta.Y::L. Alia txu"to ~€fjaLa (3ev !_.L1topouv va 't6 X.cXVQUV en' ii7t£r.pov. Ti' cx&-t6\' rov A6yo 1tpt1t~~ at xc:i6e f3illlC1. \10: B"J1IlLOUpyoOV"tClL Beop.of 1tOU va e:UXOAUVOUV xed 'Va €1l7te5w\louv ~.lLa xavovtx~, OIl<XAl1, aove:.xJj xed etpLX-n] aU[.Ll-le-roxfj -rwv aVepW7t(rJv on]v e;ouma.

l:X,E'ttXtl. 'twpo:. (.I.€ "t'6 'tp('to aa~ EpuYt"flI.lCl «reoio Elv(xL 1:6 llEAAO\l 'tOU E:1tcxvao'tu'ttXOU axe(l)iou». (5tV ea ij6ucx va ou~rrtr,uw -n1 BEtTtJ Tils XawCL j\PEvt., yux'tt 3ltv ou!J.r.pw\lCl. NOl1o;w {j'n €1'VClL 1tOAU ~t(X(TttX~ ~ BLa1tLmW01} O'tL {) dxoa-r6; al~vCtc; CtVnx(X'tEOTflOe 'tou.; 1tOAtllou~ (.I.e: 't£~ t1t(Xv(X(J'tcioe:t~ . .6t" urE.X€"tfXL M 1toux-daa ~g xat a1t6 t1ta.vCla"taae~c; xaL ano 7tOAelJ,OUC; "t'6v e:lxo0""C6 o:!WVtX, xat r.ut6 cnpa't6ne:8a auYX€V"CpWat{l)~ xed a7t6 u8poyovo~6!!~e:C; xcx( a1t6 'ta 1taV'tCl· 6& 't6v 6ulJ,olJ.cxCJ1t 't'ov e:bco0"t'6 alwva.

T6 YEyov6~ o'tt ~ epya:t'r.x~ -ra;'1} litv 7t(X.(~~ 1tAeOV xaf BE-v [l1tOpei va. 1tat~~ -r6v p6Ao nov 'riit; iX1ttBLBe: 6 Map;, xa:ta. "t""fj yvhllJ.~ lJ.0u, Btv e:XE~ ("111.0:0£(,(. LY}(tcxoia ~xe~ .r( twooUIle: il-r<xv AE.~e: lL1tOpr;L veX ~oulle "to 't'EAoS a.mou 'tou E:7tcxvao"ta'ttXOU 1tpo"t'<Xy[.Lcx'tot:; + 'Eyw a.u~ TJ1V lata 1tOU at\' 7tapaBtxo~cn ~t~a~CXt ea. ~v E.~a~a a1t6 avo 1tAEUpEC;. ME 'itor.a E:\lvmtx ait 117t0POUOCXIlE va ~ptm<6~aat'€ O'E IJ-La. 1te:p(oC5o nov EXE:t ~aet nLOUl 't"l)-t; "to €1tClVOOTt'Gt't't.x6 1tp6'tcty[.L(X; LUllfPW\,(X {l' ama noo el1tct on1v i:t.wJI. ~ 6& m1!J.at'J€ O't'L qoulJ.e acp-qaeL 7dow flac; T/rv 1t€pLo50 Til; tG1'Op£O:~, 01tOU E:!l1taLVE: 1:0 ~~uUJ.a ~r.a:.t; p"l}'rii<; xat ~lLaOY(X(Jt-tt\J1JC; lxAAayYj<; -rwv 6Eq.t6.W a7to -n1 aUAAoYLX-q XOtVWVL>n1 apaa7J. ~r'1t6 1tOLt; 7tpoU1tOetae:~e; Ba

118

OJ OMIAIE::E I'.THN EAAAllA

~1tOpouoa.J1.e v6: ELXIX(,LE qrt'aae:~ d eva "'t'£"tOLO O-ralSLO; ~H (lux '7tPOo1t66w"fI 6& YrttxV fur. atv ll1ta(1X,E.t 7tA€OV MyoC; &AACC)'"jjc; 'tt7lv 6e:OllWV. (H all.ll en ~'t(X'V O'tL qOUIlE. qrr6:0EL oro 'ttAot; 'ri1t; fIatOPLa~ ~ -n)v tye:AtQV'l} MaLa: oxr. m6 'tEAo~ 'tou x60'{lou, MAti tTt6 <T1lIJE:LO O'7tOU cxirr6 7tOV 6& yf'Jlt-rlXt tcpe~"ii~ e!vcu (fut(r)~ AieL 6 XtYXS:A, cYra.v qnav.e:t 01'6 'time; 't'WV 1tapo:Boos:w\I )"ta Til t])r.Aooocp[a Ti]; ~Iat'op£oct;) e{Jtr:E:'plxr} Bookux. Ked 1tOAAt~ cpopi<'; m J3A£1t£L xavE((; uirto o·tUUC; &)(1tpoaw1tou.; tJ.tOO; 'touAax~crro\l 6:1tOXPwae:w~ 'tOU mU1.EptVOU cptAeAeuBe:pr.OJlou, 01 61toiot me: an «'to: 7taV"ta BE\, e:lvaL 't'EheLfX» (lhtw~ et1tcx XtX1tO"t'£, ol tJ.toflo( 'twv (icxO'0cpuAaxwv "tou vo(.lou Kot6:Vt}~ 6& E1tpe.1tE va aU~"1l6ou\l xa1tw; -elvat Ilr.a a/It' -de; irttM:LE:t; Tiis: O1}~e:.pE.vTjc; XOL'VW'V{ro;-, i} u1tapxouv aK611~ tle:ptx~ A.a.xxoi)~e~ a-r6v 8p6IJ.O a1t' 't'6 Pt6uIJ.VO 1tp6t; TIIv J\yia rUAiIV"q) «aAM 01 ~aaLxo( 6EOIlO( rdV(Xt altto(». K(X( axoAou6et 6 Ule:oAoytx6t; exj3LCXlJtl6t;, 7tOU ytvE-'tcn e3w xed Bexa1te\lu Xp6\lLCt 'l"wpa t o'tt ~ «av 7tpomta6-qOE't1t va 'tOUt; &Ai\cX~'t'E;, eli 6B'1y-"Oe:L'tE at6 rXOUA&'yX» .

.6.EV votJ.£?;;cu iYrt ·ExOU~E qnaaE.t o"t'6 "tE.M><; n,.:; ~IaTop(a; ~~ alrtTj n1V EWOtfX, BT}Arx&1 BE-v vOllf~(r,) un ll1t0POUll-E veX 1tOUtJ.E un qouIJ.E qrt'aaeL ~'J xaAlrrEp'Yl O:V6PW1tLVO: Ecptx-nl BOIl1J -rYi; xotvwvio:t;. Ka£ tcp6aov 1tOm auxva IJ.E 6ecupou'V 0 l)'t'01tr.Onl, lLe 't"1)\1 xax~ e:vvoLa cpurnxcX. avtunpE<pw 't6 tpW'tTU .. UX xed pw-t&w: ?toG 'Lcrta-tat, «1t~ errW» .. 01tW~ ea ekye: () Apxt~~a7]~, a&t6~ 6 onoTot; AEe~ (ITL a&t6 E.I"'gt )(CX£ 1teptoao"tE:po lit\' yivE"tat; 1\1t6 not) f3yr.dve:.t am6;

J

j\1t6 xti1tOtC(. 7tMrt(U'V~>nl6EWPl}0l] 'tWV [Be:wv; 1\1t'6 )«(X1tO~O tyEAta ..

va aUU"nltJ.tt; Kat 1tWe; 'tOA(J.oi)v va. "t'eX htve o:v"t'cX 7tOhr:ttKOt cptMeoeor, 01 o'JtOtOt a.XPt~w<; EXOUV apv'r1eeI KafJe aXEcrl1 IJ.€ IJ.L(XV oV'"C'oAoy£a 'tOU aV6pW7tLVOU oV'"t'o;~ il 61tofa £VBEX0IJ.€VW; 6a 111tOpo om:: va 1tei lXlna, 7t .x. ll~a. xpf.mux\luol ovroAoyia, ~ Ctx61J.l) ~ui xaV'ttavil 6s:wP'laTJ 'tou a'J6pW1tou - yurd aUflqJw\,a; ll' alrtTjv n1 6e6lpT)oY) 6 avep(U1tO~ e:lvcu ~ao~xa eva Br.ac,..'tpe(3AhlI-lE\lO ov, liEV ~1tOpe:r; 1tO'tE: va. e:l'Var. ~Buc.6 (Sv. n&vw at "'te'toLec; ~&ae:tr; aa IJ.1tOpoGO's: xave:fC; vO: 1tpOO1ta6i}oEt va xctt'0xupWOE.t tptAooorptXa TIi lata. i5Tt atv 't'LOE'tlXf. nux' ~iJT7llLcx Pt~LX~C; lxAAay1j<; 'thlV 6e:av.w.v. Te-

TJ ::EHMAINEI EnANA~T A::EH ;

119

"totec; xa:toxupwaetC; Btv EXOUlJ.~ Be:t 7tou6eveX ~ e:XOUllE BEt 1tp<kylJot'ta ltvexB~Yjy7J't'(X, o'Jtw~ 01 )(r.t'taa)cEUE.~ "tou von Hayek.

Sa ~1tOpOOOIt xaVEtt:; \1& 1t£t un (31£(3CXLWC; Y} ~Iat'opLa lStv exet 'tE.A£tWOE~-Otv ~tpoulle av amo 'to oUO"Tl}lla. erVfX~ ""to X(lArYte:po a:rt' ooa e!va.L av8pU}1t(v(i)~ ecpf.X't"a-, aAAa SE(lOUllE o'tt ~ lo'topkl 7tOO qEt myoupa 't'w~wae:t E!V(Xt ~ lO'top£cx 'tou 1tpotaYllu'to~ Tii~ AtYrovo(J.((X~.1.'1Nxa-q l;EPOU(lE O"t"L "to (lEAAoV "'tw.v aV6pW1tLV{tlV XOLvwv~wv elvcu ~ 1tael)'tLX<Yt"J'l't<X, e:lv(Xt ~ £1ttxpa:nlCJ11 ~<; <pLMAeu6EPl1r; OALYapx(ec; Ilt oN.>: oaa OUVE1tOCye-tUt. ntiV{l) d amo OCt ekya liuo np<iy(.La-ra. T6 1tpc,'to e:.lvcxt am6 7tOV e:.17to:: xat xate; 't6 ~p&.au, O'tL a1JAoa~ lSaot laxupU;ovttXt xa't't 'tCtOLO a"nlp~oV'taL at El17tE:Lptxtt; CtJCtA6m:L~, (Xv DXr. Efl1tE tptx€<; ~e TIf xuBa£a EWD LeX, 'tooA<ixt(]'tO\l 1tpaYlla'toAoytxer;: (571Aaa~ «an' iSao f.L1tOfJOU~E 'Ja y\lC!)PU;oulLe:~ i)7tWC; Mve ol r&'AAot, ol (i"OPW1tOt ~Ile:pa Bt\l eV8tClq>tPOV'tttt 1t).tov yt6. 'ta XOLV6:" 1tpOaflE"'t'OV"M«; E1tt1tAEOV U1tOX86v~ct x.a.£ iJtoPP'1't(X mt Btv 1tp6KE:L-m~ va !;avO,£vBtaq>£p6ou\,. Kat 7tot) 't6 ~p£"t"e: xup~Ot, to£IC; .shOt 1tOU ~1crt'E. xa6YlY."..rec; xo:( 1tOAL"t'€t.OA6ya. at 1t(l\,E:1tt~ Il~a , U1tEP€~01tAtO'I .. utvOt Ile ~ tl3ALO - ypacpiet;, eaew; fiOU (5!,UA~'te:. "t'ov KWVWTta. O'XE'tuc& !J.t -nlV (xxp(f3,S:LCX xo:t n1v ttu<Tt71p6nyttl 'tWV l}ux-ru1twv6fl£VCUV 1tpataO£wv; nw~ 5La:teLve:o't£ ht l;epE"C'E: a1t6 'twpa <Yt~ 't6 2000 Btv aa l;a\laE:vBtCl<pe:peouv ol w6pw1tot llc(~1x6. YLa. ~v 1tOht'tr.X~; ~7t6 1tOV f3yafve:~ (Xu'to; TIor.6C; e:l"at 6 -r61toC; 1tOU Sa tJ.7topouae 1tatE 'Va <rra61tL au't6c; 6 o1tob~ 6& E.kys: XcX'tL 'tttOtO;

}\)..).O: €7ttn..E.OV, Civ crra60ulle eTtO TCPaylLa:t"owytx6 e7thtElJo, alrtTj ~ aiol} ~xvaeL an !-l7tope:.i: xave;tc_; va 01tOC1'tl'lP(~L ?'toM 00- f3apa tJ.t O'uy,exp~lJ.tvec; aVaAUae:t~ 1tWC; 'to O"I'JlJepLVO aUa"t'"t]f.l(.( Btv e:lvat f3u~aL(l':o BLcYn Ae:.L"tOUpye:t f3ao~O'~ivo aE xcx'ttXAot1ta 7tP01}yOU(lEVWV xO't'<XO'tao&wv XUt a~ "CU7tW'V eXv6pw1ttVWV OV'tUlV t nor) Bt€:v e.1v(u lxxv6 va e;o:xoAoufhlOEL va napayer. xcd mJve7tw<;,. oiYrru<; il aAIw<;, ta'V 1tPtxyfl(rt~ ol liv6pw1to~ t~ax<?AoUeOUV vei a7tEx0UV 'teAttCUr; CUt' 'tee xo~va, fX&t6 "to 01tOLO (..LaC; 7teptlJ.ivet 0(youpa Btv e~(l~ ~ BLar.wvL01J "rOU 07jl-.LC:pr.VOU aucJ'tTJllm-oC;. El"txt KOCtr. iXA"'Ao. Nt 1-.tLCt: EWOtCX" liv XUL 01 to't'Optxtt; a\laAoYLe:~~ e:1"(xL

120

01 OMIAIE~ I:THN EAAA&A

1tOAU Ct1ttX'01Aec;, [J.1tOpe~'t€ \}a liet't'e 'tt en ~'tC(V xa"tt ij.)J .. o t &" KOL-raSe"tE 't'1]V ESEALSYJ -ri1s res publica Romeos, ~ 01tota (5ev ~"'t'o:v ~E.~ [3rua a"UJ.oxpaTta i:iAM xC('t'a Xt.X1tO~OV 'tp67tO e:.1xe f.tt6:v OpLGI-l£:V"fl eA~UaqJtCl )(.(t.~ IlVX E.ArXxt(J"[l} GUllllE:l'OxYl TOU Aaou crrO: xotva a7to ""to" 40 cdwva 1t.X. (lEXPt -n1v €yxae~8puG'Yl ""tou Auyouo-rou. 06:

CJe:L'tE t5l1AaB"t) liTt. Ct1t6 n1 cnty~~ x<X'ta -n)v onoia at Eva 'tE't"O~O aUO'tl1Jl.CX 0 t ~(Xatxo l ave PW1toAoy~xol )(0 t VWVtXO- t01;'O P~)(Ot IlYlXO: ~ 'JtO'(loL nov 1trxp6:youv XC(.( &vo:.7tCXpayoU\I O'uvex,w<; 't6v Ctv6pcv'JtoAoytx6 ""tU1tO o'V"t"o~ 6 61toto~ ~1tOp~~ va. xo:ve:t va Aet'tOUmae:t ~ res puotic« Romana ihtru,c; ~'tav "tOV 40 Kat "tOV 30 cd.. , l(cx"t'o:pptouv. Ka:'tappEeL ~ res publica Romana xat O:px.LSOU\I va t~cpav[~ov"t'cu 0 t mpa:tllYO( M6:pto~. L.UAAru;. nOlJ.1t~to<; xJ .. rc .• ot €tJ4lUAtOt. 7tOAe-.flOt. 1] TtA71P"1<; (5tc«p8opti -rou MoD, C>mtOU 'VeX Eyxcx6tC5pu6e;t 6 princeps" 6 AuyouG-roC;, Il€ "dC; a1t6AU'te:.:; Esouafe~ 'd<; (ntoLe<; XCl'tExe~ Kat "d~ 61tor:&~ "t'UX(llV€L cxu't6~ 6 yatO~ va Tf~ aOXlZt XtX1tWr; ixv6pw1ttva. Ked ~e:'ta Ba. ~peouv aAAol" ~eptxo( elvat 'tipOfta~ lS7tU)~ 6 Kct.AtyoUAaC; x.Art., llepLKo( elven ctlrC'oxpa'tope~ €u1tpe:1tetc;, lhtwt; 6 T pri(avci r; t 6 j\aptav6<; it. a. AtYnj Elva.t ~ !L0 (po.: Tij.;: res publica Romana, a.1tO -nl anYll ~ xcx:ta ~v o1to(a npay(ul'nxcX xai 01 "to:;et<; -rwv nobites x('.(t ol '[6.l;et~ 'tci1v t1rnew'V. fiOr) glv(Xt ol XUpr.Ol Aet'tOupyo( tXu-ri]s "'t'iJ~ u1t6eem'lt;~ aAArX )CaL ~ plebs, ex,OUV& 7tcXtJ>~& va e!vCt.& Ol1tctA~of PculJ.c.do~ nobiles, brne:i:r; x(X£ ~ 1CCXAta plebs 'ta.~€~C; 1tOV 'ttS a~EXptVe {lta aAA"t} O"nXC1Y1 a1t€\lCl\J'tt crt'a )(O~v6:. ~1t6 E:xe:£VYl ~ a'tty~'fl 't6 au<rt7U.la llEoa ai E.Sl1V't'Ct. XPovLa

~

a.xoAoo81Jui !J.ta (J~tp6: et-tlPuA.ttvV 1toAiIJ.<Ov ~ 1tpoypa<pwv, 'tE:.pa"tttl-

Btwv X"'t'A. Xtxi. at exa'to XV6\.1HX xo:'t'eA"'l;e O"'rir'J cx.u't'oxpcx't'op(a xed 'teAetwae ~ res publica Romans.

de'V Atw (yon ~ ~I(1't'opfCt E7t(lVaAo:.~~6:ve't(Xt, olh€ (.rn l-l1toPOUl-L£ va lJ.a6oulJ.e a1t~ -n1'V ~I(itoplot. AE.w O'tL Bt", ~1tOPOUlle: va ax~cp'too(.J.e. -n1 CTtLY(l~ 1tOll ~AeltOUllE ~"(X aUO'"t7)(la Bnwc; 'to O'1lflC:PLv6 va BLtxWixEt ~v XPLO'Yj 1tOU a ta:tpexet:> YLO: ~a.eu'ta't'ou.; Myou~ ~ ~ xptO"fl Bev elvcn ~e~at{x ~ 1t"tW<1Yl 'tou rrooocrroii 'tou xepBou~ xaL O:J..AES 't€"tOtE:S- avol1ot€.<;, Elvat 11:0).U f3afh.Yt'e:pot ol X6yot- O-rr. fl1topei t1t~ a1te.tpov 6 7tA"11eua~6c; va a5&rupope:~ )({x( "rtX xupiapxct O'tPWlllX'!ct

TI ~HMAINE1 EllANAr.TAEH;

121

va ES(XXOAou6ouv (It {.Le:yaAotfJvx£cx va a~(l't'lpoU\l aU1'a 'tel CPtAe:AeuB€pa: U1tOAot1tct 1'tOU Ka"tct~e"'1x(xv l-le 'de; E:1tava.o"t'6.as:tC; xa( II It "to u') ay6_wE:'; tnt aie;} VE r; •

TO TIPOBAHMA THl: .dHMOKPATIAL ~HMEPA

96: aa~ IJ.LAYJOt:U yta -ra "YUJ.e:PLVrX 1tpo~AiUl(J.'ta Tii~ Bl1~OKprX"da.~. Aew aY1(.1ep~\,la 1tpo~)..iJlia"ta -ri]c; BY)(ioKpa:dac; xa( <Sx~ 1tPO~)..~I-lttta. riJr:; aYJ~e:ptvij; all~oxpa'da~ yttx'd o'n1V 7tpa)1lCt:rtx&r'frlX m1!!Epa Btv &Tt(:xpxe~ 1tDu6eva &'lJ.0xpocna. ~Y1ta.pxouv -r6 7tOAU t.ptAtAEU8epee; OAlya.px(e:~ at bPLOJlEVEt; X&pEt; ~ tTX£tLX&' 1tP0'V0I-LLOUXE:S. rtpoVOIJ.LOUXe:C; CUtO 1tOAAet; lx1t6$e:tC;. rrpe1Ce:~ va eYlJ,(XIT'tE. rx&n;v 'TIl GtLyt.L'J'} 1te;p~aa6te:POt ano 1tevrE iStae:xtTr0ILI1Upux iivOpw1tot 1taV6.> ~ y1l xal £lvar. ~~'t~lJ.a av fut&Qx,ou'V 500 71 600,1:0 1tOAU 700 txt'X-r0IJ.tJ.upto: &"OpW1tWV 1tOO ~ouv at Xc71pe<; 07tOU ~ 1tELVa (ltv elveu )(cx6'11fleptv6 1tpOf3).:Il~(.(, 01tOU ~ xa-w.B£wS"tJ. ~ CPUAaXtal] ~ ~ eAAEUpl) EM:u6e:pta.:; Bt" e:.l"cxt ~ xaBY}l1e:.pt\lYJ 1tpCtYlJ.a'ttx6'tY(ta. ~AA6: xed at a&tt~ 'de; otxovo(.J.txa Cx'VLt1t'tuyt..ttvet; xat 1tOAL'ttXCt cpLAeAe:u6e:psC; XWpE; ~ )(ccr6.a't'(l~, £vw rpat"E"ttXt 1tEphtou f3LWatl-!7J ~ £l"at O1:'Ijv 1tPtTYI-lQ"'t'l.x6"t'l'(t<X a1te}..1t!.crrtx~ • Et veu Ct1te:Anta-tt'K'Y] y~Ctt( Bu - G'tuxw; x(Xvtvar; Bt" ~Ai1tEL 1tt6 7tipa <X1t6 "t"IJ lllYt"1) 't'ou. eve;) 'ttX 1tpof3A~l-.u:t'ra not,) avnil£'tw1tf~~ aiUlEPa. ~ av6poo1to-nyrtx elvat "t£parrt'tcx.

~T7t6.pxE.t xo::t" lr.pxYjv 'to 7tp6~AlJJla nou avEt.pe:pa 1tpoYJyou(J.i\i(r)~.

TO; 6/7, t6:v OXt 'tcX 7/8, 1'0 U x6o(.tou ~oi)ye: at eva xa6ecrrw<; qrrwXE.~CXt; xa£ "tEpamto:r; )«(.('t'(l1ttEO''1C; ~ ~T1tcXpx'Et E.n:Er:t'a "t6 OhtOAOYLx6 1tp6(3A')'ULCX YUl1"O o1toio 6 xaatvar; ailtcxcpopE:L ~ €V(SUXcptPE" 't'a~ yui IJ.e:PLxt<; roo a1t6$Et~~ evw ~OUlJ.e: 1tQ:'VtJ) aE lJ.tci 11l'to:povm- 7to6ip(y) ' 11 yux va X(l'J1O"tllo1toniacu (ita" w..Al'I 1tapo!lollila.", 1tPLOV(~OOfJ.E aom"/Ulcrt'L)Ca, xafhlt-tEpt\'a, -r6 KMx.8£ E'Ttt.X"W mo {)7tOtO £t'llaatt xo:6tCJ1J.eVoL. AU-n1v "n1 att"fll~ 7tOll lltAa~e 1tp6tEt 'Va ll1t&Qx,OU'V 1te:.pl1:£~ £xtTt'6 XtALaa€~ Ex't&pLa -rp01tLXWV 8aaClv o'n1 Bpru;LA(a, 'to: 07tOUx xafyovttXL auanuux'ttx<x yux v~ BY}~tl)upy"tlf:Jouv aypmtXE~ eX't'aaeL~. llXL 1l0VO rrn1 Bpr.U;LAEa t at 6A6xA7J(17l TlJv 'tP01tLX~ ~wv7j,. 'to: i5aO'7l xCl't"amplcpo'J'tctL, O1:'Ij\l EUPhl'ml bdaYl~ -ra BaOl1 KtXTCtO'tpiCPOV't(xL. Me on1V x(X"tCCa1'poqnl1:'WV BctaClY GU(l-

124

or OMIAIE.E ETHN EAAAliA

~aa£~e:t ~ x(X""[C(mpocp~ xtAt&i)wv xct£ Be:xa«'5cuv X~A~aBw'V ~~oi\oy~)(W\l eH5wv. "'01tWC; -r6 £xe~ 1tEI e:\loo; lleyaAoc; e1tt~~wv, {'(u"t'6 1tOU ol lo-roptxo( 'tOU ,..utAAOV't'OC; Ba 6ewPlJoouv we; 1:'7] lle:yaArYtEp-tl -,piAa 'tii~ lxv6pW1CCJ"t7)TCXt; rrrov elxom6 alwva litv en e: lva~ ome: ol1t6AEl-lor.. OU"tE ol 1tUP'7lVtxt~ ~6ll!3€C;;, OUTe: x.av "eva.;: "'t"pi:rot; nClyx6ol-Ltoc; 1tUp11VLXOC; 1t6A£I-l0S. A&t6 reou 66. qJave:~ w~ ~ ~€ya.AU~ -reM 'tp€Nx. -ril~ avBp(.J1t6't'"'I'to~ <no ~eAAov au e:lvctL "il xa't'aCTtpo~

-rou ~~oAoytXoi) 1tAolttOU rile; yij~.

:E -de:; 1tP01jYtJ.E ve:~ Xrx.L 0'X£"t t xa cp tkA.e:ufl e: pe:~ XWP€S' , --rL y£ VE:-rcu ~\I 1tpa.wrrnx6nyra ; .6J}{J.o ar.oypa.cpoL xai 1tOAt""tr.xa\l~aEC; IitAave: yux lJYJP-oxpct't'£a. To 7tpay~a:ttx6 xa6E:<Ttwc; elvat tpUOf.XcX EVa. xcdl~(7'twC; 1tA";PWC; oA~yapxLx6. ~Y1t&pxouv cpuo~xa ol <pr.AU.£Uee:pE.~ 1tA£uptc; fX&tOO ""tou oA~yapxlxou xa6€0''t'CrtOC;: onrXpxouv 6pLOllEva ar.xatW~aTa. "t'w'V ilv6pW1ChlV XlIi: 't"wv 7tOAt"t'WV, u1t6:px'e~ EVcx.C; Aey6!lEVO~ EAE:UeepOC; Tunoe; )(TA~ }\)...Ati eav xorttXS€~ xave::tc; 7tO~O£ 1tpa.YI.uruxa xu~ep'Vouv ~ 1tOtOl 1tPay(.L(X'"t~x6. exou\' T1Jv t~ouma O't'cX xtp~a rooc, 66. av'ttA"1]q>8ei {)"tt ou-re: ctt(~ XE[.pO-tEPEC; E:1tOxt~ ~~ M.yOflev,.r; pWI .. ui~x~C; BYl!J.oxptX-rfoo; -nou BE" Yrta-v TIo"t'e B1JJ.LoKpa1:fo: MAti. oAr.yapxta-""to 1toaoG't'6 a&twv nou EXOUV 86- VClIlYl tlgaa 0"n1v xo~vwvr:tx litv ~-rave: no"!e 't6oo {lr.xp6 000 el"ClL cn1l1E.pa. sa. 1ttXpw yux 1tapaa~tYl-la -n1 ycx)..)~~)(il xa:tao"tcxo1j 1tOV 'tijv ;epw x.a1tw<; xaA&tepa. '0 EV"t}Atl(Or:; )(a£ ~e BtXrx(WIJ-Cl tV1lqlou 1tA"eUO}l()t; onj raAAia etvat 7tEpt -ra. 35-37 E:xa"t'OlJ.[ .. uJpr.a. j\v aepO£OE:t xa.'V;:i.; -nl AIty6I-LE'J"1J 7tOA"'t~X~ 't"tXl;'1) ~ 'tOUS xup(cxpx.0uC; T7j~ ob,ovol-Lfa~, J(X&rou~ nov 1t(d~ouv 1tpay[J,o:nx6 POAO onj xeLpaywY7joY} ~~ xor.vYjt; y\&!w[.lll<;, t(5((Ut:; ~E: -rti lLa~Lx6t ~taa 1tA't]pocp6pYJCTtl~. xed XtX7tOtEC; iiJ..Ae:<; x(Xnrropi:e~, 6& Cf1t&.0E~ gVae:XO!J.E.VUl~ Ctt6 aUvo:>"0 3.700 0:1'6tJ.wv. Amo Ilar; a£vEt ~((l avr:£Aoyia ev6e; o-d<; Bexa XtAF.a.C5e<;. Tau"toxp6\iw~ l)7tcXpxouve:. lXv6p6.l'1tOt 01 61toro~ aaxouv XPt't'L)(~ ~v b.pxa.(a o:~vciiK~ B'1JIlOxpa'tta:o Bt6tL Eva;- e.AeuBepor; 1tAy}6uGfl6t; tx(X-r6 xr.Ataliwv av6pw1twv elXe: "aw~~ aTfr XEtp&t~(Jl1 1t€pt1t"t"<uo"l} ~ EXIX'!6 XLAux8e:.s- BOUAOU<; . .6.S:'V 'to Atw cpUOtxo: (lu-r6 yr.ci va litxo:toAoy-tlaw 'tYl'V U1to:PS1'] ~C; aouAe-la.C;. To )..tw y&a 'Va lJe:tl;w 1tOL6. e:.lVr.lL 1) 1tpayl-L(X'tL~ K(.('taCT"t<Xal'} a1Jl1epa. 4l(X\Y[ti~olJ.ar. an av

TO IIPOBAHMA THI; 6.HMOKPATIAI: IHMEPA

125

XaVE'tE xo:'noto Aoyap~aol-t6 rX\I-dtTtOtXo yta TIl auyxpoVYl ~EANX5a. Sa !3pet'tE: 10 1tOA6 x()..lOUr; 11 0Xt'(.(xoatou; av6pw1touS; 01 61to~o~ 1tpay~a't~xti 7ta[souv eva. p6Ao at i>Awv "t'wv s:lBwv 'tL~ S:~ouO"i:e:.C; 7tOU tYTC<XpxOUV. AUn1 e:.l va: t ~ xcx'ta(f't'(Xoy}.

TIapaAA1]ACX {.L' a.irn1 'tYJ'V xa.maCTt(W')j 1tapa:tYlpou(.L£. fva aAAO e:;£oou xpfaq1.o .. E:~(onu (3apu cpa:r.'V611e:VO. at Aaoi (lu"t'wv "t'wv xwpwv e1tat~Cl\J evav lJ.lty&Ao pOAO onjv LO"'"top£a. atv lJ.tNXW ytri 'tic; (ltXX£<; )(aL 'tU; xa.'CCU(nl0etc; ~ !J.tNXW YLtX rov 1tOAr."t'tav.6 xed t(5(cu; yux Tilv 1tOA~'t'tK~ "lll-ltouPYUx. Me:.'ta. a7tO 'to I-LEYaAO oxo't"a.B~ not) E1tUCpa-r"f1ot lx1to Til PWlJ,cXLX"rl a.moxpa:top£a lS<; Tijv am "twv veo"tEPWV xp6vwv ~ Sava.B"l1l1touPY"1f)rrx.€ a~ .6lYt"X~ Eupw1t"fl Eva e"AE:u6e.pw"tLX6 XtVllll(X. E£:)(h~."oe ll~ TiJv 1tPW'tli rXcrt't>n1 't&~'" 1tot} a'1fltOUpy~(JE 7t6Ae~C; 1tOV 1Cpocma6ou'V va au't'ox.u~epv'l'l6ou'V, ~earx. ixn6 a:ywvec; O'To6~ o7tolouC; xed 1] ao'ttxij 'ta~l1 E1tCU~e: cpua[.xa p6AO Xa.L ~ (.uxpoa.O''ttx1J )(a( &pyo-repa't'epa.(rno poi..o E1t(x~~E XCXL ~ tpya:tLX~ "tt:iS'l' E&v X(x1:aAOt1tO (xl)'tWV 'tw.v rxYWV(l)V ~ €IlEtv(XV cx&t-a 7tOLl xrxpaK"t7)p(~ov'tar. ain.u::pa w~ a"J'](J.oxpa:""t~xo( i1 cptAeku- 6e:pOL 8€(JJlot a' alJ't€S 'tLc; X61PE:t;. Au-co( OL ee:o~o£ atv ~-ro.v 7tO'tt Bwpo "twv KUp~6:px'W". oiYte BClpo "twv )(a1t~"'t'(XAr.a"tiJ". olYce avayxaLa Ct1tO'twol-lcx"t(X TOU OtXo"\J0lltXOU au~~a;'tOC;. Ka:raxn}fl1?x.av {J.E: o"Etpa ayWVW\I. E:G'tOtXtoav f30uva 1t't'(U~a'"t<'uv xed 1tO'ta.flouC;

u

f.XtlJ.tx'toc:; .

Iloii f3piOXOvt(J.L «mOL ol MOL a-.11..1ltpct x.a( 1tOU ~ptaXE"'t'(lt &A.Illil-

<Tte: xaL 6 tAA.,,\nx6~ Aa6~; ~O tlJ.q>avemepo<; xapax"tY}ptGJl6.; 1tOU 6« (l1topoooe va BWoe:L xexv£U; e:.lvar. o'n ~pf(Jj(ov'W.~ alt Il(a. xcrtam-cxaYJ 1tOAL l' & x.'l1 c; ana Be ~ txC; ~ ti5 ~urt'LX01tO t "f}0'l1~, aVEu6 UVD-T'1)m.c:; ~ xuvtOll0i) , lWtoopop(at; yt6:. -rt.X XaLVa XeLt "ta 1tOAt'ttKCt xaL YE:\lLx&'tepcx lltiX<; <Tt'acrtj; an€\lO:V'tr. 'toaD ~v l"t{!YCLX-q 00'0 xat ~v XO~\rl} sw~ ""tour; 1tor) dvat 1tE:pbtou {-lLCX crt'ftOTl CUtOXa.U\lwoy}C; tJtoa m6v X(X"CC(vc(Aw't'tx6 XClL 'ty}Ae:.o1t"t'tx6 cxuvavt01-l6. "H o1]lJ.e:p~ VlJ x(X"'Cao'tao'l Be\&! EIvcn a.1tAW.C; Ct7tO"'CeAeO"l-lcx aO'V6l(J.ooLWV, {5oA01tAOXthlV, xe:.tpCXYWY'l1O'Y]~ tK Iltpou~ 'twv XUptcxpxwv (f'tpw~a-rw". 'Eav i6. xop~apXCf. mpwl-!ata tJ,1tOpou\' \lex xCt.\lOUV a:tLtJ.wp.,,'t'( cx&t6: "'["6: 01tolct x6.\lOUV -Ka.i vol-l~w cht sB& <Tt""fiv tEAMBa etaa.o"tE 1tOm xaAa TIA:fl-

126

OI OMIAIEI: I:THN EAAA~A

POCP0P"1]lJ.tvo t ~ 't'6 ~cte: 1tcXvc.u (1"t6 1te"tm aa<; ~ O'tL xavouv€, a't L ~wP"')U oaa xavou'VE:-i&v <XlrtO: 't6: xup£apx'a a-rpc:illCl"ta 111tOpoUV 'Ja KtX\,OUV a01'a 1tOU )(cXVOUV& e;.tvat a.XPL~W~ BL6'tt at AtXO( ~EVOUV tl:1ta6e'tc; ~ 'to 1tOAU OllXWVOUV mue; w(louC; 1:ou'i MYOV"tar;, «"touS S€pOUftE, elva.t OAot ol y(5tO~ 7tcx)..tav6pw1to~».

Tti 'tEAeumIa xpoy~a t~cpav£o'tllxa.v 6e:W{JJl'tLKOf 1-lE. nlv avctyEvVl10'7l '"rou Aeyoll€VOU cpr.Aekue€pLOIlOU~ 01 07tOi:OL e)(e£t6;~oov aU-n) n]v xo:ra(1'ttXO'll AtyoVttt<;: "'twptx tp'taoa(.LE: 1tPcxy~CX"ttxa. 0-nl" ~- 6r.vII tku6E:p(a, U't6v Cx:t0IlLXtot.t6· 0 xa.eE.vct.~ &OXOAs:L'tf . .u tlE: ""tit (5txa -rou xaf auv.e:1t6>c; Bev Exou~e XOLVCUV~)(t~ )(.(X( 1tOAL"t'LXtC; ouyxpo6ae:te;~ Btv lxoullE l<Ttop(e:-; xed cpaa(Xp~c;~ )(oJ E'tOL 't6 ooon'l~a AEt"toupy~L ~X"t6C; a7'CO n1'V u1toxptoia 6 auA).OYLatJ.6~ OttYt6r; 1Ce:ptqe ~ )Cat: lJ.£a "tE.prurna au-m. 7ta:rl1. T6 U1tcXpx'O'IJ oU(n7U.La. ~ ~Ot 01tW~ EtV(xL ~Il€pa, x((mo .. tpi:t.pEL -nlv Ylha "tilv E.1tL~lwm1 -rou, 1\v e;axoAouf:Jer xed AE1'roupYEt x(X'ta K&'7tOtOv -rp61tO, BE-v k~'toupyei X.&pLS; <TtOU~ aVepW1tOOS; xa( '"tou~ 6ea(lour; 'tou; ono£ouc; 1tapayeL. ML"t'OUPYE:t at6'"t~ ~ napa n1'J e1ttxpoctouaa VOO't'po1tLa., 1ta.pa nlV 1tO~6t'1"'t'(X "tMV t5LEU6IJVOvtwv9 e;axoAou6ouv XlXL u1tapxouv ot. Opto~tV(l 1J.€p11 -ri1<; xotVwv(ru; xed tTt'OV X{Ja'ttx6 ~'1X(Xvt<7!J.6 --00; 1tOU~ !lE fP% 'tWV B~)(a<TttxWvt X% --ewv EX1tfXLBeu'tLxwv i} q,% '"t"wv s:pya~olltvwv EV yt~e:t- Xa7tOLOL ol 67tolo~ ~ a"'TI veX aUllllOrxpw6ouv IJE nl'-' t1ttxpa'"touaa. VOOOtp07tta, S"fJA• va AtVIt «'"t( ~& VOt~t E(..lEV(x; IIot6; 1tAl1PW'VEt 1tE'.p~O'CJ6ttpo; IIpoC; OqlOOr; fXtrtOU J3yashl TiJv anocpCXO"fl»:o (htCU~ 6a E1tpe:1tE va x&vouv xa'tit -n}v 1tpaylJ.a't~)c& tbttxpa"touoa' ~LAoaocpfaxc.d xa:TO: 'tf~ 6e:wpfe:t; '"t"ou. <pLAe:Aeu6epLo(J.ou ~ t~axOAouaOOV va AE:t'toupyouv xa:rti 1tCXpaBoot(Xx6 'tp61tO, I-LE xa'"t!. XoctaAot1to: ~BoUt;, 1tOU xeX'VOOVE: tJ.epL>COU~ BtxaO"-rec; 'tOuAax~O'tov va e:I'V(xL xCt'ta '"to. l-LaAAOV 'fj ~'t't'ov ixliE:x(xO"'"t"or. xa( auve1tw~ va '"t'ou~ q>o~ouV't'at. ITapa.AA1}Aa. apxe'tof ex1tCXtBe:mLXOL aVtt "IJ& x~uouv llEoa o-ol\l 1:6;;"11 1tpo01ta6ouv va ~aaouv )Cat~ mel: 1tCXtBL6;· lJ.eptxo( tpycX-te~ ~tawVouv "t'~c; (3(ae~ xat ~at Btl' EX:tpOXLaC;ovra~ Bta:pxw.C; "t"a "tpe"a. K(Xvov~xa Be\l EXOU'V xavE'Va i..6yo va ~taWVOUVE. ami:; --etC; (3((}e;, 5eBor;.tvou -rou ott -roue; 1tA'1- pwvouv x(X~ BE-BollE-VOU 1:0U 't£ P.Mnoo'V va. ytvE""tat ~e xGtt'aXP'1a~tt;

TO DPOBAHMA THE l1HMOKPATIA.E EHMEPA

127

a~o"€X(l'tOllllUPLwV ~ (..l€ xavovu,ec; €1tLxetpTJoetc; 01tOU 'tEprXcrn£-t; 1tepLouo{ec; ~~LoupyouVtat XCtlp(.; xav£v(X ),,610 tx1C6 TfI ~£a (Jtpa crrftv a:n .. ll. At" IJ.LA6:w YLO: '"t'a 1tall1te:p~, llLMw y~6. O"ofiapO"tepa 1tpay~a 1tOU y(vo\Ytcu 1t .X. o-r6 XPlll"-a'"t~crrftPLo 'til; Ntar; T6pXYJ<;, iS1too (x1t6 -rr, (lUx tJipa crrftv ID..A1J t XcJ)p~ )(cxtJ.LCX Ob(OVD(.LLX"'I1 ~aOl'] oUtE: xt:Xv )(aA.6}C; E.vvoou(le:vYJ x.a1tt"t"a.)..La"tLx~, &)f.lLOUpyoUV't'(lt Btatxa'tol-l~upta BoMpta ~t )(cx6cxpa a£pL'"t~tat"£r; E:1ttXE:LP11- O£L~. '"'Av alrrYl ~ xa'tacrtctOl1 auvEXto"tei, ome ~ f'LooqJcupa ~EO"a 0'tYI'V onofa ~oufle: 6a. !X\l't"ESEL E1t( 7tOAAet; (5exae-ne:.;, om€ ~ XOtVW'n6ocpa~a, liv !lOU E:1tt'tpt1t~aL b ve:oAoyt(J,!.L6~ ~ Ba lJ.1tOpeOEt va t~(x)(OAoUae:t va AE~'"toupyet.

Tti xa6eo't"w't"(X 1tOU futcXpx.oovs: if a&ttc; 't£r; x.&pEr; e:lvcx.L IJUx IJ.~XVl1 llE~OWt1q>(o: 'tOU 1tAYl6uOIlOU riit; yii~. AU1;o(X1tOXaAouVtaf. B"f}lLOXpa1(~C;, AEST) 1tOU 01tWC; l)}..e:C; ol liAAE<; Exe:~ into<Tter crlU.J.epa Il(CX ~o 1J.€¢l EK1t6pv€oal}. EI\'cxL lxaUVCl-rOV 6 61totocr8if7tO-rE l\cpptxa\}6~ aexa'Vt~ lJ.1t Btx(X !J.uapaALo~6AfX xCli e:."lXOCH 't"~£7t xfX"taAafjEL TIIv esouafa va tL~ (5 LaX7)pU;et o"n 1tp6)Ce~-rar. va. ty)Caa~apuae:t €vav all~oxpa't~)(6 aooLaAt0t-t6, E:; OvOllCt't"oc; 'tOU o1tofou r.pUOtx6: aq>a~L lOUe; tXvt't1tai\ouc; 'tOU, xtX't'aha(i~aVE:L n1V 't"l1AE6pacTtl xed ixq)Lov¥~ 'to", Aa6 "t"OUA To tliLo EXe:.L aUflf3er xat tJ.E n1 MS1'J aoatetAtal-16~' E,~eic; ol ~AAlJVEC; e:.L{J.a.O-r£ at 1tpo\Jo~tOUX(X 6tmJ v& X(X'tfXMf30ulJt 'tL eXEL YLVEt lJ.E TIl Ae~l1 aOOtaAL0ll6;. To tBLO qEL yt:\lEL xa( J.l€ n} AES'l Enav6.o-ra.o"l). cIlav'tru;o~a~ Sa {3Aine-ce: xaSe: fJ.tpcx BuxqnUlmtc; y~a 'Ojv €7t(Xviw-raU1] rna .puye:"ta t tJ YLa n1V E:1tcxv6:-

I 'If' ~

0't(X.0"1] ero X(X{Yt'~ UY€to:~.

IIpE.1teL va e7taVEAeOU~E: O-n1V &px.~)(~ a.,.~(Xa(a -rr;c; At~E:WC; «t5Y1- I-Loxpmta». 6,YU.loxpa'tLCt Btv OTJllaL\JE:t 'to: aVepW1t~\lO: aLXa~w.lla't(X, Bt'V Oll~afve:f. ~v eAAE~$7J hoyoxpLo£ac;, Bev O11p.aiVEt E:XAOytC; olou8~mYte 't"U7tOU. l)Aa rx(n& e:lv(Xt XClAa xed CtyL(X9 aAAeX e!vcx~ a EU'tipou xcx( -rpi "to u ~o:.a llo u enC()COAO u6cx 1.i] ~ 5"tJ II oxp(X1:"(a~. A"'1- IlDXpmkt, el",a~ '"to XPrErOt; TOU B~(..lou. ~:ij~oc; e:lvat 6 Aa6~. Kpa""toe; en« ap)(cxLa E:AAYlVLXa, 8tv OYJIlCXtVeL XPatO~ ll€ ~ 'lT11~Epwil

128

OJ OMIAIEE l:THN EAAA'&'A

Ewor.a. Kp(ito~ t5iv U7t71PX.E Gn]V O:Plata; "EAAaaa:. 1] lx61]vciCi(~ 7tOAt"tE£U B!tv ~-mve: xPrX'to~ 1}'ttl.VE: 1f6A~r; ~ 1roA~Te(a. Kpa:tot; O't"a tXpxctIa tAA"fl\n~a a"[.la~ve~ Buv(X!-t'1 xed tvaexo!Jt~w~ (3£a 1} ~~.q [3£a. (Erva~ xa.{XlX""C'YlP~aT~x6 o't"[. <JTJ] "trx t"EAAMa B7Jflr.OUm61JXE 1tpaylla'"t~K6. EVrx xp(ito~~ 1t'fjpa~e: a.7tO 'Tn (zpxaIct E:AAYlV&KO: T'ij AtSlJ xpa't'oc; -not} D'"1lflCttV€L BU'VO:lJ.Ylll (3t(X· 6a (l1topo6aO:!lE va Erxa~e 1tape::~ n1 AES~ 1tOAtTe:la~ aE'V e:.lveu €'tOL ~. l1YUloxpa'da. elVCtL ,~ e;ouO"fa 'tOU a~~ou. 'E{tv axe:<p'tOU~E ame~ 't'£r; i\t;e:t.; m6 ~aao~ 't"ou~ ~ at-teow.; 4t<pa\}(~oVtat "ta ouotaanxa 1tpO[3A~~a1:a.. IIpoo't(X 'l'tPW'M "tt €£Vctt {; a~llO~ 1 1tOL6C; EI",at 6 BYi(.1ot; t 7tot6t; a'V~x€t at6v a'ij~o; Ae:6-t'e:po'V. -ri Ba 1!t::1 esou-o(a; Kat 'to yeyo'V6~ (lAAwat"e: &n 6 'CSLOe; 6 xapaxt'TlPlOIl6~, 6 YBr.0'i 6 opOC; 7tOU u1toBllAWV£l aul'O ""t6 1tOAL-t'€U{lCX eE:'t£~ (lina 'La epwn}lla""ta, aE.(XV€~ rov tB~cx('t'€pO xtxpax:nlPa: TOU TtOA~'t'Eu~a:tO~ ~ 1tot) y~~v~t'W.~ TiJv TB~C( OTty~.q ~t -n1 qltAOOOr.p~X~ avrU;frt~o'1l.. at avtle eo"t) ~E &AAa 1tOAt'tE.U (lena m& onoIa "t'€-roux tPW··riU1.Cl'ta Btv YEWlOU'V'Ta:~ ..... A v 't6 xo:6£o'twC; e!\lcn ~ ~o",apx~a, ;epS'te: is't~ e:.l-vaL ~ CtPX'1 'tOU I-lOVclPXy} xed rxlr~6c; 6 {-tovapx7JS' e1v(X~ nav'tot'E. )(CteOp~allgVO~ XA1Jpovo~~x6: ~ xa.lll€ 01tOto'Va~1t'o't~ &AAo 't'p6no. To ra~o ~crxUE~ att lAta apLo'toxpa:tta: ol apto'to t elvat CXlrtOt 1tOU EX ye~e:'ril.; O:.V7]XOU\I at Il£a. 6p~o[li~11 XOtvwv~KlJ 't"as~. ~H a.,.l-l0}(pa"da ~a1] OCtV 5po; 6e'tet e:pwn]lJ.fX't'cx xed 7tpO~Al1tJ.a't(x. l\7tO nun; n1V (X.noc.1nl 5EV etvClt ~uXC(io OT.( ~ yivv"IloiJ T),]S' aUIl1ti1t't'e:.~ )cUT&' ,,[E:AE:tW~ ouO"u.x0"'t~x6 1P01tO Il€ nl ytwYlO'7l atYtiJc; Tij; tX't"ep(J.ovl1C:; tpw'[llm'l<; TrOU ~lvcxt it t.ptAoaocpict.

~H aYltJ.tf)(pCXT~a e:!vat. tl etAEL 'Va e:.lvrn eva: 1toAf-rE:U!J.fX 7tOU i.nto~AE1tE[' cr'ti}v xo~'Vw'JtX~ xa~ ~v a'to~~Kl) aU't'oVOflta. r~(X,'d taw lJ.tAfilJ.€ YLcl C(i)'rovo~tC( ; A~&n 6 [J.ty~a'toc; apl61-l6~ "tW'V b.vepW1t~vcu\' xoi VWVtWV e:yxa6r.Bpue,.xe 1tcXV'to't'E: 7taVlU ani ~a01'J lltO:C; E:'te:povotJ.Lar;. 01 Be:OllOt 1tOU lrn~pxav 7 GEGIlOL [J.E. 'Ti] yev~x6'"taT'1] E:vvota, CxAACC xa' ol 1tOAt,.tXO~ 6eov.ot £L3txCt, 6etvpouV"t<xt naV'to'tE w~ BeB0I-lE'VO~, xat v.~ EltLae:X6~evor. alJ.rpta~~~a7J. 01 GEO(lO£ au'tot ~'t'aVE. xaIJ.hllJ.EVOL luna. l't't'OtOV 'tp61to, wCtt'e: va l1~V Elven 5uvot1'oV veX 1:e6ouv unO. EpW'tYJO'YJ. Il .x. ot ac.at-ttaet~ 1tpw't6yovwv cpUAhlV. ol 8EGI-lOL TI1~ <pui\YJC; E'X.OUV aVExa6ev 1tnpaa06E:L a1to TOU~ 6€r.LeA~w-

TO npOBAHMA THE Ll.HMOKPATIA:E ::EHMEPA

f29

'tie; ~p(j)e:<; ~ anD 'roue; npoyOvouc; xed fh~wpouv"t'C(L (Xu-rov6'1"t'o~. T6 op86 Kat 'to ~~ OpeD. 't6 Lbu'tpEm:6 xed LO 1l"t1 e1tr:rpe7tTo Elv(Xt xn- 6oPLOllivC( ~ta yu:i 1t<Xv'tC( ~ at oAa 't"(x 7t€C5kx. atv ixTIayope:ue:"ttXt va. a!lrp~(J~'1~aEt xa\}e:~c; '"touS 6EO[J.OLU; .. BE-v xp€La~e:'rCXt xciv va a1t(Xyopeu6e:.i: ~ a~6n e:IVott aatctv6Y}'"to "ti oq.lq>r.o[3'ln'leouv. Oi {XV8PWTtOL 'tOW; ~ouv tvO'wllcx'twae:t~ 'roue; qou'V€ eoUYtltpUcEUO'!tt ~t TfJv raUl. roue; TlJv Ctva'tpocp~, B"I1A. ~€ 't'fJ\I La~a 'touC; -nlV xa1:aaxeu~ ~~ xorVW'V~X6)V eX-r6!J,wv.

T( eytve <JTJ]v apx'a(a <:EAAo:(irx y~a 7tpuYt-'J] t.popa xo:£ 'd e1taVeA:~cpa" OnlV EUpW7tl1 a1t6 ~6v 120 -130 al.~va. xed tl€'ta; ~H MSl'J 'tOU n£(l6'Vo!J.ou xaeEO'1"W't'O~ il e:lJ.cpavtCTIJ ~dxr; 't'~C; 1tp6C; -n1" au"C'ovoll(aA AUn1 ~ "t'aoy) eKcppa~e:.~(Xt 1tOA~'tL)(6. (J.E. 't6 BTttLOxpa't'lx6 x(VTlI.ux Kat [J.t 50'oo~ a1l~Oxpo:t'~xou; 6eallou<; lh'ULtoum61puxv. 'H ¢!;Y} l-tt -n1V t't'~povo(.L£a aiJlJ.a~ve -rr,v a.tJ.CPta~~'t7Ja~ 't't7)'v ~B1llrnap'J!JVC(i}V ee:olll)-v xa( au'to e:ytve: o-rqv (xpxato: ~EAAa.Ba. Alrto 7tOU ~)t7tou~e:. rr. X. O'-n1v l\e~v(X a1tO 'to 7 00 Ewe; '"to 400 1t.X., xed cX)(O~Dt xat Il€"ta e:lvc(t i} 1t€pbtou OUVEms tlE"1"ct.~OA~ 'twv ee::a~w". tJ.tv 3YI",-tOUm6"f]xC('V 1to't'e U5ewC5eLt; ee:cr110L. at l\e1]vaio~ 1t0"t'€ BE'" in:atfJa"J \lrX tJ.e:.'tappue~£~ouv -roue; v6~ouC; 'roue; Xct-rti '"tP01tOV wcrce vO. BtEUPUVOuv ~ allll0Kpoct'LX~ 1tpaKT.~K>1 ~ OO}A. 'nl Buvu't'(ytTrra. ftPaYlJa't~X'tj~ oulJ.~e-t'o;.6]c; 'tou Bru..t·ou r:rcf,v t~ouO'£cx.

Amovo~ta o7)(lCdVE.L O"tt ~ 7tOAL"C'tX-q l<Otv0nrt'ct ~HVEL ~ Teita a'to'V bu)'t6 '"t",C; 'tou<; \J6tJ.ouc; 'tytc; xed 'tou; Bfve:t SEpov'tac; 5T~ 'roue; a(Ve:L~ 811). · a1tD XAe: (o'v"tcxc; xCt.£:) e rata. e~w)Co ~ vov ~ xi] t; m]yiic; "twv VOIl W~ ~ 't6}V eE.a~wv, Et'tE aUn] Tf 7t"fl~ 6e.wPY16er q>uar.x~ et'TE rX1tAW.t; 'lil(>aaoouxx1l. ~r;'t'~ U1tEp~oct'~xii ~ BEla. "H 'tE:Ac:mcxta 7t€p(1t'"rwO''1) ~uaLa~"tGf.t (J.e 1:0U~ ~E~pctf.ooC; Ti;c; IIaAa~fu; l1Lcxe~XYlC;: "roue; ~w; TIOU 8fv€L 6 '1€xw~a <Tt6" Mwuc:ril.

"u't~volJfo: a~lJ.(dve~: ~?L\J?U~: oi ~a<; "tou~ "6~.?o~ 1J.~r; xed 'tou~ IIcrt.LOU.C; lla~ SE{Jov"Cac; an EllEtS 'tOUt; B"11IJ.~OUpyOUIJ.E, ~epov~ o'tt 'ItC; 1'00<; xCtmoxe:u&~ou(J.e. Alrr6 e:lvat -r6 !lE.Ya.AtYt~po xpa'to<; .. ~ elv(xL ~ ~eyaAtYt;£pYl ESoua~(X 11;00 on<Xpx.e:& lLeacx at lJ.(X XOt.,,,(0.: va (l1tOPOUllE va BivoUIl-E mou~ E:(XtITOUs !letC; 'tou.c; vOl-l0u,:; Wit;. ""lA. vei ~3(\loufJ.e O''t'DV Eau't6 l .. uxt:; xat 'to6~ eea!lo6~ nov a~E.-

13IJ

01 OMIAIE::E I:THN EAAA.1A

1tOUV 'n1 ~U)-f] floo; xed TfJ'J xl)~epv'la"t} lle til\' o1to£a &.1tor.paot~ou[.J.E- 1tp6C; 'ta noo 1tl]ycdvootJ.e:..

~H xot~w\Ji(X Btv C:!VCXt 1to'!€. ~ia lx1tA~ oU'J6e:01J, ~la Cx1tA~ rrpoaBEO'll Ct;--ro(lwv, Bt&t"t "to; taLcx "tcX a"to(.la a"l1IJ.~Oupyou'VmL a7t6 ~v xOLvwvfa. LUVE-1tWS mcxv ll~A&~e yt6: au't'Dvofll1 Xotvwv(a xal 6i:Aoulle [.L£a cxirt6vo!J."I1 XOt\Jwv(cx edno orUJ.o{(vltt -mU'tOAOYLXa., ipso facto, D-tf. BeAoulLE E:1ttoy}C; alYt6vOfllX a:t'O~a. 0eAoullE a'tolJ.(X bcava va Bwaouv 0'"'t6v tam6 '"tOUt; -r6v v6110 'to US" , oflr.u<; atv e:lvc(L Buva-rov at Jifrx. xotvwvfct 6 }(aeevcx~ va Bfve~ crt6v tal.Yt6 'tou Eva vo- 110• ora a'to(la amti 1tpi:1t£~ va aU(lt1E't"EXOU'V aTIJ 6eol . .u0"l1 't"ijc; XOtvwvfa~. Airc6 orHJ.cdve~ [3aotxa o'tt -q 1tCtt5e::£a TW\I 6:;'t6~wv~ oX~ anAl); lle nJv EWOt(X ""tw" aXOAE:(wV xaf Tij~ i:x1tod8e:007)t:; t O:hAeX ~ 1tUt(5e:(rx wr; auvemc; l3pao'1 Tile; xowwv(a~ 1tavw O'-ra tX"t'o!J.cx ~ Bpa- 0Yl7tOU Ctpx(~t ano -n1 a"nY!1~ 1tOU 'ta a:tO!lCl r€\alV~OUV[(:U Kat cp-ravet we; "tOV 66:VClTO 'tOUS' 1tOU i5LOXE:"tE.UE:'taL ax,t lJ.6vo v.t '"t& axoAei:a .. ixAXtX tJ.t -nlV or.xoyftve:ta, ~E -nlll"t)'ti:pa, ~E -rtt:; ouv .. tpoqnt~~ tlt 'ttt; ye~'tov~b;'t 1lE: WV atpcx-r6 ~ IJ,E 'd.:; auvavao-rpor.pi<;. J.l€ 't(~ €qJY1lleptC5e<; 'tile 'tct paB~6tp{U'Va, lJ,t 'tLr; 't"JlAitopCiaE.t~.

~H 1tCXt8E£a Aot1tov (l€ -nl yeVtxo-m:"t"ll E.WOLtX xai at OAE~ 't'1l.; ''d~ lJ.Oprptr; 7tpt1te:~ va OUIJ.{3-fU...AE:t crt'O ",eX ~1tOPOuv "'ta litOflC( wi ytvouv npaYIJ.Cl1'tXtl am6vo(J.(X. Au-rovolJ,(X a'"tolJ.lX <T7JtJ.al.\lE[. a"t'otJ.C( 'tel 6TIoia 1tpoa7ta6ouv Ox~ a1tAWt; va pu6fltaOUV xC('t<X 'tp67to ctl)'tOVOIlO -rr,'J a:t"olltx-IJ 'roue; tw~. ahA&. ,,6. OU~IlE'ta.O'xouv erov 1tpDalS~opta~6 l'WV VDllwV. 7tOU e:lv(x'L )«(.('!' avaYX7}\1 xo~vwv~xo(, nov 1te;pt6pt~ou\l ~ xaeOpt~OUv "TIl ~w~ 'touc;. LUVe1tW~, e:av IlLAalJ.€ ltD: airt'6vOllct a:to(lCt.~ xcer' lxvayx~~ (.uAiillE: 'tt.xO'toXp6\1UJ~ yta ~iCt (XU'tOVOllYl XOLV(vV(CX~ allA. yta. lJ.(X XOL\JwVta llioC( O-nl\} 01tola 5EV E:1t~XpCl'te:t xa!J.ta eELCX Ct1tox.cu..utJn1 t xcxr-tui l(5ea. cpua~KW"IJ VOlJ.w'Y 1tO U pue f1.£~OU" 't"f1V xo t'Vt))'V & X'l1 ~wiJ ~ KCt.lJ. to; xa e ayuxO'I-lEV"f) 1tapaB 0 - a-q 1] 6nola laxuet a7tAWC; xed (lOVO lh.O-'t"t Erven ncxpaaoo'r], 0:)(611a:

AtYOl'epo cpuoLxa xcxl-ua e~ou(Jfa ev6~ x6( .. qJ.cx't'OS nov excppa~L Bil6ev ~v ~(TtOptxiJ vo~O"te)..e:La: xal 't£~ 10'Toptxt~ avayxcxt6-rYr~EC;~ ~ tt;ooot:cx >canOtOU yeVLxou rPatL~.ux'tiwC; l11tpoeBpou, O:AAO: yta totfo: XOLVWVta. 1tOU fI tBtct 6eav-(~e~ ;eal xu13epva 'tov tau"t'6 't"IJ;. Mo-

TO IIPOBAHM A TH~ ARM OKPA TIA!: EHMEPA

131

VO" o't'<xV 'ta &tOlJ.tX 117tOpoOV v& 1tOO\l l>'t'L ol \'6tJ.Ot ~C; XOLVc..>V(tx~ £1'V(Xt xed 8txot ·tUUS: v6~o~, IlOVO 'to'tE. IJ.1t'OPOUlJ.1t veX 1COU~e: o,:t «mel "'["6. ii-rO!-1(l. £lvrxt Ctln:6vOlLa, b.AA6. E:.1dm']~ O'tL xed TJ xO~'J{Uv(a el'Vat cxU't6v01J.11.

Tt a'1UJ.(d"IJ€~ WI 111tOPOUV lJa 7tou'V 'ta a:tOIlO: o'tt at v6(J.ot -rilS' XOt\lw\lfac:; e:{va~ xcx£ BL)(Ot "tou<; \l6~o!., Kat: mt "tou~ Evme:pv(~ovtCXt 1tAl1PW';; Ae" Ol'llLfl.tv.e:t xa-r' av&yx"t]v o't't O'Ul-Upwvouv ~t -rou~ \10- IJ.OU~ 'TCOU l17tapx'ou,,· mUlat\l.Et olJ.w~ a.1tapatnl"'C'w~ o"t't exou", outJ.- 1-lE""t"&axEL 1tpay~(X:ttxa xai tve:pya a-n1 <5LClIl6pr.pwOll orwv ~6llWV aivrwv xat: 'tWV 6e:o(.lw'V xal cpuouccX e1t(aYJ~ a-n1 Aet'toupy£a. -rou~. AlreD O'uVE1tay&"tClt, G(1t6 "n1 a·nylJ.~ nor) tJ.f(X Xo['vwvLa ix1tO't£Mt'tlXL a.1t6 fva 6ewpYftuca a7tEptopU:rtO xa( a1tpoaBtoptato 1tA9JaD~ c("'[oIJ-WV,o't't U1tCtpx€t 7tAiU)Y}~ ta6tTJ'i au~llE."toxi1~ okvv 't'6>V &"t'6~w\l at OAe~ 'd; eE-a(l(~ooac::t; tsooof£C; nov ~1tOpOUV va u1tapxouv a-n1 8e:(5ov-tV'YI crt'tW'1I oE tJ.faxoL\lwv(a xcx( ~ Ae:~'toopyfa otlrtw'V TMV 6eO'IlW v. :E U'VE 1C W S , axe::tt xli !J.E irttB~1tme (.L nope t veX yi VE.t 0: von Ke:.(~.e: - \10 pTrrije; 8iot-LtU1'JC;. (Y1lTil~ VO~OeET1la7JC; llEo-a ~v Xotvwv(a e::t-rE: 7tp6x~f.""t(lt ytCx a&t6 1tOU ll7topei: va 6votJ.t.X0'E:E. x.Otve:~C; (lE:alJ.~ouao:. E~ouO"(a. C5Y)A. -n1v t~ouQla 1tOU xaeop~et 'tOUt; ~a.o"L)'OU~ BeGI-l0uc; IJ.taa o'tOUC; 67tOLOU~ ~ei: ~ )(Ot'Vc.uvta ~ e:t't'E 1tPOX€f;'tCU yux TYJ'V aO'K1'}- 0'7) 6e:.ol-uO'(.l€'Vwv t~ou(n(;J\J, 1t~X. xed -di.; vOlioee:'t'tX~C; E:Soua£a,;; 1<0:( -tilr; xu[3epv7)'t'tx'ij<; E;oualoo;, 7tpi1tE:L va Bt:ve"'t'Gtt at OAOU~ '1 tJ.eyaAu'!EpYJ e:cpr.x-dJ (iuva-ro"t'1]·t"a ~ OxL a1tAW~ '[U7ttX~" a"'AM ouat(W"tt)(~ ~ 'VrX autJ.~~aaxouv a't"IJv a.ax~O'Yl OM..>V ClU-rWV 'tWV E:!;oua~wv xed 'tWV Ae: L'tOUpYU7l\l. MeyaAu'tepY! lS U'V(X'tOnytfX, DXL tX1tAW ~ "t'u1nK~ ~ MArX ouaLaa't"tX~: (lo'to O7]lJ.ah.tL (yn 8iv 1tE(nop~~61J.aa'tE 0't6 'Ja AtIlE is't't ol 1tOAL'tE:~ llta cpopa crt'<X 1ttV"te xp6vta. X(XAOUV1'CXt va Bt(xAe~ouv aV'n1tPOow7tOU~ ollntoLot 6& a.1tocpao(oouv yta au'touc;, a.AMx. o't't ol 1COAt'tE~ ix1C'oq>«a~~ouv 1J.6vot 'tOue; yux 't'ou<; v6lJ.oo~ )(6:'tw lx1t6 'tou~ ono(ous; fliAoUV va ~~O'OU\l. ~ll11atve:& t1t(a'1~ o"'["t Bev BtaAEyou'J,8lv e:xhtyou'V E!lIlE.OWC; ~ QtJ.E.OWC; aVepW7tOUC; pi 61totot 6& 'tour; xu~ep'Jouv., r£A."Ao. Ol'L xu~~pvouv !J.6vot 'tou;. ~Yn.La£VeL o'tt o"Ae:~ 01 ~o::atXEC; O:1to<parn:LS 1tOU acpopouv 'to ~EAAOV 't"fi.:; XOLVWv£ru; -aLtYtL «&-to elvcu XU~4M1a"ll9 xu~e.pvW eo: net Aa~~a."w Cxno-

132

01 0 M IA1E::E l:THN EAAAh.A

<paaEtC; 1tOV atpopouv tXlrtcX 1tOU 7tpe1tet 'lit yivouv eLl'S: w~ epyct. .e:t-rE:: we; apaCITt'}p~&t7J'te<;- {) ~-rr. b.q>opn Ao~1t6v ""t(C; f3aa~xEC; xu!3-e:P"lJ't'~xtc; a1tocpaae:t~ 1tptrcl!L va avil)(e:~ a-t6 aUVOAO ~c; xo~vcuv(cxC;, Ctt'O auvoAo "t'w\l1tOArrWv. ITpe1tE:r. OAot, 0X[. a7tAW~ ""tU1tLXa, va exou~ "'to (5LXr.x(WIJ,CX \Jtl O'Ullll€"tEXOUV. TIpe1tet va e1vcu EX1tataE:Uf.1tvo~ a&v a:to!-ul a:It"' lSAe:~ 'tLt; (x1t6tPE~~ 'd~ 61tote~ Ctvacpepa 1tpOl1YOU~tvws KCl"t'a 'tp01tOV ~(J"te: va !l1tOpouv.e:: va. oul-! 1-LE."'tEXO U\I.

'El)C> e& ~e£Aa va xavw Buo tj 'tpEt~ 1tapCX'"t",PllaE~C;. OpGYt'a 7t~"ta !-l£(% Ctvc((popa a·t"Ou~ avxa(ou~, ~ (lallov crrov ~EYru.o 8ouxuBtt5Yl. U"'tlX\I 6 90uxuB£li-q<; 8tA£L va xcxpax:rYlptoe:t IJfa 1t6AT] W<; EA€u6eM! 'nl xapaX't'1lp~e:L «a&tOVOllOV, C(u't'oB[.xQV xa.l amo't€.A.Yl». lldAU;, yux 'tov 8ouxuB(5YJ Elvcx" 7taV'tO'tE: or. 1tOAt'te::;. 'O 0ouxuBiB"t}; BE\! l,.uM€~ 1to-rt ou'tE: yux XPCl-t"l OUTe: yta e1tLXpa'te:tec;. n .x. ol At~e~t; «~e"iiVc(L» ij «L1tapTYl» Q'"t'ov ®ouxuBt:lh1 EXOUV &1t'AW~ -yEwypacptxil ewoL(x. f<(}tTXV l-'-tMe~ yui -tis 7tOA~'t'EL~t; nou ouyxpOUOvra.L orov ns:A01tOvvY}o~(X.x6 II6Ae:[J.o AtE~ 1tcX'Y'tO'te «ot ~eY}\I(Xtor.~ oL A(xXEaCXLll6v~at, ol Ke:pxupcx.io!., ol Koptv6tOL». Ka- 7tO~OC; ano -roue; pYrt0pec:; lleoa o-rov @ouKuC3£(511 Ae€t «av(5pe:c; ya.p no AL~» . ~H l Bta 5't t ~'V(X xpa'tot;, Ilia t1tLxpa"tE ~a , Il tlX 1tOA~ 'te tIX e:lVClL (J.£a e:Cia<ptKl1 €X'MO"fl ~ laia 7tOU €'1tLxpa"tE1 0'"n1 ~eOt€PTl <pLAOO'oqJLa "'tou 8txatou xed. au,,-raYlla"'t~K-r1 ae{iJpta~ E.l'Va~ x(.dlapa. cpeOUBapxL)(~ ltv"t'tAl1$-q, Blv EXttt xUl!£a OXtOYl IJ.E: -rq BYl(loxpa'ttX~ 1tap&aoO'"t}. AtEt AOt 1t6'V 6 0ouxu(l)(By)C; <xlrrDV0l10C;. AeeL (t.U"tO(5lXO~ WlA. mt i} taLa. BtX~L "de; 1tapa~aa£~<; 1tOV yiVOvtCU tJ.€oa

, ~

at6v X6lpo, m-fj O't.pa(pa. Tij~ ~(UYi-c; "tou ACtOU. ~01tWot; ~tPE'te:, 't<X

a.rYXfl.ta a.8"1]\lcitx6: Bucam-fjpLct frtav xA"t)PWL'tl. xat <>Xl €7tayY£Afla"tLxa i5ncaO""tiJp[.cx A A€E:L a&tO"tEAl1c;· 'tEADC; ervcn ~ aPXil, it ~~oua(r.x lJ.t -n1V EVVOta Tile; xu{3tp"1l0"1r;. :E't<X apxcda tAAYlVLX<X «ol ev 'tCi> reAEt» elven at xu[3e:pvWv'ter.;. Mfa 7tOAt"teta elvar. Eva auvoAo 7tOA,,'tWV 1tot) xu~e:.pvouv 01 ~ca~o~ 't6v E(Xm6 'toue;. ~UVE7tWr:; l:av BE-v eLllcxo"'C'e am6voJ,.toL, alrt6a~xo~ xa£ o:&tO't'eAeU; B~" !!7topou~e OU't'E ~a sou~e: ~ ome va AElle: o-r," ~outJ.€ oi: aYJ~oxpa.-r(cx.

~va Be:&te:po a1}~€rO 7tav(l) 0"t6 onoLo 6& ~eEAa va €1tLt.udvw elva!. ol O'xtaeLC; EAeu6ep£a:c; Ktxt la6-nrroo;. ~EXe:t lntap~t a1t6 1tO-

TonpOBAHMATHEAHMOKPATIAE~HMEPA

133

AU" xcup6 ~ -11&rJ a7t6 -r6v 190 alwv(X. ~La 7tOAU BLaBlU)olJE.v"fJ p1}"toPtX~ xcd O'OCPLO''tLX~, ~ 07tOLa ~o:vcxE(J.cpav£O'Tl1xe liUVCl(lUl(lEV"t} Kat: a"ave(U~E.V1I anD ""tll O'"t'ty[.l~ 7tOll urrijp;e: ~ Pwo(a 6.lt:; C5"ij6e:v «xouI-l0UVlO-rUcYP> xo~'VU),,((.X t 1tOU ME~ 't6 E:~11~: eav 6tAe:"t'e va eraaU't'e EAs:OeEpO~, l>w ~7tope~'te va eioCW't'E rao~-{h&n BYj6.e::v 0""tiJ Pwata ol avepw-1tO~ e:Iven toOt r.v..Acl. Blt" Elvat. tkue~po~- xa£ a~ atA£'t~ va e: !o-rE: i oo t -thtw t; E:l\lotL r:rrtl Po o(a - BEV !l7tope t -re va e: Im;E: .E:Ae:U- 6E:po[.. Am6~ 6 O'uAAOYLO'~6~ 1te:PLEXE." 7tOAACX1tNX oocp(o!J.o:ttx ~ tPEUl)'l. "E6:v xot'ta~ool-le: ~v 1tPo.Yll(.('tLXOt'l'ta, 0""tiJ PWo!(l ol &'v6pw1tot 00 elvo:.t ou"t'E: raot. ome:. EA€u6ePOL. AlYt6~ 7tOU e:lvaL Ileaa o't6 0"q)a't'61t€Bo ouyxE,\I'tpWOEWr; Btv elv(Xt too.; a1t6 x(XIlLa a1totPYJ OVtE. lJ.t "t6\1 cpUAo:xCt. 't'ou a-rpa:t'o7t€Oou auyxe:\I't'pC:>oeC!)c;, ou-re llE 'to'V GUvt'aY(la't'Upx7J nor) 8LOtXEt ""t6 <Ttptx't'61t€'Bo ome:. ~E. rov ypa~tJ.mtCl TIlt:; )(olJ.l-la:ttX~e; e1CL'tpo~e; 1tOO atO~)(£~ -n1V 1tE:ptOm ~ ou-re lJ.E -roUt; ave PW1tOU~ 'tOU 1tOA~ 'uxou YPtX<P E:LOU .. Ked e1t€t&] axpt~Cl; u1ri!Pxe ~ 1tOAt"t'L~ aVeAeu8c:pta ~-ra:v 8u\'(rt6v tbda,.c; va lntapSe~ <ml PwaLa xat ~ 1tON:ttK~ xn! ~ OtXOVOIl~>nl &VtoCrt'1}t;. }\V"rta1:'p6<p(Ur; 0'1;(e; X(x1t~mAto'tLxt.:; XWpE~ xed at (lett; ml!J.epa AEYE't'Clt Ott lJ1tapx'er. eku6ep£a., ir..AAa. liev u7tapxe," L06TrjC; obcovo~~x~ .. Be~a(U}s 3iv U1tCtPXEr. la&1'"IJt; Ob(O"'O~LX~ ~ a.AAa BE\! U1tapxEl cpuatxa oirce x(Xt 1tOA&'t'LK~ la6'tl1<;. ~H 7tOA~'tLX~ ta6't11C; iJ 01tOtCX unapx,ltt Elvcxt "tEAE:fUl~ 'tU1tL)(~. ~O IlEOOC; ~EA).."t]V 1tOAt"t11~, 6 XUlp~&:tl1C;, 6 6up(Up6; ~ 0 ao~€p. 6 epya:tl1C;, 6 'tP(Xllf3ayr.~PllC; )(aL 61totoaa"no't'E:

MAoe; at" Extr. 'to; raux 1tpexnUX't'LXtX C5tXatW(.Lctt'fX Ilt Tn l .. utAl1 tile; apxouo-q; 1tOAt"t'~X"1i~ 't'a~e:w~. Doev lJ-tMcu YLa olxoVOll'"X~ aVLaO"n1- 'ta. (l~Mw l~a nOA'T~Xlj av~a6't"IJ"OO. .. ~T1ta.px£t I-lUx 1tOA~'t'LX.~ 1tpOVOl.lto6xa -ttX~1j (Tt-rr'J ~E)"A&aa~ i} o1Co(a (3ptoxC'Cat at 'tWt(Q~ a'V~O'"'l 1COAt'tLXij 6EGTj at aXECJl1 (le -rov )(oa~ax7J .. x.a( cpuar.xa a7t6 ni O''t'ty- 1l"IJ x(l'ta TJlV o1tola U1tapXE:~, ()1tW~ U1tixpxe:~ U"ta Xa1i-t'taA~(rnXa xae€crt'6>'t'O! -rtp&'o'na OlXOVOIJ.Lx-Q av~a&t'1~, Btv lJ.1topet va u'Jt'o:p~e:L 1COAt't'~X~ ta6't"l1~: liv Ext» 1toAAa Aeqrta a.yopa~w !:VCtV pal5~ocpunnx6 ma6!J.6 )(QJ &yopa~(U XCXL ~(a nJAe:6paoYl, ~TaL iI olxovojn~ b:vL0'6t'"1]~ ~e:'!atpp~(X~ at 7tOAt'"t'~X~ a.v~a&tTJ'['a (5,,6n AeUl enDV xoO'~tXx'1 'tt 1tpi1ts:r. va axtcp'tE't'CXL xa£ "tOU Moo 7tO~Er; e:lvcxt ol ~dB"'-

134

01 OMIAIE::E .l:THN EAAA.6A

O'e.t~: Y~VE"t(Xt 1t'W'tO'tE: cptA'tpaptO'IlO: 'tWV E:l&laEwv, Y(VE'ta~ 1tapouafam'] 't"wv 1tAl1POtpOptW" xa't"w anD eva 6ptolJ.t'Vo 7tp(OJ!a.

J\'V fltAOu'_"e: va; e:tl-Lacne eAe66EpOt J1eoa an]v Xot'Vwvta 1tpe1te~ va etll<XcrtE 1tpcxylla'tLxa 'COOt. lJ.€.v xpe:La~'tcu va OU~Yftl1OE~ XCl"S:(S ora taAa aocp(OJ.LlXm "t'c:X 6noWx qouv 1t'po'taxtle~ EVa'\fttOV 'rile; 81j6EV !ao1tEBwDT)s" 1tOV 6a E:ntcpepe: ~ 1tpay[.tcrt~x~ lo&n~'ta. tl'tav tLtAa(l€ yui ta6t'1'tGt at'V E.voou~e 6lJ.o~o(J.opq>(a. 'tWV a-ro!!Cr.)v. ~Av tntapxe:t Xa7tOta Xotvwvta 1tor.) &,~tOUpyEt 6ll0~O(.LOPrp£(l 'teDV i.n:6- (.LWV £lva~ ~ O1JI.l£ptvr1. "0 xa6tvw; VOIJ.(~t is-rL e:lvat a1tOAtYtWr; ~ova.(5tx6~, L(l~6~opcpo~, xed atacpopE't~K6C; 0:1t'6 -eov xa6E aAAo'V, aAM <n£C; 8 'to ~paBu 1ta"t'tXet 't6 ra~o xou~.t.1d xai ~M1tE~ -r~C; ~l(5.te~ ir.vo1}me:,~ ~v raUl 'tYlk6pCWll xaf lxyop~~ "ta ra~(( pouXa. Au-rr, elvcxt ~ a'tof.L~~ E:AEUeepto: nou 'too. E1tt"'tpE7tet 0 xoi 'Vw'Vr.x6~ 6el1ll6~ tile; ll68ac;. "'O't(X\I lltAtXll€ ytU to6't"fJ'W., E:WOOUIlE E:K£h,l7J T7Jv to&t"f)"t'tX il 61tofa e:tvcu 1t'OA~l'tKa (3cxpuvouoa t 51JAtx{}"iJ ~v to6-tYJ'ta 'twv 8uva't'DTfrtwv 7tOU 1tCXPtxOV'tlll af. OAOU~ wi oU~tLE,tlwxouv 1tpaYlllX't"Lxa ~ 8lfol-ltO'7) ~C; XOLV<t.)v(ac; Ked ~v tXOX'YlO'Yl 01tOtWVi51J1tcrtE: tJ;ouor.wv untXpxouv ~Eao: 0'£ (X~ -rr,v XOtVWVtcx. At'Yt6 auVE7taYE't'at Tt]V fXflECJl1 ~!loxpa't£a YUI TlJv 01tOt<X Etix 1thl ~eptxtX A6yux 7tapaxa.tCAl .

~H lata "tile; la6t-YJ'toc; ~XE.t aOqJ<XAWt; xae aYl~avnj(i~ otxovOfl~XE.C; E:1ttrrtwO"et~. Atv e:lvat Buv(X't6\', tBthlC; at lJ.fa KOLVWV(a "tile; 07HJ.e-

P L vYi<; lJo(Xp7i; ~ TIl ~ 011 L.L sp ~ vlit; ucpii~ ~ Uj r:; all ~ ep t vi}t; auyxp&t7J OllS ~ va l)1t6;PSE~ 7tpaYlla'tlX~ 7tOA,"1:~lO} tao-rqt(X, b:If.' Til rrnYl-I."Il 1tOll U1t6.pxod~ 0 t "t'epcXU'tt€t; 0 lxovo f.L ~ XE.e; av La&t"1l't~r; 0 t 61to Le:.~ &napXOU'V6 ~t )CavEVtx"'J 'tp61tO BEV ll1tOPEL \1& ~pEeEt IltO'O~ xaf OWE. ~pEe~xe nOTE: t \'& b(x(X"t(X(1"tCdJEt eva crte:yex\'6 XWPLO'fl<X Ccv&.{.Le:aa 0"t6'V Or.KOVOll~XO xat 1tDArrU(() xwpo. J\no -n1 O'·ttYIl~ 1tOU unapx'et, 07tW~ m}~€pa, ~(a -re:pao't'ta otXOVOIlLX~ lxv~a&t"fj"t'(X, 01 av6pw7tot olll1totot exouv o'teX Xepux 'tooC; n]v OtXOV0l-UKy] aUva~l1, xcer' Cxv6:YKl}V xa£ aoxttwc; ""twv 1tpo6eaewv -rouc, 66; TI] lle:m"t'pi$ouv xa:t at 7to)..t"nx~ BUvcxlJ."q. \).11 ~ lo-ropfa, 0XL 't6ao ~ cXP'X,aLCl E:AA'lV~xil ~v ll1toirx ~v 7tpaytlct'tLXmYl'tCl 'to xpi}llct e1tClL!;e: OX,E'ttx6 pOAo ~ aA)"Cx xcx£ ~ pCJ)~di)(1j xat oAll ~ aUYXPOVYl ttYt"op£a: "'to l[1tOaE~XVU.E:r..

TO TIPOBAHMA TH:E .6.HMOKPATIA::E EHMEPA

135

Au'to tJ.iX.; b8lrrs:i ~hda.,.c; ot. {.LLCX CiA),,'] 6Eulp7]O"l). I1tv e:tVCXt Buvo::rov 1tO'te va ax£q.noutJ.E. o-tt .ora &-rolla 'tit 61toi:cx "ret atAoullE w~ S:AEufhtpou~ 1toAhe;~ ~1topet va e:!va~ tAeUa~pOt an]-v 1tOAt'tucli ~w~ Kat veX e!va~ axAa~ot Xfl't' ouo(av Ileoa: o1:'ijv o!xovo!_.LtX~ rtcxpaywytxi] "tour; ~c.}~. atv E!VUL lSuvcx"t'6v va ax~OOf.Le: t5YJAcx6li Ot~ 't'L~ Kupuxxtt; -ra a:tOllO: eo. 1t7lycdvouv at [ita tk66ep-q 1tOA~Tt)C-.1 auvtkUO'71 Kat M-l. 'ttc; (iAAE:t; 1ttv't~~f;t (J.epe; "ri)c; e[3Bo~.uxao~ aa EtVO:~ Ct1tAWS ~fae~ a1ta'Vw ae eva ll7JXa.VtXO aOOTYUJ.(l 7tapaywyqc;. dE-v etvcxt auva"t6v va ex7tar.Bc:uaouv.~ 1tOA('t~ -aLmL a)(6~a. (J.tQ <pop&: it 7ta.~aEta t&'v 1tOA~'t'WV Btv o't'(X!lGt:ttXet oiYre: o-r6 (5;"'l..L0"t'~x6 ~ owe mo YUllvamo-1tou va e!vat EAEU6s:pot xa( u1t~o6uvo~ Kat va fleAOU'V veX OU~~E"t'EXOUV (Tt'Lt; )(O~vt~ 01tOeea~t~, xa.t 'tau"t'oxp6vw~ va 1tepviiv€ 'to llE-yaAu'tepo lJ.epOC; TIr~ EV E:.Y(»Jy6pO£L ~{UYi~ 'touc; at tJ.LtX ie:.pcxpxLx-rl aOIl~ Ileon ~v 61to(a Btv 'to6~ 1teqnEt xaVEVat; Myo.:_; e)ft6~ a1t~ "to va. EX'teAOU'V auVI::XW~ t a.rpe:v6C; Gtt)'nx 7tOU 'tOUt; Atve ol cX-vW'tEpO£ -couc;~ rupc:'ttpou amel. 1tOU 'tour:; Atv~ ol xevovrallot, ol 01totOt 1te:vr]'V't'cx !pope; IT"de; EX(X't6 c:lv(Xt xWlJ,txa 1tCtpaAOYO'". l\'J xmop6wvouv 'ta epyoo-raatcx xed ol BY11l00tEC; {ntl1p£o(e:c; va Ae~'tOUPYOUV, etv(Xt t1tE.ta~ XCl"t'a. eva ~eyaAo IlE:POC; ol tpya~6- IJ.E:VOt 7trxpll~(dvou" 'toue; xavovLO'(lOUt; yta 'Va. xrt'tacpepouv ~6: xa.vouv -n1 BOUAE:ta "'t'ou~. J\7t6(5Ed~YJ 6-rr. 1-1(0: a1t6 ''de; O:'JtO-reAe:O'IJ-(X't'tx6te:pec; tJ.opcpE.~ aTte:py(cxt; e:lvcu auTiJ 7tOU uta yaAAUCa. 6volla~e'tat Cx1te:pyia tilAOU· 01 tpy(X~6lLevot B"I1Aaa~ apxf~ouv \lit ecpap(.Lo~ouv xmCc: M;"fl "t'06; xavov~a~ou~ Xt a&to. ~'1tOpe:t va xave:~ "to; 1tav'ta va xmappe:uaouv (J.taa at JJ.ict Klpa. rtct'tf lXm6; L\~6t't 't'OUC; x(xvov~Ollou~ <puo~)(a at~ -roue; €x(XVtx'V 01 tPYCXS6!lEVOt· ,,[,DUe; Exava'V B~c((popot 'tqVtxo( ~ tJ.11xav~xo(, av6pw1to~ 7tOU 'teAet.waav 7tOAU't€X'JEr:CX~ 1«(It (J.~y&i\e:C; axoM~, 01 07tOtOt at'V l;tpouv 1tw.:; ytve'ta.t -q (50UA€~& onlV 1tpay~a"t'txm7J'ta:. Bt" ~tpouv 1'( avfl~a(ve," ma'V y(ve.'tat 1tPCC'flla"'ttKa ~£a BouM~a.

M(a (XU1:0VO(l11 xO~\Jwv~a Be') Sa ~1tOpoucrr;: 5x.t yta AOYOUC; cptAaVepW1da~aAAa yta. 7tOA~-rn(OOr; Myou~ va Be:;(tE.1 (lla obeovojux~ xa:tamflaJJ (.LEan o't"i}v onota. aq>ev6c; l.l1tapxe:~ IJ.~(X 't~pa(j't'ta otl(OVOl-UX'I] &v~a&t'l'['a xed acpE.'tE.pOU ol tpYC'lS0(levot., {57JAaBl1 't6

136

01 OMIAIEI: ITHN EAAA~A

aUvOAo 'tOO 1tA~eUa[.lOu, ~p(aKOVta~ ro1tOeE"t"f)~evot aa." llUPlllJYXLa ~eaa at. i£pcxpxtxtt; (}O1l6; 07tOU at" 'touc; ngqnEt x(Xvt-vCU; AOyO~ yui oro. "tt xavoul' xat 1tW~ 66: 't6 xa~ouv. "H c:tl)'toliLOLK1lO'"1l 'tWV 1totpaywYLxwV tJ.0vaBc.uv cX7tD ~our; 1t'ctpaywyouC; elva~ xcx( Cx.napctfn"[t"1j 7tpo u1t66 e:Ol1 yta l-.do:: 7tpaYIlCl'tlxli Cllrrovo ~1l )(Ot V(Uvla xed (57l11oxpa·nxo OX,oAe:io .

.E~~epa atv B~a7t~mWvou(J.E t-tovo 't"'r1V u1tap~Tl ol)(ovo~tXW~ Ilopcpwv xup~aP"Ltoo;. O:Y1tO:pxouv llO(Xpe:t; xuptCXVXLat; 1tOO ErVen X(Xeapa 7tOAt'tf.Xe~. "Eav ~ Pwo(a ~e'tcX 't6 1917 a't)lJ.~OtJPY'1e"llXE E:va tXIJE:'tfXAAEU't'u(6 xed Xf.X'tcx7t!.E:crnxo xa6e::o-rwc;, XCl"ta. neXaa ,u6avo"'t7rra tX~E:TIXAAro"tr.)(&tepo Ked Gtocpcx.AW<; noM xlX't'aTC'te.o"tLxmepo anD 61to~o&717tatlt YlJwmo Wt; "to't'€ o-n1v tm:np£rx 't'Cd;~K6 xa6€Ctt'Ctlr; ~ au-co atv oq>e£k:"clXt a-rou~ X€cpaAar.oxpa:tES ~ aAAa o-ro ye~ yov6t; O-rt. (lEon Cr:7tO "'to lato 't6 )(OlJ.(J.ou"tCTt~K6 x61J.1J.C(. "tou.; I-L 7tOAas: fj(XOUC;, C5Y}(l toupyfielJXE lJ.£a YPcupE:toxpa'da rro U ouvBefhp<.E III nJ YP(Xt.pE~oxp(X·"da -rwv e:PYO<TtClO(WV ~ ·tUU OlpCCtOu Ked aAAwv XOtvWVtXWV xAtiBwv xed ~ 01to((l &px~'ta yp~yopo: xa'toxupWerp{c: oeXv a.1tO)..UTCX xuptCXm "t"a.l;Yl xai ltyxaeUJpUaE "to Xo:6EO'tW~ 'tou ypatpEt oxpa't'~xou, 6AoV:tlPW't'r.xo U XCX7t ~"taAtO,!lOU ~

~uve:7tWC; at" elva~ uovov 01 OhtDVOlLtxci 1tpO'JOI-HOUX~S: xed xupia(Jxe:.; -raSEtC; of. 61toi:e:<; tXvt't't£ee:V"'tCXL <1TIj al1~oxpa'ria· elv(Xt Ked ~ 1to)." 'ttX~ ypaq>E~oxpa'tlcx lj 6'1to~o: auvexw.c; 'te:~"'Er. va 7tapayem~ xed veX o.va1tcxp&YE:-ro:t· aAAo't'€ 1taAL aumtetpWVE:'tCtL yupw a1tD ~(a xaptCJt.la"t'tx~ ~opq»j ~ nor) '!e(vE~ xat XCt-rop6u}vt;;t rpuolxa va (.1.0\.10- 1tWA~ad.F/ -rr,v E!;ouota xaL va t~(X.AEjcpet o1Cotai511'tO'tc; mtEPtltXm BrU.Loxprrnxwv 6EollWV. O:H auy:xp0vTj 1tOAL't'~xYt (lOPCf>11 'too )(6(.l~a'to~ e:lvC(~ Kct-r(lA)"71A6-rtxTt'} y~ci 'torl B"f)lJ.toupy~a nj~ ypacpe~oxptX'ttor;<;. E>UfJ.'Y16EiTE: OTt )(6f,l~r;c't'(X~ ~i ~ aYl~e:ptviJ EWOta: roo opOU, Be\' lnt~pxo:v ~v ixpxr.da 1\6-q\.lO:. TO: xOIl[.La"t"a B"fu.uoupnG"pcav ~ v€me:p"'1 E7tOxjJ. Elvar. I-lfa ano 'tLC; 'tpay~xt~ elpWV~tE<; rij~ 1o-top(a~, l5'tt "t6: 1tPCYm 1tpo:.YlJ.cx't~xa x6~ ~a't(X nov 8ru.uoomfup::a'V I-lE Tilv evvota nov' 8ivoU~E crq~gprx d au~v Tij Ai~"1l. elva~ &JlJ.toupYJl~a."tc( 'tile; tpya~u61<; 'ta~Yj~. <TtOV aywv(X 't11<; yr.a Ct1tEM:uBepcuaYJ, xed xaTa tJ.i~l1m? 't'Ou~ EytVO:V 'teX aanxn X6V.(lfX"tCl crnlv

TO npOBAHMA THI t.HMOKPATIA:E ~HMEPA

137

Eu~1tl}. Ta epya'ttxtX x61J.lJ.cx.orr.t E:XCPUMO''tYlXctV axe-t~Ka. ypirropa x(Xi. y£ vcvs ypcupE.toxpa'ttxti.

T<i xup(apxa o"tpwl-tC(-ra "ta 01tota 117tOpEl xed 1tpi1t~t v6. i.tv"tt!J,e:-

'tW1tf.a£L eva ~f1oxpa:nx6 xiv"1]tJ.cx~ Btv EI'Va.~ ~6\1ov ~ ob,ovolJ.~xii ciA.r.yr.xpxta· elvar. xat ~ 1to)..t"'ttX~ OALyafll..ta. Kat ~ 1tOALT!.xl} yptxcpetoxpcx'tLa. ~EaGl 6a ij6e:Act va 01toypa.lJ.~taw eva O'TJ[J.e:to TrOLl e:lvat a']'[o 1tCXAUX "'(V<uo'to crnlv 1tOAt't[.Kl1 qnAoO'ocp£a. ~ aA)..tX 1tOO 1tOAAOi "1"6 ~X\lave~ xa( i.l5tw~ OTI]v "Ei\Aalkx. Ka."tYfYOPOU~E OU"EXwC; 'tour; xup!apxou<; o-rt xupuxpx'ouv. Au"t6 Itlvcu. -r6ao av6'1l't'o 000 av xrx't"1)yopoutLE: 'touC; xAiqne:~ o-rt xAt~ouv ~ ~ "tout; ~avaouC; BtO"'tL elvat ;av6oL. ~H aooA£~a "thl" XUPLc(PXWV Itlvtxt va. xuptapxouv. ~a'V '7tpE.1tEL va. xa't'"'iYOP'1aoo~E xa1to~ov, 1tpi7t€,t va xanrroP'fjaoull-e "'tOUt; xupto.PXOUIJ,EVOU<; ~ 1tOU ixqn1VovTa~ va XUpUxpXOUVTa~. .6.e:v ~'JtOpOU~E va: )..e(J.& "talYtoXP6vw<; u'n 6 AO:O':; elvat 1t(xVTOa()'va~o~ xa.~ B'tL {) on:otoaBiFto'tE: &{~aywy6~ "'tov aEp'Ve:~ cl.1t6 ~ IJ.UT11. llpe'1ter. \.'a 1tOUIl£ o"n lnt&PXE~ tJ,(a E-u6uv"Il 'tOU 1..0:00 ae exm& "t"a. 67tora yfvovtrlt Y€VLXcX Kat at am&: 7tot) y(vov'tcu oiu.tepa E.la~xa. <I>ua~K& Cllrt6 Bev qrrcX\lS:r. ~ Buy!!. e:3& Btv xCt.voutJ.€ 'i}6 ~xoAoyta. T6 Ml-L~ GtlYt6 yta va u1tev6utJ.fooU(le: CTtOV.C; 1to)..(.orec; is'tt cdrca -ra 01tot(l au~~cdvouv. aU!J.(3rx(\lOU1J (lE -n1 aUlllLe'toxrl 'tOUt;, ~e n1 (1Uvltvoxfl 'tou~. :4.A.Ati (5E'V 111t'OPOUlLE: va o'taBou(l€ d Cllrc6. ft(X-rt l)7ta.PXEt ~ auve:voxfJ, 1tOV 7tcx(pV~t 1:~ f,.lop<pil tilt; rX1taaEMI~. ~S aa~cupop~, "Cou xUVtO'llou~ x.Art. ; ~7t" nlllL6: (lEpta.,. OhO -r6 1<1't'Optx6 peUll(l T7l~ oUyxpo'J7IC; XOtv(Uv£a~, 6t5'1]YEt "tou~ av6pw1touC; a' (x'l)'d~ n]v ix1toxauvwoT] ~ at (XlYt6v 'to", a;'t'o~~x~a~o ~ (J~ airr6v "CO\l l«(.~:'t'a\laAw"'(OO> xed 't'"1JAEo1t"C~x6 auvavLoll6. )\1t' u1V aAA"I) tJftpux U7tapxe.~ KCXt Ka:n fi) .. ) .. o , 1tOU E7tLalX€"[a~ at)l;~TI1o", xa( Ev8E:X,Oll€vwc; avaaXEu~. npoxe:rrat yux -n1 aLEiaaua~ lJ,taa o't6v 1tAYJaua~o

... -- , -,

tJ.ta.c; )Ce;vtptK.q~ l«(UtL'taA"o't'LX'1}C; tpC(v'CaOl(XKYJS Ollt-t(Xrnrx-c;. 'tou lJwu-

eou ~~ yvwa"fl<;~ Tile; E.1ttcniu.LT}r; 't{;}\1 er.(5r.xwv, 't'(;)v E1Ccitovtwv:t Ct(yt'wv 7tOU ~ouv. "Exe:t a'tTlPt~e:-m.~ fl xe:v'tP~K"ft (3o~~ Tli.; auyxpoV"1)~ xOt vwviW;, 'CeAeLWC; lxou(J.~t(3a.Gn1 (lE x6:6e 8Y1[.Loxp(rctX~ eeolJ.~- 011 ~ 811Aaa~ ~ btpotfJX.ta. rux't'( 6 .ora5E etvat o-rilv xoprpii Ka~ at liAAO~ e:tvr.u )t&.~w ; LiuJ."t"t e:lvar. o1too8aollivo-c; ~ B[.6tL el'Vo:.~ t1tcx.twv ..

138

or OMIAIEE I:THN EAAAl1A

Zito-tt ~EPEt xaAu-re:pa, 8uJ't't e lvat. EU3tXOC;, X..AR .

A&t6C; 6 l·UJeo~ exEt ~cxeui at~taauae:t lJgt; CJTfj ~w~ 't'WV a""C6flW\I xed y~&. ~Ct am; BtaoxEB6:uw Aiyo }Cat v~ BL(lx6q.tUl .on1V taMe; o:v~txp1j auvtx£~(X au'tWv ~w~ OUAAoyt0IJ.WV. Sti oa~ Bt7JYYJ6w eva aVEx8o'TO ~ IlUX r.o-rop!a nov nprxY{lCl'tLxa llOU au\'t~l'J. Ln1V (EIJ..&(5a xpct'tafJ.e: £:&tI)XWC; aUn1 ~v xa)..-q oUV7j6e:r.a; an oU~TI'tii~e: {lit 't6v ri:v6pw1to nor) 6B"tJye:i: "1"6 "Cast xaf E."'t(J't XO;VOU!!!t 8tOOpopE.r; at.puy~o~e~OE~t; 'tOU 'tt yive"t'f.X~. nJv E:1tOm Tiic; «a1toO't(Xa£ct~» xed 'thlV mpaXhlv i)lJ,ot>'V o-dJv Aa."va )Cat m;pex Eva ""tcd~L to 'ta~"'t~lJC; 'irtCl'V aulJ.1tae7J'tLx6~ xed ;lrn'Jto<; av6pW1tO;. Tofi AEW: or( yt:VctIXL t t.patve"CO:t aoXl1!J.YJ ~ xc("tacna.CTr}. Ned, Me:L~ ElvaL CPptxn1t aAAa 1l~'V ixvljouXel"'tE. Atw, YLa'tt va f1~'V (x'VljOUXhl; ""E, MEL, un:tXPX,ltt 6 J\v-rptat;. 'j\ thEW, xa( -rf 6a )(6cv£~ 6 J\V1'PEa:C;; Ae€t: au"t'l]'V nl (rnYIl~ (lev ~1tOpEr va XrX~e:L 'tL1tma, B~&tf. Ex€t <PUyEL 48 ~pE~ 0111 BouAyap£a. rUl"t'l EX€L rpUye~ 6 1\ 'V°tpea<; 48 wpe<; CJTfj BouAyapLa; .6.~&n, lloU Atet 6 "t'a~r;'[~~<;~ i1 [30UAyaptKi} XU~EP"'"f1aYJ 'ta €XeL l3P!!t 1tOAU oxoupa III Tljv ob(ovo(oUX~ x(x"t'cXo-t'fX011 xa( xtiAe:oav "tov ~VtpEa y~a. 48 wpe:~ yt6: va 'rove; TU a~OpawaeL~

No~£sw m~ xa6s: ax6A~O elv<xt 1tEptnO. to lXvBpM7tO<; ?tou flOU 'ta gAey~ Cllr~cX ~'ta.ve 1tOAU xavovtx6C;. tSe:\I iftavE EX YE:veTil~ T,ALer.oS". ~l'ave 1tOAU E:vt'ci~€L, 65"f]YOuO£ a~oya, !lOU £l1tE: v60't't[,.l(x <XO'"t€ta a~ aVVExeta ~ Xl"A. Mit CUYn1V Ttl voo-tp07tta; at li'V8pw1tOL qnJqnoav auo cpope~ "tov 1\ vt'pta xed 'tDV q>epO:'VE (ITa 1tpay~rna. --nJv 1tpw-t.,. 6& I.l7tOpouor:: x(Xvel;- v6: 'tour; aoYX(U(n1o!tt ,-n1 BetYt&PYl OXt. 'O 1\. vtp€tX<; etva~ It ~anco~, £5:lv el~(.u E:1:0t; 'O Ko ul'a6y~{UpyC(t;, e:lvcu €1ttOl'JS c:~a~)C6c; xa£ Uta nO:!l1te:ps xed DE 5tacpopa aAAC1. Ka£ OAO~ ol iiAAOt e:!v(.(~ ItU5LXO£' €1'V{X& e1ta:tOV'tEC;~ ;tpouv~. 'AC; aqn1GOU(.if: aUTouC; rtou sepou'IJ va ixnocpcxa(.aouv.

To ra~o xat lJ€acx tTI'O tpyot'tLx6 X£VYllla.. ~Y1tapxou"e: at Ct.pxytyOt 1tOU SEpou'Ve .. ol yevtxot ypalJ.!lIJ.<XTELS. ol ZaxaptaB"'1liet;. x.Arc. Ked E:.xei: --r6 1tpayv-a. Elven XE~p6't".e:po -xal yt" atrc6 qrra(€t 6 llapSLOlloC;- A6yCJj 'ril~ eE:WpyZ't~KYrC; x(X't'oxupw~C;. IItow cX1t6 -r6v YE'lJtx6 YPCX[ll-lfX'tECl, il nCaw (x1t6 La: o-re;Ae:;Q1 TOU x61l~a:to~~ 01tapx,E.t fJ r .. uxp;~lYrtX"J} 6e:wp(cx 7tOU Ate~ TlJv rXAt,eE~Gt y~ri ~~ XOtVwvLa, YLtX 't6

TO npOBAHMA THE aHMOKPATIA:E ::EHMEPA

139

7tW~ 1tPE1tE~ wi reVEl O'oO'tCXA.tO'tJ.6c;, y~r:i 'to 1tCrtE 1tpe1tEt \1& x&'Vou!Le:

Ot7tepyLfX.~ 1t01:'E. 8ev 1tpE.7tEt, 1tfrte. 1tP€7tEr. va napoull£ 'ta 07tAa. ~ 'Va. xa'tCXAci~ou~~ 'to: X.e:LtJ.EfH va lxvO:.xtopa x."A:rt. ~A(x edna el"aL 1lE:Ae·nUlEva Xctt: Au~tva mous -r611ou~ '"t'ou KE:rpa).a{ov ~ fTt'OUC; 60 "'C'O[.LOUC; "tWV l\navrcuv -rou Atvtv. Ta qouv tJ.u..e:n1aE~ 01 ei(hxo~, 01 o7toio ~ ~tpoov. 'Rau rn1Y(X~ ve 'Va XOAA110~t~ "tit; 7t POX'Ylpu;c: t~, yt(X"tt lloVO a.&t6 ll1topei~ va XtX\lEtC;. Airt6 "'to cpcxtv0l-le'Vo ex€~ afFtjarn e:.Bw xed evav ex t6lVtx t al1AaB~ a7tD "C6 1880-1890. ~ e a.v-rf 6€0l] IJ.€ 1:6 "t( ytvma\,€ o'n}v &pxfI O''t'tX epycx'tLx& auvl>L>cCn'a xaL ata tpya'tLKCt. x611lJ.(X'ta. ~ 51tou 1tpayf.La't~ 6'1ri1PXE [J.£a ailE-OU,) Bl1~o)(pa't~(x, lipxLOE va. a1]lltOUpyE~"C(lL llLCl ypacpe:.~oxpCX"tta. Ol ES1J~aE:tC; 1tOU Exouve BoBet mJ~tp(J)"a fli 'tU; 61toi:E~ fJ av6.1t'tuSTJ "ri1c; Epyo:'t'~K~C; 1tOAt'ttx.:q.; xat OUVBLXaA~<rt~ X1]~ yprup£ to )(p<X"d~.. a cpe: lAe-co. t at «O:Vtt xel~€'vl)(o6~» A6yoUr; (or.XOVOltLXO UC;., avayxa tm71tt(~ 'rii~

'opyti"hlOllt; x.An:) ~1'V(xt xa'ta -n1 YVWIlYl f.LOO EA;"t1tt(f'ta'te:~ }taL a<popouv floVO SS:U1:€pc:uoV't(X Ol']lle:ta, ~ (x1tAt~ ou'Vt1tete~ 1-u.Ci.r:; ~cxBo-tE.pY1C; atodctt;. 'H [3o:.66tepY1 a~ oJ'do;. TJ 7tpa)1.urnx~ tS~Yy}01i ElvCt.~'I ax6(lcx lJ.fa cpopa, ~ che:taBuCJ1llleoa CJTfjv epya'nx~ 'tt.XJ;~ xed EV yEVE:t tJ.eoa O'tO aU\loAo 'tOU 7tAl1BuO'llof> Tij~ )(a1t~'TtxAHTttxii~ <pc(v'OO.O'L(X.x.li~ rTf]lJ.CW£a~ oUtuP<.Uva (LE. -n1v ono[o:, 1tpe1tE-t va 5totxouv XeLt: va a~e:uauvouv au't'o£ 7tOU EXOUV '1'& rtpooovm va a~o~xoov xed va {5t&u6uvouv ~ 1tOU ~Xouv B"1)ArWl1-n1V t1t~CJTfj(J.Y1, TIlv -rexv t~ 'ri]<; (5~e: U 6u\lm'lC; .

AU-n1 ~ lata dwxt q>uCJLxa p'"~txa aV"d6e:'n1 tl€ ~v ix{lxa(o: EA):'1V~Kl1 U5c:a YLa 't6 n €!V(u (5'71~oxpa'tLc( xaL -d €1'V(X~ 1tOA~'tL)(-q, nou -nJv i!:x6e-C£L 7tOAU wpocia 6 IIpcv"t'ay6pac; C1't'6\J 6~hl\lUllO BU2AoYO 'tou nNitwvoc;. to TINX'tWV, -nap' BAo nOll r::!vGtt EXep6C; -ril~ B"fllJ.oxpa'tLac;;, 'n1 tJ.e:'truptp~~ Xtx-rrX ~ YVW(l"t] [.too 1tOAU 1t~crt6:. To aElla a' (Xlrt6 1'0 arn..tELo "too. B~aA6you etVClt 1to[.6~ e:tVctt 1'toAt'tn(6~ xaf 1to~6~ at\} £lva~, 1tot6~ xa:'tExe:t 1tOA~ 1:t~ E1ttO"tYUL1J )(C(£ 1tOLO<; 3t-v X(('tEXE:L 1tOA!;ninl £1ttOTIUJ.TJ. Ka( 0 Ilpw"tay6pac; 0:1'Ca."'J't0: o' cxirn1 Ttlv S:pWn'}O"fJ liE fvC( llu60. ~Ottt'J 6 Zeus aoxoA~6rj){E: l-LE 'tou~ aVepW7tOU~ E:tJ.0(po:ae m6v eva 'torYt'7J n1V etB~x&tYJ'tC(. mov iXAAOV (.Lta aAA"tJ, a:AM tlJv 7tOAL"nxYt YVWG'rI -nllloLpam toa O'E: OAOO':;· y[.~

140

OJ OMIAJE~ l:THN EAAAAA

cdrt6, Mer. 6 llpO>'tay6prxt;, [3AE1tE.t~ fJ'tt mav at ~e1]v(do~ egAoU~ va anocpaaiaouv ~v txxAllma "tou atJl.l.OU 7tw.c; va xtXmoxe:uaut'DUV TO; xapa[3!cx ij 7tW~ va xt'tat"ouv ora 1:'ei;Ql ~ ol vaal, cpwva~ouv 'touS e:llhxooS xat 'tou~ axou\I xed &\1 Ka:Vg"a~ Ill) e:lBLX6~ ee~ A1)OEt va. 7taper. 'tov 1..010 'tov ytouxat~ou"e. '1}tav 0llWt; 1tp6Ke:.~ 't"C(~ va. aus·qt'1}6oov 0\ ye:Vtxe:S 1tOAt't~Xt~ tntOeeoett; ti]~ 1t6AEW~, 01tOtooB~1tO"te:. 1toAh'lt; !l7tope'L veX ~tA-qae:~ xaf OAO<; 6 x6olJ.oC; -rOv axouet !lit npoaodl. IIiaw ano (Xu't6v .orov ~6ao xpu~E1:at ~ ~o:e6- 'taTIJ 1tOAr."ttX~ xoo cpr.AOOOCPtx~ lBea 'tW'V apxatcuv~ o-tt yui "t'a 1tOAt'ttxt:X 1tpay[.l(A['(X at\' tnttXpx.et Entanjp.Yj, Btv 01teXpxe:t ovO''tl'UJ.(x't"tx.~ yvwO'Yl ~i a1tOa€(;e:t~, (..l€ 'texvtx.~ E:x7taUlE.uoy} x.Art. ~ a.A"Ni ll7teXpx,ltt ad;a~ (57}Aa(5~ (nnpxer. -1] YVWI-l"t) "t'WV avf)pw1tw'J ~ YVWl-L'rJ ~ (>7tota cpuQutci 1tpt1te;~ Xtx( aUT7] va BLBClx6Et Kr.d i] o1t'o(a XaAm€pe:u£~ [J.E n]v €p:rct::tpia MAlt. Btv €iv(u E.7ttanl~Ti.

IIwC; ll1topet i? oos-a -rGrv aVep611t"CuV va BtBa.x6et, 1tW~ etvcu Bu~ vcerov OL a,v(JPW1tOt va. OX'H1Cl-ra;OOV 6AoEVot x(xAmeP"t} YVW(.L'" )Cat: cpp6v'1oYl ytti 'tit 7tOA~'t"uca npaYlJ.ot't"ct yr.a 'tcX 61tOtCl 8ev U'1teX{JX€t tbtto-nlI1'1 ; ""Evac; :<0;£ (J.6\JoC; 'tpO'Jto.; intapx.e:t: va 0:0)(00\1 -dJv 7tOAL"'t'tX~ t';ouata, va. ous"t}'t"Ouv xed ",Ix 1ta(pvouv a1t'ocpaaeLC;. TWtCtl<; &v"t'We't'Y} cpuouca ~r\la~ ~ ~a\l'trtpV(l CxVtO"T]t(rt] ~ 61to(a E1t€XPO:'Tl}aE, a7JAa(5~ ~ tata tJ't~ ~ &ril-Loxpa't"t(X I£lvext ~ EX7tPOGc,)1t"1J0Y}. ~ ~ CxV'tL- 7tPO<16l1tE.utTrl· ArJn1 ~ O'u~"tl't"i1O'7J E:Xer. y(ve~ anD 7tOAUV xc.up6 xat 0 "{Bto~ 6 Pouooor, 6 67to~ot; Eypct<pe: 0't6 "["tAo,; 'too 180u txtwva t ~Ae-

y.e: atxcpwr; Ot~ 1l tJ.6~"t] lJ,opCf>l1 (}eKTij~ ~ 1tpay~a'ttxi1r; B1}(loxpcl'tfro; Elv(X~- ~rlil-LeC1l) fu]v.oxpa-r(a~ ~r1trXpxet m6v Pouooo tl[a cppa071 ~v

01tOt(X 6a lJ.1topoUOIt v& e1xe ~pEI xavetc; xat e-eov AC:VLV xo:£ orov Maps, O"t'fXV apy6-repa ibcavav ~v )(Pt"ttx~ "tou XOlVO{3-0UAeV't't- 0llou. Ol ~yyAE.~ot, Mer.:- \lOIlG;oov O't'r. elvcx~ tAe:66€po~ Bt6'tL txAEyouv 'tou<; J30UAe:u"t'tc; "'tou«; ~[a cpopa (ITa 1ttV't€ XP6vttX, MAcX amo:.1t{X't'Cnrrat· eJvctt S:Ae.u6s:pot ~La llepa o'tcX 1teV't'e x.p6v~a. "'Eyw eli ekya ll'tt 6 Pouoow Bev 7tpox.wpaet "tov ouAAOyt0t-L0 "'tou !ltxp~ 'tE.AOU.c;, y~a"'t'( tpuatxa Btv elvat E:kue€po~ 01t{U~ Btv eYtlC((TtE xa:~ Btv ttYoao-r.e: EAEU6EPOt. ou-te lJ.((X [.lEpa. o'ta 1tE:VtE. xp6vLa~ T6 'ti eti tV"I}cp&ae:-rf: aU-n1v n1 lltpo:. <neX 7ttvt'~ X(J6vta elva~ ~a71 1tpoBtayt::-

TO llPQBAHMA TH!: aHMOKPATIA~ l:HMEPA

141

ypallllg\lO. IIpw1"tt 1tPW"tCl €tvc(t 1tpoBr.a:yeypoqJ.flEvo art' alrta lLl 't«X 01tO ia [LaC; EXOUV ye:.~.ttoe ~ "to xe:t.pw..~ tnt 1tEV-r£ x.povta. E I vat 1tpo8tcxyeypalll·utvo (x1tO 't(~ K(x'to:Cttciae:t~ 'ttC; 01tOtEC; EXOU\J Y1lil1 a.\le:1t~(J'tPE:1t't"£ aruuouma€~ ctu"t'Ot 1tOU ~p(axOVta.~ ~&i etta 1tpaytLct"t'a. Ked Ba tJ.7topouae va auvexiaeL veX eKee't€L xfXveCs lilO: 1-l(X.xpOO'V 'to 7tw.t; e:.l .... cu 1tpoBr.a.y£ypoql(J.e'Vo. A7t6 -n1 o'tr.Y[.li} arc' Tljv 61tOLa. itxouv tXAe:yet &~ctcXxA"IJ't'Ot ixv-ct1tpOaw1tOt, ~ 1tpw"t~ xa£ xupt(x BOUAe:~a a&t6lv 'tW\I alJ.€"tCtXA'l'twv b.V't~ 1tpoaw.1twv --tX"t'6~ e&.v 1ttO"tEUOU[lE- O''tov 1\yr.o Bexoo..7J- E:I\la~ va x(x"t'oxupwvouv n1'" t1t(xvExAoy/J 't'ou~. O:;Oi\a 'ta liAAn. e:lva~ Beu't'Ep€'uOV't'tX xaf cdn6 'to ~M1te:"t'e a;{Yn1l1 TfI (tt'tY(l~ xa( o-ro e7t(1tE-Bo 'twv av'tt1tpOaW1thlV, Kcd crt6 t1tbte50 n;c; IIpoltt5p(a.C;. TO. 1J.6vo Sella -r6 into~o ev(3uxcpipEt s:lVClt 1tWr; va XOC't'oXUpcu6e:.t ~ E:'1tctveKAorYI. Au"ttX 7tOU a~Baoxouv ot xcx&tjY'1)1'tt; ::Eu\I'tayllCX'ttxou tlLxa(ou O'"'C'o naVe1t~O'T'I]flto £!VCt~ acrx.e'ta. ~H aV't[.1tpooW-1te:UO'l'l e:'iva.t 1tOAL"'tr.~ c(t)'t'oa7to~vw- 07] 'tOO 1tOAt'ttxou aWllc("to~. ElvClt «nape Aya (lOU "to axo~ ,,( veX (Je xpe:~aaEt<;». 'H 1l6VYl BuvctTi) lJ.opqn1 C511110xp<x"r(a<; e:.IV(XL 1t dlleoy) 8'1JlJoxpa'tta.. tJ."I}AaB~ ~ fu}~oxpa"'t'[a 01tOO ol o:v6pw7tot (Utoq>aoL~ouv ~6'VOL 'tOU~ xed. alL ll-eOtfl rXI-lE;'t!lXAYrrWV ExrcpoaW1thlv.

1\1t'O 7tOAUV Xf1LpO intapxe:.~ Eve< e:1t~xdprUJ.a xext lILa aU~"11'n1Dl1 not> 6ii e:.L\Jcxt &'vtV'tqJ.o \la ixq>ilaoUflE: )(o;""'ca llEPOS· ~~(le.a"t] B"t]tJ.oXptx't((x lnt~p~, 'to l;ipoUlie .. ~Y~p~ a'tiJv 1\_e~\J(x' Kat at tJ.Ep~xt~ alle:~ ell7i'V~x~ rt6ktc:;. ""Ox.~ ai 6kt;. !J.EV u~p;e 1tO'tE o-rq PWlJ."1J. "Av 7to't'€ axouaete xaVE-va'V xa6"y]Y"1Jn1 7tCtve:1ttcrt7JtJ.(OO veX 0'«; ~r.AofJaE~ yta pWllrux~ 8Yll1oxpa·da, YUaO''teA ~H PW(J.1] +]wve:. OAt yapxt(f.. anD -n1\1 am ~txpr. 'to 'ttAO~. "J\v cl.xooO'E.'te xav€'Vcxl.' lJ.apt;r.o-rq va aiXc; 1te:'E (ht ~ ld}l1Vdt>01 8YJt.toxpa""tta o'tYlpr.~m(X", aTl]v liouktrx. ;(xvo:y~A£i(Tt'~. ~ooAe:(a u'1riiPX€ 1t(.(V't'ou G1:6\1 apx.cxIo x6al1o ~ MAo.. 1tou6eva lxAlou atv tl1t7lPXC: 81Jlloxpa1:"La.. IIet'te "'tou cXx6IJ.tX lYn Bev ~pe:t 1'6v lLap;lO"(l6, yta:tL b YBtoC; 6 MapS YPrupeL9 1tOAU oooo-ro:, mt iJ 1tpa:n.J.a:'t'~x~ XOtV(UVtKO-OLxovofl~xij {3&o"Y] tii~ apxafC(~ BT]flOxp(X'dW; ~'tav ol E:AEu8€pot lxvesapnrtot lltXpo1tapaywyot. ~H ~a- 07J 'tfj~ Ct.(hrV(XXK~~ a"'(l-oxpcl"da.C; Btv yttClve ~ (5ou).£(o:. at 7tAOUa~O~ EtX(lVe: (5ouAoLX;, ol1tEp~O'o6tE:por. tX7t6 'tou; U1t6AOt1COU~ A6l']vai.-

142

01 OMIAIEE I:THN EAAAAA TO IIPOBAHMA THI .!1HMOKPATIAE :EHMEPA

143

OU~ Bev ~rXcx'Ve.. ~H ~aal1 T"fl~ a6"1]VlXtxilc; ~IlO)(p(X"t£aS' ~""tav€ 6 aypo-r"l]<; nou exCt.ve IJ.E: 't6. 7t65La 25 x.~A~6~e:.'tpa y~a va xai'te~et a-rr,\J "ExxA7'jo£a 'tOU a~tlOu ~ va au~7JnlaeL xaf va (x1tocpaaiaet· 'to rBto xat b ~f.}yl'LI(x'EO~ 'te:xvh7J~ xed 0 ne:tpatw't"tlS va.&t.,.r;.

Au't'o cpuatxcX npoU7toet"te:L o-n exouJ.lE: ~fa 1toi\t··tUC~ xOLv6't"1J"'t'cx n€ptopto!J.€W) at apdJ(lo. ~r1t&px'e:~ aAAwGTE: xat iJ 1t€plq»]fl"f} cpp6:OY} 'tOU IIAtXtWvo~, t7tOUt; N6f-1.olJ~ liv 6uf.L0:lJ-cu xlXAa, 01tOU au~l1- ""taE~ 't"o !fkxvtx.6 ~Eye6o~ (.uCu; 1t6Al1«; xcd AtEt o'tt am6 1:'0 tao:.'V~x6 !--tEye:So;: 0:1t6 linoc4JYl 1tA116uo(lou (OXL tl5acpou<;) el~('.<L 6 <X(>L6110r; a.vep~1tWV 1tOU" (l~",t'Vo~ cn6 tBLO lJ.epoc; ~ IJ.1tOpOUV veX axouaouv tr, <p{lrV~ tv6s plJ"topa. A&n1 ~ laia elvf.u 1tOAU O'YnJ.aV't~Ki], [3Ai1t~'t'e:

O:[J.eoCllC; 't't~ Buxqlope~ 1tPO€X;ttXoe:tC; n]c;. ~Et;(aou 0'Y]Ilcxvttx6 Elva.t 'to yeYO\lOt; o"n 6 xtx6tvexc; 7te::plnou sepc:L -r6v cUAO\l. ~TOU~ 1tAa'tluVt)(OUC; C5UXA6youc; rr ·x. {J1J.)'tcXEL 6 :EwxpcX't'l~ (l EVC( YU!J.vaato i txe.~ nor) E1va~ O'uyx~Vtpw~evor. ol "to~, 1tOL0S" e!vcu ao-r6r;; Kal ""tou MEr. 6 tlAAoC;,. 1tC>t; atv SE.PE~C;. elVCXt /) yt6C; 'tOU ""taBe. VA! MEL b :Ewxpch-7)t;, [3.e:f3a.£w~, Ka( Btv E1Xe l;ti5eAcpo "t6v BEivlX; .6.t&n all-a 01 e:A£u6e:pot 1toAltt.; e:lvat 30JX)(), Cx1tO 'tou<; 67to(ou~ 10.000-15.()(X) lLEVOUV G'tijv 1\eliv(X, OAOt yvwpo;ovw;~ lJeml;u 'tou;, nepi1tou )(C(eE\la~ S£pEL yui -r6v MAov t ~ tJ.1topei: euxoAcx va [.taee:~ "tL €papa elvtxL" 't( ~uy(~e:t, 'tt: e:l",f.u lxav6~ va xave:L xed \}6: l1:tfV xrXV&&.

~O ~ey6;AO~ A~eptxav6t; XOtvwv~oA6yor; AtOLlLS" Mallt.pOP"'t au~l]-rae:.t n1 cppaa7j 'tou IIA&-twvor; a~ Eva ~t{3A!O 'tou "tOU '36 xed MeL (JWatp. &n lJ-t -n1v t<pe:upeo"t) 'tou paBLocpwvOU "ttl Opto:: 'rile; a~e<Jl'}C;

~ ~

a,.(.toxpa'tLac; EXOUV y~v!tt 8ptCl 'too 1tAo:VI1'tYl. 'Eye;} 6 ratO~, a~ [.tou

E1tL'tptne:.-rat va lxvf.«pepw rov tau't6 (lOU, 20 Xp6'VtlX ~e:.'ta. a1't'6 "t6~ McX~ .. upOpvt (x'VecpEpa 8A7JV alrn1 -n1V 01t11pe:.OLct. (oro IIep'€Xof1e'JIO TOU }JoouxAlap.ou, 1957) xed Ot\'€cpepa e7t~~~ Ttl\! Tl1AeDpa.O"l1. T6 ye;yov6r:; mt XCXt 1} --r7JAeopaoyt cpuatxa tl1topet ,,6: 1l1t£t aniv {)1t"f}PE~ afa 'til~ Cit-tE:GYJ'; B"flIlOxpa'tLac;. Bt(3(X~a [J.€ 't6 1toA~'t'tx6 ){a6S:<TtwC; nor) 07ta.pxe~ !-l1rilxs: O"TI1v U1ty}PEO(c( TIle; cpo:uAoxpa--r(a~. 1\M& aUTO Btv e:lvat €VBLCU.plfpov xaB' tatYt6' au"t'o nou 6tAw va 1tW elvcu o-n U1tcXPXOUV 'ta 'teXVLxri (l€OCX yta 'Va ~1tope:aouv v6: U1tap~ou~ Wp~(J.Er; xed (J"toxaafLEve:~ lJ.E'tn Ct1tO ausYrt'1J0"fj auAAoyr.xe~

Cl1tOcpaOEtS, nov wi U1te:p~C(t:voo'V a1te(pw'i ~a lip~a 't'ij~ KAaoLx'i1<; Ci~e:.C1"'~ 8T1[J.oxpa"t{as:o T1lS ixth}vdCx"t1~ rr .x. IIpt7tE~ \leX E7tLV01l6ou\J, 1t{)E1CE-t va B"fJll~OUpy1]eOUV 'Vee:~ (5011lit:; xed vEe~ !-lop<pt~. A&-n1 i] cbtoo/tl Dllw~ e:Iv(.u eAA'-IDJ;. rLti va ~1tOUV --r6 paBt6rpwvo, ~ "'t'lk6- pn07l X'tA. 0'n1V lrnYlPe:.afa --rr;C; t5"tU..Loxpa:tUxc; .npt1teL va xa--rao't{lar.pEt ~ a'1}(.Leptv~ l-L0'VO-7tOAtX~ B0tl~ ""tOU<;: fvo:e; evepy6c; 1tOIl1t6<; xa( a1tEL¢pt6[J.OL 1tae'1"'ttxo~ C5tx'tE:t;. IIpe1CE:L 6 l-lov6Bpo(lo~ va. yfv€~ 8~1CA6(5poIlOt;, yta va xa:tacrcet -q 't"t)Ae:6pa01'j B"I1lloxpa'tLx6 (Spyavo.

Movov axpofhYhl-C; ll1tOPW v' O:'VCXq>EPru E\'(X G.AAO "tEpam-tO 7tp6- ~AYJlJ.a "CYi~ O'YUlEPtyjJC; E1tOx7]~: 1:"0 olxOAOytx6. To ava:r.ptpw lJ.ovo yux va .orov(aw M~ allfX. "'to Aa~OUlle U1tO$"I) ~.UX~ y(ve-rllt alLeawc; 1tpocpa'Jt~ o'tt "'to S~'tl'U.ux T1i~ B"I}(10KPc('ttru; e!v(X~ 1tayx6a~~o ~ Mt ~t1VCtt ~Yrt"l1lJ.a 1tC(yx.6o!l~a~ a"tJtJ.oxpa'tta',;. Atv u1tapxoov «Eevtxb;» MOE~; o-r6 otXOAOYLXQ 1tp6~/"lH .. UX. IIepvac;t EVa. 1tE't(JeAaLocp6po 500.000 't6vwv at 100 X~AL6[J.€"tpa fx.1t6amor] (UtD nt:; &X'tEt; ao:~ xat &.\1 rux6v vauanae:t~ O'1tw<; E.Y~VE (xlrt6 1tOAAEt:;; cpoptr;. ol O:X"'t'"t<; oac; !lE"t'(.(lloPcpwVO'V'uu at 1t(aaa E:.1tL xpovta. XWPU; ~a (J.~J..:qooUllE. yta 't"frJ (x-rl-!oacpcxtpa, yux "ta. Baa"!] x. A7t •

fux va 'tpacpeL atYt-t] ~ tX(J.eo"1l Bl1~oxpa't£C( '1tpe1tE:L va e:tVtXt 1tpo:y~CX"ttxa a.(J.EO'1 (5rUJ.oxpa"da O€ e:\la 6p~otJ.rtvo e1tL1t€8o. npt1t€~ 'Va e:lvat otov££ (dj'1}'Vd~xou 'tu-rcou Blllioxpa1:"tcx at'6 e:rdTte:i5o ~r:; ~aall~· fu}AalJil 7tpE.7t€t va l)1tclpxet Eva 8£X'tuo )(Qtvwv ~ xo~'VOTfrtwv a1CoxtVtpw(lEVWV )Cat tXmoxu[3e:.pvwv.t'Jwv. Ol ii\l6pc.l1t'OL 1tPE1te:t va tX1ttx"aEO't'OUV ~v (xu'tovo~((l, ~v au-roa~x(cx -oxt lJ.t Til" E.vvo~a 1t'Or) XPYla~~o1to~OUV 'tOV 5po ol ecp1111epU5€t;- xed O"TI1v cx.&tO'ttAeUX m6 E:7tt1teBo ~ o-dS a~a<Tt'cXaef.~ (l~fxr:; 1t6A1]~ tJ.e'"t"Cl.;u 20 Xelt 50 'Yl itO"t'cv xo::t 100 XtAta5wv xa:to(KwV~ ~ O"''d~ B,-a<TtaoEtC; t\J6~ e.pyoataOLOU, o't(Xv 1tp6xe:vt'ClL y~a nj~ 1t(Xp(Xyc.uytX~ au'toBtO:X.e(pLG"Il, ~ a't(~ lltao"tQ:ae:Le; aoVE't'C(~p~o"~.u;)v 5-10 xwp~w\J. MEoo:. d (lUtEs "dt; BLao'tao£~c; ol aVepW1tO~ (.L1tOpOUV 7tpay~.ux""t~x& v6: xavouv tL(a auvtkuO"Y) xat va rX1tocpaaG;ouv yux BAn -r<X 6ella:ta 1tOU 'tou~ acpopouv IX1tOxAe:.t<Tttxa. AnD xe:i ~1top~i va ;eKt~aEt ~ «Xv&Be:O'fl,OXL E:X1tPOaW1tY1011, a"A.ACr. &,,&6e:0'Y] I!hapxwc; (xvax):rrt'1)~ (36-

144

or OMIAIE~ :ETHN EAAAaA

V(X(1.TJC; at aVepN1tOU~ 1tot) va au~t.J.e'ttxouv OE avw'tEpw\' 5~cxcrt'aae:w'V t\J6-t"tj"t'e:; - E:1tapxla, ~otJ.6<;~ 1te:PLOXJ)~ EeVO~~ ~ ~1t€~POC;~ 1tACX~ vqT"t}<;. !:X€'r[.xa ~€ 't£; ~aO'tx€t; tv6nyte~ TI}~ a~eG'tlt; B7Iv-oxpa::tiac; ol a.pxctiOt ~ 1tOpOl),V va lla«; {nto8e:£l;ouv 1tprXYtlfX'ttx Ox~ yta "Va "en ll~flYlt)ou~e:~ aMeX yux va oxE:q:rroUIlE:. IT .x. O-n1V afIXaia A6Yjva 1tOAM~ f3lXatxi~ t;ouo(e:c; ex1tAl1pwvov't(XV EX 1te:P~Tp07t~<;· KaBE (.l~vo:: ~.tt6. q>UA~ aaxouoe: (5~rupop£'tU(6: lxt;twLJ.cx'ta. :E't6 taw't€ptx6 atm;c; tii~ <pUA~C; x6;Be ~tpa eva lhacpope-tLx6 a:totJ.o 'iTta'Ve E1ttO'"'ta"t~c; 'tOO" npu""tavEwv ~ B."i\aB~ 1tpoe:.8po; Tile; clrUJ.oxpa'dar;. "Evev aAAo fll1VCl 't6 cXstw{-t(X 1tep"ouoE: ot !J,tav aAA"f) CPUA"I1. I:e aAAet; 1te;pL1ITW(JE~~ ~ a'J6:aet~Y} t"w'V fxpx6vtwv y~v6't'a'V ~E. xA~pO. '"Exe:i (htou ot j\~vaioL e;e:Aeya.v .. 01tWt; ~tpE.'t'e: ~ €tvC(~ txe:i (htoU 1t'paY[J.cx"tL xpe~a~e:-cat ~(a. €,t8LxCrn]1:a Xctt yt' a&to 1t.x. ol o-rpa1:"fjyo~ exAtyo\l"tcxv. dUyt't 'to va alOLX~a€t xtx\let~ o-tpa-r6 crt ~.p'(XXl1 (5ev e!vo:~ 6e[J.fX -rou )(cx6e:.v6C;· el",aL eEIJ.<X I .. uiir; e:18£x.e:uGlJS xed !Jtat; -rtXV'1Jr;. ~xAtyovtaV aAAa. ElJ.€VaV aVClxA:rrroL. T6: oUyXPo'V('{ £ku 6epw'ttxti KtvfU.l.(x'ttX xcx( LBLC(t'te:pa 'to epya:tLx6 xfv"lJlJ.<X i5l]l.!tOuPl"f)aa'V (lla aAA'1) ouyyevfl B'11l0XpCX'tLX~ LJ.0pQ»1. TIJ !l0pq>~ "too (JU!J.(3ouA£ou. 'tDU e:pya-nKoo ao~~ouA'OU. ~H YE:Vtx-Q cru'VE:AeuOY} OA(r)~ 'tWV t"auxcpe:polltvW'V tXAtye:L E>C1tpOaW1tout;. ol o1toiOt O~Wt; EX7tpOaW7tot ~dvat ouvex_WC; a.vax.A"f)"t"O(., oX~ a1tAW<; intEUeUVO~. Etva~ aU\lex~<; l)7tEUBu'VOL ~ aAAO: elvat xed oU'V€X,WC; a.vO!.xA;J']'toi. e:ivcx~ U1toxpe:<Al~t~o~ ~a (:)(.)000'1 AOYO m'ou~ txAoyeL~ 't'ou<; yux o;n

':h'

eKavav.

~

!ltv er~at b -r01tOC; xaL 6 Xpo\Jo,; "t'wpa va E1t~aOeOu[1.e at Ilia Ae~

mO(.Lepl]7tEpLypaqnllltCtc; i.i1l~OYJC; BY}[.J.oxpa.'da; nor) 6n 1tEPtEA6.~~a.ve 1tA:'16u01l6 Exa"t'o~flupfb)'V. J\px~~ va 'to'V(aou(le Buo ~(Xotxe.c:; o:{)XtC;: CUt' 'ti] (.L~(X !-lEp~a 1tpcxYl-la't~xiJ allEO"f} a1]~oxpa'da at £\10- 't'Y}Te~ ~aaf.:wv, tJ.EOO: mtc; 01tOtEt; ~ 1tpay[J.a'"ttK~ a1]~oxpa't"£a va ll1topel va. Ae:t"t'OUmOEL. An9 Til'V cl.AAY} lJE:pta. xa6E: am nor) XCl't' aV<XyKl1'V 1t'PE1t£t 'VeX tXAe:y€r, ItxAE.ye-tar. tiE" ~ exAM elvllt auvEXws aVaxA~n1, u1t€u6uvy} Kat 1tpE1tet va (5(VEL A6yo. "Erot (.L1toPOU!J.e: va O:p)(Looulle 'V~ aVtL~E'tCt)7ta;OulLe: 1'0 1t'p6~A1llla -ril~ ri(.lEUlJC; &J!lOxpa'dac; at: !J"trx XOLVWVta 1tOU exe:~ 'tit; ato:;O'taO'E:t~ 't'c7>v OTH1.e:P~\iW"

TO llPOBAHMA TH!: 6HMOKPATIAl: l:HMEPA

145

XOLVWVtWV xcx~ 1tOU Sa enpE1tE va e1t€x"t'ct6et at ~1te.~PW1;r.XOUC; xc:d '"t'eALx.a 1tAaVYft~KOU~ xwPOUt;.

(J)-ravw 'twpa o't6 "twu't'ato O'71IJe:LO T'fl~ 6~.uAtac; [.Lou. \)Ao; am&; EXOUV ~t~(.na n1 o"1Jllaola 'tou~ .. 1tPOXE~lltvou va lJ.1topeoe:t ~ a~e- 01) a.,UJoxpa:tLtx va AEL'tOUmoEt MArX B€v el'Jc(t Kaip[.a. TIPOXEtIJ.€VOU va t..tTCoptoe~ va U1ta.pg:r. e.Ae:oAe:p!a, C:L-rE oe 3to:mam:lC; 20- 30 xr.Ata(5wv aVepC;)1tw'V, E.t'tE O'E Bta(J'taae:tC; 'tPLWV lhoEXCXtOIJfJ.Opiwv av6pul1tw'V, 1daw .. xO;"tW Kat 1tr.XVW fx1t6 o:Wu; 'to6~ 8e:CJl-touC; XPEt6:.Se"ta~ x6."t~ aAAo 1tOU xC(vt\la.~ BE-v (17tOpEt \ia 't6 tX1t0CPQ.o(oe:t ~ va 1'0 t3a.AEt aa:v VOtJ.O. XpeLaSe"ta~ Y] ouv£:d]c; a7J~tOUpy~xTj Bpa.- 0''t1'}pt6'tY}'ta 'too XOt vo fJ. M6vo 't6 xor vo 111tope t va ~PEt, OUtE tyw. ou"t"& l!aE:~C;, 7t~C; elv(.(t 5u\ltXt'6v va. ~J7taps~t ixAA1]Ae1tLZiplXO"J] ivo~ XE"'tptKOU 1t0Il7tOU paa~ocpwvou ~ 't''tJAt:opo:aewc:; Kat 'tOU XotVOU not) -rov BtX£'tct.t. To xowo , 6 Arx6~1 ol A«.Ot e6. ppoov X(lTtl 'FtOLOV -rP01tO 111tOpoi)v 'Va Bl1l.ltoupy'J']6ouv tJ.Op<pE<; 'de; o1tote~ oint cpav-cru:6lJ.CXO'tE crq~ep(X~ xat 01 67to~E:C; 6a ll1topouaav wi AUOOUV 1tpo~AiUl.a"t(x 1tOU [J.W; cpafvo'l't(X~ ((VU'1ttp(3A"I]'Cct.. XpE~~'t~l AOtnov alrdj 11 auveX'l1~ al1~tOupyt)(~ BpaGT'1)p~&t7rta 'tOU KO~VOU xed a&t6 Ol]tJ.(x(VE~ xop£wC; 'to nrifJOr; l>AIJ.)\I yt6t 'tel XOtv<X. AUto Bc:v t!va~ atK~ f.lou Ct'VCtxeXAUtP"'1. U1tcl.p){€t aE exetvo 'to xa:t'aTCA~Kl'~x6 XOPLXO 'rijc; }\ VT,ydV'1Q nou a.px£~& llE 'to «1tOAA!x 'to! l)e:L"Vrx xal. oua~v a,,6pw1tou (5E~'V6't€po" 1tEAEr.» l(CXt 01tOU 6 LOCPOXA~~. b.vaIlEoc( <ita. a.AAa. 6au v.(lo't<X X(X{lctK't'"t] p ~o-n xa "to U &\1 Bpw7tou! 11 v~ - !JO\l€ue:t a&t6 1tOU ov0v-aY:L «ixo'tu\l0tl0t; opyer.». ~o'tuv6tto~ 6a TIel ee:O'l.um~>n1. xat opya -«no 't6 Onoio f3yai"e~ ~ M;'1j 6pyrx- 0'!l6~- Elva~ il6pll~. 'to rra6oc;. Ol aVepW1tO~ anavw ~v 6PIllJ "tOt) 1taaOU~ a~(jav 7tPexYll(X'tLxtr; 1tOAtL€re~~ 01twc:; a~ (1£00: 0't"l1V lntOLa yew-qEhp<'E 6 :EOCPOXA"1jC; xat yta tijv ()1tota eypo:$e: t(~ 'tpay(Ulj(ec; "too.

'"Av 8t\' u1t<lpxet (Xu"t'o 't6 7taeO~ yr.&. 'ta KOt\la.~ atYni ~ CtO'tO\l6110C; opya, (.L1tOpoUlle: va AillE hlpat:oOt; A6you~, Il1tOpOU~E. lJ& WUrpoulJ,e wpai:a J3t~A(a ~ \let xa'taaxe;oa.~OU~E: GUa"nllt(X"t'ct ~a onotrx. va elv(Xt atPoya ~ ql['AOO'OrptKcX )(0:;( 1tOAt'tE~oAoytKa, lxU&.. oAa aut&' Bev 6& oy}lLatVOUv "t'b'to~~. Ka( 66. il6EA.ct ~eAetW\lovta~ wx 1tW noui

146

or OMIAIE:t ETHN EAAAl1A

elva~ ~ axpw~ avrl6et"lJ O:7totiJ'l an' aiYnl "t'Y]v x.(l'ta1tAl1x-ttx~ X(xL EK6ct(l(3w'ttle"Yj q>pao'r) 'tou l:oCPOxA-Jl yta -njv «ao'tUVO(,LO'V opy6:»~ 1to~a td'V{u q aUyxpo\l~ iinotV"Yl yta 't"6 6E~a., -Y] ii1to~ Til.; aUyxpovqe; BYi6ev B'Illoxpa:r£ar:; xaf "toG qltAEAe:u6eptolJou.. T~v fXE~ EKcpp6toeL IJ€ xcx'ta1tAypC"t~X*111tu)(v6Tqta xat ~(dhyt"1rra E\lro; r6:AAO~ 1toArnx6c; CPtAOOOCPOC; "'tOU 7tE:pa:OflEVOU atwva, 6 M1te:\I~tlEV KovO'"t'<Xv .. at eva 1tE:pfcprll..t.O xE.LlleVO nOll auyxpt:vet -nlV E:ku6e:p£a. 'tWV (zp;(CXtCrlV tJ.E n}'V ti\eu6ep£a "toov ~ov1"ep\Jwv. E€Xtw~V'too; a1t6 a&ta 1tOU iiyal-le yt6. "tijv &p)(ccta a",~oxpC(··d(.(, )..r!:e:t o'tt 7tp&y(.La-t~ O't1]'V [xpxa([l i11]lloxprrtia .. t7tE~8~ 01 &'vapW1tOt BEV e:!XCtv 't'btO'tfX aAAo va l(aVOUVE a:n1 ~c..J-q 't'ou~ (E-rO~ 'to i:~YJye:i lXl)'ro<;) .. ET.XavE (Xu.oro 't6 1toA.lttx6 1ta6o<;, EVW EllEU; -Xct£ taw n:apa6t'tw ~btf Ai~e:t IlIt"'tC((PpasoYttxs- «ro ~Dvo nOll yupe:UOUIlE a7t6 'to xpa'tot; elVGU 'il XIX't°XUpcuoYl 't'WV Cc1tOAauaew,v I-ltx;» .. Ked 'to Ats:~ alrr6 XWPLC; va. x.(X"t'Y}YOP€~ xed xwp~C; vei ElpwVEUe:'tC(~. T6 MEt Bt&'tt ~ip€r. .. 'ijt5"fl "'t6 1820 .. "'tou~ oUyxPO\lOUr; O:v6pw7touC;. A&t6 ~r'Var., E:A1t'~W, ~6vo xe- 1'« '1'6 ~l1Lau .. a"AMJ. O:(Jq>Ct.)..w~ ~r"ar. xa:'t"cX 'to il~tau., ~(a "tpayr.x~ aA~6e:La y~6: rov auyXPOvo x6o(J.o .. A&-t6 1tOU ~'I't'oov ol ii'VBpw1tot ai)~e:pa e!vtXt lj xa:t0xVpwCT'fl "twv fx.7tOAfXUOEWV "'tou~. Kl ('(u1'6 't6 S"l1'tou~ anD "to xpa'toc;.

L1tv (3M1tou\I 1tteX 'tex xo~vcX. ome:. EVa~acptpov'tcu y[.6. Ta xotva. nEpa CUt' 't"o'V e:o:u't'6 'roue; xed 't'OV G(IJ.€OO XUXAD TOU~~ U1ttXpx.e:t yt' au't"ou~ e\Ja Kptl:rOC;-TCcx'tipru; ~ Kpa1:'ot;-IJ."1l"tE.pa, Eva Kp&-roC; 7tot) e:!vat "tamox.pDvu} ~ xa£ Eva 't'tpaC;. Kat Eva e.lao~ 1\ yto u - 8aoo. .. '1 6

. ~1totoc; ex€~ XOtAr.Ct. ~eaa ((no n1v 61to(cx f3yCtse:r. xap-tovollioIlCl-ca, aaELe:.~, 6eaE-tC; X1'A., lx.AM X~ :!vo: xpa1:0S; "to 01t'OtO 1tpe1t€t nnv't'w.; wi )ClX't"0XUPWVEt "'tir; a1tOAaUa€t~ lJ.aS. "Ooo u1tapxE-~ a~ ~ aUAA"t}~ ~ ((un? iJ 't'cXoY] ~ CXUn1 i} ~aet(i <pav'taot(xx~ 'to1to6e'tYlCTYl 'tOU cruyxp6vou av6pw1tou cX1tEVrlvtt <Tt'a }f.or.vcX xcd anEv(.(V'n O'n1v 1tOA~'t'~x"t}, ooa A£fLE ll1tOpoDv ~iO'w~ veX llE£ ..... oove oav 0'1t6poC; yttX Xc:X7t'Or.ct.V &.Ai\11 yevea cl.AAO: atv Wrp~AOUV at: 1:bto-ra. Am6 1tOU xpe~a~at aiUJ.e:pa xoer' €soX'1'V, xed nor) rpCttve:m.~ 1tp6~ 't6 napav v6; Ae:f7te~, erva~ Ctlrt6 "'t'6 1taBo<; ytri "t'tX xo~v&, ~ e:.u6uv"ll. Tj au~~€'toxfJ. ~

,. , !!I' ,

aatuvouoq opya.

H TEXNOEnI~THMH

To etlJ,fX t-taC; mlfle:pa e:lvat " aTJlJ.€ptvi] xa"'ta.a't(la~ tii~ "'tEX,lJOE:'Jt'tcrciU.LT]C;. To 6e:(J.cx BE\, dvat lx1tAW; EAA7JVtx6, ou'te xa.v tBtahe:.pa tAA"tJVtx6 - t{V(l~ BEtJ.CX '1tayx60'(.uo, 6tll(X 1tOU eupopa OAOxA"fjpT] n]v ave p W 1t()'t"l}Ta. 1\ no fl~«'V a1totiJ7J, 6efJ)pwV'tfXC; -n1 muJ. E: p ~ V>1 X(X'taata.al1, 6<k [J.1topouae: xr.xVE-tt; va 6B"t)yY}a~L aE CtnOyvwu'1. yta:d "'to; ouotao-r[.xtX. 1tp<XYl-La:tCl tre' ctt)'tou 'too 6E.tla't'oC;, 11 "'CouN:Xx~U"tO'J ora )(a£p~(l, Yl6: 'toue; Xt'V(5uvou~ ROU at(:.tTPeXOU~E aiu.u;.pa, Ex,ouv kXSet Kat EV't06tOtC; xpE"ru;e"ta~ l5tapx.w; va Savae:r.7tw8ouv. 1!H av6pwn:6-nrra (5tV€t n1V tv'tlntW011 mt xwt.pe:.UCt -XCXL 1tptiWct't'L )«I)tpeuE.t- w; 7tp6~ "ttl OOOLw8"f). KwrpeUEt Wt; 1tpOC; oAa. "[6: 6e(lEAtwBYI 1t'OA~ "t'txa ~"flTIJtJa'ta., xat "['0 ~~nu.La. -rijr; "tEXVOe:1ttanll-ll1':; etvcu eva 'Kerr' e:soX)1v nOA~'t~x6 ~~·t1'UJ.a"t ytct."'t£ tdvo::~ -r6 sirnuta Tij; axtO"l}<; xae ~t; y\'tJ}Citl~ 't'ij~ cruyxpOVf)<; a.vap(')7t6"tY(tCt.~ ~.ut Tf] BuVfXIJ."l1 TIl~ xa( -dJ~ Esouma "t"tJc;. "'H ~ yux va 't6 nw. (.Le 7te:.ptoome:{»l lxxpt~ltta, i1 axt07J (xvO:[J.e:oa CTt"il auvEXwr; aU;tx\l6llEVll BUVCQl1'j 't'ijc; WX_VOETrtO'-rrUJ.l1C; xat n1Y ExB"TjA"t) a3u'VoqJ.ia. "tW\.' 0Yll-LEptvwv avepwn;(v(I)v xOLvonTtWV. '~AAwa'te, axolJ.ll xa.( v~ IJ.LA~asr. )(aVtt£~ yta axea"q a~a[.le:aa o-n1 OtNCll-ll1 ~r; 1:EX\lOE1ttcrnj~"IlC; xat: n1v a5vva~ta 'tW\, xOlvo-t-frCW\I d\lcu aB6xtflo· xa't' ouo(a",. at" U1ta.PXEt "tt"tor.a axE<T1J. l)1t&pxe~ ~J.ta ef;oua£a -ti1~ 'tEX\loe.1ttO'-n1117JS 7tOU~ ~S 7tp6~ ~v OI'JO&x. elvat ~tCl l-l~ E:~OUaLa, ~((l eSOUQ(a ixvw'VUtJ.ll anD xaBe: lbro$'Yl i ave:u8uVTj XCXL lxvE;€Aeyx:nl - aV£;EA£yx-tT] ~ Br.6'tt 1l1l xa'taAoytc1tll"fJ. IIp6 )(Et1'(X~ YLa Eva 't'q:lcXO't'LO XOt vwvtx6 pe:u!.J.(.( nOll {leu; 1tlX{Jaaupe:.t xed lle:aa o-r6 onoio 7tp6t; "'to 1tap6v XOAu(l1ta.IlE:, 7tE.p~(.Levov'tC(c; rt,,(5e:.xo!dvCt.)~ 'Va '1tV[.YOUlJ.e cue airt6. 1\7tEV(xvtt d aUn1 onlV XlX"t'tXo-raO"tj, B~(X7tto"t'w'Vou(J.€ l.lUX 1tA~P'1 1tae7J'ttXOt'l"ta 'twv av6pw.1tw'.J .. xed «mw'J &x6[La. 'tWV E:1ttCTt"tJp.6vwv xexi 'twv reXVtxwv we; 1toi\~"'tW.,.,. IIafuj'ttxm'l)"OO. ~ 1tOU 6d:. tJ.1tOpOUOE x(X'Ve:(t; 'J& n) xapaX"t''1lpiae:t-Kcd 8e:v a~U'ta.~w Va"n1 XapO:X"C'lp(aw-'wc; OVVEVOxn lJ.'ltpOC; at IJ-t6:v t~tN.Sl1' yt6: n1v 61tofa OAO~ 6 x6CJt.lo<; 6e:Aet veX

148

01 OM IAIEE ::E THN EAAAaA

7t~(Tte:ue:t 1thlS: 'tou Elvat e:UEpye:'t'L>al t XWp(~ xav va E!vat E:V't'E:AW~ 1tE7tetGr.t£vot; Ott a& ~1topoua£ va 'tOU e:lv(.(t (.L(Xxpo1tp66e:OlLa €Uepye'ttX11. rta "it opo6eTJ1GW 'to Bella xed va. 8efi;w .r( axp~~wr; E:'VV06) Atyovm.; l:i'tt OAO;- 0 x60llO<; e:lv(Xt in'te:u6uv~ xa( )((Xvtvac; Blv s:tw:u tJ1t£uBuvoC;, eli etow IJ.e:PLXEt:; EpwnJaEt~: no~6~ O,1totpaatae 7tpaylJ.at'~xcX 'tiC; yov~(Lo7to~"1]a£t~ lJ.E.a(X at aOxttJ.aO''tLxou~ aWAl)'VS:'; xat -dt; 1l~(XI-lOOX€ooe:tC; t~~puwv; nOL6~ (Utoq>cXo~aE 1tpaWO:'ttxti O'rt E7CL'tP€7te:-ro:t va (Xpx,LOOUV \la yivovra~ E:1te:Il~aae:Lt; 0't6v ye:ve:.'ttx6 xu)OU((X; IToL6C; ix7tocpaatae 1tpaYIlCl'tLxa va ~q>ap~oo'tOU'.J auunlt.La:rex EV(,(VtLO'V 't'iic; ~6Auva"IJ<;~ 'tel onota €XOUV Wt; Ot7to"t'€AeOflct. -xe:LpO'tepo rowe; Ct.1tO n11J.6Au'V~- 'Va xa'taxpa't"ou~ "'t6 a~oSc:u)~O 'tou a"SpexxCl xed va 1tPOXaAoUV O~r.VE~ J3poxt~ nov xa-t'cxO''tpecpou\' 'ttl t5aOll;

~uat)(6;, ~ TE XV os 1ttunlllTJ e: Ivaf. eva. a1to-rt:NtolllX - ~, lLnAAo'J, elvcn il 07J!J.e:p"vl? cplioY} et&tou 7tOU apxQ;et, 1tplv tX7tO 2 .500 XP6v~C(~ to'Wt; Kat 1tOAU 1tEp~aOmepo, {lE. iluiv CiAAy} tlOPGl~, Bl1Aa.(5~ llUX ql6.O'l -n;C; OpaOAOYL)('~<; epeuva~, -rii<; opeOAoy~x1}~ lx\la~~TY}al'lr;, Tii~ epeuvac; 'tou XDOl-tOO. -rile; ep.Euv(xs TIi; U1tap~llC; ~,l(Xt;~ OtX61lCl xed ~r; Epe:uvac; au'tou TOU IlUOT1}PLOU ?tou fliis: ol>'1YEi a(5taxoncx va $axvoulle xed \leX pw't'(Xl-le. Kcxi f3e~o:tcx ~ ~1topEi xave:.£~ va. arpe:6Et aTIJ xapa. [!ta~ lJ.ae~lJ.a't[.)cil~ a1t6Be:t;"11~ ~ U'tO\l BaulJ-aol1o 1tOU 1tpoa<ptpou'V.o' aUtov 1tOV l-L1tope:i: 'Va XaTa.Atif3e:~ xa"'t~ an' a&ta. -ra 6€1l(X't(X, "rei a.tvty~crra -riis- GEtJ.€AtwBouC; cpuanci)c; xa£ -rii; XOO~OAOy£a~ ~ pi. a~.e:(5taAtrt'Ot ~ct£ctVapOL 'tWV aAAYJAe:1ttBp&oE:w'V crt6 vee-

i

ptx6· ouO't'"q(J.(X. ut6 optJ.0vLx6 O'uO"t'1}IlCl xaL m6 iXVOa01tOL"l-rlX6

cruo't'tUJ.cxA "}\", ~ xexpa a&tiJ liev e:lv(u il rllLlX tJ.t -n1 xapa 7tOU aOXL~ !l6.~OU(lE !-11tp6~ a' lv<x fpyo -rEx.vY}~, ErVeXL 6:aq>aAWr; 'rile; 't8lClSeV'totO'l}~. Ked &yw 6 Y(3:tOt;, aT6v f3cx6[J,6 7tOU Jl7tOPW \la a1tOAaUaW alrriJv n1 xapa oav 'ta1te:.r. v6<; epa:arrtxv~<; ~ rawe; Epa.OTi}S .. xor.-rasovrru; r.drrouc; 'toW; 'totJ.It1:C; &:rc6 llaxpLt:X., lJ.7topW vo: awaw 't~ atx~ 1l0U llClp-tupta. UTCCUC; !L1tO~ va aritow xa£ -n; {J.cxp-tupta O'tr. Xpw~ maw ~ Sw~ (lOU, xa£ n1 ~w~ 'twv 1tPOOW1tWV '1tOU IJ.OU elv(Xt 'ta 1tpoacp~Ata'te:pa ~ a't1!v Ct1tO'tEAEOI-L(X"ttx6't-.yt(l. tii~ O'UYXPO'V1}t; !a"tptX~C;--Kat au"C'o, 1t'e:p~aa6'te:po Ct.1t6 ~(o: cpopa. :Euve:1tWC; at" (l~-

H TEXNOEIT[ETHMH

149

haw Se:x~ \JWV't'cxS cX1t6 J.ua 1tpox.(X-raA"I1$'1 EVctVtLO'V Tii~ E1t~O'-rfnJ."1]~ i1 E:Vav'tLOV tii~ 'tEXVoAoy~a:~. "'A v e:lXrx 1tpox(XmA'fI$etC; ~ CX&T~C; 6a Yrt(X'V flCtAAo\l vnip ti1s: E:1tton)(lllC;: X(xL untp Tijr; 1:ex,VOAoy£a.C;.

:Enrv 1t(Jay~a'tLx6't"J1'ta.. (lEv 6a E:EJ.1tc:u VE x(Xvtv(X ~'iJ't')'a1.a, jJ.ovo fva'tE.parrtto 1tPCXX'tLKO 7tp6~A1'Ula.., a.v 'ioxue: airt6 1'[00 AEV€ (lEptKOt lJ.1tpoma <nEe; xa'tcxo'"epO!pt xec; Buvctt'ci'tY)'t£<; 'ri}<; 't 5: Xv 0 en (,0'-01- 11-71<;: v' Ctnayop€ooou!le n1v e1tr.O'~ll7J 11 'Va cnalJ.C(~aouIlE Tilv -reXVtx-q 11 va "Couc; xa.pa;OOIlE: Eva aacpt~ Opto. Elva" ixIJ.EOWr; €tlt.plXVE; mt CXlr't'O atv 1i1t0POU!lE va 'to xa:voulJ-E: Il~ ao~'V -nl lJ.OPCfY'l. 'itapa tJ.Ovo av a1t(Xp\l"t}eOU~€ TfJ'J EAE:u6epfa - Xt (lu"t'o, Yaw<;~ av yf.VE:L xav.ta 't~paana ot)(OAoY~X"J) )(Cl'tCXrrt'POcpiJ (01twt:; !J.1tope:t: va y(v~r.) ~ 67t&t~ Ev8EXOIlEVWt; flO; t17tOPOUOE va -r6 t1n~a.Ael e:va OAOxAllpw-rtXO xa.aea'tw~, 1tOV e'lvat eva cx1to "to; auv(.("ta a1to-r£AEO'~a'tel l,J.[.a~ 'tE'tOttu; x(x'ta.o'tpoqTij<;. /:J.ev (J.1tOpOU~E. \leX ,;6 x&voul-u: ~ oxt E7tE.!.a." ll' (Xu"t'6v rov "tp61to ali E1tt(3a.AAa.!-L£ a1tayopeu'tr.xout:;_ vollou~ aE flt6: Bpam71Pr.6i1ft(X - 0'1'0 Xft'tw xa:t'w ~ &rtrXpxou'J v6(lot

" (x at Xa.AOO~ OrceXpx.oov) nov a7ta.yop~uouv n1 3pa<Tt1lPtcYt'1't!X "tWV BOAocp6vwv. OU't'E: e:vvow (.L' alJ"c6 o"t't ol E:1tta~~o"e:~ xed ol 't~"tXOL ~rva!.. ~~~(X~a. (5oAocp6vot. tJ.tv ~7topoulJ.e va 't~ anayope:.uoouliE y~(X:d~ d' airt"q T1J\J lmop(a 't'i}t; 61to(a~ e.tl1(lO'tE y€\Jv~lJ.o:'ta. a't'ft~ tAA.'tJ"OaU'ttX~ l<nop£a t '11 a.,,(,UOUPY{a, ti]~ eAEue€pl~ elv(u lip(J71- )C'tlX a~(.lEV1J ~ 't'7]V avaBu011 -rile; ava:~~'t'1lO''l~ xed ~~ op6oAoytx71t; lpeuva.~. Kat. cucpr.(3&C; E:1tE~a~ Bi'J 1l1t0pou!lE. 'Va E:1t~~aAOU~€ a1tayop£.lJt'tXOus v6Ilou~, 11 va opo6e"n100UllE we; 1COV E1tt--rPE1tctCIt ~ E:pe:uva K~ (.(1tO 7tOll xal 1ttpa BEV t1tt'tP!1t€"t'Clr., "to srrnuux ~aS' 6B-rrret a! lJ.ta 1tpaylta:ttK~ av'ttv0lJ.(cx, 1tOU 5ev ~7tOplti: '.'6; ~e;1t£pcxatet 7tavw at xa8apa Gewprrnx6 €7tL1tEBo, Mnopel [.10\,0 'Va AuBeL ~t 'til\! 1tOAL't'~X-q 6paGl1, ~v 7tO)..L'ttX~ XP'0"11 ~ X(X.L nlv 1tOAt"t'LXTj t.pp6- \''1]0"11 "tWV av6pw1ti'Vwv XOt'VO't"'lj"t'hlV. @ck E7t<xvEAB6.l a' (lu't6.

86. E1tpe:nE va ~pou~e:, €1t£m}<;~ ertf. CXln6t; 1tOU taxup¥:"t'at iYn oi XaAEC; Kat 01 xaxlt; 1tAeupe~ til<; aUyX(JOv"1)S e1t~~IlYl~ xcd tile; cnJrxpoV"l1~ 'ttXv~xil~ 6a V-1topouaa\l 'Va (5"axwp~O'touv' EvrEAW~ X(xL 5-n Sa apxouae YLCt. \la -dc;" Btax.wp(aoullE A(y"J'] (leyaAU'tEpYJ rtpoooxIl YI Xa7tOLOt Kcx,,6ve:~ 'te:XVtxoe1ttO't'1J(loVtX~; ~aucil.; II ~ g~rXk~<Pl']

150

01 OMIA1EE ETHN EAAAtJ.A

"tOU X(l1tt'taA~ut~XOU x.tpBou.; ~ ~ xa:t'Ctpy"1]Ol} -rile; ypcupeLOXpa-rL)(~<; Btaxe:£pLa7j~!, Btv EXEt Xt'X'taA6:~£t 'to ~aaO~ 'tOU ~7J'tiilJ.(X't'Or;. )\x6~a xed O'€ I-UW aAYlf}Lva ~!J.o}(pocnx'il )(ot'Vwvfa, at llLav cxu-roVO~"fJ XOLVWVLO: 1tot) 6a elXE CX1taAA.ayer a7to 'tl~ ob(ovolltXe~ OALytx.pX~C; ~ 't(~ 1tOA~'t~)(e:C; 6ALyapxle~ ~ -r6 7tp6f3Al1l.Lcx 6& ltv.EVe: "to tBLO ol;6: ~11C; 1tOU !t1topoUll~ va 1tfillE ~e -rilv t1t~ut'7jlll1; r"'lt; nou lJ.1tOPOUfl€ va 1tav.e tJ.E n1~ 'te:.xv~xij;

rt(X"t£ Eat;) a~C()(u~euct'tX~ f\l(X<; aTe' 'toue; 7tupl}ve~ 'tW\I cpav"t'a.a~axw\l O'l1lJ.a.OthlV nOll Kup~apxouv aTillepa xa( an1 AuO'Y} xed 0' 6i..6xA7jPO 'tov x6CJIlO: ~ cpaVtaa~ax~ Ol1f.uxma (A.t~ 6p6oAOYLXY}t; Xupt<xpxtac; Ked lJ.tac; €7tt7tNxo-t'l}C; Op9oAoyLX6nrt~ nor) e.Xe:t y('Ve~ 7tAEOV ~ alL ~6vo emp606l1t7l,, ~1] aTOlJ.tx~, CtAAa ylV€'tClt OAoE.'VCl xat 7tt6 tX1tav6pwmJ.

* * •

M£Aljoa 1tP£V y~6: nlV E:~OUa£Cl, 7tOll c:lvc(t ut'7jv ouoLa !1~ El;ouaia~ xed yux a6va~'1, 1I;0U e:1"lXt ut'7jv ouala f1:Tj BuvtXlJ.y}. Ka.£ OAot 1J.a:~ ~t~ar.a YVWpL~oulLe 'tOt t1tL~A'Ji'tLxa x(X"top6w~a:ta -ri1~ auyxpov"ti~ ~EX\,LX1}C;t 'ttl. 1t€pLOomepex 'tWV 67tOLWV, (Xv oXt OAa ~ eo: ~"ta'V 'te:AE:Lw~ aBuv(X"t"(X, av at", e'lxav rX1t6 1daw 't'ou<; Ttl auyxp0\n1 E7ttO-n1l1'rl. Am&. 'ttl XtX'top6wtJ.(X'ta auve;:7tayovtat tJ,tav bca;voU[tCl 7tpaS"f}; tt;ioou t7t~f3AY}1'txil. T£ 66: lJ1topOUaallE va E:VV000l-LE:, AOL7tOV, iSTCtv IJLA.Ct!J.e yta I.t~ s:~ouo(a Kat o"t'CXV MlJe on a~ il u:pacnr.a BuvalJ."Il aul-t~aB~~ !J.E ~LLav cxu~cxv6llEV1J a.Bu'VO:lJ.fa; T£ OVOIl~OUlLE !H~oua£a ~ &)(611lX xal 66vlX(.Ll1; T.!C; 'twpa ewoouoalJ.£ W<; e;ouoUx ~ ~r; BUvoc!J."1] -n1 Buva:r6'nl"t'(X 1tOr] EXeL Xri1tOLO~ ~ Bu'Vat6nyu% UA01tOL"1]IlEV7), EvopyaVW(.LEvY), tva(U1J.a:rw~EV7j ~ crt'a X(x"t'aAA"qNx IJ.EOa Kat epyaAe'L(X, \.ia xavet lS;n. 6€AEt xed mtxv '"to 6eAEL Ka7tor.o<; 1tOU fJtk,. TIOl> e:lvClL cxo't'6C; 6 XcX1tOLOC; m1(J.Ep<X; IIo~6 a:COIlO ~ 1to~a ollaBa, 1toL6r:; opyaVtGll6C; x(d 7to~d XOLV!tlvlex.; Kt.XlllE: 7tO~6: EWOLt:x 6tAet xa'tL; Kat 't£ Bek&; IIo~6<; a1tocpam~et xat llE "tt oxo1t6 ano!paa~~;

Sa lJ.1topouae 'Va 1tEt xavEU; O'tL ol ~r.oA6yot, 1tOU lxv(Xxa) .. u$o:.v "i1

H TEXNO ErII :ETHMH

151

tcpeopav ""ta ~aaLx6. O"tOtXELa )«(X( ·"de; ~cxatxe; lle:668ooC; ti]~ YEve'ttxjjr; KCX( -twv ttptxplJ.oyhlV 'tou~, ~ei:AaV O:lYt6 1tOV itxavo:v. To ~e€Aav l>llw«;; MexpL 7tor.6 01UJ.e:i:O i1fleAav 7tpa.YlJ.at'!.x6; "'ta cXTCO"tEAea~ata fXmoD noO Exo:vav; TIwr; Sa [i1topouaav va. 'ta e~AOUV ~ iupou at\) 'tcX i}~E:pav - xed xa"tv(X~ (ltv 'ell ;E.p£~ ~txp~ mlllE:Po:.; VO- 1tWC; XtXVEVoo; Btv SEpe:~ ol'rtE. nl XLpOatlJ.<l ou-rf: "'to Toe:(N01J.1tl}", &«xv ol Hahn, Strassman xa£ Joliet-Curie, m6 "t€AOC; 1:0U 1938~ 1tpcry~.u:.t't01to~ouO'av 't'7jv 1tpw't't} ax~ "too\' &-t6fJ.WV 1:"OU oupav(ou. Kat, YLa. va Be:L'tE rcooo &'Buvat-t"fJ e;Iva~ "i} opaOl'} "twv o~uae:pxerrt"e:.pW\J aVephl1tWV~ axofla xed 'twv 1ttO E1tdt6'V'tw\i, 'twv 7tL6 E1a~xwv 1tavw d ctlrra '"ta Bt~a-t(l, oro; avacptp(I) an ~ a.v aU-n1 ~ ox,aoYl "TOU o upo:vtoU 1tO 6 68W'l ae: ut'7jv lr:""to ~uc-q ~6tJ.~(X lyt 'V~ 'to 1938. -r6 1934 -ij -r6 1933. 6 A6pBot; Rutherford Xapa.xn1pt~e n1 8uvat'6'TY(t'Cl. tXlle'tWJ..e:uG'Y]~ -rile; a"t'otltxil~ EVE.PYEtCXC; w~ «1tapalJ,u6t n;c; XaAt[.1a~». ~O A6pao~ Rutherford: ~pC(~€to N6~1t€)..~ f"IJcxt; ano ""tour; (J.eyaAU"tE:pou<; cpua~xout; rou 200u atw\,a xed, atn6 EX£~ ~EyaAu"t'Ep11 07Uuxata ~ a.a<pa.Aw~ 6 (J-eyajuhe:po~ {.t£"ta 't6v Faraday nELpalltTttO''t'i].; 'rile; ~uo~xYtt; 1tOU u1ri1P~E: 1to't'E.. IIEvtE xp6vt(X nepv(XvE acpo'tou 6 Il-e:YClAtYte:.pOr; cpuoLx6; 7tet.pa.IJ(X't~ut'7j;: fu]AWVe:t &t~ 5ev

.. ~, , III! ~ -.,,, ~ r ~

lJ.7topc:t va YLVEL 7tO'tE, xcn II axaa"q roo ct'to(lou ytVeTat ~ (lE -ra

cl.7to't'u&o!J.a:ra. 1tOU OAOt ;epoUIJ-E:: TiI'V 1tUP"lVLX~ EVe:py€tQ:, a;"Aa 1tp(v -n}v 1tu(J11"IJLxii evepyE~a, 'tfC; ltTO{-Ltxtc; J3611~e:;. Ka.t tat;) ~1ta(VOUfl&: a~ [\I(l fja8u t.p~AoaocpLx6 ~~'t'Y}~a~

'H Gtu'tCt.1ta:ry} 'rii~ 3uVC(1l11C; aoO'XE:'d~e"'t'c(t ll€ ~uxv Clltta7ttXTI'l w~ 1tp6~ 'tij "(vwen'] - n1v a&ra1tO:Tfl B7JAa8ii ern Sa ll1tOpOUacxlJ.e: VeI yvwpf~ou~e: oi\a. "t& Ot1to-re)..Eop.a:ra 'tWV 1tpaSe:wv 1-l(X~ 11, 't'OUAtXXLrrrov, a&ta 1tOV l-la~ tV(5uuptpouv. npo<pa'Vwc;, elmo BEV e!vcu 7tO't€ &A:r~eLv6. Ta Cx1tO'tu..io(.L(X"'tcx 't'w'V 1tpa~~w~ ~ac; t5Lo:Btxov-m.f. GtKlX'ta.1ttXtxrtr..t 't6 eva "to f£AAO X(X(~ 1tt6 auyx.exptlJ-E.\la, Ct;XOllct xa( ·tix 1tL6 alle:o(X a1to"t'eAEO(lCt"tfX 'ttl yvU)pU;OU~E 116vo fleoa <Tt6v ~~xp6 1Cql(-Yl)PO -rile; O'"t~Y(J."ii~ chtou 'tEAltt'tc(L ~ 1tpaSll -1te:pfyupo nov € ! vex ~ x(d cdrt6 ~ {; r a LO; xo I-l [J.C('ttO:0lL€VO';, (x1tOO1taOlla-Tt x6t; . )\ rr' cx&T6 1tOU Atw, a.1t~ au't1)\' ~ mOLXELwB"t}, -retpt!lflEV7) lhCX1Ctat'WOy}, atv 1tpOXU7t'te:~ [3t(3ctta xavEvae:; ayv"(iHTnxL0t-t6; xa( xafl[a ~etX~ 1]

152

01 OMIAIE~ ETHN EAAAAA

7tpaX'"t'~X1l aBr.a.q>op(a. ~ ITtciO'"7} aaL(XcpOpt:a~ • .EnlV Xaa"f1tJ.Ep~V~ £;W-q. tTtOV XWpO nou ~ii~ E:!Vct~ olxeto~, ~!tlpa;ou(.Le: 6tpxe1'a 1tpanu.('t'(X f] 't'OUAaXtat'O'V, f-l1tOpouv.e xed ocpetAOUIlE: ~a "Y"wp(~OUIJ.E apX€"!cX 1t'paY(loctc.t, etflaat~ i}1't£6B'Uvo~ va yvwp(~OUIJ.E:, W.O'tE "to: a.V6PW1tLvw<; 1tpo[3ilE:ma i.t'lto"t'eA~a[.la:ta .orwv npcd;s:c;)v !-tar; va t~(X(Ytw,,'tO:.~. a't E"vav cnU.J.o:v"t'tx6 ~aO(l6 ~ anD O,,'t"t i(tivou~e:: xa£.. cruv.e:7tWc;~ va €I\llXL Buva.~ ~.uti eAAoY"fl «'5paOYJ xed ~ .. u.a cX1tC(tTYlm] t}1tEuGuvm'r}mC; y~a "t'£t; 7tpcil;et~ llC(~ xaf 't£r:; t7t~1t1:'WOE~~ 'tOuC;. «nuO"txti~ cxtrco Bev OY}~C(£VEt 7tr.)S tJ.1tOPOUIJ.E va 6p(ooutJ.€ yE.lO!J.e't'p~xa "ttX op~(X 'Tot> 1t(JO(3AE1t"t'OU. ft' C(u-ro. O'tlXV np6x.eLt"Clt 1t .x. yux ~"fl·tiH.Lal'a eu6uV1]c;: «'i~pe 6 "taBs: ~ at", ~~~PE mav €xa-v€ ctu'to 'to 7tp6.y~a;», 7taV"t'tx Aa(l~clVOOll~ 07tOW"tJ ~a~ 'to av8pw7t(\lwC; 1tpol3k7IT6. AUT6.; auve:ltw~ e:rva~ 6 i\oyo~ 1tOU atv l11topoulle 1tO-CE va av't~)(a"ta:an1oou~e: '[ou~ E:v6pxouC; IJ,E ~AeX"tPOVtxouc; U1tOi\OYtO't'E;. Xnpa~oufle 1'a auvopa !Xtrtou nou el~cu a1t(.u~atllo wr; 1tp6~Ae:tJl7J Ka.L v-lcrcx a~ o:mit ""ttl mJ.VOpCl~ 8E"t"OUlJ,.E 'to 1tp6~A'1]l.La 'ri1~ tnte:ueuv6't'"fJm~. Kat (l{jw €lv(X~ i1B'r) xa:'C'():)c't'1}O'I1 'tou 1tOAL'ttOl'OU. aAM 8tv 6ci rbtexl"cteGl. "Erot , ~v xa611(le:p[.v1J ~w~ ~as. o't6v o~xe:.lo lLcx~ xwpo ~ ri am&. -rlX "t'o7da nov ~lva~ t~e:.pEl)'Vrrt.Lt~a xa£ yvwma

'} i"" ,. ~ __ 1"

anQ alJ.VIll.l0ve:mwy xpovwv t 111t0POUIlE "Va E:VEPYOUllE: EV E1tl.yvW ...

OE~" 7tpwm &1t~ oAa xal xup~w~ CtLO"t't 1tpo:.YIJ.OC'nxcX ~Ai7tOUILE. O"t'L u1tapxc:r. £1tiy'Vw<Tf) xai !J.1t0poulle va a~axp(vOU(.J.E a&-t6v 1tor) Bpa. 1(00, t"'JE:pyeJ U1t€U6UVCl .. !t1t E:1t£yvwO""f]. xed au-rov 1tOU~ tv E:7ttyvwa~~ 't'ou • x6;ve~ Cdl't'O 1tOO i5i'J e:1t~'tpi1tf;Ta~, Xci\lEt EV E1tr.yvMmt .. rou )«(1- x& ~ E:dqlaA~tvo: 1tpay~a'"t(X. M 1tOPOOIJ.E 1ttXvta, crn1v 7tpawa·ttx~ SM"tl. \la 1COU~e:: «txu"t'oC; ~lvo:.~ xaA6C; "t'EXV£'tYlC; XL a&t6c; Elvf.tL xC(xo~ 'te:.X'V~"t"1]~» Yj «ct&t6C; Elvru x(xA6r; xrx611Yvnlt; ij xcucos- Kae""Y~n1~». Xt.UptC; a.lJ"t6. i5iv ait lJ.1topouae:. wx U7t6:P~Ef. XO~VW\JLK~ ~wil. KaL npt1l:'Et va napaae:Xt0UllE: o"n E:x,ou(J.e ~ BU\'ocro-r"1)"'C'(X "ri x.a.voufle a&-rov 1:0" B~(XxwptaIl6. lh6't'~, av BE\, 'to TIaprxCSE:XtoUllE:. 6l>1JYOufltlo"tE: tltcpavw~ Xc(t Ctf.lE:OWr; at GUVt1tEL£C; nov ervo:~ a.aull~l~ao't£<; Ilt xti6e: OXErp"f} Kat (J.e xa6e sw~. ~J\AAO O(lU)~ e:lvat airc-6 xai (lAAD va VOl.H[J.07tO~OUlle ~' (X&to\J "t6v -rp6no t6 1ttpaOtJ.a 0' EV(X'Y ·tUIlEtX. (inou aX0l-lcx xat Yj exrppa07J «ev E:rttyvwGE.f.» XcXVe:L -n11Trl-

H TEXNOEllI!:THMH

153

~.uXO'LCl 't"l}<; .. 01tW~ e:Ivat /) 1:0Ileo:.<; 'tW'V 3pa(Tt'*f]ptonl"twv Tii~ O'YJlL€pt vYl'i 'tE:xvOe7tLoTiUJ.7]; "

Au'to "h a.v6pwno't"fJ'tCt 't6 i1~pe: 1t6.vl'a. :E't6 tpav-m:at<xx6 o/w}v 'tWV AahlV ~pt:axou~€. !-lu8ouC; noo O:.Va.cpEPOvrClt O€ xaTL O:1ttxyopEulJ.tvo. xwp£c; XctlJ.La AoytX~ at't'(fX~ xed LBtaft'e:pa crt. «lluO'ttXa», o'teX onoIa 6 av9pw1tor; tv yEve;~ 'ij 6 "("aBe: l1Pwac; ~ ~pwlao: Bell 1rpenEl va t1t~xer.Pl1oouv va 8L€~aaUaouv. 0ul-'-1']eE.i"tE: TO BEVi3pO rii~ YVWO'"'1S orov n(lp<Xae:~ao xa( 't6v xC(p1tO ~ 6up:f]6eI""te:. .orov llufto "tOU 1.L(xfhyt"~u6(lEvou [.1ayou x } .. rt, E!vc.u lu·:il6E,UX un au't'ouc; "tOU.c; (Lu60UC; ~1tOpouI-U:: xaE Oq>€.tAOUIJ.E. va 'tou.; xa1:'(X'ta~OUlLE crt&. CTt"1]p(Yl-UX"t'(( (ltiit; e-rEp6vol-ll'J~ 6tO[lLO-q-r; L?j~ XO~lJ<U"(W;. T£ Atv~ Cttyro[ ol ~.U)eOt; ~Y1tapxe:L )(a-"t'~, ll~<i 'te:AE:t.Ytai(X YVWO"T], (J.~a lx1to~txata'ttxiJ yvwoY} nou, E:ni 1tOtvn XlX'tctO'tpOrp1it; ~ ecxvaoq.J.ou {xll~fJ.a.'to~. lStv 1tpe1tE:t va 6tAE'te:. va. ~ qYtCto~'tE:. 11tapx'~L xa:tt 1tOU 1trrt€ aVepW1t~VO lltl:n BE-v 1tpe7t&~ 'Va liEi: 1'0 ~AYLO -rwv &.y(wv OTfjv 7ta~ Af.a ~IEpouaaA~[.L. ~Ev't'ou'to~r:;. ~v 1tap6.Bom1 lLn~, U1t&.PXE~ xat EVat; aAA.o~ (J.(J6o<; .. cn6'V orroto at" 6a lJ.7topOuaa(lE va Q1to(5waou!lE exu-dry TIJ AeL't'Oopy£a - TIJ AEt"tOupyta B"1JA(lB~ 't'ij~ GTI1pt;1jC; 11'-rM; E.'t~p6vo~Yjr:; atat..tt01jt; 'tYt~ KOtVtJ)Vta.~: 0 'OBuaotar; -'!OV b1tOtDV 7tpoat.pa,.w~" ca.peAWr; xal Xovapoe:.,-(5w~" 6 A:v1'6pvo xed 6 XoPXXritlJ.e:.p npo(JTt'&.e!]oav va E:[J.t.pavioou\J we; evav ~pwo: noo CtVa.yyEAA!;:t -rov xa1tt'ta.A~OlL6 - 6 'oauaatoo;, 1-.0 t 7t6v, Ka"top8wvet va ti;o:1tl'Xn1crE:t l'OV KUxAwno:. va. E:.X!J.e:"W.AAeU'tE:~ 't't~ ~E~¢lVE:~, va xa:Niaet 1'& oxe3ux riic; K£px"t)<; ~ "'{x xo:te[3e:,- <Tt6v NA(57J y~a va ~aae:t exe:.i n}v e:OXtx'tl1 XC:XL 1:"eAe:.tu)'tLX~ a.A:~eetfX, 'tQUAaxtO''tov YLa "Coue; apxc((ouc; ~EAA"1JVE:C; xed, xa't'a -n1 YVWll"'l (lou ~ YLri xriSe €AAOYO liv6pw1to. "Orr. a"t]Aaa~" Btv u1tapx.et JLE:-reX 6a.vt;l:rov ~tui] Yi (ot&-t-6 1tOV Ae:Yl::m~ O'~v 'oauaaelu) an ~ lle::ra eavCl'tov sw~ elvcu anetpw.; xe:tpche:.p'1l ano n1'J e:1t(YE~a ~Ut"'. )\xp[.~wr; lJ.1t't'a. a7t6 TTlV Ct.7tOX't'''I10'"1) o::Uti]~ 'til.; YVWG"1)S ~ 6 UBuaoeas, €\J g1nyvwOet auvE.7tw~, a(Jve:t~a~ -nlv a60wama 1tOU , 01tWC; ~tpE"te, 'tOU 1tpoacpEp€r. ~ KaAucpw, yux va 111tOP€<JE~ veX. YUptoEt on]v 'I6a.XY1, y~a. va' IJ.1tOpeO'€L va 1tee6:;vE.~ CJ(XV av6pw1to<; ~ovaatx.6c;. av€1t(Xva):~11t"to~ xaL .or(Xu'toxPOVtX .. eV1J"t6~.

154

OJ OMIAIEE ETHN EAAAb.A

~aw e:XOUIJ.E €voc iuto ora ~a:a~xa Bt86.YLJ.a"t"a 'ti1~ apxcda~ rEAA.a(5o:~: TO BiaaYlJet TOU. a&to1t£ptop~aIlOU xat ~ yvwO"Yl 'ri1r; 6v'1J"t'o'trrtu:s· ~AAa "1'£ 'roue; xpE.~a~6Ila<Tte: 'to6~ ~u6ou~; Atv exOU~€ (J.1tpoO''tt.X lJ.a~ 'tOU; ~cytV..oot:; q>uaLxoo~ ~r; O:'tOlJ.txr,~ CPOOtx:ijt; 7tOU ~o~e"fJaGtv 'Va X(X'tocoxe:uacrte.1 ~ ~611~(l ~t; Xtpoaflla , i'J p61l~(X -rou N r.xyxaaaxL ~ )(at 1tOU 7tipaaa.v xo:'t'01tt v Bexa€"t£.e:~ l-tE Tutl>et<; ;cat l)1l~6a~e~ IlE:t6:)}O~e~; Kcd lltv EXOUIlE. 1t(l\rrcx (l1tpoO"tCt: I.U.xC; n1V €AAs:r.$,. auve:.£By}O't)C; 'tWV (5~a.B6xwv -roue; lj au-rwv 1tOU, m1lLepOC. a€ aAAOUC; 't'otJ.EiC;~ futw-t; ~ YEVE.'tLX"I], E1tLBU5ov-rat at 7tClLx'V(5ta nor) etv(u Buva.llE.~ nON) 7ttO €1tLx(v8u\Jrl; T£ "!ou~ XpE.~a.~6(l(.(ate: 't'ou~ (..LOe 0 0':;, li-rfXV Xa.1'fXcrt'ptcpO u llE: ~6 ne:pr.[3 aAAO'V X(x( -n1 13 1.6 a<plXr.pcx , I-l€ TOV pu6(J.o 1tOO "t'a x(X't(Xo-rpecpOU(lE; eli ~as: -noG" ll€'ta.: «a:EV eEAalle:. txl)'r6 1t00 EYLve» (01t{U~ €AEye: 6 U1t'TCEVxat{J.ep), «c;ev Y'JWp~oqJ.e 'de; ~bu1n'6'>aE:t~ xed 'de; auVE.1tEtE.C;». Ma. a.v Btv Y"WP£~ETe: "'tt~ €1tt1t"tWOE~t; )(C(.[ "t(~ QU\lt1t£l€C; ~ y~C('tL ouve:x.(~e:'t'e: veX XtXve't& xal 'twpcx ama "'ta 1tp&y~aTCt,. 'thlV 07tOt6>V nptiyfJaTt 'de; E:1tr.m-WOE:LC; XCXt -rtt; GOVE.1t£tE:<; oo-c€ O'ELC; yvw(J£~~'te: oU't.e: XlXVe:£.; iiAAoC;~ )fat 'tel 6noto; e:xouv tJ.t(x ~(Xe6t(X'"tYl c<\'ai\oYLcx (.1' tXEtVa 'ttX 1tpaylJ.cx'ttl. .. "t'cX tpo ~Ep6: a1tO'teAeOlLCl"tCl "'tWV Dno L(t.rv c: lvat ~(jl] yvwura ;

'EBw, yui veX o&; Buxaxe:.Briaw Aiyo, e6. oiiC; 1tctpa6eow Eva aTt6- (J1tcxotJ.<X anD ~v ltA(x),] an1 xcJpa TWV 8aUf.J.rXTwlI 1'00 A~outc; Kappo/.. - Eva BtllAoyo a",a~E.aa O'n1v 1\AiK'l1 xal "t'O\l ya-ro "[ou Toeaatp~ 't6\1 yvwmo ya'to 7tOU EXEL ~v b(avtYt'1"t"cx va eSrupaVtSe'tCXL xa£~ IlE'ta TJ]V t~a<p6:\JLm1 'tOU, IJ.€VEt 116vo -r6 Xo.ll6ye:i..o xwpf.:; "t"OV

I ~ ...

ya"t'o:

- 0& ~1t'Opouoo:'t~ 1tcxpaxaAw va ~oo ne:L't'E ~ Aie;t ~ i\.;"fx7J cn6v

Ycl"to, 1toL6 ap6~o nps1t€t va lxXOAoU{hjow ;

- 'Et;ap-ta.-rar. tX1t6 'to nov aeA~'tE va. na'tE ~ MEt 6 ya"t'oc; .

- At" !Ai: VOUl~e:.~ KaL 1tOAO 1toi) e6: 7taw ~ MEt ~ 1\)"bc"tJ ..

- "'E ;'t'6"'te~ AieL 6 yCt"t"o~~ Btv e:XEr. Ka( 1tOAA-q O'1l(iaata. 7tOtO Bp6-

~ 0 ea 1taps:-r€.

- J\pxe't 'VO: rpt'aow xcbtou, MEt ~ }\ALXYJ.

- '1\, a(youpa 66. qnriae-te X(X1tOU ~ J..eet 6 yth-oC; t apxet va. 1te:p-

1tfXTIrOE'"t'e lxp~ wpa.

H TEXNOEnltTHMH

155

NOlJ.it;w &n aOn? elv(.u I-.uti cX1t' 'tit; X(X/..OOPE<'; auvcrn:~ 1tEptypo:q>t~ "'tOU TL Y(V€m.~ oiU1E:pa O"n1V '"t'exvoe:1ttani~Yl xat anlv tv yiv~t ~hl~ 'tWV ixv6pw1tw'V, 'JtOU atv r;lpou'V ome 1tOU eiAOOV va nave ome: 1tWr; Il1tOPOUV va. nave: d (Xu'to 7tOU ($tv !;tpouv. IIot6c; ano 'tou~ 7tpwmyw~tmEC; -tile; O'UyXPOVflC; 't€XVOE7tLO'tYU.Ll1C; se:pe:t 7tpcxyElct"t'LX6: 1tOO 6iMt va 1ta.EI. .l)xE. <X1t6 -n1~ li'J'totint -ri}t; xaa~~ yvt::>- 01lt;, 01tOU "Co ~~"t'l'Jl-La 'tWV op(wv (5EV 't£8E'tCU 1 aAAit. we; 1tp6~ --cov -roreo -riic:; xor.VCJlVUx<; 7tOV ea E:1tt6utl0ucre:. XCt[ we; 7tp6c; 'tou,:; ap6ll0U~ 1tOU ot5"tf(Ouv d amov "t'6'V 'tU7tO; Kat 1tot6~ arr.' cx&tou; S£.pe[. "tlC; axea£~C; (xvafJ,eaa at. !lux Xo~vUlv(a XtXL cnlC; 7tpaYtJ.a'ttxt~ XfX"t'Cla't'riO'~t~ 1tOU~ lli pcxyBn£a. 'ta.Xunrta~ aa'V 1tpcxyt.Lcx't'tx6C; xe(llC(ppoc;~ 5'lfltouPy£t ~ E;C:AtS"I) ~t; -rE:Xvoe:1t~(rn'U.LT)~:

f1>ua~xcX, C1't"fJ\' 7tP«YlJ-a"t'tx6t,rrta., unapx.et eva; 8p61lo~ - m lha- 1tto'thlVQUllt tx 'tWV 6utlpwv, is-ro:v ~M7toolle -djv 1toper.a. AiYt6t; 6 Bp6v-oC; nOll tXKOAou6e:i ~ auyx.p0Vl1 't€X'VOE'JttO'TIJ~l1, tauxhe:pcx ~v "t€XV~x~ 't'1}~ 1tAeupCt.~ BEv e:!VCtt 6 8p6lJ.oC; E.\l6C; olouB-q7t<YrE e:.ux--ta(ou. d",(X~ OADEva xa£ 1tE:p~O'a&tEpo 0 8p61lot; ,,[,OU anA-we; 1tpayl1u'torrorr1m110U -1tpaYllcx 1tep~Epyo t a\' oxe:qno ulle:: -r6 XPY1[J.CA KOJ 't£~ 1tpOO1taBEt€t; 7tOU XfX"ta.'IaAtO'xoY'ttxr. yta. va ytvouv oat); y(vo'V't(l!.. ~NiXUTta 1tpomtaeOO~:E. m1!Le:po:; va )(cXvoo(J.e ctl),tb nov Sa €7tpE1tE ~ airt6 nOD ee:wpou~e e:uxmIo. 'OAOE:VO: Xa.L 1tE:ptaa6- 'tEpO xavou(.L€, OAoeva X(X[ 7te:ptoao't£po yiv£'t'«Xt o:um 1tOU EX'tq.LCctat we; ,,(yo -nOAU J3paxu1tp6Be0l-llX 1tprxYI-.ux"t01tor.i]OttJ.0. Au"t'o 1tOO 1t~O''teuout.t£ mt €l\la~ Buva.'t6'V va E:1t~'te:ux.ee:.1 't'€X\lLXa, "t'o XuvYlYO:lle. i.t.t.prrVOvtoo; YLa "'t6 lJ.tAAOV TfJ'V GtV(xXMu$'Y] ~ae(Uv xed Xfl'tCXVCtAw'tWVA Ka\lE:vc(t; A.X. 8EV aVCtp~-n1e1i)(e: (Xv ol OLXOYS:ve:f.axof ~AE)C't'pOV tXo( lntoAoyUTt€~ (l>Xt ol lltXPOU1tOAoy~o-ctt;) &'V't(X1toxp(\jOvto:.~ O'E xatJ.ux 1tpaYllG('t~x~ aV&yx1J. l;t IJ.LO:V opr.Ot-tE- V11 cpao"t} -ri1c; t~Ar.;7)C; 'tWV U1tOAOY~(Tt'WV, EY'..VIt Buv(.("Cov va xa't(Xaxe:uacrtouv "tE"tOtOt l)1tOAOY~O"tEC; at "t'~lltC; 1tEpbtou 1tpOOL'ttC; YLa E\I(X ~e:yalo xowo , ''tnuc; xcx:taax€or:xaav Ked r.x.p)(Loav va "toue; rrpowBoov (yux \lrX ~~v 1tw: va. 'tou~ e1n~a.AAouv) O-rDUC; XlX-m.v(XAw'tt~ (5llf.uOupyt:l\l'tac; ·ttt; aV"t£a'to~xe:c; av&yxe~. revt.x(rt£pa~ (lUW ?tOll elvctt 'texv~xci 1tpaYlJ.a't01tO~~O'LIlO aYUJ.&pa eck 1tpaY[.ta'to1Cot118e:'L,

156

01 OMIIlIEI: :ETHN EAAAAA

lxaxe.'tCt.)<; cp80 pu v xod ~11J.LLW'V ~ aaxt-tw ~ 7tpaYil (X't'r.x~~ xp"f}a~IJ.Ot"1l'tar; ~ Ox~. ~·E'tG1. rr ·X· , 01 ~g-ralloax£6m:tt; EIlPPUW\I, at yovqJ.01tO~iJO'E:~~ at. 6o)(~tJ.a(j"t'txou-t; O'cuA'ijve~, 01 Xe:r.poupy~xt~ e:1te[J.~aaets: at ell~pua~ 7tpay~a""to1tor.~e"flxav ~6A~C; xam~e7Jx.e: ~ "tex"U(~ 'tou~, Kat ~lJ.e:pcx .. 7tOAm wQvux xa"t'61t~~ xed 1tap' l)Ae:~ -d<; 1tOll1tu)aE~C; au(Tt'6:aE:['~ t7t~1po1tW'V ~6 ~Kl)S ~ raAALcx E:1tl 7tC(pcd5!dy~o::·n t 't6 S~'t1]IJ.(X ~v oua(a 1:"DU liiv aU~'YJ'te:i'tcn. napa ,.6 yeyo'V6~ OT~ eva.c; a1to -r06.:; 1tPW't'aywVta'"tE~ a:lrri1~ tile; 1;e:.XVt~~ T'ilc; yovq.J.01tO£"'0llS at'oo~ aOK'"!la(rn)Cou~ OWA:YlVE:<; Xa.L e:~CPVtEUO'Y}<; 'tOU tll~PUOU ae l-lr.a YU'Ja.£xa ~ () xcxEh]Y7J-nlC; Testard, E)(a'V~ ( . .ua 1tapaae~Yl1a't'tx~ Xe:tpovoll(a:: CTt(lll<XTYlOE xciee -re-tO ta aOUAe~ a. xed aYn..t.OO'~e::uaE eva ~r.~A(O 01tOU CtVaAuer. TJ1v un66e:CT1J +

NOlla;(U on, tnt' cx~ TJ']v a.7to$"f} , Yf xaA&tep'7l E:ix6'Ja 7tOU 111tOPOUI-le: va (5w,aoutJ.e yta 't6 -r( ylVe:TCX~ m1v-epa el~at o'tt~ x(rra x6:reorov -tp01to. l5tesayouflE: €v(X ElBoC; 1toMtJ.ou xapaxw-t.t&.'twv ~ ihtw~ 6 '1t6Ae:IJ..O~ "tou ~14-'18, E.vavr(ov 'rijc; fJ."JYt'epa~ t.pumJ~. BaAAE"tar. auve:xwc; OAo "to IJ,E'tW1tO, alM EXEt 01tOU eIlCPav£Se;.'tar. li~a PWW~ .. pixvou(J€ 'ta !-Let'<XNx. "t&y~a:1"c( xat E:XJl.E:-raAAe:u61JlXcr'te:. oha -ra iXvolY(J.ct'ta. A&-t6 ElvC(t ""to xapaX't"f}ptGttx6 "tOU 1tpay!!aL~XOU llClKEAAEtOU 'tou '14-'18: 11 npoona6€tcx va e:XIJ.e:'tfXAA£U6ouv "ta avo(y~a't(X, XWPU; 'Va U1t&pxe:.~ xtxflr.a (Ttpa.'t'1}ytX~ LBta. Ka( ~ liuaxoA(O: "tou 1tpO~A~(la-roc; q>CXiVE't(x~ mav't6 aOUIla: Ka.t anD "t'(~ aua 7tAeup€.c;: OM Gtu.oca Btv €LVat b.7tA6>~ 'tpEAet; "fj avo1]o£€t:; ~ apxEt va lxVCXAOJta-rOUIlE: OTt 1'tPayll(x"'t~xa e:!va~ -re:i£iwC; Aoyr.x6 01. 1tpoanaBe Lee; f(et.( 0 t E1tE. vBu 0'5: tc;. a.XOlJ ex )(ed 01'OV "tOil t tX -rile; XCL e rxp)jt; t7tt.o-nlll-l'JS". va ouyxeV't'pwvo'V'tcu EXE:t 01tOU 8eLXvouv 1t~6 ix1to8o'tlKt~.

Pw-tYJaav t-L~a cpopa 'to" Hilbert, 't6v lJ.eyaAme:po flafhnJ.at~)(6 'tou 200u cxtwVCt xa.( ~ taw~ ~ Evav ano 'tOllS" 1:'EaaEp~C;-1tt\.l-re: l-Le:yaAou~ OAw\) ""twv alwvw\I, y~('.("d at\.! xanx1tuxve't(Xt ~E eva 1tep(qrt]~o cxrv~yflO: a-n1~ t01:'OpLa. 'tW.v flafhU.LCl-rLXWV ~ "t6 'tEAs:O'tai:o 6ewpYlllCX 'tDU Fermat - eva aew(Y7l~(X 7tOV 6 raAAoc; am6c; llae"fJlJ.al"uc6~ -roO 170u alwva 0711J.e:(wae 01:'6 1tEQL8o)pr.o tv6c; J3~~A£ou fL€ n1 lPpaol}: « £lev EXW tBw apxE""C6 xwpo YLO: \,6; YPcXtJJw on1V &1t6<5e:r.;-q roo». AUT6~ Aot1t6v 6 Fennat limY€: raaxovos;. dEV stpcu nOLO elvat "t'o

H TEXNOEnIETHMH

157

a'V"timor.xo 'tOO Iboxovou eno EAA'Y1"1.'ut6 ~OAxA6p. Lul raAAta naV'''t'WC; ~ 6 raax6vor; elva," auVWVUI-l0 "tOU XCUJX7lotapYl. 'O Fermat, 0I-lWC;, Yrtav xat (1e::raAo~ !l(.(e"ti~a'tLx6~ - Xt taw elvtxt -r6 apa~a.. Kavefc; {3'1ArW~ atv ~pet av 7tpayt-La:tt !tIXE ~p.e:t n1'V lx1t68€l~'" ii OXt. re:yo'V6~ e:lv(u o't't, EX'tat'E. t oU'tE: (3pe8Yjxe: ~ a1t6aeL~"I1 ofrte (5La$e:UaTYJxe:. -c6 Bewpru.Lcx. Pw'ty}o(xv AOt1t6v ""t6v Hilbert yt(X-rL BE-v X(1..,;a1t~av€'"Cc(t lLl "to 6ewpY}[.Lcx t acpou ~ 01tCUC; 'too e:.hta.v ~ ~'"tav {) llOvor; 1tOU 66. tJ.1tOpoucre:. va 'to a7rOBe~~eL 11 wi a1tOaE£Se~ (Yt'L elva~ t.O<prx.AIJ.E:\lO xat: 6 Hilbert a1tavr"y}a€: «M6vo yt6: va 7tpo7tapaaxlto(XtTtW ~ va xa:ret1ttcxO''t'w tJ.l 't6 6e:WP1JIJ.Cl, eli lLoU xp~ta~ovto:v "t'PLct ~ 'ttoaepa Xp6VLa., xu( at" elvcu Ka66AOU I3tf~a~o O--rr. aCt €t.p't'(xVtx oE. x<X1to!.o r.UtotE.Ae:OtJ.cx. ~uve7tw<;, e.lv(xL avttOLKovolLtx6 va t1t~aoe6) a' a&t6). Kat t;€poutJ.E YE\JLxCrtep<x, ix7r:.~ -nlv Lcrt'Opt(X Ti1~ cpua~Ki1c; A.x. .. 1tWC; ol lJ.e.yaAO~ cpuatxo[, ~ TOUAtXXtO-rov ol 7tept.oa6'te::pot a:IT,' 'tou<; tJ.e:yaAou~ t.puO"tXOU~, 8Ev £tVCXt (Xu'tOt 7tOU xa:ra1ttaGt'Y)xo:v llt .ora )(ae' ~CtU't& a1tOAmw<; aYJIl(XV't~xo: 1tPO[3AYU.L{l'tCC, ahA&' CtUTO( 1tOU rdx.av -n1 (5ulootlr:<Tf1. ~v oacpP"'1<TY} va £1tLo"tJ(J.a'IJouv "to: rrpo~A~l-1a"C(X 1tOU ~"ta.v 1tpaYlla.-rt.xCt. hlptl-La xed va XtxT<X1ttlX<TtOU'V v.t ~ }"00'1l 'tOU~.

rL' a&t6 AOL1tOV t.u.Mi!J.E: YUX 1tpaylla:nx~ &VttVOl!tct.: at", 111tO-

pOOlJ.e va 1tOU(lE &n ~ O'tO:07) a&tiJ e:.IV(U 1t<X{JO:AoY71, a.AAa. oU'tE: 111topou~e xed va XAetGOO[.LE -r& lJ.(('ttC( llCXC; ll7tp6C; tTt'<X «VtxntXV't'Exu. auAAoyr.xa tl1tmmOllcttCl 1'[OV E.7ttxxOAou6ouv xed &~opou'V axe:Bov "reX 1t~Vta. fta va Br.aAESout-te; .. '1tpene:t va yvwp(~oufJ.€ -ra a1to"t£AE:al-lcera. Kat eel. E1tPE:1tE: tOIJlt; va TrX etAoUll~. rr.a va 1:"a et;"OUlJ.E, 6a t1tPETIt v& rtxou~.e: 1tpoaava'toA~al!0U<;" va Ex0UIl€ t1tLAoyEC;. 1ttpa art' "to xP!.~PtO ""tau ·d e:!va.~ 1tpay~a-C01tOtiJOLIJ.O Ked"t£ 5XL'I7tOU crnl\J 1tpa~'1I Btv (.La.; w<peAet xa66Aou, 1CpOXEt~E'VOU yt6: ~v "tex'VtK~. TIPOCYIlCl"t07tO'"1l0tll'l ~ A.X. £lv<XL xat: ~ x(X"ta.m(lo<?YJ 'rii<; )""i1C;. E!vtX~ 'tEX'J~xa 1tpa.Ylla'to1tOL~Otll"t), aAAa. at eva Ae:1t't'O, xed (.LtlAtO'""ta axt a~y&. atya.. ~~ 6p~alle'VE<; tMXLO"t'€<; cXAAt.C; ne:.pt- 1t'Thlae:ts: iS7tw; ~ !atpuol gpEUVa~ y~~ --o1v onoia ark ~Li\~OW 7tapaxa:t"hl ~ orcou q>r.dv~(u O--rr. U1t'cXpx'Et 7ttE:(;nX11 KOtVWVtX_" CxWX:YX"f) yui va imcXpx€to 1tpctyllttttxYl €1ttAoyt]. 66; E1tpe::7tE va lnteXpxouv Xpt't1j-

158

01 OMIAIE~ :ETHN EAAAi1A

pta xed 1tpot~pat6'trrt€r;, IToux iSlLwS; IIo~6~ Tn 7tpoaatOp(~l xed 1teXvw at 1tOl(X f3ao'1 ; ~'OXt (J.ovo ~ at 'tEAEU"taia. ('(VaAuaY}. rdva~ ixSuV{l'tO'V 0' ainouc; "TOm; ,[O[.!Ets va 6ellEA~w6oov XpL~pta IJ-E -rpono aa~allrpto~irnrt'o~ &AAa~ Xt o:v a)(6~a -ra lir.aee'toq.te: ~ 'il ~'t~x6. auVgmj~ ecpexPllo"{l} 'TOVi; 6& ll'l1(uouP"'(Ouac: alltaw~ fPo~Epa 1tpOJ3A~~Ct"tfX. ll.~6-tt alrn1 ~ e:cpapllorYl a:E.V (J.1tOpe:i: napa va y(vE:.'tru auvexwC; iliaC( O'E ll~cX X(l"Mm'CXO'T} tatahepa &~gf3a[.7J x(d OUVEXWr; llE""taAAaaa6 ~€Vl'1.

Sa 7t6:pw ~6vo eva 7tapaBe:LYI./.C<: To ~evr.x6 ~]va't',;'tou'to ~Tye:£cx~ --rwv RnA, avXE1:"eX xp6'V~(.t OOpou elxCll' apxtaer. va y£vovtar. ~tOAoyuc& 1te~p6:(J.tX't'(X X{X~ €1tt[J.~aO'E~<; a1:'tX yov(Bta x.o ,x. -ra 61tota. eyxu~o"ouaav anD XfX'Veva. ewe; E~aex.ol-le'Vws "tpOl-lepa Gt1tO'"tEAEa~o:'t(X~ E~tawae E.va aUVOAO xa:~6'V(.Vv 1tOO 6pr:~ou\' 'tt ~1tOpOUV -ytX xo:vouv xed -d Btv tJ.1tOpOOV va. xavou'V 'tit tpya~ptCt ~ anoaxo- 1twv'ttx<; veX a.noXAe£oe:t 1'OU~ x~vatJvow; nOll el\l(XL E:(lcpu't'Ot ma 1tELPO:l-ta't!X 1tOU YLvov-raL eel. tTtllle~waw IiOVO 'tOtr'co: vAv xa1toto~ 1ttO'te::UE!. OTt ol x(,(V6VES reou ESE-awae "'to E .I.Y'. "twv HIlA AUVOU~ 'to 7tp6~A"fJfllX., O'Yl(J.rx.fVE~ Ott 1ttO'tEU€t 1tWC; -ro E.I .1. 'thlV HnA £lvat 7tav'tuyvwOTYjC; . ..6. LO't'L ~ cpua~xa . '[0 E.L Y . 'twv HIlA E;l8woE. XtX\JoVE~ 7t<Xvw at. lJ-UX C3e:lio{liVil Xct'ttXO''t'CXO"l} xed ~e: ~aaTj ama 7tOU 'fjl;E.pE Wt; €x€.t'V'YJ n1 CTnyLJ.~ •

.... A"AAo 1tc(pOcaE.~y~.l(x: "to: [3LOAoytXcX 01tAt.X YLa. -ra o1tola !;avatytve:

Myo~ "t'a -re:Aetn'CXttx x.p6v~a xa£ y~a. "t'cX o1tota E.lvat Y\Jwo-ro 0'[1. ol Pwaot~ 't'ou).a~ta'tov, 1'& tTo£l-t(x~av. l\7tO (,uCi-t5uo XCl't(X(Tt'pocpec; 1tOV ey~\la\l <nTi PWatCl, SEpou~e 1tW~ u1tapxouv epyoo"t'aaLcx nor) 1tapayouv Evav l6 xal -r6 tltxp6~LO 1tOV 1tpOXaM:L rov lX.v6pexxct. lltO: apXE't'a TpOlJ.E:~ i'xcr6EV~ta. j\AAa cdrt'tX 'tel ~a.X't1JPLOAOytx6. 01tA(X1 {Xv 'to: Quyxp('VOU(,LE !-l€ "t'Lt; 8u"0!.'t6't"l]'tES TI}<; aUyxpov"fl~ yeVe:'tLXij~, y£vov'ta.~ 1te:.pt1tOU aUIL1tcx6'Y}'tLxa; E:tVO:L CtpxE-ra pe:"tpo xat "TEktwC; 1tPt»"'Coyovc(. T( 6a (J.1tOPOU(JE wi XCeVEt 6 iXvepcx.xac; crt OlEO'"/} ~i -n1 croyxpOVYl Y€V&'ttK~ ; E!vcu. au lJ1tOpouorx \'& 1tW, o;n erV(U ~ 7tupt"'tt5o: at OXtoYl (It -n1 ~6~f3a uBpoyirvou. rrp6~ 't6 1tClpov, liv Kat 8EV ;~poulle 'd7to't'rL xcx"'t" ooa£av, +r epeuva. xat 1:'0 oroxap~a[J.(X r.pa(vE"'t'lXL va ~Xou'V 1t!!P~opr.O"t.e:L A&t6 or.p€tAe'ta~ m6 YE.-

H TEXNOE IIII:THMH

159

yov6C; o'tt ol U1tep(3uVCtIl€tC; !!XOUV O!pKe't'a 1tuPl1v~xa 07tAlX Xix( -n1 t5ovo:t6Trl·t(J. rLmou nov AE.YE.'tC(t overkill. 'too <:<u1tepax(}tcullou» 87] AMl). "O Root; ~outJ.e:., exoutJ£ ani Br.a6em1lJ.f.Xi; ~ xa.6e xa:to LX-OC; TI}C; "fii~. 7t~Pl1tOU 4 'tovour; taoBu\lCt(.lo VrtPoyAUX€p(VJl~. :E; a&!6 avttmoLx,ouv 'ttX (i[oxap~alJ.eva 1tup'Y)vtxa 01tAa .. I01tWC; xai "t'cX 1tUMvr.xrX XIx( -en X"l1~~x6: 01tAa (nou ~aek va exe:.t 6 1tp6eBpoc; M tffepa.v 1tp6 Buo-~~c;)\J E."t'w v), -ra yeVE.'t'LXCt 01tAa., (Xv x(X'tcxaxeuamol)'v. BE,\J 6a x<X'taaxe:uf.W'tOUV QU't€ ~1t6 tJ,cxpayxou.c; ome anD UapCt:UALXOO~. ""Av yivouv, Eta. y(vouv aTto 1't'OAU KctAOU~ }3toA6youC;, ano 1toM ~aAou~ XlJtJ.L)cou<;~ 01tWS ora aAAa E:y~VCX\l tl.1tO "tijv a.rpp6- KP€[..t.O: ti]<; a'"COlllX~C; CPU(J~x:ijc; -ril<:: €7toxqt;. ~H Cx(J.e:pr.xav~x~ (x'tOl1tx~ (361l~a (5tv eCt dxe U7ttXpSe:r. X(Up[~ Tilv -rpol-lep7j t500Ae:ta 1tOU ex(t.vev l1€aa a£. 2-3 x.p6'VLCt 6 Von Neumann )(0:( €var; a.AAoS ~e:.yaAoc; llafrru.Lcxt'~ }(6~ ~ AtyO'te:po yvw a't6~ ~ ixAAfA t ~iaou OYJ!J. ct\l't'tx6~ ~ 6 Ulam. ·'07tW~ a.AAwO-r€ xat crtL~ RITA. on] Pcuala xa£ "n1 Mey6J,-Yl BpE'tcr.VLCX xa.£ n1 flXAAtGC xed -niv K£\I<X )(od ri}v lvB(a )Cat taw; Kt b.AAOU .. ~pEeYJxav xrx,t cpuotxol xed (J.o:6"flt.tC("'t'txOt y~a va. qnt6.~ou\J "ta 1tUpr1JvtxcX. 01tAex not> U1t6'.pxouv. Ked 011X\J ~ Kri-rx.t-M1tt xpe:~a7;6-mv $uxttx.'tfJOUS~ 'tour:; E~(Jtaxe: IJ.E u,'V ~CBto: eUXOAta. ~E n1v onoLCl "iJ CtO"tu\,0v-'a T'i}r; i\pye"rCt~Yl~ e~ptoxr:: yt<X"tpou<; 7tot. at(l'"t~pouO'C(v o'n1 ~w~ to eUlltX~ 't6 01tOrO ol acrtu\l0tLLXO( U7ttJ3aAA(xv at lla,)'"nJP~a:. y~a va lJ.7toptoer. \10; auvC:X~(Tt€r '1'6 l .. uxP-r()pr.6 'tou xa( va. napouv lowe; )tal ){(Xll~&V aAAll1CAYJPOq>opt(X ~ a1ti\W<;~ <Tt£~ 1te:p~aaOte:pe:r; 1tEp~mLlae:t~ 1tOV ~poulJ.e ~ CUtO a1CAo actatO'IJ.6 'twv &lTt'U~ VOl.uxwv. 8EACtl wi 7tW D-tL ~ nE£pa a1to(5e:tXVueL (Btv E1tr.'ttee:(lCU 1tpOOWTt'tXwc:; EVfl.V·r(OV xCt\lE:v6r;. OAO~ e:tIlClmE- a'alYt'6 't6 o(XxO -lXv xpE:~al'~lrca." Ct.1t6<5E.tSY}- &t~ at e1tt.atiw.ovec;. w<; e1ttO''tinJ.o\le~, tSttv €tva.~ OU"tE XaAUt£(XH OU't'E XE.LpmEpoL a.1C' 1"OUr; iiAAoUS Ct\lBpwnoue;: Kat, 6& €1tP€1'tE: ~cX 1tpoa€ltaou!Je:. ou"t'e i\Lyo-ts:pO oiYtc rce.pLO'~ oorspo ohlcppoVES. tJ..e'J AEhl «aoqJot » 1] «Eta ~KE.ofle'VOL» , a..A An

~

«O'wcppove:r;» .

86: ~eE:Aa va brr.tle(vw 1tav{.lJ a' (xl)",CO 'to BE-f.Ul" Bt6t~' m1!le:pa: unrXpxe;t E1t(a7}~ ~ rxma1ta:t'Y}, ~ 61toCa, ee:07tOlWVtr.x~ X(X"ta. xanOLOV 'tp67to n]v TgXVOe1t~anllJ.y}, 't'EtVet 'Va 6e01tOL-qaer. ~ t tv 1ttian tte:pt-

160

OJ OMIAIEE LTHN EAAAAA H TEXNOEllI:ETHMH

161

1n'~aEt ~ va t~(Upa.ta€t x<xl 'ta. U1tOxe:tv.E\la. ::EX£'t'Lxti llE "n1 au~1te:p~cpo~cX xa£ ~\i tPUXOAoyia "t'W'V t7t~(J't.,.~6vwv ~ ~1tOpOUllE v' aQ»100UllE xct-ra !LEP()C; n]V &1tA~ q)LAOXepag~ct~ ~ 01tOla t{Jw 5EV ncdsel Yaw.; tBto:£'tepo pOAO, &).."),,6. a7t6 ~lJ 01tOt(X ~ au e1tpe7t~ veX 7tOU~E: ~ art,1 cpcKLve-r<x!. ~ E:1t'"at'lUJ.OV~X~ 1t(X~Be:{a \10: 7tpocpUAaO'm~ 1tE.ptao6- 'te:po a.1t'6 67totcxa~1tO'te iXAA1J. ~H e1tta't'Ynl0VUC~ 1t(X(.ije:Ux BE" rtpocpu~ciaO'e:t OU'tE a1to cpaV(1:tLO!lOU~ 1tOAF."ttXOUS: ~ ie"LXOUe;, l)1tW~ &1t~(5e:lXe1} xa:rCt n1 (5uxpxeta: "twv auo 1tcxYXOO!-L(wv 1tOAE(lWV. "UAC( IXLl':6: ~L~(U 1] ~ot"iJ (lac; (.Lo£pa, ~ ~o£pa OAwV "twv avtlpw7twv. ~E(5w U1t&:PX.0uv X["Tj"tpa 1t~6 etatxa, 1tot,) qou'V 1tE:ptoa6tepo evBtcxcptpov. II .x. tt~6: xaptepct u7t6 'l(aou<; opou<; aTit o'Tpornc.t)"t1.x"ii Epe:UVa. .. o1iv Epeo"JCl '!lis 7tOAe~.LLXi]C; ~to!ATlxa~~a:c;~ e:lvat 7tOAU 1tt6 EOXOAil &1t~ o;'tt oTfJv 1COAt'ttX~ itpe:uvo:. Tl]v xo:ptipa 8tv -n1v avct<pepw eliw anD -n1V a1to~ 'tWV XP11~a'twv rrou an:oa£BE:t. O:)'Aa we; 1tpOS 'de; BuvtX-rmYj't'E:t; '1t'OU e::lva.t ~ao~xt~ yu-x Eva" E:1tHnlu.lo'Jcx: va xri\l£t 'ta 1t'P&'YllCX"t(X 1tot) rov tvC5Lacpepouv, va 'ta xtXvet llE -rov (~1tx6 "t'OU 'tpono, va atE:U6UVEt eva. e:pyaaTIJpto eXv'tt va. lioUAe:ue:t 0' EVa. ~pya~p~o 01tO ~ a~e.Ueu,,01l xa1tOtOu lXAAoU. l1t6:px,£:t E1tt1tA€OV x(X~ 'to « (uxp6{3 to» 'riic; e:peuv(X~ ~ 't6 D7tO to xa8e:a.lYto i5tv €tv(Xt oiTre: xaA6 olYte: xrxxo ~ ~1tOpE:r l-.uXA~ma "a e.lvcu xar: rXstoflaUfltxO'to.

~Bw, 111tOper xave:u; va aUIJ.~a€t l.ua wpcda lo-ropia., nov ouvotfJa;e~ "t6 np6[3A"flIJ.<X. (1' £VO: anQ 1'0: xaA&tepa lJ.uth.(Tt"O~fla.'t"a -nov elvcu &.1t'AW~ ~ue~m6pr](J.a~ ""tOU :EoA~evft'atv. 'to'V IIpCJ-ro KVxAo .

'E~Et el"cn <PUActXtOJltvo~ C(1t6 TJ1V Ku-rxt-M7tE at<xcp(UVOUvt'E~ ij

xat ll~ chacpwvouV'te.:; E:1ttan1~OV€~. vO'itW~ sePE:'r€, (UtD 'to 1930 ~ 1931 XCxt 1tEPO:, 6 :E1:CtAtV l-ta~E:UE aVepW1tOU~ (5tacpwvoo~'t'e:.c; ~ IJ.~. a'V 'touC; xa1:"lJyye:i..AE X6.1tOLO~ nov iieu..e: n) BtO'YJ -roue;. 1\no f.UcX 6p~0"(.LE.vYl <TttYll~ xat nEpa., E1Xav npo01tCX6-qae:L va. (S!.CXAESOU\I '"tou~ x<XAV'tepOuc; e:1tt~~ove:~ av&~e:afX <TrOVe; <puAo:x~a~tvour; xaC xpa:rw\}'tac; 'tou~ lleoC( (j~ Eva e:!BoC; ~eA't'~wlleVYl; cpUAaXils, va. 'touS xcivouv wx 50uMtfJouv y~tX "touC; O'X01tOU~ TOU xpa"tout;. Kat 6 :EoA~v('taL\i 1te:ptyp&.cpe:t xa'tt nou vop.G;w EXe:t 1tpaYlla't~x~ [3ao'1:

LE ~~a 6p~OlLE:VYJ O't'tYIl1J. 7j 6 MnepLa i] 0 L1:aAtV ldX<Xv O'x€qrt'€i o'n

Evcxt; ap~a'to,; 'tp61tOt; YLCt \Ja E1ttaY1~a£vouv xa[ wz aUAAfX(.Ll3tivDuv 'too~ a~C(cpwvoi)v'teS" elva~ va ~1topet va avayvwpLSe:'tCU EVa: a-rol..lo anD 'nl tpt»VJ1 't'ou. 01tW~ 1tE:pv6.e:~ lle:orx oi: lAta 't~kq>(Uv,"x~ auv8uxAe~ YJ. ry no 0 t O'tE o"n E. LO't€ B ~aq>Cr.l vi;) v, <Xv'! t no At 'tE.u6 t-t e::\lO~, 1t cx.pavOll0'; a') £vC(. "CE:"t'OtO xaf:tEmM<;. 4>ualxa~ (5EV ""tl'iAi:cpw'V(X't'e anD 'to O1tL"t!. atXr:;, aAMJ. ano evcx:v TI'l;"e::<pw~t)(6 66Jvl.lJ.o, xed 1tpo07ta6e: I"t€ \la qnJYE"tE 000 1t~6 myopa ytVe1:txL T~ <pwvIJ aat; 5(lw-r; -n1V ixqn1- 'Vcte .. "H <pwviJ aUn1 E::(€t Eva ~XY}'t~x6 r.p6.0fJ.lX 1tOU, Il€ xa1tOta ixv6..AU011 [.L1tope:i va. tt:i;,Cl"Cotltx€u6e'E. Al)'tO£ Aotn:6v ol €.1t~a't"lU.tovE~ EXOUV aUAA'1<pe~~ an6 1'6v ~'t6.Ar.V ~ ""t6v 6EWpOU'V 'ti:p(.(~, Gewpouv 't6v M 1ttp~a. "teprxt;. G.AM., "tEAo<; 1tcXvtwV ~ YJ l3teu6u'V0'"1l "ri)~ KcirKE.-M1C~ xat "to 8€~( XEpt "tOU M7tepux "tous: E:XEr. E:1tL~6:M:t va f..UuOU'V "to 1tp6(3A1]l.UX: «IIwc:;: lL1tOpeL va xa.60ptO''t'£t f-va (i't'olLO (uta 'to <paol1a TYJ<; <phlV~<; -rou ;». Ka£ ~ IJ-EO(x at llta 'tPOlle:P"il aywv(a Kat ixV'tUprxClf} (&1tO 'TIllJ.to. ~EPOOV &t~ eo. 6B'1Y"'1l1et 0'8. VEe:~ aUAA~tVe:.,"<;, anD Tiiv aAA"fj ollW~ ""t6 E1ttcn:YU.lovtx6 7tp6~A71ll(X eJ'Va~ eAxua"tLx6) ~ xctta1t~a"oV't't:u tJ.' alYro, 'to AUVOUV 'teA~xa. xed 'to 'tpaY~K6 "ri1~ lmop£cxc; el...,.at O-rr. 6 1tPWtOt; nou O1>AACXIJ.f3txVe:'t(Xt flE ~'V tcpa.p(lOrYI 'tOU l17)XCl'V~tJ.C('t'OC; 1tOU XtXl'a.axEUtXm"1lxe E.lva.~ e'V(l~ [.L~ t1t~aTfi~O~(l~ ~ 7tOU npoo1tcdloi)ae va. '[ou~ ~O"IJ6~O'E~" t)V't'oo; 0'1'0 U1tOUPye~o 'ESW'tEP~XWV.

N o(J.~w oon aci lJ.1topouae: ,,& ae(se~ xexvett; euxoAa 1tWc; o:xo!la K(xL ~ Yata: 1] mpa'ttw"t~K'Il epeuva:, OTIWS xa~ ~ 7tOJ...~'tLKl1 1:6iv Et;o- 1tAtO'IJ,W'J. lJ.e TIlV o7to(a ~E.~ata aulJ.I3~W\JEr., nov' lnto"t£6E.-r(Xt 5"tt EXe:t KptTl]p~a {-lo'VocrYJI,J.av"ta, arlj\l 1tpay~a't~x6T11'ta E:X"tOt; ano eAtXXLO''te; 1tEpt7'rtWOet.; atv Ex_E:t "tE""tOtU [.tovomj(.l£X\I"t'a XPtTiip~a.. Sa 1l1t0pouGe 'Va 1tE.i Ka"Vet~ o'tt. xcx£ aTfi x.e:~p6"te:M 't'W\i 1tE.pr.1t'tw,aewv. ol O''tpa"'t~w't'LX€t; x¢lae:t.:; Bev €lva~ 1tapa (l~a lJ.r.xpYj 1tAe:Upa. OAOU CXlrtOU 'tOU 1'tpO[3A~l.l{J;"tO~, xaL o'n Tj lJ.~yaA6"tepY1 1tAeupa e:iva~ 01 o tXO AoytXE~ E.n L 1t'twae: LS (Tt'L<; m]lJ.epr. ve~ e: ~eAL~e: tS . Sa 1ta.pa1tEI-lq,w 0'8. avo llDVO (lEyai\ou~, j\1-l€P~xa:vous, E:1t~aTfiI-lOVf.~.

~H 7tpw"t'Yj 1tapaTIotlm1 e:1'Va.~ i1 t1;i]<;: «T6 X~~p61:'EPO nov IJ.7tOPE.t va O1)Il~€t aTfi ZiEXC(et'(a 'rou '80~ il onoia -re:AeLWVe:t ~ 8iv E:tVctt ou"tE: 1] esav"tATJO'y} 'twv 1tY}Ywv tvtpye~(Xr;, au'!€. iJ otXOVOlJ.LX~ x(x'1'appeu-

162

OI OMIAIE:E I.THN EAAA.6.A

07j, OlYt~ ~ X(x'"tax't'YlO'7j 'tou x6otlou 0:1t6 Ilr.a. 6AOxA"f}PW'tLX~ KU~EPV/1071. "Ooo rpO~e::PE:S" X~ (i:V Elva[. alrtt~ ol xa'taa-rpOq>E~ YLt:X llaC;, e6: ll1topouaav va E:1tUVOp6Ul6ouv IJ-n& anD ~ep~xt~ yE v Ut~. ~H (LOVtXBtxTl o't6 eliSor; 'tl)t; (5taa~xaO'Lct; nor) t~d(aaE:.'ta~ ~ B~xae·da 'tau '80 xed 86: Ct1tCXt-n10e:.L tX(X'tolLl-luPr.a: xpovux yr.&. va E:1tavop6wac:i:~ e:lv(Xt ~ a1tWAeta Tile; '2t'Or.XiAUxt; 'too\' ~wv't'a:vwv ye:\'wv Kat: -rwv ~wV'ttx.VblV E-Law.v~ 1tOU npoXCtAeL"tar. ~e Tilv X!l-ra.o-rpoqn1 '1'WV cpuaLxwv o LKOauOTY] tla:rwv . Air.lJ -nJV '!piACX 1tOAu (5UOXOA(X 6a LJ..a.C; ~ auyXw P"100 UV 0 llx1toyo"Vo [ tJ. (X~ » .

~H MAl? 'Ttapo:1tOlL1t~ e:lvat: «A(ya 1tpO~)':fnHx'ta el"at rooo 1t(Xpay\'wp~otJ.e\Ja xaf, "t'oo..rtoxpova, -t6ao o"IJll(XvttXO;, (lao ~ e1tt"tcxxu- ~611e~YJ t~riA£~tP7J 'twv I3LoAoyr.xhlv 1tOpWV TIlS yYi;. L1tpWXVOvta~ 't"{x tntOAor.7tGt ~wyt'('( et5"fl ~v t~rupavt.aY1, fI aVepW1tonyta 1tP&OV£~t ~t ~i}AO "t6 xAaB£ m6 onoto ~p(oxe:-m~ xaf:lLov.tvrp>.

~H xa't(Xo'tpo~ au~ ae'V 1tpOXaAeL"mt t.pUOtxO: Cx7tD 't6 XUv-tlyt. olYte anD TO D.D.T .• ome cX1t6 ""t6 a1tE:x6em<x'to ~apefla tii~ <paAa~'Vac;, -ra lntoto: auO'tUX&l~ 1tOAU aux.'Va (1.0vo7tw:;"l1aav "d~ i:vepye:~er; 't6lv 0 !xoA6ywv xat: TWV 1tep~J3aAAo\,"toA6ywv. ~H Xct'ta01:poqn1 EXEr. eva o~ol!a: £lvat ~ oXe:86v ~€~atll Ked E:1tr.'tlXXUVOll!£Vl1 (D..AWO"'t'€ e;oopavtoYl ~ IJ.EOa crta 1tpoac.xii 'tptavta XP6"'r.C(~ 'twv rpo- 1ttXWV Baaw\I, nou elva~ '"to Ct1tO'ttMO[.LCl ~~ E\J'tOVl1C; O;noxepawO"1)S Kat txB6:oWO""f}t;, o-n1\J 67tOta e7t~a£(50V'W.~ ol x{;)pe~ 'rile; -rpo- 1t&KilC; xa.t: TIi~ tarn.L~p~vi]~ ~wv.,.c; into n1V 1ttE-a,),) ""tw\' 1tpaYlla'twv 11, iiv lSXt "twv npaytl<x-rw,"" -rhlV xpa"[wv xaL 'tMV e'ta~pE,~w\J. Etpe't'e o-rr., lXrYrl{v nJ a·tty~~ 1tOU ~.uAa~e, xcdv!;: txa:ro(L~.uJPt<X tx-rapLa a't~\J l\_tJ.ru;6'V~D ~oUyxAa ytcx'd 6i:AOUV va nJv €xxe:pawoouv; AUTO 1tAtov ~1'Va~ 7tpr.ovt.Ol).£x 't"ou KActBtou e:Lr; 'to -re"tpctyw'Vov! 6r.6n Elvcu YVWG't'O"l -r6 ~Xouv 1tE:L OAot 01 ye:.WA6yot. ti'n 'tel e:8ciq>')1 o:u'tYi~ 'tiic; 't"€paa'tr.a~ AeKcXVYlS «(lr.Aet[J.e yt& ~ ~um1 AC('t~\}tx~ Atleptxij) Btv elvo:.t tBaq>711tou 6a IJ.1tOpEOOUV v6: ,x\''ttO"-raBouv (lE'ta -o1v xn'taa-tpocp~ ~C; ~o6yxAat;-a6: cpoyouv o)..a v.e 't(~ ~pOXEC;.

IIOLa e:!\,CXL ~ aUAAOY~(TnKil e(5&l 1ttpcx; Ae:ve al)"'t't~ at xo~epvilae[.c;: IIpt1tE-L va XavOUlLE. X&'t"L yr.a. va: 'tpacpouv 01 netV(lOlltvO[, 1tA."eoa~o~. A&roi 1tOU e7t€vBuouv xecpaAcua y[.tX ~v cXvri1t"'tUS'Yl.

H TEXNOEIIIl:THMH

163

'Y"tE elv(Xt B~Eevetc; OP"'«lVLotJOt EL"t'e. tatCYre~; arcpwX\Jouv 1tp6~ -n1v ,lata xct'teu6uvGTJ. Twpa, "t'a X(X"t'Ct.rrtpE1t'tr.xa a1tO'tcli01la"t"a a.u-ril~ 1"ij~ eSEA~SlJC; Btv elvCt.t ~ovo ~ ~t€.~a.ty} E.~(Xrpavt07] Xr.AL6.8wv xat BexaBw'V x~Auiawv x.a~ CxX6IJlX 1tep~aa&tep(Uv ~wV"ta.vwv e:U3c7>v~ aAAa, &x6tJ.(X X€tpme:.po. at O'oJ3ap6ta'tE~ (5~ampaxtc; xa[ TI}S 6e:pl-ltx'1j; laoppo7t£rx~ ti1~ YYi~ xa( 'til~ uBpoi\oytxjj<; Kat t-tE:."tEWpoAOytx¥i; xa'C'00nam1C; 1:"1)S, 000 xal't'wv ll€YaAwV (3r.o'X:rUJ.tXWV xuxMiJv anD -dJ'V tI:t'(.Loo<par.pa: ~ 6aAcxoatx ~ o-n1 y-ij x J..rc. LXEq>6E.t'te:. lL~a 6Bp6ye:to, ru:pbtou chtw~ e!va~ ax6[.Lcx ~txPL atITiJv"n1 (TnYll1], til; 61tot:r.t~ eva 'C'Epao"tto 't~~Il(X T1i~ ~7te:tpw'ttX~t; E:1ttcpaVEtW; Xa.AU'It'"t"€""tCXt a1t6 lJaan xat cut6 OAOUC; "tou~ sw'V'te:~ opycxv~allouc; 1tOU ItlvC(~ IJ.toa 0' (ltrt6v -c6\1 BtxOtK6 ~,,6'to1to, )(x( axecplhd'te: l-.lLtX rYl, tBta Kocra "t& lihAa, lhtou 5i..cx 'ta Ba.a"!) EXOUV ll;aktrp6et xaL KaU~e:pyoUvtCt.t &r)ll7J"tp~cxxa. A&to~ ol (Suo 1ti\avi]'t~~ liev qou'V xa~ux axtfJl1 6 Ivett; IJ.t -rov (j)} .. o, xa£ E:!vat 1tepl1tou f3€~alO is'tL 0 BE.u'tepo<; i5EV en lJ.'1tOpOUOE va oU'"'extaet y~a. ]toM xcxtp6 Til ~w~ nou se:poutJ.E:.

01 aVepW1tO~ Xt vYJ'to'Jtor.~e"'1xav IJ-t 'to eEtJ.rL 'tOU Toepvoll1tO .. 86. "o).v.~o(J) va. 7tW o"tt ~ at oxtO"t] lJ.E "'"en 7tPO~A~~C('t(l( -nou ExOU~e: l'1tpoma !-lac;, --c6 Toe:{)'VOIl7to.. Trta ..... Ilta 1tOAU {.LtxPlllJ7t66Ito.". vE_ YLVE -r6aot; 66pu[3oc;, YLCX'tt -r6 Ta&pV0IJ.1t(A en€-rpE7te va X~\J"1]'t07tO~~aEt xaVEtr; 'tOU~ a\l6pu'l7tou<;, t)q..LE'taAAE:u6~€\.'oC; 't6v tillE-GO cp6~o WU~ xat x(X"te:.u6ovov'tOO; 'tou~ 1tp6C; cpa~'VolJ.e:vtx6: 7tpoat-rour; 1tOAt .. 't'LXOUC; o-r6xouC;: xAe(a~(lo 'twv 1tUpl1\1LXWV epyoO'tcxo(w\I x.A1t. IIwc:; lo'1topouv 'twpcx va XtV1rr01tO~1leOUV ol Anot:, 1tot6t; (i1tope:i va 'tooe; XtV'1'to'Jtor.~a€t EVClvt'LOV "tlic; xf.t'ttxaTfJoq)'11~ 'twv "tpon~)Cc.7>v Baawv; tH ouAAoYL(rnX"'l1 eB6l, 01twt;_ €l1ta ~ ElV(Xt OTt. npE7t€t va -rpcxCPOU'V ol \I't61ttOt 1tA."'16uO"(.LoL wEpx.t't'cxt Ao~1t6v x.a7toto~~ xed Aee~: f3e:[3atw~ t va "'tpacpOUV 01 vtoreror 1tA."f)6uollo( t ((AMi 01 ~tol-ll1Xav~xt~ xwpe:~ I.xouv 'tepaO't't<X Ctypo"t~xa ltAEO'VOOllCX:'tCl, 'ta 01tOtCt xed xcx"t'aa'tpetpouv. II<Xp-re: napaBe:LY(.1CX 'ttC; EAA7)'Vr.xtC; XWIlC('t'epe'i. 01tOU ~&;;ouv va aa:lttC;_ouv 'to; 1tOpt"OxaAux xal atv e1tnpE1tE."ta~ va. 1toUA"1)6ouv. 'E1t't7tAeov, (julla/-let ~OU'V Ux6lJ.(X. 1tEp~oa6't.e:pa 1tAE:OVaatltx"t(x, BItlinllEVOU o"tt ol y£wpyo( (xfle(~o\rtaL yta wi f.l~V na.payou'J, XL aUTO nu~~atv~t U'tLC; 1tEfHoa6'tEpee; x,wpec; - xat o-n1'V ~llep~Kl1 Kat O"~"

164

or OMIAIE}: .I:THN EAAA.&.A H TEXNOEIIIZTHMH

165

EUpW1t'aL)(~ KOt\lo'tY(ta. Lt)\lE7tr;,~, \1& a~(x:te:Bouv "t'a 1tAEOvaO(l(X""ttx xa£ \la (Xu~.,,6oov au't"E~ ol 1t(lpayhlyE~ xcd va I-l€fvouv 'to. 'tP01tLX,r.x lUxO'y}. T6'tE e6.lla~ )(a't~YOMaouv (a&-t6 EXE~ i]B'1l AExBet Xct( J..iye't(U OAotVa. )Car 1tep~aO'&t£po) o-n flEAOUIJ.€ va BLa't'ljp~O"Ol)Ile: 'tU; xwpe:<; "tou Tph·ou KOo(J.ol} at tl;ap"tT)OY} Ot7t6 'tov tlJ.7teptaA~o!i6. J\v "t"wpa 1tEt'"te:, 01tW~ Ba tAeya. eyw. l)'n, ~g~o:£WC;~ stpOUl-U~ 7toAu XaAO: 1tWt; OAa ama elval Ttpayt..ta'W1to~T}aq.l.(x ElO'VO uno "t"OV opo IJ.LiiC; p~~tXiic; CxAAayoq<; ~~ xo~vwv~x"ijt; Kcd 7tOAt'ttK~C; BOll'iJC; "twv ilverrruy(J.Evw'J xcupwv, ~ au~irt7~aY} 't£k~wve:.t, BtD-n 66: oa~ XCl't(X-cal;ouv O"t'OUt; &(5t6p6w"tOD<; olYt01tr.a-rEt;, E:VW i5Ao~ I'Xl)''t'O( at xu~ep~w\J'tec; xat 01 aAAOL~ 1tOU aEV ll7topouv wi Bouv (}u6 xp6v~a 7tLO tJ.1tpoO"'t'Ct, elvat 7tpocpavw~ P!t(XAtcrrE<;.

BAe1tEt xave(~ Oq.Leawc; Ott OA£~ alnec; ol et;oog,t<; Bg~ avta1tOxp[vo'J'tar. oe anoaaqn1'vr.o[levEC:; S:1ttAOytS ~ lh.&n (5;tv U1tCtPXEt xceve:.(~ nou Sa 'de; XO:V€L. Dl t5tot o[ E:7tU:rrlUlOV€C; 1tPM"t'ot npw."t'Gt at~ O:1tor.pao(C;ouv we; TtTO~O[' xa.(. €7tt01'JS. ea EnpE1tE ~tX u1teVeu~(GOU!l€ o't~ atv ali etxc(v xCt.l-lta 6.Pllo~h6't"''ta va CUtocpcxa£aouv. ~Evo:<; Eta~xo~ ~ 1t·X·, 't"wv ax-dvwv Atr.~e:p~ fvcxC; cpuOtx6~~ Bt" lL1tOPEt v~ unocpao(aet w~ 'tttOtoS", av ~ epltuva 'tou E:XE:L ij (5E.V eXEt npatepato'tyt"rCt, oi aUyxpto.,. 1t .X .• ~e epe:u'VEC; axE1:txe~ lJ.E 't6 O:voao1to!.- 7JT~x6 aU<Tt7) ~~a ""tou OPYCXVtO"!lO U. T wP(X, errov fj,<x6lJ.6 nov 0 t e:1t~~IJ.OVE.C; O"u~lJE:t"txoU'v OTil Buxt5txaa[a A~WrlC; b.1tocpaOEwv, Tt6)~ 111tOpou'J va "t'(~ E.1tl}pe:aaou\I; Mreopoov va Lfc; E.1tY}pe:aaouv I-lovaXa tiv tvtClX80,uv at ~.uriv anD ""tiC; q>(X'tP£E~, ~ a'V xe:p8£aoov -nJv tlJ.7ttO'toaUv'l 'l-lta.; anD LtC; a~&cpOpE~ 1tOA~'ttxoypct<petoxpa:'"tr.xrtt; xAixe~ nov avraYWY~OV'ML yux Till' t~ouoia xed XM0t.I.l07tOtouv '[eX €1tto"t"l}(J.o'Vtxa xa.l 't£xvlxa 7tpo{3A~~(X'"ta cX1tA&t<; aav E.1J.~A~(J.a-ra ~ O'lJ~ate:.c; ~ ~ £xouv ixvaYK'I iX1to aUStxouc; yux \'& vnioouv I-lE E1t[.<rr7J~oVtx6 I-lct'VC5uo: e1ttAoyiit; 7tOU exouv ~B7) xave:~ Ilt 8tacpope::-rr.xa xptTljpux .. ~av~ 1t·x·~ EXOUV a1tocpaat:aet yux aAAov~ A6you.; va (J"t'"1JeE:t lva kpyocnaoto xa1tou, 6a {3POU\i Evav e!J.1tE&poyvWlJ-ova nor) 6& ~wlJ.a""t.e:uaet Ot~ 1tpaY{J.a'tt, Exei: 1tpi1t€r. va CttYjee:i oino 1"6 EpyoO"t'tlOf.o. Ked, onw.:; 'to eNtya. 1tPLOV axe'ttxQ: ~e La xhr1rrpa 1"W'J E1ttCFt"TUJ.6vwv ~ 0' amite; -ric; ne:.pt7t't'woett; ~ ~ E:SO:Orp6:A!.O""fj XP'Yl-

tL(l""CoB&t"t)o"l)t:; YLa 'to 7tp6ypalJlJ.a TOU xaeEv6~~ ae 0:V't'cxy{,nno[l6 ~t 'tel 1tpoypallllc.t-m 'twv liAAwv, 8tv e:.lvo:.L ~ii't"l)~a q>r.AoxtpBEtoo;~ Ou-orE xliv xapLt£pa~ xcxt1tpOaW1tLXOU yOll'"tpou~ Bt6-n ~ x(X'ta 'to", 7tr.O a\l6pw1t ~ '10 -rp01tO 1 ~ lata 'tOU xa6ev6t; E lvett --c6 na.ta( ""to u, Kat tJ.V't'tXe!.lle:.VtXO't7]'ta oxtttxa tie T7Jv lata 'tou €1'V(xL l)7tOXE,~[J.E.V~xti 7tEp(1tOU exBuva"t'"fl.

Twpa. ooov i.«popa. '"tom; 7tOA!:tEuO!lE:vouS', 01. onotor.. at. 'twu'tcda avClAumJ,. AE'JE: nl'J "[EAe:U1"aLCX M;Y1 y~cX 'tou; 1tpoU1tOAoy~a~ouc; Tiis E.p€UV(lr;~ cpr.Aa ..... Spw.1ttXo( A6yo~ Sa eTte~cxAAa.\) \la ~iJ I-UA1JO"OU~E y~' a.u-rou~ ..... {}tav 01 7tOA!.'tE:u6lJ.e:vo!. atv e:.Iva~ lxllae€t~~ exouv ""t(~ 1tpoow1t~)(iC; "'tous, U1tOK€LllE.vtxec; llo:.VtEC;~ -r6 61tOLO toUlC; e:.tV(U xe~p6-tepo &XOl-lot XL a-rr.' "to va elvlXL &~a.eE.it;. A€'v ~tpw av 6u!liXmc:. 'to ax6:WiaAo 'tWV «6acppa.tvo(J.evc..>v» Y1 «oO"<ppa.V"rtxwv» aEp01tAeXVu)V. ~r1ri!p~ eva; BE:AyO~ rXnfCrEwv) 6 61tOLOC; 1tOUA"I)OE rrrov Z~oxa.p vr' Eo'tcdv xod G"'to yaAAu,6 X(>ex-tot; xa( E(3yo.Ae apxe-ra [J.€yw...a noaa ~ tii~ -rtX;Er.uC; 3e:xtiBwv t){a'To(ltlup(w~ Boi\Aap(wv. Tijv rata !l~&t; ep€uv~ 1tOU e6: 6S."youae at aep01tAav{X E:ql0(5UX0V-EV(X tJ.E ll'l)xa\l~~a:'Ca 1 1"0: o1tota anD 20 X.tAt6l-Le:.orpa /Caf 1tCtVW 66. 6a<ppcx~vov't(Xv "to 1te-tpEAcxto, ea frtalJ &&Aaa~ txa.va va. €1ttO'l1tJ.avouv o't~ rr' a&to ~ 0' Exe~\Jo 'to o')')lJ.eLo '"tou WK~(X~OU u1tapxouv 7t!Z.'tPeAa;~orp6pa o-cpw~<X't(l. Kah'O~ S:1tp6XETtD yta 'tEAe.tC( (J.1tapoucpa, eV'totYto~~ 6 a.1ta'tEW\' ClirtoC; ~1t6pe:.ae: v6: "t'UA(~~ clXOllf.l xcti El811tJ.oVE:~ x(X[, lhtx\J SE:cntctOE. 't6 oxavaa.AO, [3y)ixe 6 Z~axap "L~ "'Eo'tCXtlJ Qnlv TI'lAe:6pcxoY}. 6uf.lwlJivoC;, 1tave: xp6v~a 'twPC( ~ XCCL E. r rrs: « Eexva.'t"e: o'tt ho ~ yi VE'·t'(X ~ nav'ta. 1lE. 'd~ E.1t to"n'ltJ. OV ~ - xt<; avaxaAuq,et~. xed 't6~ raAtAa"io 'tOV Ka'tCtB(xaoe ~ f Jepri 'ESE-raol1 ». "Exnve ~Aa.B~ -n1 aUYX(J~011 tXEL"VOU 'tOU c(1ta"t€wv(l ~i ""tov raA[.ACito. ~O Z!.oxap, a"fJ~Etw(J'tE., ItXer. 6 y(5tO~ ""teAe:.~wa£t ~~av a1tD 'd.; Cx.vw'tC(Le~ Y(xAA~XE<; LxoMC;- VOIJ.~W 'to ilOAu't€xve:io. "H 7te:p(1t"t'(iHJYj 01tOO ol 7toA~'teu6fl€\lot EXOUV TJ1v lata 01:"~ xa:tL ~Epouv, &1'VCl.L ra(.)~ ~ xe:tpirtE.P1J. 'Ea\J !;:lva.~ Cx(.!o::6eic; xat -r6 SE-pouv. 7tPayll<X nov BEV dv((!. xa86Aou 't6 Y(5tO, 'ttYre xa6olhrrou\rtcu cX1t6 aUlJ.f3oui\ouC;~ at orroioL ~ O'"t(~ x.ctA6tEP€~ 1te:p!.7t't"waE.!.t; .. o'tpaqJ1JXCt'l rrpos; -n1 atot:Xl1a~ xa.( -rri nOAt't~KcX rpacpe:icx, 3to-n Yl 1tpoO"tu7ttxij

166

OI OMIAIEl: I:THN EAAAi1A

moe; E1tr.O"t'l1l10'VtJOJ 0:1t68olTfl tea", Cxlle:Ali'tEa. Amo( (5'lAaMi1tOO auvt,6wC; A~WtOUpyui)v w~ t1tt(n'1UJ.OV~KO( aUlJ.J30UAO~ 'tWV KU~e:pvljaehlV elv(xt, at a-.xto')'} lJ.E n1V E.1tr.r1T1J~o'V~>n1 EpeUVO:~ o;rr. xa£ ot XPL't ~ xo £ tile; 1tp6 r; n'J\I 7tpO OW1t r.K'I] XflAAt -rexv~x'" aY} [.L ~oupy£rx. "}\ va (J W- 7tOt ~ 1tOr) "tv e Yxa\, 'ta x&toux va yp6::f.}Jouv IlOUOtx~ ~ y~vov't'a~ KP~-

, - -

'rf.XOL 'tl}~ lJ.ouat~.

eo. tJ.1tOpoi)o£ V1X net XtX1tOLOC; O'tt a-ro XtX'tW xa'tt:U ~OUIJ.E m:-t1 k~ YOlLeV7j l~:q~OXpat'£(l >cal O'TL 1'6 )(Ot'Vo ~ ~ xo~vfl yvw~'1 [.t1tOpe:!: ~ 6<pe:.£A£L \10: tAty~~ a&t& 7tOU ytvov'tat. A&-t6, cpucnxci~ Elva~ I-uri Ct.1tA.rit"Jdi )Ced 'Jtat5(Xpr.wa,.~ CtqJcx£pEOll ~ llpC>-ra 1tp&rrcx, aa !:1tPE.7t£ ~a E:1tava.Aa~oUI-L£ t.X.t'no nor] Yrta\' 7tOAU YVWCTtO ~txPt 1tpoatp&Tw~ (rpa(vtrat O't'L xCX"'COc XcX1tOLOV ·tp67to "t6 sexvou'V ol av6pw7tot, r(Jw~ yux'ri £1tucpaTIlG€ il £X VEOU avaxaAuo/q -rClv a;twv til~ «cptAeA€UBE:.p1l<;» 1tOAL'ttx71<; tptAoaocpla~), o'tt a"1lArxti~ ~ ley6(.lEV7) «XOL\I~ YVWIl1]» eXet 1tp6af3aO'lJ 116vo O''t"(c; 1tIcr}POq:l0p(c:<; 1tOV ol xpa"t"ouvr£t; exouv nlV xaAoauvy) xa6e !popa va. 1tapaaxouv. Th~ alml ~ KOtVl1 yvc.)lL'1l XE:[(JaywYEI""ttxt IlE XLALOUC; "tp67tou; xcd o'n 't"ijc; xpe:ta~ovm.t 'tEpcX<Ttte:r; '1t'poarc&6c:r.e:C; y~a. va O:vax67t"te:r. a'1t6 xatpou E!~ xatp6v~ OtAArX tJ.ovo tx "twv uG'tepwv .. l'Va (L~xp6 llE.PO'i a&tw\I 1tOU E:.1tL1:'EAOuv'tf.n xcdf 0/..0 "[6 e:LXOOf."t'E't'pawpo cnr6 -rooe; xpo:'Ttxo6~. 1t'OA~'ttKOUC; )Ccxl o~xovo~.uxou~ ypa.<pe:toXP&'te:C;~ lltpa. 0IlWr; cnt' cx&t6 t "t6 1tp6~A"t]I.t(x e:lva~ ~aa6tEpO. ~cpopa B~Aaa~ ni atcx~6pqlUlO7} "thlV 1ta.pamao€!tlv, "twv elx6vwv ~ 'too\} r.Behlv xa.t: n?~ etAl1a~s 'to U aux.xpovoo ixv6p6)1tou. :E' f'Va np6Yto E:n L7te(} 0 , tJ.1tOPOUIJ.E va '7toijll~ ern f.lin:€t; ol 1tapc(O"taaet~, tj aiYn1 ~ 6tA"Il011 ~ a~otlJ.opcpwvo\I"tat O'U'VEXWC; ano 't6 OU\lOAO 'tou oUyXPO\lOU 6e:al-U0tJ-EvOU x60'1l0u OUfl1te:ptAtXll fja'Vo IJ EV"tJ t; xed aurij r; -ri1s: TEXVOE:n t m:-t111"q ~. • H e 1t ~a't"J1- ~'l alYn1, IJ.E TI} O€tP6. 't'l'lC; 1t(Jo~l(tO'£ "tov x60110 an' rov 01tOtO 7tpOE.PXE:."tcu ~!llt 'to xa-ro:1tArpttLxo cxirto tPYaAe:to 1tOU e:lvO:t ano n1 !pOOl} 'tou 1tPOO'O:PIJ.OofLeVD, OX~ [.!6vo 1tp6; Ttlv E~a1t'AWal} ~ a.AAa Ked 1tp6C; 1'0 1t£pteX6{.Le:\,o Tij~ xe~paywYl1O"1]~: 'to; oUyxpova llE.oa !J.a.~ ~x~~ tv.,,~tpW01]~ ~ 1)Aa Ctu-ra E !vat aAiJee:~a MAa B tv ~saV't' AOUV "to ~ .,,'t'YUJ.c( •

IIOLO; 6tA-qOE ~ o6yxPO'J'1) "tEXVOE:1ttm:-t1Jl.-q va E:tva~ a&nj nou

H TEXNOETIIITHMH

161

Elv(u; no!.6~ OEA€L TIl auvtXtc:rij T1JC; xa£ 'tDV a\Jt~tAeyx"to TtOAAa- 1tAa(j~o:a~6 't'Y}C; ; Kcxvevar; - xa£ i>Aot. I1p€7te:.t va rrrcq.Lcx't't}oOUflE 'Va t1tCXVa.Ao:tJ.f3«VOU~E )Cod va tCPCXPfl6~oU~E at. oA6xA"'1pY] "tiJv av6pw- 7tmrrtex n11lC(PS~a'tL~ ata" n1 axe't~xit !le 't6 1tpOA.e:'tfXP~tX'tO. N &. AeflE fuIArxlS~ Ot~ eaw u1ttXpxer. Ka:tt 'to 7tav't'oau\la~o xat lCitopnca 1tpOOPtOflE\lO \HX AUOe:t OM "C6: ~~'n'l!la'ta. X(l[ 'to 6noi:o ~ 'ta::u'taxpo-

-vwr;, el\'(X~ td.e.tWc; a6wo y~ci BAa. aaa 1'OU autJ.~(X['Vou'V ~"to ye:yov6r; t 'Jt .x . ., &tL 1:'0 rcpocUBouv at aPXYr(oL "tou , ~ 't6 xe~paywyouv x .A7t. 1\ v 1to"tt e.1tEAeE~ EV(x~ 1tup11vtx6C; Xe:Lt-tWVCX~, i1 av At{{)aou'V 01. 1COAr.XO( 1taYE"'t(;:J'v~t;, a v xa7to LO c; e a.va.'t"l]({l6po~ xed 't<XXe:.t(X~ !-1£"t'aB6 aE: W ~ l6~ C5pa1tE."tE.Oae:L 0'1t6 xa7toto epyctanlptO ye\le:."ttxj]~ x{d a."'rJ ytvouv ol auVE1tCtyO(l£.VF;C; xa"tcxO't'pocp£~ xed (Xv ol &1taypU,t)tltvo~ xat Atll-aollt'JOL €7t~~c;l\rtEC; c:J"tiloouv E:v(x S'~xa<n'1lpto xaf 1ttaaov~ x(Xviva a tCtO'Ct.) e EV't'Q cpuO'uco ~ [3 to)..Oyo ~ ~ l<.a'tao'tcxO'"1) q>uO'txa. e 6. E ~ rrsp leXEt 'ta taLa 1tlXpaBosa xed "tu; tate:.:; <X1t'OpLE:.t; 1tOU E:~1t~PL£tXE ~ X(l-rtXCJ'tC«T11 Ottx\l EytVE il .6.£Xl} -tij; Nupe~~tpy7JS, 7tapoua~g: ao[3te'ttxwV e:taarrW(I)'V, t} '1tp6O<p<X'ta, il exAoy/J'TOU x .. BaA'V'txaLll m:-t1v npoeBpla. -ri}r; Aucrtp(ac;. At6'tr., cpuO't.xa~ xav€va 6AOXAl1P~)'t~x6 Kct- 6EO'"tWC; at\! 6& (l7topouae va. >caVEt {):n ~xa'VE xwp(.:;"tO: EXct'tOlltJupta: ·tl7}V e:xa:to~~upi{Uv 'twv 'J\tXI.ux\J xai "tw.v BcU.'rtxa.~Il!l a~6't~ owe:. 6 "ALXlUX'J olYte 6 BO:AV't'Xatl1 OU't'E xed 6 Xt'tAeP 86:. ~'W.v 'dno'tot ~ 0 lYt~ xa.( 6 ~"t&'At V ~ xwp~ TIlv lx.'JoYiJ 'twv rx.'V't£(I['O I. XW v ACtwV. Ka."'tcX 'tov TBto "tP01tO ~ ~ XtovotTtL~a.Ba -riJ; oUyXPovllS 'tEx'Voe'Jttan1~"f]C; 'tpoq>08o'tEt-rar. t OXt ~6\io o:n6 't'iJv &1tA"l1 b.vrY'lA" i:t.Ufx xrx( anD "01v Evtpy6 U1tOO'n]PLSTI 'tW\I A(lc;)V. Ked ~1tOpOUlle va. 6tirniaou~E MOU~ 6A6xA7JPou~ ~1tpoO'ta at (5tX(l0nlptO; no~6~ Sa a1tap't* aln6 TO BtxcxcrnlpLO; Mi 1tOLa J3ua-q ea 't'ou~ expwe; 'lowe; 01 MOt 6C51]youV't(1f. (l6\10t 'touC; (Xln:ij~ TIJ (Tt'ty[J.~ o't'o a~xo::an1pto ~ rcaf)(xcruPOVttxC; tvBexo{.L&'VwC; lJ.a~( "tOOt; xed 'toue; 39 Ar.xa(QUe; Ti1~ i:~pa.·tXTlS 7tap(x~oA~~. CY1tcXpx.e:.t !l~6. e(3pd~x~ 1t(Xpa:~OA.q, rtou AE.e:~ on 6 eeOC; e6. ~lxe Kct"tcx<rrpi$€L 't6v x6a~o taw xed XtAt6:8e:.C; XpCN~c(, MArx Btv 't6v Xl..'("ttXCrtp€<pE:L ~ Bto'tt . at. xiX6e: mLY~11 ~ ~ouv 1t<Xvw ~ yii 39 Bixo.to~ Civ6pw7tOt xed liE-v etAe~ va "tou,; xce"ta(f't'pE$e:~ JLct~{ !1t 'too~ CiAAOUt;).

168

01 OM r AlEE :ETHN EAAA &A

I:-njV 7tpaSl'l, 0 L 7taVl:Et;, xat 01 tpLAEAEullepm xaL 01 !-LavSLtnE'; xat Ol1tAOOmOL )((Xi ol !P't"WXOL xa! 01 ou!po£ xat 01 Or:vaNpaf31'1't"oL, 1tlO't'e:$c:xv. 6tA~O'Cty va TI10'"t'.e:UoOV xed 6tAouV 1taV't'a va 1t~areuouv o"n ~ 't'eXVOE1rt<IT7]~Y} elvaL axea6v 1tcivaors»l~ OXEa6v 1'Ca~TOaU\lO:;lJ."'1, xai o"tt 66: ~Tav E:1tLa~~ xed nClvo:ya:G"'1, a\J at 8t(xcpopo~ xaxot, Or:VO:Aoya /lit 't"L<; tlltE<; 't"oo )((.(&vo<;, &:v -njv Elxav ib«pitljJEl 1tpOS 'tou~ (5.1:)(06; TOU~ O"TOXOU<;. l:UVE:1tw<;~ 't"O ~~'t'1}(lC( ~1te:pva.et xa:t'cX 1toM x6:fll;: 8la.naCTll t8LaL't"Epwv aU/l!pEp0Vl:WV ~ XEtpaywY'lCl71';. ~q>opa ax6~Ct !ltO <papa. rov q>avmato:x.o 7tUMvrx 'tou auyxpoVOu avflpw1tou , til<; )(OLVWlILOC<; xaL 't"WlI (3ECI!-LWlI, 1tOO 0 r810<; 8Yt/lloupyd XO;{ Ot ono rOt TOV (}~O:f.lopcpw'VOU\l. Sa €1tCtVEA6w a' au'to, 01:"0 "tEAOS ni<; O!-LlALro;. 1\<; Cluyxpa't"ljaOl)!-LE !-Lovo 't"wpa ':11:L, .xli 1tpaY!-Loc't"L d VaL E't"CIL, 01 a1ta L'tOU !lEVO L !lE't"aOXl1!-LOCt LCl!J.oi YLa 1I0: all'tI/lE'tumtoooue -rrX "t€pa<nL(x au-r& 7tpoI3A~l1o:-ra el'Ycu a1te~pWC; (3tlet.n:~POt CUt ~ o;n 1l1t6pe: OE xnve {~ vei cpa. V"t'(IO't e [ IJ.EXPt ~ tJ.Epct. Kal "to rrepaClf.ll'L a1tO 't"lj "l'lll ep L vij xa'tO:CI't"aCTll ae !-L L 0: )(a't"O:CI't"a CTIl iSITOU ~ TeXVOe1t~a'n:n.t.1J Brt'V eci a"l)ll~oupyouaE:. ~ 't'ooAaXto-rov 0Xl 0"'t6v raLO patlw), too.; r8LOu<; 'tp0/le:p06<; XL 1I0%1I0UO; ITOU iST/[1LOUPYEt 'twpc:r:. ('jEll Pp(CI)(e:~ w<; a\l(xAOYL1X &tijv !CI't"op£a nic; IXv6pw7tO't"11,a<;, 1tapa Ev8exollevw<; 'to ITEpOCalla a1tO njv 1taAaLOAt!ltxlj E:1t0X'l an] lIWALa~K~.

l»uOI)(O:, xavE£<; <Jell aWL xal )(otlle:t<; &v 1rpi7rltl va (3tAel ..-riv EITtCl'tPOtpij a-nj A[(3Lvl1 E:1to){lj, 'ltap' OAr) 1tOll tpalVE't"aL ~&1J O't"L 'lte:p(- 1tOU n1 a~aAe:Sa.~e, xwpiC; wi 't"o ~rtpou~e:. xn( xcopit:; va 1'6 6eAoull~. :AAAO: xal j kave:£<; Btll !lITO pee i va OUllq£OEL 1I0: 'pecpE1:1XI !lit 't"ljll alYta1!ti-r~ o-n ~ "'t'eX\Jo&1tt~~'J1 ElvlXL eva Qpto"to tpyaklo a"ta

~ -.. , "'.. ~

XE.pta xaxW\I ~aaTopwv Yl oe: X€P~Cl &:vt3PW1tCUV not) "TIlv fbc~fle"tctAA€U oV'tcu .

~1tavtpxollO!~ a-t6 ~~'trUJ.a 'tWV ,bnAoyClv xcti aCi<; 1tapaKCXAw ,,& crxecp8er-rE - "o~oS Exave >eai 7t"o~6.; eo: J.t.7topoOae: 7tO't"E 'Va XaVE:L. (lITO 'tl) C1Xoma ni<; IXlIflpwlTo't"l'l't"a<;. 't"01l Aoyaplaa/lO xomo<;-xtp- 80<;, ClUyxP£lIoVl:a<; 't"a ITOClCt 1t06 CttpLe:pWVOU/lE aTljv epe:uvoc YIO: rov )(apx!lIo xal 't"a 'ltOClO: 7tOU 6a ~all all(.(y)(alot YL6: va !l~v rre- 8ctivouv art' nJV 1te:{yo: -en 7t{xtota CTt'OV TpC'to x6otLo; '''H. note);

H TEXNOETII::ETHMH

169

6p6oAoytKi, E:7ttAoy/j 66. lJ.1topouae veX lnt&p;e: (xv~tJ.e:O"(X "~'t~ ea~llama ix1tO"t"E:AeO"lLam '"Cw'J 1tE.tpall<X""tu)v '[00 EUPW1to:.L~OO KeV'tpOU IIup11vlxwv "EpeuvC>v on? re:"Veu~ ("aC 'to:; txa:'to~lluPta B~AtXpUX1 1tOU a~aTC6evt(xt yt~ au'tu), xcd mou<; ~wv'tav~uC;1 \le~pous '[W\J 1t~oBpOllt:w'J Tii~ BOlLf3&'71r; ~ 'ti}~ KaAKo6tar;; Kat BE'V erx au~YJTfJaw Ktl\l 'to 6ElJ,a 1tOV rX'Vf).xu1t"tet. ana ;tr; :€XV"1l't~c; yoVtll01tOt-r1a~t<;" -c(r; (LE:-rCt.(lOaxe.UOEtt:; x.A7t., yt(l "de; 01tOte:t; q>€p'Vou'V a~v BtX(X.LoAoy(a 'to Bu({dw(la G'te£{Jc.uv Cx.'t"6ll-wv va EXOUV '"tel BLx.a "Cou? 1tatlh6:~ .. tic; €pe:uv~C; X(l.[ 'ta x.¢U.l(X't'(X nOll aqne:pw8"!lxcx\J d (xu'til'J 'tTl ~OlP£rn1 rpapoa. Ertnv ~ tBu>:. "t1]Ae6ptxO"1} 7tOU B€tx~e~ au:rti 'ta 1ta~a~6. nOll [3YCtLVOl)V anD -rou~ GWATlVC:C; ~ 'tp~(X Aemo: (J.€'tCI )Cat xwP~t;

va. KO:Ve:.t 't1i ouyxptO"fl" C5t;:CXVe:.L 'tou~ aXE~o~t; :wv 1tet;~G(Jt~Wov TC(lta~WV -ri]r; AHho1ttac; xa( 'tii~ 'Epu6patat;'O H e7ttAOY"l} €XeL yt8YJ yive:t xed ae:LX.\lE~ "to. 1tOtov 'tofJ. oUyXpovou b» BpW1tou • ~O ~ap(X~oY'"0lloS nOll -n1v xaAU;n~t Erven ~ ~~c; a.'t01tO'J Ct.1tCXYWyr, "t11S ~~ea; 'twv a~Xa.LWlla:tCil'J: ~O xuP(,Ot; xed iI xupto: "'tu<i: ~ouwv 't6 OlX~t6J~a \1(1 ~Xouv Eva a~xd "tOUC; 1tcuiSi - C5txo 't'DU~, (x1tO T1)V a~o~YI "t~v. yovt5twy. KaL y~ti 'Ja 'to EXOUV a&-t6 'to BLX6 "toor:; 1tcuB~ ae lJ.!.fX evs- 7t1:u)1ltV'1) xwpa~ G0(5E:uov'tCXt XPy}Ila.'t~xa TIOaa xtli xpov,"~ epyaQ"[a~, 1tOU 6ti 111t0pourJav \la elxa" xPCtn1O"E:t aTt1 ~w~ :OU~(lXto't~v '7te:.\)~vra 1t(Xta~ri GE. 1.loLa u1tavatc-rux'tl1 Xwea, 0:1t6 'tcx ~1tOt~ 6 ::upto~ ~[d fJ xup£o:. 'triBe: Sci l-L1topoooav vri eLxav ulo6e"t""tlO"Et, OXt eva t fJ..AAa Buo 1tctLBta.

AE'Ll AEW o'"C~ OAe:S Clmee; at t1ttAoyE.~ e:!vat Aa.J)El1eve:C;, Mw 0'["," Edvcn. art TIpw"t~ 7tpootyYtOl1. "tEA.etw C; cxuaaCpe't"e:~ x.a,[' 0"8 ~€u"t'e:p~ 7t.pOoeYYLO"f}. (iv lle:i: xa.ve::Ct; "'C"tX 1tpaY!lcera rX1t6 XOV'tf.X. 1tCXUOUV va E.i\la~ auBa:(pe1:es xed EXlPpasouv xa:n MAO. IT6.\rtw<; ~ xa6?p«;o'V'tctt il1t~ lS ~·tL (iJ..AO 6tAe'tE:: tX1:"6~ an6 OpflOAOYU{tc; ~ CxVep(irJttv~C; 7tpott:pctt6"'t"1Jt'E~. At.rrl'l ~ 'C'f)v 'i(3ux o'ttY(l"tl 1tOV taxup[~e:.'tcu x(XV€(~ o·n tHrlIpe:'t"£:~ 'fa ~6Vt~(l Xal1tlXyxoOtJ.to: oulJ.<ptpov'tr.: n)t:; cX~epw~o't"YJ~ "ta.c:;. :<t:Xvovrac;. A.X .. epEu'JtX YLcX "tiJ e~pa1te::((X 'too x(X~x~vo~u ~ a.cp~u xci6e a"epW7to.C; 6ei ~1topouae: ;ub'tO'tE va npoa(3)..7]6et uno XexPXLvo .11]\1 taLfX attYIJ.r: ~At7tOo(le o'n cdrtll ~ 1tcxyxooV.t6'tT{tC1 e;t~C(~ 't~A,z((,J; XE:vq, YLa -rov rx1tAOU<Tt(X"tO A6yo o'n ~ 1tA£LOqJ-qcp(a: 'tou 1tA"'1-

170

OJ OMIAIEE I:THN EAAAdA H TEXNOEI11l:THMH

171

BUGlloU UJS' yijt; ctiYn1v 'n1 a-ny~~ Btv ~Xe:L xciv "ni t-ux6'rU.L(X'"t'tx~ 1tL- 8av6-n]"t(.( va ~'t'aoe:~ an1v TJAUC£CX 01tou- iJ E:7tfm:wCTI] tile; 1tpOa~OA~<; c(7t6 "t6'V xapx(vo elvat a"f}~aV't'~x~. fl»uatxa t U1Capxouv X(X£ xnpxtVOL 7tcnBtwv, avap.t.p£~oAa ~ 07tWC; xed xapx£vot VE:WV tX\l6pw1twv ~ ol ~EyMe:C; o!J.w~ ~bt't1t"twGE~; a.px~ouv a.n6 -reX 30-40 xa£ nepa. r>'O_ -rav 01 aV6pw1tot 1tE6o:£vouv cno6~ 2 ~i1Vg~, o'toOr; 6 fl'1"e.;, <Tta 7 xp6",~a~ 'tf x(xA6 't'ou<; xavet'l 6E:wPlTttxa xat m;a't~O'ttxa~ eXv E.1le:i:r; ;OaLtUOU~E. XP11llOC'C'cx y~a va y~a'tpttfJoufle 't6v xapxivo; Ol t1t~Ao~ yic; ami.; an1\1 1tpay~a't'~X6't'Y}'tfX xa6op£~oV'tcn Cx7t6 "n1 (5tat5tx(Xo(a • ~ ono£a, o-d~ AE:1t"tOllepettb; 't'1)C;, EIveXL wXa.£a. ~ exAM enD oUvoAO "t''1}t; mEpea 7tpOaava't"OALa~e\l'1. EI\llXt ~ O'uve:xf1e; aV(X1tW;'1) "'rile; 't'e:XVtj('1~ E7ttan1IJ"'It; ~ 7tpayfJ.c("t~x6 acpu(J~ xwp(c; ~6:ct'topa. 1tOU Xtveitat xa~ xrU1tcXe~ Ill€: auveXhl<; ausav6~e)Jo iSyxo xcx( t1C~""taxu'V6~ fle'V"fl xhn107J.

* .$ *

8a fj6e.A(X ""twpa va: nCl llE:ptx6. yr.a 'd~ XOLVWVr.xtc; napamaOlttc; Tij~ tlttanl(J.1]~. a'!}AaB1; YUl. "'rilv talta 1tOV exoov YLa nl oUYXPOvy} i:7t~cm1tJ.~ xed ol n3r.o~ ol t1ttcm1lJ.ov~r; xed 6 (J.eoor; a.vepW7tO~~ ax6- tic( xa£ 6 aXE1:~xa lloPCPWIlE:VoC;.

8a apxiaw Oc1t6 llteX a~{X7t(O'''twa." 1t'OU litv e:lvat xa.66AOU 7tp~Yt'6- "tU1tYl ~ fX€L YLVet XLAuxi5e.; t.popES· ~H KCt't6.a"t"cx~ [lac; an' aUn1 -nlv a.not]J"fl e:IVOtt 'te:Aet!tl.; 7!ap6:Bo~,.: 00'0 1t&pLO'OD-tepa yvwpU;OUI1e:, ~E

I l: .pt

[.ua t..vv6ttx. -r6ao A&y&repa yvwpa;oufl£ )(aC 00'0 1tEp~aa&tE.po

e:r~a:O't'e: auva't'oi~ (ht<iu; 't'6 E.AEya cm1v a(JX'i] ~ "'t'6ao 1tEp~aa6tE:po a8u'V(l~o~ yt\J6J.Lao1'E:. Kat 000 7tS:PLOOO't'eprx yvUlp£~oulle ~ "TouMX~(f"t'O~ (Sao 1teptoa6te:pa yvc.upt~ouv at E1ttfJ.tpou<; E.1nO'tYu.J.OVE;~ -r6ao Aty6t€PO yvwpU;ouv -rL e:lvctr. xed -d 86. ~1topouaE: \10: el"aL ~ YVc:.1011. "Ooo 1tE:ptaa&tttpa yvwpf~£~ 6 e1t~an1v.ovat; llt tJ.£a EVVOtC(, "toao A&y6'tEpa y'VwplSe:t, xed «UTO Bt'V e:lvcu SUOXOAo va 'to a1tooaq»Jvioou!JE we; 1t'p6<; 't6 E:aw'tep~x6 'Li]~ t15La~ TI]<; yvwm,t:; - taw. Be" 1tp6)Ce~'t'a.~ 1l6vo yta -n]'V etBixe:u07J, eXAM xed y~a 1:& 1tPO!3A~[.La"ta nov oU'VS;XWC; CtvaxLve:t +r ~bttaTJ1(J.YI. Ilore e:1'VfXt ~ axeo."

(l~C; 'rile; Y\,W01JS IlS "'t6 t)7tOxe:(ll~,,6 1:"I)t;; 'A'V 6ew¢Jaou~E 'to a""totLtx6 1:71C; u7toxetll€VO, &rtAo:BiJ "t6v ooyxexpLL-Lt\)O €1tt0n1lloVCX, E:lv(xl cr£youpo, 01tW~ EXEL AEXBe:1 lbtetpec; <popt~, cYt"L at1"t"6c; {) 00- yxe:XPLlltvo~ E.1t[.anltlovCtC; yvwpr.~e:., 5ltw~ 't6 AEVe:. a-ra tyYAE~tXa" more and more about less and less. ·OAotva xed 1t&p~a0'6"tepo:; 1tPay- 1L(l"t'CX 7tavw at oAoev(J.. x(d At.y6-t'e.pa 6e(l(X'tcx9 ij ae 1tep~oo6't'epo 1te:ptOp!.olJ.tvC(. 8tllc.('t'a. IIeptop~a[.1€v(x l)Xt 1J-6vo at ();n acpopa -rq'V E:X'ttXO'1J ~ f:J)..).6. X(XL at O,ott aqmpa 't6 Wyn.ta xed -de; au'VH7JKS:~ o:lrti]c; "ri1~ y"w(nl~· ~Av a~pYJaoulJ.€ 'to aulloYLX6 U1tOXE~tJ.ItVO, 't'WV E7t~O"nUl.o'VLXhl\l XOLVOTfrrWV , Ilea a. O"tOUt; X6A7tOU~ "'t'G)v l)1to~w'V tnt -rpeu; ae:Kae:.'t(~S 'twpo: yivo'J"t'Cl~ au7;~ae:.tC; yux TIlV 1tOAoE:1t~O"t"1JllOvLxmTJ't(t,11 Sr.-E1tLtTt"f)lJ.OVtxtYt71'M ~ y~a va U1tEp{3A116EL ~ IdB£xe:oO"1] , ~AE.7tOU~g o"n ol aU~"fJ'tiJaEr.S 8tv &7tE~'la(X"'J at 'tL1tO"ttX Kat aE.V b.v-rtO'ta.ell~a(X'V niv n{XX'Yll<X"tuc6'tY)'ta -ri)<; E1tL'taXUvO ~€VllC; £sEt8£XEUO'YlC; xa( "twv cl7tO"tW0lJ.tXtcu'V 'n1<;. l\v tr;€-r&'OOUtJ.E '"to xOPtCJ)~ XOtvwvtx6 U1tOxe:(llE.VO, TJiv ixvepw1t~""1] xOtv6-tTrtcx.~ 117t0pOUlle va BOOl-LE eva f3cx6u'ta"t"o (5~ru;uytO" Ilptv a1t6 30 xpo\lta, EY~Ve: crn1v 'Ayy"Afn. f.1.tci au~Yrn1a7J yux 'ttC; alio KOUJ..:tOupe;: -nlV XOuA"!oupa 'twv 8e't'tKwV t'JttcrtyUJ.Wv xal ~v (xvap(U1t!.<TttX~ XOUA .. tOUpa~ xed -ro y£yov6~ mt exouv B~(lmtao'te:t aTJ1 auyxpov"1] KOtVWV£cx9 6:)..M 't6 CPCXtVOflEVO Idva~ ~(.dltYte:.po )(aL "[6 EtXE. il8TJ lttxpa'"t'1Jrn1Get one; a.pxE~ 'tou att:lva. EVat; lle:yaJ..oc; re:plJ.(X.v6e; XOtv{u'VtoA6yoC;~ 6 Max Weber, lhuv €Aeye o'tt Evac; 7tP6Yt'oyovoC; ~ ayp~oc; yvwPt~t ane:£PWC; 1teptoo&tepa 1tpay~a't'ot OX€"ttx&' 1lE: rov xo<Jt.Lo 1tOU "t"ov 1t£pt~6.AAE:~, 0:7t6 1tptlxnxiJ Ci:notJrtl, Cxn' 0 ,'t~ e'V(X<; a"t'}~eptv6<; aVapW7tO~. Ka£ evac; ~V.e:p~xf1\l6~, E:1tfa1]~ IlEyaAo;~ olxovo~oA6yo~~ b Veblen, 1tapa""t'lPouaE OtL. cXx6lJ~ xat oe 1te:PL1t't(i)O'7J x(Xwo-rpoq»Jt:; ~tCit; tv(;~a'JtxY)<; rpUA-qC;. apxet va. OW6Et llta 'lvBtava xed va &cpe:6eI (J.€acx a'tout; AeLt-twVEC; ""tOU Middle West: tJ.6'V'l rY}S aiYn1 "1i yuvcd.xo: elvr.n txClVll va ~(Xvalh1ll~oumaeL DAa. ora 't'ltxVovmllattx -rile; CPOAYi; xa.£ va. X(l'taOXE.UaaEt xo;( "ta 1t(X1tOu-tOLct x.cx£ -n1 aep~a."ttv7J ox·,.p.r/J 't~c; xed -ca MAll OAa, lhiYn ~tp!;:t 'tov 7tpax'tLx6 x6otJ.o, ~taCt o-rov 07tOLO ~L n6: X(l\lEVaV 0YJIle:ptVO a",f)pw1to ij otlaBa O't}(LEptvw'V cXv6pw7tw'J liEV 6a 111tOpouo.e: cpuO"txa xave(c; va neE "to '(Br.o.

172

or OMIAIEE ETHN EAAAdA

Ei {);n OOpopa Til e~Qf)lrnx~ 7CA£upa "tou ~Yft~Il(X'toS', tl.V 0'1'0 1tC<peAaO~ u1t'ijpx€ f~(X EIBDS' epYlaxe::rj"nxii~ 1t~(it'"I1~ (x7tev(Xvn onl-v t1ttG-nJIlYl, ~lJ.eprx U1triPX5L 1J.~6. BtlXxU't""I} xa( aoaqn1r:; 1tf(}'1'~. r.X'P'lP'lIJ.e:vYl, eva 7tEplfjA7)Voa 1tO~ nepLE:xEt ~6vo X(X1tOta ~E:pa:I-lEva CP~XOUAa nov E.XDUV 7tE.oe:t an' TO 'tP(x1tt~~ "twv E:XAa'LXelYtWv. ~e:aOlle'Voo o'n 6 xapaxn1pa~ (XuTll'; T11~ 1tl<Tt""t)<; 'tou XO~\lOU O''tvlV €7tt0n11111 e:!va.~ xa'tL allv v.e:poUAt(xOlltvo (5L -qEtYHtct 7tapaa-r6:oewv TrOU 7tpotPXOVtGU a1t6 'touC; ra~ou~ "'roue; bttonlllOVES, 6a 1tpo<mae~aw wi TIC> l1e:PLXEe; )£i;e:~t; yta TO 1tWC; eyw '"tOUAax~O't'o'Y ~At1thl ·tft; 1tapo:crca.ae:tC; "t'WV €1tt(JtrnJ.6vwv at (1):em'] !lit ~v e1t"tm-fjfJ.ll ~ ~ [.LCtAAov, BL6n Clu't'6 6& ~"'t'(Xv 'tEpao-rr.o GE[J.a, 6& ~6EAa &7tAW,C; \J& lJ.tA:flaw YLa Buo 1tapaAOYta~ou~ nov lJ.ou q>a£VOvtrxt 1tapa. 7tOAU lhaa.e:(5:o11t'Vo~ xa( €SC.upE.'tLxa a\l'tt'1tpOOW1tE:O'tLXOL, xa~ ol tBr.ot xed mou.; 7tO~xo..OUC; auvauaa~ou~ 'tou~, 'Ca' 7tOU~ vOll(~w, xapr.xX't"f}pt~ouv '['oue; Ol'l~E.p~'JouC; E.1tLO"tiU.l.o'Vc,;, an' D;n ~w ata1ttO"twOl~.t xed OE aut;lJTfjO'e:L~ xed

~ ~

aTa ypaTt"tct 'tou~.

~O 1tp(;)'t'o~ 1tapaAoY~0'lJ.6C;, nOl) E~~a~ A[.y6t€po 1tEtfTt~x6C; xat 1tOll xave:£.C; 1tot'E: lJltv 'to" u1tom",p(~E.t tXvO~XttX, apV€L't'ClL 0--n1v E:1t't- 0'n)1J.71 "aGe asta W.:,~eEMXC; Y1 , 1tp&'ytla not) E.I\l(x~ 'to Ya~o ~ l)[\1€~ aro\l opo «ixA~eetO:>} n1v rtt6 O'tE:Vcl 1t'pay~a:n(TnK~ ewota. ~"'Aa:(5ii ~ o't~ ol E:1tLO"ty)IlOVtxtt; 1tpo'ta.O'et~ el\la~ anAWe; )((Xf uovo xa"tL nov AE~"t'oupye:.l. Kat y~a't( Ae~'toupyer; Ka:( yunt elVf.Xt fxA"I}a~V~ alYrlj ~ EXCPPCXO'Y}: «lxAl']etvi~ e.lvaL ol e:1nm''''U.A.ov~)Ce~ 1tpo"t'6;O'E~C;, o't'ctv

'II, ~ ; ~" ~

au't'e<; O~ 1tp~LC(.ae:!.~ XGU "t'l.X aUl11tE:paollCX--C& "t'ou~ AE:L't'OUpyouv»:

Ka.£ 1tWC; -cd ~E.POU(le: (J'n AEt-rOUpyouv; T'etoioo e:.'C(50u<;; epw~O'e:L~, cpuatx&, 6 npaY!-lcctlxtO'(J.Oc;; 'tLC; &.1tocpE.uy~~ xa.C 01tw.c; el"YtXt <puatx6. y&wae~ 1'6v aX~7t'tLxLa!-l6 nov, 'ta 'ttAe:lYt'cttCt xp6vta~ ~avae:xcppcX~ 01:l]XE Pl1'teX a1t~ 1:'0\1 ({)aytt:palJ.1teVt: 'teX. 1tavta Ae~'toupyou'J, 6"na~- 1tO'tE AE:t'toupyeI. tt.tv 7tpOXE'Tt'at saw WI t!1t(Xv(XA6:~W. TIl· <ptAoaoqnx-r, avaaxe:u~ 'tau axe1t't~x~CJ~OU. aAM eo. yt.8EAct va unE:V60!J.lOW [..l.ovo ot'~ 0!Un1 ~ Opto:xl] aVdA"lJtV"l, B"I1A. 6 t!nttnr}fJ.OtIlXOt; avaPXlCT{ .• UJq. 01twc:; ov6~aaE 0 <bay~e;pa~1te:VT "t'1]v (Xnoq..l1 -rOl), ~e:)(&v&E~ a1to ~.ua BL(X1t'tO''t'wo-q. -n1v 61to(a Btv lxv-r[,hall{36.ve:"tr.x~, ahA-a OlrrE x(d i:xcpwvEi aWOTa. Aunj ~ ()tn7t~O"'t"6)O'Yi (TIlv e.x.w 6"a"t"u1twa~t

H TEXNOE III'I:.THMH

173

a.:rr.6 "t6 1971 rl E:va XEL(J.E\lO 0"t6.1J-raupo8(J6p.~a TaU Ao:{jvp{vf)ou), t, lntota ~aS 6BYlye'L 01'6 ~tXeOr; 'tG>v r.pQ..,oooqnxi)v 1tpO~A7UJ.a1:WV 7tOU YS:WCtE.~ ~ E:1t~rrn1(l'Y), eIva[. o't"t -q trn;op(o;. TIle; ft1ttO"'dH.1"fJ~ l>E.V ix1to"t.e:kt E.va. aUO't"1lJ-C( 1tOU b;Ve).LOOE'tcxt llEoa O"tOV xpovo. ~tv ~1tOPOullE. B71AaB-.1 t va BOU(J.e: -n1v trrtOPt(X -ri1.; t1tLa-n1lJ."1J~ oav xcX'"t!. 7tOO 1tapoua~a~et llui 1CAl1P1l AOYLxYJ, €"tOt 01!W; t~S:AtaoE't(U lJ.£oa O'TOV xpovo (ark sct'Vr.illtA"'aou~e: yt' (lu't6). 'E1t(o"1)t;. au't6~ /) €1tt- 0"t'1lIJ.O;"oy~x6~ aVC(p;(to!J.o.C; S€XVa€L x6:n MAO E:~£OOU 011lJ.c(v'ttx6. Elv(xL to<P(xAfltVQ 'Va. Atl-le:. lhL "to; 1teX.'V'ta AEt'tOUPYOU'V" oAa. BOOAe=UOU,"" om 1t~tX\lOU" ~ ato-n aUto nou (h.o:.1t~a·tl~'VoUfle: IJ.taa <Tt"1)v E:1tLmlltJ.ov~x-q BOl>Ae:LCt e{\I(XL o-n, at. tltCt Belio~gv"1) O't'ty(.L~, E:AaXLm€~ e.I\l(1L ol 6E<upe:Ic:C; 1tOU l-t1topouv 7tpct)1.l.(x"nxti va ~1tOUV OE ouvuywvLO(.L6 (xwx{J.eoa. 'tou<;, (5.g(50(iE.VOU 'tOll '"tEpafTttOu tl.p~Bl-1oU '"twv yeyov6twv, ?tOll itXOU\I i1~ y(vet. Ct1toBex'ta, xa( 'twv 1tPo.YlLa:twv ~ ytc'x 'teX. ono1a SEpoOll£ 5'tt ou'tCJ)~ i1lUAw~, el\l(xL aacpaAWC; eOqlIXA(lEva. Au'to E7tian.:; lliic; ae(xve:~ o--n, oae:~ xt (Xv e:.lva~ 0'" 8uoxoAte:.r; 1tOU EtJ:TCeptKA.E£e:.t a~Ynl ~ ext.ppao"f) ~ "fJ E7tt<TtiJlJ."1l EXe:L &OtpCXA.hl<; xa- 1to~a OXeo." v.g XtX-rt 1tOO t-ta~ ~1t€pvaE:t, a"1JAa.a~ llE aln"o 1\06 e:tV(U ~ rxoXe1"r.t a7t6 tJ.OO;.

'0 C5cth'epo<; 1tCX{laAoyto1l6C;, 1tOU e:tvcn 7COAU 1tt6 ataae:ao~tvo~ xa.;( "OlJ.(~w &tL 'tov a7toC5tx€"'t'cu an1v ouota -q ll£YtlA7] 7tAe:tO$"1]<pLCl "twv t1ttCTt'"1J1J.6vwv 1 el"!Jllt ~.Lta E.x8oxiJ 'tOU 1tpool5etrrt0lLOu "tOO 190u a.twvct. All't6C; 6 1ta.po:}.oy!.a~6c; laxop(~m~ lYn ~ E;tA!.Sl} ~t; yvw- 01l~ tJ.a~ l-.utaa mov XPO\lO Btayparpel llLav ex.OU(.L1t"tlul"LX"t} 1topeto: 1tp6~ 'T"iiv b.A:~ee:L(l91tOU 'tiIv 1tpoaeyyt:~oUllE. 6"A.oeva. Kcd 7tEpLOo6tepo , loxup£~(lt o"n ol e1tto't1'}[l.OVtXEc:; 6e:wpie:<;,. 1tOO (5tfl5ixov'tctt ~ lltCl -n1v CXAA'1, !t!va~ OAOtva. XCXL Aty&rEpo €acpaAlJ.ev€~ ItplLYJ'V£i:ec; 'tYie; 1!Pa:r(la1"Lx6rrrt'a~ xa.t, XUP(W<;9 ()'t~ 01 1tPOYlyoullE:vec; eewp(et; a7to"tEADUV 9 x6:.eE. cpopa. .. t8U:tt't'E:pE.r; 7tEP~1t'1'WO'E~~ 'tw.v lL~"t€1CE.t"t(X a E:UlpLWV <t 0 l into It-c; a1toteAouv ye:vtx~OO"'l 't'WV np0'lYo UI-l-EVWV. N o(J..tt;w o'tt airnl ~ an-o$Yl e:lv(u 't'eAe(w~ a~aatl-ll1. Atw «1tClpw...oytal-l6~», ato"tt .. cpuO't)(a. 01tO~ot; aX€1n'.e:-rat c;rOlXEtwBw~ ~( aYJ~(X£vouv ol AESet<;;, xa'taAa~atve:.t o"n at-v lJ.1tOPW va TrW mr. ~((X xec,",,1tUAll e:tvtXt (XoU(lmYU"tYl m(Xv atv 111tOPW wi 1tpOaBLop(aw '"ttVO~

174

01 OMIAIEI: tTHN EAAAAA H TEXNOEnI:ETHMH

175

np<iyIl(X't'oC; e:lWXL (XaUl-l1n'W"t'''l. To va Atv.€ AOL1tOV an ~ E1tr.an1~1] ~a(5fSet aoutl1Ct'w"t'~xa 1tpO~ -rllv cXA7]6e:u:x, aYllJa(vet ern Stpou!1e nOta elvat -q ypaILtl7l1tou 'ltpoaBr.op(~£t alrn1 -n1V aA~ae:.~a, O"lllafvet O'tL ~tpou~t ~ ~Cle"(l(X'"t't~ 't!.fl~ cx~~ 'ri]<; fxA1l6e~(XC;. J\AACt, 1tLOW tX7t' aum-v rov 1tapaAoy~aJl.6 xpu~e"t'a~ 11.~6. f3ap~a IlEmcpuOtx~. 'H r.Bea B'tJAaB~ iYn, 000 1tpOXWpOU\I ol YVWCJE~r; t -r6ao nepLoa6-repo 1tpoO'e::yy£~ou!J.e 1tp6r:; {.L£a a).:i}6e:Lr.t, 5tv a"t'ex~'ta~ ~ 1tapa (.L6vo av lnttipxe~ eva e:IBoc; 1tpoxa60ptO(lEVY1C; &PIlOV£a.~ c1lJa(J.€aa ~ Btth-aSlJ "t"wv B~a(Ttpwlla'twaew" 'ri1.; 1tpaY(lC('ttx&t"r)'t'a.c; Kat O'n1V ava1t't'U~l1 'tilt; axttP7J~ lia~. 'I.1H, i:ntO"l1r; ~ ~ raga, ?tou lJ.1topet va £tvcu :Kat a{U~, MAa e:IvaL 7tpocpavw~ 1tpo~):'l[J.(l"'ttxil, 1tc.l~ 0. ;"t't e.1",c(J 13 ct£hyt'E:po t 0 ,"t't e {"at At Yo1:'epo lilJE: oa cpctt vouev ~ xo ~ e: l va ~ X(X-r" avcXyx."v xaeoA~x6 ~ Xa.60AtK6'tEpO. AUn] ~ (5e:.U-repYI tKtioxil O"tYjpt~e:r. nom (J"UXVCt, oxet56v XCXe"fJIJE:PLVa., eva E15ot; aOYllaTtx"ij~ 8P~O:IlJ30AOyL(X;. 'Evvow ~6 (6)1.Lct rroo 07t60XE't'Ctt «CXUpto ea afu; 7tOU~E TiJv 'tEAe:u'ta£a )..£S11», 'tOU 07tOtou '"t'<X 1tapaC5efylJ.ct"tC( ~dv(u fup6ov6-ra"t'« xaL o:px~ouv ~B"fJ Ct.1t6 "n1 veu"t'W\JE:LCl. E:noxn. Sci cas lxvarpipw ~6vo Buo;

To t898~ ytv6tav eva 7tayxoolJ.tO auveBpto <pua!.x~~ xed 1tpO~Bps:ue:. 6 1tOAU O'YJ!lctvttXOc; l\yy:WC; cpuar.x6t; A6pBor:; Kelvin, IJ.t Ttl 6!£wpfa 1'ou o1tolou ll-e't(Ja~e:. clXOl.L(l "roue; ~aJ3llOU~ Tijc; a.noAU'tl)c:; 6C:Pfloxpamas· K1jpuaaovttX~ -n;v EVap~"l1 'tou auveBp(ou {) Kelvin auvEXar.pe 't'ov ecxm6 'tau xa( "t'o6c:; auvcd5eNpoo<; 'tou 1tOU ~'tav exei:, At;r>V'tCXC; iYn lle n1 (')OUAe['a. "'t'ouS; ""te:.Ae:.~wact\Je: xa:t' ouota" 'to ob(oB6~YjlJ.(l ~~ cpoatx~c;~ ~H lPuatx~ elv(u m1~€pa.~"to 1898,6AOxAYlPWI-l€V'1, 'teAttwlJ.eYfl. «Eep<u, f3t(3atcx»,npoot6E'te:., «{nt&pxouv ax6l-lr.t auo ~txpa 1tpofjA1lllma., a)"M t x.wPU; KCXllta ix.l-Lqn~oA£cx. p.eaa uta Xp6\,tcx 1tOU tJ.fiC; E.PXOvtCXt 6a. "tcX AUOOO~E K~ C(irtct». ~H tlTtOpta. a~ elva.t wpa:~6t(X'tYl, Bunt Biv sepgt xavtdr; ""tL va. 1tPW't"o6aullaoe:t: ~ tJ.ExP~ 1ttxP(XCPpoaUV1}~ I.LI~yaAOJ.l.a.v[C( xcd &Aa~ovE[a "tou Kelvin Yl "t6 aiyoupo EVO'tt>C'tO "'Cou llEYaAo<pUOUr; CPUOtxou~ 1tOU -r6v weYjas: va 6[g:!. axp~~ wr; Tn Buo mU.leia 1tov: 6a 1tpoxai\o ua(Xv ~v xcx"t'appEUa"l1 'tOO obcoao(.L~!lcx'to«;~ 'tou 01tO£OU yt6(Yt(X~E: ~v 6AOXA1]pWm'l. 1\ vE<pepe:, a"lA(Xa~ ~ -r6 1tE(pa~ct 'to~ Michelson. nov

E:lv(X~ ~ ~6:a"fJ 'rijr:; 6e:wp(ac; Tilr; axe-c~x.6-nyt'CL~ ~ Kat "tiiv aK't~\lO~OACa "tOO V-£AflVOt;' C1WlJ.tX'to<;, "ta lJ.uonlpta T7js 01to(at:; 1tpo07ta6u'lv"tac; vet AUas:~ 6 I1Mvx 6&rrq&t]xe oTfJv u1t6ee;oy} "tWV «x[3avta}) xed &]~tOupy"f}aE -rq\l X~(x\I"tLX~ cpuatx~ ~ 1tOU e:Ivcu axo(lrl 1tt6 0''1}(Lct.Vtu{'f~ a.V(l-rP01t.q ~~ >eAa.otx¥i; cpuatxijc; CUt' 0 ~"t't i] axe:.'ttx&t"1]"tct.

To a~tYt€pO avE.x5o"Co E!va~ 'tou 1927, &tav evas liAAo~ lJ.e:y6:.AoC; cpucn.x6t;. a1t6 "tOUC; 1t€v'te: il est 1tOU 1t(.([!;a'J€ '1tpay~a-rtx6 pOAo an1Y rcspuol1 't'ijc; K~aV'ttX~~ cpuatx'1~ 6 llaOUAt, l3p(X~e:LO N6~7teA, b:n:e'tp!t1tft aUAA:~f3aYl" "roue; VEOUt; CPOt't71'tt; nOll 7tYrratvav va 'tov 50uv yux va xavQuv cpuatxiJ, AeYOV'ta<; "too~: «l1taAtSU: xtXnotav a.AA"Il E:1tLcrduJ. '1J , ~ t.pOOt x~ C;EV E.Xe: L no AU IJ.tAAOV ~ -rCt AUo"c(~E: (5 An 'tel ~-rrdJlla'ta»~ Yi «'t( l-l1tCXLVE'tE: 0' atYn1-d]v E1ttOn1tJ.YJ 1tOU elv((L'teAe:tttl!-.utV'1, vexpYj ~ 01tWC; ~ €UXAeLaE!.cx ye:wlle'tpla» x Jac •

Kai at aUG (;(u'tOt 1tap(XAoy~OV.o' EXOOV, napa. -n1 q>(XtV0t-LIt'VLx-r1 'tou<; cd:lwD-nr'ta, xot vw"'r.X€~ xed '1tOAt'"t'~x.ec;: e7tL 1t'"twaet<; . .6.t6'tt, e"{'tE. A£lJ.E: o'tt.ora Se:POUlLe:. l))..a Xcxt aup~o Eta "ta ~€:pOU[lg KCXAVtepa, EL"t'E. At(J.€ O'tt a tv ~gPOUl-lS: 'tL 7tO'ta 11 xave't; (5EV ~tpet 'd.1t(Yt'(X, 1:a a7to'teAeDll(X't'(X e:!vcn 't'a lata -1tOAL'ttxci xaL xo~'V(Uv[.xa. Ta ~gpo0t-tE.~ auV£1tWC; E:lle:t~ 1tpt1tEt va Ct1tocpa.oQ;oulJ.e Br.6'n elJ.ei:~ Stpou~e:., ouV~1'tWS 1tapah"1]071 'tijr; XOt~wvlac;, ~, Bev ~tpoullE 't(1CO"t'tx xed XO:~ 'Ve&; 8lv ~pe~ "tr1tO'ta~ auvS:1tw~ Y} u1t&pxouoa 't"ti~1] 1tpayt.ta'twv E.I\I(x~ E1;Loou XaAl} ~ eS(uou XCXx-t1I-lE o1tOtai5il1t01'E (iAA1i.

Kat mic; aUG 1tepL1t'tv)O'e~~, auyxcxA6rn'e:."t«Xt b <ptAooorptx6C; 7tPO~Al](l(X"t'!.Oll6~, 6 intor;o~, DXr. ~6'Vo f3P~aKE'to:~ fTtt; Pt~e:C; Tilt; t5U't~xiic; €1ttcrt'iUJ.YiC;, &:AM m111EPCX, 1tEpLoa6'tepo (x1t6 1tO"tE, Tijr:; I::lvCtt ava.yxaio~. r~6: va "tm~wO"w ct.u'tt<;; 't(c; 1tapan'lpi]ae:t~~ ?tOll acpopouv "t'ou<; ~1!~~flOV£r;, eci E1tpe::1tE v6: avcx<ptpw o'tt ixocpaAWC; 01tcXPXE~ ~~6: KaTr)yopfo: e1tLOTlltJ.6v(Uv nov ~ouv aL(XpXW~ 0' EVa. a~a.v01ft"~x6 lSLXctOtJ.o ~ axaoY) ~, 01tW C; AEV€ 0 t 1\_[leptXCX\lot ~ ax.~~oq>pevE~ ex, avo.IlEaa oe BUD E:1tt1telia auve(B'1}CJ'Yl<; a&tou nou xavouv~ XWPU; va !J.1topd va 7tEI x.aVEts noto a/rr.~ ain&. "ttl. (5ua t1tt7te5a; !t'iva.~ 7ttO ~tX.- 86 cl1t6 'to iiAAO. ~'t6 Eva E:7t(7te(5o, 6 t.1tL~!.10\'oo; "nou &v'tt'1tpOaW1tEue:~ aU-nl Tilv xanrrop(a. 6a axecp't€t xcd en 1te:t, XUptwt; ot aYJ~6crtll O'usYrt7JOl1: «Ka"t"EXOUll€ 't"IJv lxA~ee:r.a 11 e& nlv cX1tox-nl-

176

01 OMIAIEE :ITHN EAAA.o.A H TEXNOEnIETHMH

177

OOUfJ.1t ~ Sa a'1toirrt]tTOUlJ,e: "t'il\l Xr.tAme:py} lx'Vept:1l1d\}c.u~ Bu'Va~ TCpOatyYLcn1 TIJS» xed, d Eva aAAo tbthte:8o ~ 6 ra~oS t1ttaT1]t.tova~ ~ cXv -r6v G1tpwi;e-t~ anl (Fut;"'nj0*l1 ~ ea. 1te~: «T6 va O'U~'l11'ii't"e ""to 1tp6- ~A:ru.l(X tils cu...~e~~W; alllt(X(~eL Cx1tAWS O't'L €x,€"t'E. !lE.£~el O'"t"Ijv 1t(xA~6: f.te"t'a<puo~~ . .6.!.o·n to np6}3A"t]lJ,a ""tilr; b.AiJ6euxr; aE~ exe:t xavEvC( vOl1[.ta ~ ~ e1t~Qn1tJ.7J 5ev tt;E.'t&~et 'to. i:(, a.A""Aa. "to ntJt;. r, E:1tLm-IjlJ.ll Be'V att~~ EphlTIJ!la't'~ (J'"to aVt'tXe:ill€v6 'tYlC;, aAAa a7tAW<; '"t6 X~Lp(~'t'at )Cat 1t'por3M1ts:~ n] aUfL1teptq>opa 'tou (cppaoYl 'tou Francois Jacob: :E"t'u epyctO'"t"lj~ta at" p<U1:ii~e:. 1ttO: ~ ~W1J, tXA).cX Tt) Xe:tp~~6- llClU"t'e) ~ ~O t1ttO'nlJ.'ovac; ea ouve:xfaeL .. A~yoVt"ac; o't~ U1tO:pxouv 6pLa(lEvo~ &7toAoy"a~o( Kat 6p~alleva 1tEr.pa!la't(X 'TCOU Ae!.TOOPyouv xed iiAAa 'J't'oo 15EV Ael'tOUpyouV, xed 'ttX yupocpEP~OU[..LE wao'tou "to i:1tL'tUXOUV~ i1 waoTou aAMl;oulle 'ttS' U1tOBtOEU; nov eYxcx[.!E. a-niv aP'X'1. A'V e:tVct" Aiyo rno E:XA€7n'UOflEVO<;, 86: 1tPOxcupiiO'ftt at {luxv ix'J't'lJ.:'l$Y1 01tCU~ "tOU IIo1t1tep. +t D7tOLCl E1tL'tUYXclVEt (-uti LBt6- l-LOPl'J»] aU\lfJe07J 'twv Buo 1tpo7Jyoullt'Vw~, Kat ea 7tEl1tWt; (,J.teX Beeopia (5ev elVClt 1tO"tE. aA'lfh,vt1, aANX CUtAL><; E:tvaf. lxva~pea'"ll"1) t] o:'Va(JXEuamIJ.7), xa:i 1tw<; yivEmt 1tpoawptvo: a1to(5exn; ytci 000 ataat'YULCX Biv ltXe:~ y(~et ax6~a ~ a'JClaXltoij 't'Yl~. BE~a(Wt;, act apvY}6eL va BtEpCi)~Ylae:i: -d eL"{xL fXLrro nov xa'V~~ aAY}6tv~ -ol'V o.va.axe:u~ I-lUXC; 6EwpLac; Ka£ .. axo(la A~y6't€po~ va «vapwTlJ6E.L 1toLi~ e:tVtxt OAe<; at npoU1toBE.Oe:Lt:; ~ rooo ano -nlV 7tMUpit 'tou lrnoxe:tt-tevou ~ 000 Xt anD nlv 1tAeupa TaU aV'ttXetflEVOU tiit; E:1tlOnJf.L'1C;, 1tOU xafhO"t'ouv aU\lcnt<; . a~aatxao(e:c;. 01t'w<; ~ uloe~n?a71 u7to6toecu'V t iI tXvafpEtn1

~~, , .J..

TOU~ xrxt 11 avaoxeuJ~ 't"ou~.

IHoM an' cxmouc; 'tooS auAAOY~O'l.LOu~ ~p£axe-taL l-ulx crt'aG-q (xai exe;~ e:!vat 1'0 ~cipoc; 'tou ~1J~lla:roc;) not> taoalJvO:lle~ IJ.E ""to\} ioxu- pf.a~6 o"n -ra ~~'t7}(J.a ti1t; aA~6E~a~ atv -rl6e'!'cu 1 O't't -r6 !lOva 1tO(} 'ti- 6ft'tctL €LVat eva ~irtl1!lO: 6pB6't7jl'C(~ -J1 a.xp£~c:to:~, op6wv ano"tE:Aeolla'tw'V, a){pf~E.u.xr; "'Cwv 1to:parrJP~aEu)'J. auve:1te~ac; 1} tXV"t~(Tt'oLXi(XC; lx\lalleaa. 0' CUJ"to nor) epEUVa~ (3p£axet xai 6TCO&tYlp!~e:.~ b e1nO'"t"ljllovar; ~ xC(i 0'1'6 aW~Hx 'twv E:iUlO"t'O'tE a7tot5.e:x1;W\J xed 1tpOaWpLva a7toBeBe:~Yfl€VlUV ~ ~~ E7rUnYJlJ.OvtxWV av"t'tA~$EWV.

"Ero ~, -h t1ttO"t'Y} ~OVLX-q 5pao"t''YJ p L6nyt'{X (l-E.'tcx'tpt 1t €'tcu at. ~L(i 't'e-

XVO -1tPayj..t (X'tta't'(.x~ BpaO"'tl1Pt6t"t}'tC( ~ ~ 07to(C( XE tpG;ttCXt ltv·rtxe:~flevOt, Opyavf.t, &Ayop£etJ.our:;. XCXt bta.vo1to~e:t'Ta~ lS-rcx'V OAct a&t6: ALyo 1tOAU aOUAe.UOUV, apv~I"t'cu 5~w.; \la 6iae:t tpw-n](.lcxm 1tOV b:cpopouv nl"Y "i(5ux ~ qnJolJ "t""I1C; xC(t '[ou~ opou~ 'ri}<; t1trrux£a.c; n,C;,

. ltx611CX x(Xi TtJ~ O''ts:vcX 1tp(XYl-La'tta1:~xl1~ 't'"1J~ e1tn'Ox(a~. TO. ix1to1:r::M:O'(,.lCl dVfXL ()on €"to,- X(XWPYEt'tf.U. >eriBe: E.1ttx.o~ 'Vwv(a aV&1J.EOa ~v 4:7ttO"tTU.11j xed 0'TI1 qnAoao(pfa ~ .. &1tAo6(J'"t~p(X, ix'Vall~a(X anl"IJ E1ttO'"t"IjIJ.YJ Kat au'lv 1tpay~a"tLXl1 ax.t6.fJ"Ji <t orov CTt"ox.o:a~6. cn-6v 7rPO~A"f)lJ.a·noIl6. T6. ~"tj·dH .. l(rtC( nou yewou'J ol 8tcxBoXLXtC; xp(ae~c; l1E.~ onlv tOl'OPtct "TIi~ E:1tLc:rrlUJ."f)C;. 'to ~iJT'YnJ.a TtOU y£'J\l6t€~ ""[6 rX7tA6 y€yo'V6~ an lnt6:pxEt 1tpcty~cx'ttX~ t<t"tOptfX -riis It.1ttO''tiU1'lC:; «SXL 81.(x.pX'fi~ ouoawpeuo"IJ «X1tO't'€katltX"C'wv. "ttl onoi:a TtO'tE atv 6& e:8€"t'(X\I u1t6 ltll<P~at3rrcYlO'l1 cxl.rr6 ;'tou elxe: AEx6ei 1tpollyoullevu><;) <I -ra ~'l-n1- ~(J:ta 7tOU ye:.vvou\I 01 i5po ~ X(lt ""to. e€tJ.~A~C( TI1~ t7ttcrt"1)(lovtxii; Bpaa'T"f]p~&tl}'tCt~. (lE llui Ai;"/] alrt6 1tot,) ~ E.1tLO'n1lJ.'1 AeEt 11 Bev At:e:t yui "t6 o'J, yux au't6 11: 0 U E 1'V at xa.( yux -rov "tp01tO ~ e; UTI apSll~ roo, ihtwt; bd(J'1)~ cxl)""r6 not) ~ e:7t~0'"t"Ij1J."i} AEEL ~ Btv Aie~ yt~ ClmD-V 6 01CO ~nc; YVtJlP(~€t . allAaB~ YLcX -r6v iXv6pW1CO - OAll (tire-a 'ta ~",nl[J.(X"ta &~!pCX'Vt~ov'"ta~, &-tat, 0'a.\I ~"fJ'tiJlJ.a"tfX nov 1tPE1t€~ va ;exct(1't'Oov lSlo'n elvat. (51j6ev llE:'t{X(fUJotxa. KL (xlrro" ai --rt'tOtO f3(Xe~6 ~ 1tOU &vap{utLE{.L(Xt C(V CXlrca 1tOU aa~ AEW tBw cn](l€pO: 1tOU M6l ~ taw xa.£ TtOAU XCX,tpo, alYn1 fJ YAwaaa ~ aU't6c;; b 1tpof3ATjllrx:ttaIJ.6~" 11"06, OlltJ..€tW"tEov 1 <rr6v Xtltpo 'toue; u1t~psav 11 YAwaaa )(cx( b 7tpOJ3A'l~(l't~a1l6~ atrn1v 't'WV C5r.acp6pwv 1t"tWXWV -rC;> nvEU[J.CX"tt, 1tOU 6"otJ.a.~oV'ttXV A~1J.6)(pnot:;, nAO:rc.u'V ~ l\p~O"tO,[EA"'C;, Kap-rEOr.O<; ~ A6:L!l7tvt--rC;. N ElYtWV , KtX\}'t, M a!;yooe:A , AL va'ta~" , IIou(Xvxape, Bohr ~ W ey 1, Eddington t Hibert, N"tE. M np0)..L, X£xt~Vll1tepyx xat riAAwv, Xt a.Unl ~ EX7tA~;Yl1C06 1t(Jt7tet. va. xap(X)(:rYlpfs~t xci6s: a.vepW7tO~ 1:'6 «6autl6.~tv»- 1tOU EA£ye 6 ~pt(J'tO'te)..TJ~, nou <3"1lfJ.[.OOpyouv "ttX a.1tote)iOlACl't(l't"ijr; O"UyXPOVYlt; e1CtO'-n1~7]C; - O:vapw't"tEV.(x't. AOt1tOV ~ liv aUn1 ~ yAWOO'o.. a.ll'ttC; ol Ct.nopte:.t:;. t'Xu'tt<; ot E:pw1"iiae~.c; 1 alYn1 ~ E.X1tAJ1;7], o:t)'tOS 0 7tpO~A"1J(laT~o[.l6~, 6ti EXOOV tXx6tJ.a, y~a 'tOv ,btta't~l!ova 1tOU 6& ~I ile:"t"a a1t6 30 x.p6VtlX. xa1to~o v67}[J.u. eo'tw xu, x(u~Hx6. 11 (iv e6:: ""tOU tpabJovrctt luti\6>; a.x(X""tcx-v&r[ta, iiv Ci-qAcx(31] atv qyta-

178

01 OMIAIE~ :ETHN EAAAtJ.A

O'ou~e ri E'V(xV -rqve1tto't''YJlJ.oV(xv6pw7to. 6 CJ7tOLo,:; &1tAW~ 6ei AUVEt "ta 1tPO~A~IL(X'ta rta ..... <.tl cn6" U1tOAoyto"ril 'tOU. xwpl~ veX auAAoyi~~'taL xat \10: ""'t'ox.ri~o:~ yta--r£ fl7tcdvouv lXlrt'a 'fa 1tPOf3A~I.ux't(X xa[ -r( crqlla!vouv AuaeL~ xa[ .t:f oy}!J.cdvet fl raux ~ Bpo:O'"tl1PuYt"t}'t'a roo xed 'd ~lJ.CXfVEt "fl O'XEO'Yl CXtrt"ijc; Tijc; yvwCTJ1~ !-1' Clu-r6 nOll 1tpawa"'t'Lxa e::lv(n, 01tCU~ )Cal -q ax€O"fj Ctl.Yt'i1s: "tiJ~ yvwO'Y]C; ~t MAOUC; av6pw7touC; ~ To )(Ot"t"tt1tA1)X"'C'lXQ Elvat mt cxu't"o y(ve't'CXt at. flui Gttyt..t~ 01tOU 'fa 1tprrr(.Lattxti cptAoooq>tXa 1tpof3A~lJ.aTIl nov yewae:L 1] rliLCl ~ t~EA~~~ TIic; E:1t~a~I-l'l~ ElvcxL 't£pao"t'tlX xext xaBe (U..AO na.pa 6& ~1tOpouaotv va !J.a~ o~11aouv ot. ~t& xcxe"t}auxa(TtlX~ u1'nn]Afa axe-rtxa (J.E -nl"J bttOUUJ.O'VL~ 8pa{f't"'lp~6't1i'ta. 1J.tv tL1tOpOO (5umuxwC; wi IJ.1tW ~ al)~~"'['I1QlJ a.UTWV 'twv 6e(.Ltit'wv. 86: ~6eAa lJ.6vo \1& eu;w eVa-Buo ("ULEta t 1tOAO auV't"Ol1a.

* * *

J1ti1p~€- (-uti 6ptOIJ-EV-q €trt"ux~a!l€VIl 7te:.ploao~ -rii~ tpuotKiit;, we; xat 't6 1900 1tEp[7tOU., 07tOU fJ q>ua~xil YrttX'V ~ liv lJ.1topei Xa\lE(~ va 1tEt ~ «1tfl:~pYJ~», 11ft -riJv "t01tOAOY~ X"I] EWOttx ~ eatw xa( &v l)1tYjpxUV 1tPO~ ~A~fLat(l. '10 x6o~oc; -rou Neu"t'w\loc; f,J.E Ta ~a.e.,,~rrt'tx6. 'rOU E UXAE£(5"f} ~e[3(,(fw C; rrep ~ e: I XE npo(3A ~ (.La:'t(X, liAAo. (XmCt 1:0: 7tpo~ A ~ - I .. UX"t'a I..l1tOpoum: ,,6:. 'ta anw6i]ae:t xave(-r; o'ta. opux. "VA v 6ullii.0"1:e, A.X., u1tap:(e~ o"t'ov EuxAe:tlSll eva ltyxa6t. 1tor.) elvcxt 'to 1tEP~t.plJllO ar~~a 't'wv 1tapaAA-qAw\l. IIporpavwc; 0 EuxkLBYlr; 0& ~a* 'Va (l7tOpEi&e:t va '"(6 O:.1toBE.a;E.~, vO: luto(5g!;et OTE. a7t6 eva o~lJe:tO e~cv (x1t6 ll(a eu8etu !J.6vo !-Lta 1t"aptiAA'1Ao ~1tOpOU~E va aUpoulle np6s; au-rYr ~v euGeta. At" ll1tope:ae va 'to a1toB&i;e:~, aV't€A~<pe"f) [}on xtl:-n ne:ptapyo ylVE:tCXt EX€t 1tEpa, xaf y~~ a&t6 aE~ 1"0 6v6~aae ~S£WLJ.a.~ 'to ef:Jeae ~C; «at't1l~a}}. I1tt.X{lxg[. AOt1tOV o:.t'Yt6 1:0 cXyxa8t, lx.AM~ av 't6 1tapa:(3AttlJoulle: cx&-co 1:'0 &~lwl-lct~ lntt.X{lxe~ ~~& e:.UXAe;(.3e~a ye(.U~e:'t'pfot nov XpEtrurt7)Xe lJ.e:p~XE.C; ~emppUe~£aEtC; -a~ lJ."l1v !J.1t(d\JOU~E 'thlpa ae Ae1tt'OlJ.tpE.~e~- aAA6.. e:lva.~ 1tATip"'1~. ~1'CtO'~~ t {) veu"t"wvetor:; cpumx6r; x60110~~ E:WOW cx&t6 't"6 xooJ.Lor::EBwAo, elvat «1tAlJPYl<;»» • llE. n1V 7tpou1t6ae::~ O'tt C17toatw1tOUllE: fva ~ Buo epw-

H TExNoEnI~THMH

179

-n1lJ.CXm. .. (T( aYU.Lc((ve.t 7t .X .• I> oUYXpov[.0"1-l6C; 7tapa"t'YJPlloewv nou y(voYtat a.1tO, 1tap nTt}p7] 't€'C; 7tor) at\! ~p(oxoV'tat am r(5~o O'lUJ.e:i:O

"tOO x6o(.Lou;)

E-nl a7J~E:pLvil e1t['arr,v:'1, i} xa'tao't"aa~ at" e:lvaL xcx66AoU lx\'a-

AorTl. Atv Il1tOpW 8UO'tUXhl~ \10; 't6 8ta1tplXy!J.cx'teu6w 1:6 ~~'t"l1(J.a, 6a 1tW (..Lovo ~ apx~oVt'txC; cnt6 'ta (J.a&t]ll(l"t"tx.a, o'tt xaL o-ra tBLa. 'ta. • .ux&tJllCl't"tx6: 67tt.X{lxoov, (.Le"t'a. lm6 -n1 aOUM~a nOll eflqlav(o--c"qxe onl 8e:)«('(E"t'Ltx 1:00 '30, O'"fJlta:v't~x6ta'ta 7tpo~A~llaTIX, 1tOV &<pOpouv "t'a. 6eflEAux "twv tJ.cd3"t)~o:;'ttxG)v 1 'to. (ntOLa eI"'Clt yvwO'ta, "ttX OTtOtCX atv e~1tOaa;OUV (lEV roue; l-La6raux:tt)(OOr; 'Va l5oui\euouv 'tOUt; auyx£xpt{J£\'ou;_ xMl)ouC; "Couc;~ iiAM "ta. 01tota, (5ua't'oxwt;~ Evt01ttat"1)xav arr, lJ.(Xe"f)~ct't' ~xit ;\.OYL xft -Eyt vav &}).(xli-IJ tX7'COxAe ~(rnxft BOUAe:La (XlrtWV 7tOU O:O'XOAoUvrttl Jlt n11l(.dlYJlt(X"ttKl] AoytX~- xrxL, E7t(OYJC; aUutUXWt;~ xwptC; va OCyvoouvmL hl~ O,,6t.ta:ta 1t{JO~AYJlla'tCU'V, BE-v EyLVCXV avtr.xe:tllE:VO )(a.~di; 7tpaylla't't)cii~ aOUAElii~ E,X IJ.t~

pouC; 'twv cptAou6cpwv ~

l1t{ipxer. xa.t fvcx aAAo '"t"e:.pO:O''no 7tp6~A"f)(la, 1tOU fupopa "t6 00-

VOAn '[wv IltX6"'111CX1:!.xWV xed -cii~ q>ua~xljc;: 't"6 &'1tAOuma"t'o )(0:£ eX7tA'Yp('tLX6 ye:yov6S; Ott "t'a ~a&qlla't~)(& EXOUV CJXEtTIJ (l€ ~ <pUOl]. T6 1tp6r3}\l'n.la.~ noo ~aY) [3aaav~~ rov llu6a.y6pa xa£ 't6" llAcitwva1 li" 'to axeqnoUIi€ (J.€ -dJ lJ.opqnl n:ou EXOUV ~ m']t-Lep~Vl1 <pua~Xl1 )(X~ 'ta O'7J~&ptvri (lafhnUl"ttXa .. -yiVE'[(lt l;aq>VLXtX tqn.a;A:t!.xO,. B,,6'tt 1t(X.pa'tl}pOUllE -r6 tsi]r; GlcxLv6l-Levo: 1t6'te: 'fa lla6"f)(la'nxa 7tpo't'ptXDl)V -rii~ rpua~Ki}c; xcd B7)(HOUpyoU\rt(Xl aEWp(ec;~ 81tw.; 1t .. x .. · 'too Riemann x.m. crra [J.tO'cx "tou t90u alwva, 01 61tOtE~ Btv qoov xa.tJ.ux crx,tO'11 lLE n) <puauoi 1tpetyt.to;l'tX&tTrta, lhtwt; -n1 yVcJ)p~ovv 't'6- 'te ol cpuatxoL Am&' aKpt~WC; 't'a (la67j1-l(X'"ttxa, ~E"t& CxnD 55 ~ 60 Xp6'Vux~ 't<X XP110[.~01tOLet b J\~'VO"'tatv o't'ft 8ewpkt 't'ij~ ax€'t~x6't1)-

'tW;.

LE aUe:c; 1tep~1t'twaE~t;, iI r.pUO~)(~ EXe:t lx7te;yvwCJ)..te'V"l1 avCtyKYl y~it

lLaeYJ~a't'ucEC; 6E:hlpte:C; 1tOU 60. t'ijc; £AuV(X'V op~a!-1e"a 1tpo~)..1n .. Hrta. xed TO: !LaeYllla't~)(a (5tv Il1tOpou\J \la ~S 1:Lt; Bwoouv. AUn1 elvat -fJ xrx:rtilTt"rxo"l) '"cii~ uapoBuv(XIHKYt~ 1(00 €;axoAou6e:t va laxUe:.~ lxxOlll1 )(at m1flEpa ~ Tt' c.:lrt6 riAAwmE ~v u1toAoyf~ouv tlJ.1te~ptxa lJ-t

180

01 OMIA1EE ~THN EAAA.&A

"tou~ U1tOAoyt(fiE<;, lJt6'tr. BEV U1tap)(ot)v ~ae'l~J.(X't~xt~ ae:Wp£&~ 7tOV va (.L1tOpOU'J 1tpaY(J.('('tL va Auaouv 'ttl Buaxo)..a 1tpO~AY}[l(J:'t·c< tile; uc'5poauva~t)(Ylr;, 'riis o:vw~aA17C; poilc:;.

~r1t6:pxouv alM:<; 1te:pt7n"w,oetC;, 01tOU ~ l-la6YUJ.(X'ttx-rJ xa£ -Ij cpootKl1 ava.xw...utfnl1j t1ttVO'1l0),} y( VOV'tf1r. (Juyxp6\1(u~. BaCHXD napa~E['Y~Ot E.lvcn ~ -rctu-r6xpovY} (57)(l!.oupy£a anD 't'ov Neu't'hlva 'tiisaVaAuO'71C; ~ "'tou 3LO:CPOp~xou xcx£ 6AoXAYlPllrnXQU AoytOlloU, xed ~~ CPUOL)(~r:;. "Y1tap:(ouv xa£ aAAOt 1:"ollelS. OTOUC; 61to(ouC; or. tJ.cdhUla'ttKOL tl;axoAouOoUV va al)lJ.~ooPYOuv e~wplet; 1t1t~ ae:wp~w~ ~ wpa~- 6t<xn:S ~ a'tptt.py6't(X1:E~ ~ xae "to; BUD, ol 6rcote~ atv EXOUV xa(l.ta ox.eo'f'J I .. Of. Tit qlOOI.>a1 '1tpayEJ«X'ttXOT'qt!X xai ot lnrote:s; <5tv 1t(Xoouv. evt~u"tot~ ~ va a7tO't'E:AOUV eva «avayx(X~o») 'tt.t:~IlO; 't'wv J_la6'llJ.CX- 't'txwv.

YAv o'tpacpoupE an7 O""I1fJ-eptVlj cpua~x~ ~ lha1tt<TtCllVQUllE Jl~a XC('ta&taCJT~ xa6apa e:~(U£ppe:"~Kl1. l\tp"i)'J(U 'to: 1tpof3A~flam TYic; xoOllOAoyloo; .. OX~ CUtAWC; Bt6-rL (lE.VOUV aAu"ta t O:AA(! B~6-n E!VCU ~BYl £ (lcpavtc; · x(X-ra"n1 YVWVo"'l (lou ~ o-rt Yr ),,607] '[ou~ ~e 1:0V E\'a: i} ~e: rov lUAO cX1t6 't'ouC; 1t(loJ3A£1t6ltEVOOC; ""tp61touC; ~ 6~ a'Va1pltVE~ M.Aa rrpeXyf.locta, -ret b1to'ta. e e w poulJ. E 13 tXUUtcX 1 i} e ri 6a-"YtlO'.s: L OE VE E t; anopt£c:;. Sa apx€crtw aE. 5uo o"flllEta..

T6 eva €lv(xL o't't ~XOU!1e:. 660 Ka1:(x1tA:rp'tnxt~ ee:wp(E:~ ~ TJ1V x~(Xv"t~)(~ xa.£ -r:Tl 6e:{t)pia n;c; ax~Lx6't'"1j't"a~. Kat 01 Buo (30UAe:uou'V 1tpay~a:'tf. xa£ ~ OXt Cl1tAl)<; BOUAEUOUV, a"AAa. 7tpo~At1tOUV cpo:~~6lLe'Va xed r 1tpo~M1touv )CMaE:t~ cpa!'\JOtJ.Evwv. liyvwo-rs:.c; nptv. xat e1tC(A1)ee~ov'tat. 1E'VTOVtOtC; elvat &v't'Lrpa'ttXE.~ !l!!"'ta~6 'tou'i. To ~AO, an ~ £pUOtX~ navcct 1tctAeuet y~6. -nl «IJ.EytXA7] E:V01tOh}07P> ~ ~ lJ. (lA-AO\) , 1t&pa an6 n1 «J1eYO;AYJ EV01tO£~a7}». y~& JL~a «Y€VtxYJ tvo- 1tOt'rlO11», -n1V 61toia 0IlW~ <1ev f3AtTtOU~e ~, ii.v ~ ~ AE.1tOUl-Le. Til ~A€1t'ou~e Wt; (jl1Jltoupyouaa f£A"'Aa. TtapaaO;a (6e:wptn 'twv XOp{5hlV x.A7t.). TfXvtOXP6V6)<;~ l1tv exe~ ;€7te:pa<ne;I o:u1"6 yta 1"6 6noto 7ta:pcx7tov~6t'av 6 XatV~ll1tepyx ec;w xal 35 xp6v~C(~ B7}Aa(5:~ mt ~ cpuO'~>n1 ex.et ytVS:L 7tAtov «swoAoyia», Wpofi xa6e J.l.tpa ~rpu~wve~ Eva xcu'JoupytO e.laoC; aWlJ.lX"tt(5(ou. '1Av xa£ eytvE. avaywyt1 cxtYtwv 'tw'V aW~(X'tta(wv aE Opt0I-lE'Je.; xa'tlJYOP(e:<;~ E'V'tOVtOL<;". t~(X-

H TEXNOEIII~THMH

181

XOAouBouv 'Va l)7t6.px.OUV 1tEp( 'to; 30 ~G(ou,a. To 1tt.6 (J'1}l-!rJ.vnxo i5[.1c.uC; e:1'Jcxt o't't "t"6 x(X8ivo: rX7t' au"t"6: --ra. aW(.lct't'U}ta at" tL1tOpOUtJ.E ,,6: -ro xa6opiaouflE. napa 1tpo"liU~oVt'6:~ 'tou 't'OOAtXXtO'tO'J 5 ~ 6 ~ 7 Xapc(X"'t7JP~tTt'['Kt~ ta~&c"trce:~. rtoct't 5 ~ 6 1] 7 XlXpaXTI'JPtO''tLxt<; l8t6-tYJ't'E<; ; Ked TIotic; et'Jut ol aXeaC:t~ 't"ij~ llh&rTJ'tat; !lit 1:6 C1wv-a"t'!BLO ; "Q~ "t'wpa e:Sllyouor.qJ.€ "C'(~ taL&t1]U~ IJ.€OQl ""t'W\I ow (.ux't'{.(5£wv ~ a.1tOa(aovta~ 1t .x ... 'to r~yov6C; o"tt eva aWlla elvrxt 1}AeK"tptoll€VO at 6ptol-utv{.( aW(J.an(5ta, a~ E:AeU6Epa ~Ae:x"t"p6vta X..A7t. Twpa. -r( 66. 1tEt on "to. crro~XE:,{j57i o<Vlla"t'£BLCl elva~ 'to xaetva 1COAU1tAoXO. liXl lle Tl]V EWOLf:X TJ1v «UAtK~»~ lSytAaB1J Ott 111tOpOUlJ.e \lCt 't6 xo$OV~E rcapaxa"t'w, aAAa an 'to Xcte€va 6p£?;~at anD 1tOAAE~ tBr.6- "tTl"tE.~, xa( b O'uv8oo.atJ.6c; (.UYtw'V "twv r.a~o .. tirrwv 7ta.p6:ye~ 'ttC; a~tXtpopt~ 'twv aW(1.a'T~aeW\l; To ~~'t'Y)~a €xe:~ 1tpocpavw; 1LeYO:Al1 cptAOaoqnx~ O"tU.1ClOLCl: ;a'Vcx~plaxoUIl& .oro 6t"'"O: Tile:; oua£a<; xed ThlV xn-

~

, "t"t)YOPy)ll(x""tW\I "t'"I]r;.

roIE\JCt 't"e:)..~U'tai:o O'YUJ.&tO ~ O'XIt'ttxti (J.E ti] ~r.oAoyta ...... 0)..0<; () x6a~o; IJ-LAa.c:t yui n1 6e:hlp£a: Tijs E:stA['~~; XL Of..O~ 6 x60'~oC; vO(J.£~E:t, ax6- (,UX X(1( ol ~tOA6yot Bu(f'tuxwC;, ~ 'tooAcix.tmov ol 7tEptocrmEpor. a1t6 a.u'tou~. o"t"t €XOU!l~ y.ta Oetupta Ti)s t~A~~"1J~ ~ 61to~(X €Srrfe:~ 1tep(- 1tOU lxavo1totll"t'tXcX y~rx"t'£ uneXpx.ou'J "to: e:'tBl'] ~wv'twv OvtW'V O''t~ n. A&to edw:u 'tliAetct 1tapeSYrrl107]. 'O o(JOC; «e;e.)..tSl»> ~ 51tw~ &AAWO"'tE <p(Xtve't"a:~ xrx6o:pa &tJ.fX 5La~0:~t XlXVett; xat "t6" tuxP~L'VO xat 'tour; iiAAOOS, XCXL 01tw.; cpa~v€'tat x(d 01'00<; opou; axolJIX «t~tAoyw1» xrx( «e1tt~(wo"t) 'tov 'itt6 t)«(l:VOU»~ exEt ~e~(lLW~ n1V EWOta fl~5:~ avE.Atl;"fJ~ {5uvC(--ro't"/rrwv ~ I.Ua; rcpo650o ~ . 't'ouMX~<Tt'ov, I-ltlu; 1tOAU-

·1Ci\.oX01tO~YJa"f)C;. Ked avatJ.Glr.a(3~nrra. a:rl o."t't !;tpoullE ~ (xu'to Elvcu . 6E"t'~l(~ yvw,a1l, {)1t~P~ ~Si;"t;"IJ 1tav(U crrt) yij, 5ev ~M1thl 7tWC; 6a tJ.1topouae: 1to"'t€ (U)"t'6 va b.V(l'tptX1tEt. rY1tiiPSE t~e::AtSll (1tp6o(5o~ E.lv(X[.liu(}')(oA71 M~"1l, YLCX:'d at-v stpw X(X't'o. 7tOaO e:'itlCXO't€ 1tL6 7tPOOBeulJ-tvot a1tO 'tU; ~aX't~V£E«; - aacpaAhl~, Btv e:ttJ.CXCit'E a1t6 TIl\} O:.1totIn1 tii~ gTCt~t:WO'"I}C; ""tOU 7ttO txavou. lx)'M OtocpaAW~ d:llCXO'tE: 01tWa8irno"t"E: 1tt6 1tOALl1tAOXO[' ano "etc; ~aX"t'1lp(e~). 17tapx'e:.~ AO!.ROV E:;EAtSl1, aAA<l 6 aap~t'V[.0'1l0~ (5ev n}V e:S7Jy£r ~ Btv ~H;71ye:i n1V 1tOAU7tAOX07tOtTlOYJ. ~O (5ap~tVtatJ.6~ d\J(.u lLttl Bs:wpia 11:00 e;1JYE.L

182

01 OMIAIE:t ::ETHN EAAAl1A

v.E ll~cX 7tep(epy.,. ewotC( n1 ato:cpop01tO~"1lO'Yl 'twv e:ttswv. ~O a(Xp~L~tO1l6t; xat 6 \leoBcxp~L'VtO'll6~ xa;( «&to 1tOU A€YETfXL ~ (lovrrtpva auvee:,0"'l "t'WV aEWpr.W"~ E;toOu xaAO: 6& eplJ.'lJve:u£ ~tfiv 1m-opia: tilt; yYr~, ~ o'1tofa ea Elx€: 6&1yIJOE~ oe 'twlwS Btacpop£'ttxa cX1to1'mO'(,Latcx: at av6p6l1touC; lJi eSL 1t63Lct xCt.l x~pLa, ~ OE [.lil a'VepW1tOU~ ~ at m"1]vCt IJ.t 1tOAu ?te:plO'omepo uve:rrrUYlJ.i'Vo 't6 \leupLx6 OU<Tt''1- il(X xa[ -r6v eyxecpaAo. Tbtonx ~Eaa an? VEoalXp~tVtKTl 6eblpt(X aE'" xaVEt xa"uxvo'i'}'t6 't6 yw:;'"t£ e:lvcxL am&: 1'0: £18'1) ~lJ.e:p(X Kat DXL aAACX, E:K'tO; a1t' -nlV avaBpotJ."t1 at O'uyx.e:xpLlleve~ fle-ca.AAayt~ (XL airnl Mi\wurE EyeipEt ~ll-n1f1Ctm.). i\i\Aa lB(wc; ,tfno"t(X atv Xll.e"O't'(X xa'tCl'Vol1t6? ou't'£ xo::( elvaL x(XlJ.w{.ut\l'y] ~ ve:oa(Xp~t~txii 6e:wp(a, yta veX (laS 1t€t au-ro 1tOU xuplwc; ~OO; €vlhac.pepet: yta:r£ 1tavw ~ yjj ~ aiYt6 noV: auvi~7j Erven 1tpay(.L(x'tt €;EAL~1] 'tWV E-UJ&v t aY}i\aa~ 1tOA01tAoX01tOL"7)O"t1 t xat oX~ ix7tAW'; 6p~~6\1't~(X BL(xCPOP07tOt1]o"t]; r~an ~OO(J.E I-le:pnc& excx't'0LJ.IlUpta 1tOAU1tAoXWlJ CPUTLXWV xae ~(uLXWV eU5wv. xed OXt t yta wi 't6 1tW XOv-epLXa., (.L£,PLXtx txa::t:0Ill-UJpta ELBwv (.lovoxUnapw'V opya\lLo"(.Lw\'; Meeo ~ VE.OBCXP~LVLXil 6Ewp(a, <3ev U1tapxe:L om.:: ~ ltPXil f-uiiC; 8uva:riit; (X1t&.VTI'}O'YJ~.

uOAa cxm&; a71~cdvou'V (rn ~ t7tt~1l'" cri}l!Epa £lVCtL t ElnUXWr:; t 7te:p~aa6-t€po lxvotXt"J1 (x1t6 1totE, o .. n at-t€~ 1t€PLGu6-t'e:po: tpw-n1lJ.a~ "t(X a7to 7to'te ~v lmop(C( TIlt;, Q'tt E:lvcx~ A~y6t'e:po ecpl1auxaa"t'Lx.~ Xtx( )(ae7}O'uxaQ'"'tl.x~ yta n1 axt$'11lnrD 1to-re. ~OAa alrtO: O11l-laivouv (11 66: IbtpE1t£ va OY}(,LCXtVDUV) xed yta '"tou,; 1tpctY!J.lX"t"L)COUC; t1tt~~ !J.OvfZ~ Kat yyi 'roue; cpr.Aoa6cpou~, nov Btv ayvoouv 't"ov xoouo ~tact 0'1:0'1 6~or..o ~ouv t J,J.La 'te:pacrna EKxA'1]O'Yl yux nlv lxvOt'VE:wm'l "ri1c; o:v6p<:un "'1<; oxi<ln1;-.

* * *

L"tO rbdxEvtpo "tli~ oUyxpo'V'rIS E1t0xtl~ ix7to 1:'0 'teAO~ 'tWV 0')(0- 't'€ ~ \'W\I x.pO\lW\l, fj piaxov't'cxt is 60 xe\l"tp Lxt~ KO t vw Vl xt~ cp a\l"tcxoux - xi.; Ol]lLao{e:~:o aV1't"o~r.xt~ 1J.£'''ttxSu 1:'OUt;, rXv xa.t auvaE(5€~€Ve~. 1\1t~ TIl (lui Ilitp~a, ." aYJ!,.uxo(()t,. ~ tBIfa. av e~An-tt ~ Ti1~ au'tDvo{J.tac; 1tOU t.ve:1tve:uae: "toao -reX E:Ae:u6epw't&Ka. xat a7J~oxpa:'t~)(a x~v~lla:ta.

H TEXNOETIII:THMH

183

?tou x.o:pax"t .. !]p£~OUV -n1V to'tOp(<< Ti1~ Au011~ a7t6 Tilv Ctpxo.;(a ~Eua- 8a ~ O'TCUlC; xaL nl'V ixva.ytWYlO'YJ 'tOO cp~AoaoC(nxou 1tpo{3A11tJcx:nOflOU xa£ ~ r; 6pBoAOyU(:~r; epe:uvac;. ~ rr' -ITiv aAA'l .. Il~a liAA"1) tBta ~ t.u&. aAA1J cpavt'O:O'tax~ O'"tUlaOta: y} a1t€pt6ptCit''1 t!;a7t)..wO'y) -rqt; 6p6oAOYUcYjC; xU(JL(X.PXia<; no:'Vw ~ CPUCfll Kat: a.ntvfXV"t't (J'"to6~ av6pwnove; ~ not) ~"t'av "t6 6ellEAtO 't'ilr; ytWl107Jt; xed. "'ri)c; ix"a1t"'tu~l1S; "'too )(a1tt"taA~allou xed 't"WV !1E'tf.X!loptpwoe:wv "['ou~ )CaL 1tOV xwptt; lxl-!cpt~oMa xopuq>w6"1)xe:. llE. '[0 SEmt(.(O'(llX TI}~ 't€xvOe:1t~<rrljll1J;· "Exw EX'tE"WC; tJ.tA~OE:t aUou Y~cX 5AoU<; 'touC; Myou~, yr.&. "tou.; 07to(OUt; 1tto'te:uw m~ au-riJ ~ opeoAoytX~ xup~(Xpx.ta9 [.L€ TYjv a1teptopr.m11 E1teK'tClcnl 1:1lC;. e:lvaL, aTIJv 1tpcx)1!a.'ttx6t'"fl'ta. $e:uBoop6oAOytX"l1 xa(, 07twc;_ "1'6 Et1ttX aTJl-le:po:, tPE-u(50XUpto.pxtct. 'AnD Til O'''t'~YlJ.l11tOU Oewpfj81]xe o"t't 6 Op60AOYLO(l6S; ll'1topet va a'V"t'LxeL~e:'V~X01tOt1Jae:t "t'EAE:(WC;~ B7JAC(a~ va ~'1lXCtV01toL"IleE:i i1 veX b.Ayop~a(.L01tOL11B;E;t:9 i1 6peOAoyue~ xop~o;px(a aOVE:7taye1'ctl Kat a1t(Xt"'te:'C O'n]V 1tpO:Yllcx"nx6t'1J'ta. lJ.tav CxTtp6aw1ti1 XUptocpxtcx. M t& a7tpOocu7tYl XUpLCtpxJa !X'tE"'tCXIJ.£V"fj n(XV'too Idva.t. 1tpocpavw.c;. fI xopLapx~a. xo:'Vevo.c; ~ ou .. tL~ VOC;~ xaL OUVE.7tW.; .. Ct'TC' au~ T1iv a1tOtV'l ~ 1t'A~PY)<; (1.1] xupLapxi(X~ ll~ £;ouota. Kcd {xu"t'6 "t6 ~At1tOUflE cn1lJ.epa. lLE -n1'V 6A.oEVa xa.t: 1te:PLCFaCrtepo au;avO[J.€\l7] 't6:0TJ 1tp6C; Tfl'V fXt),tO{.1{l"t01tO(YlGrl t'WV C(1to<paUE:WV, 'tel ell1tE.LpoYVWlJ.Ova: O'ua-n1(J.(X'tC< x .A1t .

:E-rf; xOt vw-vit:~ nov 1tporrr1~xav ano nl 8~x'" !J.(X~ ~ ~ e~O'xe(a E1t(US&, Ile·trx;u (J)..AwV, xc(' e:vav 1tOAU 01]1l (X'V'ttXQ pOAO: E:nWllts6- "[(Xv -nl'V aPV'llo"l1 'rilr; 6v7J't'm7J"tflC; 1:WV &"SpW1tWV. AOn1 ~ lip'V1]O"fl ~C; eV71't6-nrt'cx.~ ~'tav (3t~cucx Tttl.,rtO't£. 01tCUC; A€V€: ol t1JuxavCXAmec;,. ll[.cX t~apV71aYJ. Bl1i\o::B11l1r.a apVY{G)) rrou, I-lE:OCX a"rilv ~ia~(X -oJ lha-ru'Jtwmi 'tYJC;, 1tapa8€:X€'tctt aln'6 1tOll l-<{lVEt"tCU. SlAw va 1tW Ott, (iv 6 iiv6pw1tor:; ~'t'av 1t¢Yv.a't~ &ea\l(x"'to~. Bev 6& IdXE xa66Aou av6:yxYl art' OAEC; CUJ'rES "de; &1tOBe(l;E:LS xcd ora lip6pa "t'ijc; 1d<n&wC; x./at. Sa l1~pe: O"t~ dvat a6av(l-roc; .. lhtw~ SE(JeL O"tL aVC£1tVE€t xrx£ o'tt 1tpe7tet WI CPOO:L y~a va ~iJae:t. ZOUllE ~v 7tpw'"ty} KOtVWVtct, oTfJv 07tOLa 11 e(Jl1oxda ExE.t xaOE~ TfJ Buvct"tm"tfra va 1t(dse~ a&r6\1 io p6AO. Tov p6AO a&t6 m1~e:pa E:1tW[.LL~"t'Gf.t 0'[6 [l,t-rpo 'tOU BU'V(x1:oU ~ TEXVOE.-

'I

1t t aTr1 tJ. YJ •

184

OJ OMIAIEL .ETHN EAAA.6.A H TEXNOEnI:ETHMH

185

·E1taVctAcq..L~a\JE'ta~ auxva ~ cppaoY} , 1tOU Jl1topei: xaVE£t; va ~v 1ttipe:.~ t1ttcpC(ve:~a)(a ~ O't't. 0:1t6 xp6vta 'twpa ~ E:1tt~~'Y11riipe: -n1 ()gOYl ~~ ep7jaxE.ta~. ~H 'Ppam'] e:lvat E:1tLq>(x"!!t(xK~, B"'Aa(5~ P'lxtl· U1t&pxouv op~(X a~ a:b-nl n1V l)7tOXCX"t'<XCTt(X<T1J catv lJ.1tOPOOIJ.E va -rCt au~"r~~aou~e tBw) ~ 07tWC; U1UXPXOUV xal txv"fl h.A~fj€ta~. ~H t7t~an1- ~7j yiV€'ta~ u1toxa:tt.X(;[tX't'o 't'Yl~ aP'11O'xe:.(a~. 0'1'6\1 ~C(ell6 7tOU tVGapxwve;.~ o-ro t~"ijc; Tilv f.Xlrta.1ta'tlJ Tii<; 1taVtoy\lCt)aio::~ l<at 'tYis: 7ta.vroaU'V(X!J.£ac; xat r;1V cxrna:na'tl] TIi; xuptapx£a~ . AU't"ana:t'"1} 1tOU e)(a"1]AW\Je:'tCl~ tJ.E a1tE~pOO;- 'tp61tou~ t cX1tO n1'V lxvC(.~oVJi 'tOU 6aullf.lTOUPYOU cpapllO:xou w<; ~\J ntoTY] lj'tt ol eiCiLXOt xai ol xup~pvwv't"es sepouv -rl elvaL xaA6 ~ x.a[ w~ ~v uU't'lX"r'J 7taPl1YOP~t.X:

E_Yw e:lll(Xt aa6valJ.o~ KaL Ehrtrr6~ ~ Ct)..AcX ~ (56v(Xll'TI lnt<XpxE~ xa.7too .. ($tv ;ephl TrOU ~ ,0000v xufjep\Jl)o7J ~ m& E.pya~pta~ a't"ou~ aocpouc; x.Art. EI",(u "toao BU(JXOAO y~a 't6v auyxpovo iiv6pw1to va Cxnoi5Exre t eva~ tv(5E.XO[..L!::vo t '1tL~ A(X~i! X.!XpClx-n1Pa. Ti)c; 't"E:X'VOE; 1t LOnl ~ 1] ~ , DaD 6& ~'tav auaxoAo. ~ [J.aAAov ·tpu.6 ~ yttf €'Vo:v 1ttO'"tO 'Va TIapaBEX,t"e:I't7] cppo:aY]: </0 9E6~ ervcu xcuc6C;».

T6 <prXV-rrlOtJ.lX -n;C; 1ta"'1:0aU\la~(a~ U1teXpx.E:t 0:1[0 -rme 1tOU 6 livBpw1toC; e:rva~ a\Jephl1tOS. IIti'V't(X e:~pLaKe: l-u6: !J.e:p~xl) 7tP(xYfJ.ct't01tOtlJo"1) at 1J.~6. xO:1tota (5oVa.(lll - O'UVJ1ew~ xctt6peuye 0-01 fLay&t(X ~ oTil Cit'pa'ttc.yt~X~ xa~ax1"7Jo"f}. rta 7tPhlTl1 cpopa, 'TO cpa'J't"aa~o: Tilr; 7t(xv't"oauv(XVJaC; YL'VEl'CXt llt<l 1tpay[J.a'ttK~ lo'toptx~ liUVCl-

, .J ,t" ...

tJ.71, ~ux XO~VWV~)(Yl cpC(v-taa~ctx"1) oYl(laotct 1tOU x.up~apxet d evav

Oi\OxA"t}pO x60110. Al)"t6 Btv ()(PEa.e1:(x~ !J.6vo ena y£yov6~ an 'to

f(

CtVapW1t~VO tCPll.VTcxouxx6 i>1tA(CTt'YlXE {.te ~eaa (S~arpopE:'t'Lxa a1t'6 'ta

!A(Xy~xa yta vri «xup(.aPX"1O'E~)}· oq>e£i£-tcxt fx.XD!lYj XCXL o-ro YEyov6~. xt taw E:1ttO"1]C; ~1'Va~ Kat -ro qnAoaoqnx6 1l00-n1ptO, o"t't 6 x6ol).oC;. 't'O ov, "t6 aVepW7t~ vo o\J. TCpocr<ptpov-raL d aU-n1 'ty,v E.l;&At~1J. IIpoorpl€povmt an? yvwOlJ xa.t ani" 'tEXvtX~ ~E'"t(XXE:fpt~. ~O )(oO'v-oC; 7tpOarptpE:'t'£X!. oTi1 yvwO"'f] xa:'t'a 'tp67to cpat.'VoJJ.~\JLxa tX1tepto p r. 0 'to . Ka.ewe; -rov $6:xvou[..te~ fJ-iiC; a1tOxa)"61t"tE~<I 't'iJ tita: IlE'ta 't~v ID..ATJ ~ BL(xrrrp W ~C(:'t'w oe.~.; aovC5 e: BEtlE"ec_; (.Le::'t'a~6 'tou r:; xed "'t'cxu't6x_pova tTE:POyeve:iC;. Ka( 1to"t'€ atv cp-tavoutJ.~ r:l eva arUleIo, m6 ortolo 'Ya 1tOUf.lE ~ eaG> 07t<XPXE.t 'to Cx7tOAlYnu<; itx(X"t(X\J61fto. ~)).a. npocpavi); ~

liv 6 xoolL0C; 1tpoacptp~(X~ at llteXv a.1tE-p~6ptan'1 ae:.{U{Y11Lr.X~ (J.E't"CXXdpto"fl ~ Btv 1tpooGlipeL'cn at Ilr.av Cx.1tEpt6p~(it"fJ -rEXV~KiJ lLE"C(X.Xe:tpt- 0'7). A&t6 lLa~ lSetXVE.L ~ O'"f}~ep~v"rl x{X'"tam(lD11. Kat: rfJv 'LBta O'TLY~~ 7tOV 6ptall~~uet ~ AVa-ao: "rij<; l>uvrxlJ.l1~ KCXt 6 cp€""t'txtaIJ.6~ Ti]c; opeo~ AOY~X.ij S xuptapx(a.C; ~ n]v Y 5 L(X &xPt~ WS OTt Y(J. 11 <p ext'Ve-t'(U v rX Ocpto'ttX-car. exAeL~'Tl. ~ liAA"q fLEYM"t] CPc(\i't'{XO~(l.X~ al1l1CtO"ta. 1tOU B"U.ttoUpYll0€ TJ E:Ai\:'I\loBU1"t~ tmopla: ~ Cll)"'t'OVOl-Lta xed. t3u.xt'tepct1 1] 1tOAt'ttK-q a01'o\JolLtcx. ~H a"11flEpt'J~ XPt011 'riir; &V6pw1COTI'}'tar:; Etvnt xp[- 01') T71~ 1tOAt't'-Xj]~ xa.t xp(G'W11tOi\tTUC~, ll€ -n1 7ttO f3aB~&. e:vvoux 'too. opou, XPLcrYl xaJ 'tilr; 1tOAL'tLX~<; al'ltJ.toupy~x6"'t"f)'tac; xat: -rile; 1tOAtl'tx71<; <pavux,air.xt; t xex6wt; xed ~~ 1tOAt't~K~~ Eu66v"1)S xed au lltl e: - "'Com.:; 'tWV ix't611w'J. ~H !B~c;rt'euOl1 xr:xt 6 «ix't'oll~XtO'!J.6~») 1tOU €1tLxp«touv ~ &qn1vouv tku6e:po 't6 1td5£o ~" aueatpeofa 't'wv yparp&toxpa'ttXWv lLY]x.aVtO'~w~, o~ (.UtX npw't"l} <paO'Tl, xat, a; eva ~cxeurspo ftnl1tc:(5o. O'""n1V aU't6vo 1l"1l 1tO pE.in 'tilt; ""tE.X'Voe. 7t LO'tofUl." C; •

Kat e:Bw ~p(axE'ta~ 'to eoXtX't'o O'Y111Eto 'tou 1tPO~A~lla.ToC;. Ol 't'epao"'Cr.ot x(V(5UVOL. xed 6 t.3LO.r; 6 nC<paAoytov.6r; 1tOU n:epr.qe:t(u tJ.e:O'a crn1v ix\l(xrrtO~111tp6~ OAEC; ''d~ xa'teoeuvO'e:.~C; ~ xed XUlptt:; xct.vev(Xv 1tPCXYlJ.tX'ttx6 1tpoo(lVa:'t'oAlGtJ.6 -ci]<; 't€XVOE:1nOTt]{.l"f)C;. Btv Elven Bu"Va'tov va 1tE.PLopLU"tofrv xed \Jet nlXpCt.fle:ptcttOUV lJ.-t xav6ve:c;; x0:60- p~alJ.evou~ (,).La yta 1tCtv"C'O;, Olrte 0:7t6 xO:1tOtO aUll(3oui\tO ooCPw.v. Am6 nOll Xpe::ta~e"ta.r. E!V(U Ka-r~ 7tE:{noo6-r.e:po CtXOlL(l Xt a7to {.lux llE'tappu6(J.tO'Y} "rile; (xv6pcir1tr.'V'YlS Btavotw; .. e:tva~ IJUX !XAArxYli "tou o.V6pW7tLVOU ov'to<; w~ o\J'tOc; XOtVW.VtXO-tG"t'optxou. XpE.ta~"t'(.u eVil ~6oc; -rq<; 8vYft6t'"f}'tcxr; xed ll~a a&eU1t€p~Ct.O'T] ""too A6you. dE\) qoo[J.E: Ctvarx"l) a1t6 [l€ptKOUC; aocpouc;. ~XOUllE. (x_v&'yX'1} va a1tox-diaou'J xed va iXaxYlaouv 't'I] r.pp6vl1OTj OAOL ol (iv6pu:r1tot l(C(t edno V-E nl O€.tpa 'too anatt'EI E:vav pL~~x6 Ctv{Xax"l1lJ.a't~0'1-L6 T1]~ XOtVW~ viae; we:; xo~"wv(ru; 1tOAr.TtX~C;, noo aa tyxaetBpul::, DXL ~6vo n1V "t'U1ttX~ OUllllE.'toxn, a'"ANJ. 't6 na6oc; OAWV y~a -ra xotva, y~a nl ~otpo: Ti]~ Kot\iW\Jta; xa( yr.a ni ~OtP(X 1:0U e(xol-Ul.G~OU a,u-rou 7tAo:.v/i~. 1tav(U o-rov {)1toiO y-£W1'J6tpUX(lE. nA~V iS~w~, ''to 'tEA!tu-cato 1tpay(lcx 7tOV 1tcxpaYE~ b O'"Illl-s:pt v6r; 1tOAt"t~olJ.6S €.lvcu cpp6VLtJ.CX Cx.\lBpw1tr.va o\Yta. Kt a"V (lOU eAe:ye xave:£.c; :

186

01 OMIAIEI: !:THN EAAA.6.A

- T( 6tA£'t'E; Ao~7tOv; N' aAAase't'e: 't'Ijv b;vepw1tmTJ"tot; eo: C{1t(xv"touaa:

- "OX~, xa:n a1t£(pw~ 1tL6 ~E:tp,,01t[dJtc;: va w...AtiSe~ iI ya~C{ ~ Ctv6pw7t&nrr(X rov e;atu-ro 't"11~, 01tCUr; "to €Xe:t ~Bll Xav.e:L auo -·tpet~ CPOPE<; onJv ~IU1"opt(X.

KOPNHAIOI KAITOPlAAHI

'H ~ bravdom0'7 1956. 1979

T6 ~ 1f{}6/JJ.'11lfl O1jptp(; 1984 ~H rpalpnC»qJtmHrJ :remvwvta, I, 1985

11 r~ HOtVlJ.Wicl; II, 1985

11 ItEfea roO tpymuroV Utvr1~1 L 1984-

·H Jrel(Ja roO tgycmHOii "tvr1P~, II, 1984 'YJIdet"El OOOtaJ.wnH6 JJOVfiJ.o civdn:n.f'l~; 1984 /J.1rpooTti 0T6v .n:6AEl'o, 1986

~H)'aAA,,", '""~ 1986

To KE~ roO~" 1986 'H tipxa{a ruJTYuuJ 6t]poxpatiu" 1986

.E~ HCm'~ xa( btav6rJTaUr}~ 1987 K£U{!6rJl 1987

II¢m; &»e'IJi~J 1988

01 dptA.{~ rmjv EUmSa, 199()

Ttf ~ toV AafJVptv80v, 1991

1) fJpvppanoptvot; ~ t 992

~~{a, IIoAuun't tlJlJ.ooCHpia, 1993 XW(Kx wV ~;o 1995

11 4~dp8o).orue6D1m" mV '«1,jnraMopaV~ 1998 'H ~ Dk dmJp~~ 1999

6qnAov I 818Aia

1(J)

OJ OMIAIE:I. I:THN EAAAaA

pOVO(LE.c; XO"VW\J(S:~ xCl-rop6wvoov a&t6 "t6 a7tO't'E.AeO'll(l" nov e:lv(xL [3ctatx.6 yux ~ KOt v(uvl)(o1tofl1lTY] 'rii~ tlJuxjit;, DXL O:7thWC; Ct1tayoprumrra~ 'tU; 1tpa;e: L~, a.""AAft. Cl7ttxyope uovt'a~ 'tU; oxttf1c:tt; ~ is'1AaBij (5EO'~ uov-rac; 'to", 1ta:p(XO"t(Xa~ax6 pou Kat xtl."ta(5t xa~oV"t'oo; at. O'~w~ -01 Pt~tx-q <pcx'V'tCt.ma ~ ~H ouofa T'7i~ t-t&p6vo~:1lC; KO~ \lcuv(ac; at" e:lllCXL mL O:7ta:yope:UOVttXL 011tpo:!;etS a~&n u1tapxou'V xwpo<pUAaXE~ ~ 3lxaO-nlpta ~ q>uA(.U(e~. ~H OUO(CX ltlvcu mt b.1tC(yope:UoV"t'(X~ ot axetlJe:tc; 1tOU aa. !J.1topouaav. va. o~ooo" o'de; 1tpaSEt~ 1:'L.c; 01tOiES r, XOLV6lVUx BEV 1'tCXpouStx,€"tf.Xt..

Kat taw O'otJ.~(X(ve:t -r6 €;T}~ a!;LomU.Le(cu'to: t.pCXLVE"'tCtL 'tel. 1tp6:yllCL""t(X va oUlLf3cdvouv 06:'V iJ xo~vwvta va. bp&.PIlO~ 'tlr; ya~Ec; (l£66- BouC; I-ti b:vdo-rpocpo -rp67tO a.n' a&t6'V 7tOV ecpap~6~et 1:0 tXOUVIt£B"1j"t'o xed i} Ct7tw6"1}<Tf} . .6.lJAa.a~, lTt"i}v 7t(XV't'o(5uvO,lJ£a -rile; axE$,.~. aTljv 1tav'toBuVCLll(ex Tijt; OtOUVEt&qtljt; <JXEtVlJS. ~ £'te:p6vol-l"fl XO~\lWvfa «X1t(XV'"'CaeL 1tpOmta8bl'lnCXC; vo; t.1t~'tUXE:t ~v 7tA~P'l aau'V<X~tCX, T/rJ av&xav6~'tcx a~r; 'rile; aXE~I1C;,. xed "teAtxci '!Yi.; ox€o/Jl<; a1tAhl~. w-t; en'll alml ~ l't}..iJp7]~ atluvClllfa -ri1s t7XetfJTJC; va Yrtc£v 6 {J.6vor; "tp6- no.; YLci va 1teptopuTtOUV ol1tpa~tc;.

A&t6 1t"t]y(dv~t 1tOAU 7t~6 ~axpL(i a7to a&t6 1tOU 6 cDp6u'V"t ovol·ui~€t «auo't'lpO xa( tiyptO 07t€pey&l». ~H to'toptC( iSlttX'JEt o-tt +t a[.(Xa~xaoLa a1thl6"f1CJl1'; xed a1toxAc:~a(lou ~ ?tou x(X.e~(tt'& lx8u\laTIJ yux'to U1toxe:t(.1e:vo xat n1 OXEtP71 xa.v "t'wv a1to:yops:uLJ.EVhlV 7tpay!leX"t'hlV, CJUve7ttl'peps:~ E:'Vot'V axpw"t1'lpLaO'lLo y} evctv euvouXLO'~6 'ri1; p[.~tx1}~ cpavta.a~oo; Til~ q,u~~. Au-r6 ROO OeAoullE: elvcxt (X&t6vo~(X U1tOXEt~e:.J~, 811AaB~ U1tOxE(~E:Va, ti'tOll(X tX(lVtt yui cd.n:-IJ ~v c(lrrOO'tOX(XtTt'LX"I] Bpcxo"t'y}ptmrrra, MAti ext6c; (Xv 1tp6)(e::~"t(U 'Va lt1tOUIl€ at t-tt(x ouvc:xfJ e1t(xveXA1]ttnl ~ --ra 7teptE.x611EVa. xaf "reX lxvnxd~evCt (X~<; ~~ BpO:a-tljptm7J"too;,. xa( fJ a"amu~l1 'tWV l-L80<UV 'ty}<; xed 't'WV (le:6o(}wv "tl1~, atv IJ.1tOpOU\I va lio6ouv napa a7t6 -dJv p ~~t x~ q;»cxvtCtota 'ti1.:; $ uxj1s: .

AuTiJ e:lvr.tL -q 1t"t))"i T1it; oOIlf3oA:r;c; "toG a,;6~ou OTTJv XOLVWVtXO-ta-roptx~ &r}lL~OUPY((x. Ked am6~ e:!vcu 6 i\6yoC; yta 'to", cntoi:o Ilttl 1t(ltao:ywy~x1t 7tot,) Bt'V xcx8to-rCt 1:'OU; tX~apW1tOus: &'Va1t7JPou~ ~ l1UX aA7Je~Yl11tr.(t(5e:.i(X, Ex€~ T7jv 1:EpaO'"ttfX O''1IJ.(Xo~ot ~v into(a e:Xe:t.

H lJ"iXANAAIEH KAI TO npOTArMA TH:E AYTONOMIAE

101

* * ..

"E1tcx\'E:px'OIl('.(L O't'O atvtytltx 't'i]c; 1tOAr."tLX~C;. (H CX&t6vOll"f) xor.\lw\l~a 1tpoU1tOatt£.~ xexL auve7taye'Ca~ a.u't6vo~a a'tolla. T6: ii:tOILa. yivo\I"ta~ txu-r6 1tOo. tdv(Xt cX1tOppOCPWV't'oo:; Ka~ e:.ow"tE.ptxe:UOvtoo; "tOUt; ee:a~o6c;. ME llUX EWOttX, 'ttl. a"tolLtx elven ~ auYXEXPLlli'V"fJ tvoapKUlOl1 'twv Be:at.J.wv. Etpou(J.E: o"t~ aUnl ~ eaw"te:.ptK£UOl] el'J,n xaBe aAAo napa ~btttpavELa)(-q. Ol 'tp67to~ axe~Y)<;" at -rp61tot BpaCi1]t;, ol xC(.v6vE-~, ol a~LE:r;~ .q rata iJ 'tCtu't'01:"1)'ta "twv ix-r6tJ.wv auv X.OLVhlVtKWV OvtWV, t5Aa t1;(X{Ytwvtat anD aim] T'lJv to'W"t€p£XEUCTY] ~

~e I-lta he:p6VOIl Yl xor vwv(o;, il eacu'tEpbt€uaY} BAw'V 'tW'V VOIlWV, (lE. Tilv EUPlrrE:p1l !WOttX "tou opou vOlJ.oC;, OAWV "twv e~alJ.(;)v, eo: frrav a.axo1tYl ea'V Btv OUVOBEUOt<X'V ano nlv eat.ytEp(X€UGY] o:&tou 'tou {le'ta. -volloU ~ 'tou U1t£pt'Ot'too VOIJ.OU ~ Bev 66. a[.1'Ptaf3'1l-n1O'E:tt; 1to-rE. '[oue; 'VotJ.ouC;. AiYt6 8t" e:tvat ypa~IlE\lo 1tOU6EVa a.AA6.. O't"qp(~~ oAo 'to o!xoB61171l-la. Twp(X~ at l-LUXV (XlrtOVO!l7J Ko~\.'w\'(a~ {) ll£m-VO[.LOr; Btv 66: fL7topoUac: va €lva~ -r£1to"tct aAAO 1tapa: en U7totxooe:t~ atOU~ VOllouC; fx:A")"6. EXet<; "to iltx(lLWll(X va E7te:pCUniaE~C; 't6 v vO!-lo xed va 'tOV O:lJ.qna~~(J£r.-c;. M7tOpe:.rc; va eye:~peLC; 'to epw- 1:7J~a 'rijc; 8tK(x~oO'u'V'l~ 'tOU \J6~ou ~:> av lLOU £1tL'tpt1tE."t<Xt (l£a: &pxaia AeSl1, Tile; ETnV/oetOTt]'rar; 'too· By}NxBij, av e:.!vC(~ 6 1tPE1tW'V 'V6flo~. 8ev 6& ~1tW crc6 6t(.ux 'twv "tU7ttXLnl Pl'rtpwv 1tOU Il1tOPOUV x,d 1tpe1tEt va ouvoae:oouv (Xu't6v rov (J.e."t'a -vollo .

"'E't'Ot (l7tOPOUllE 'lawe; va 8tCl'tU1tWOOUflf: "t"'IJv Ct1tavT'Iloll m6 CitVLYlJ.tX 1tOU 6EOa~E.. Kat va 3tcx'tu1twcroUll€ xaL "to 1tPw."to lxvnXE:ttJ.t;:\lO I-LLa~ 1tOA~'t'LXYiC; 'tii~ au"tovOIJJa.:;, &J)..cd5iJ ~J.[.a~ i5l1[.1oxprx'ttxYi~ 1tOAl't'LXij;: va. ~o71e7)ee:! ~ xor.v6t1]'t<X y~a. 'Va Bl111tOUmaEL 'tOUt; eEalJ.o6~ 'thlV 01tOLWV +, €aw'teptxe:u~ ano 1:<X a:to~a atv rrsPLOP~L aAAti a~eupuvE~ -n1v buxvo"t1)'t'a -roue; va: y(vouv aiYto\l0l-la.

Elv(X~ cpavE-po, Y16YJ O:7tO aUn1\1 n1 a,L(X"tlrnWC1y} ~ av n1 6ewp-qaoulLE.

Ilcxt£ IJ.t TJ1V aPXiJ ri)<; ta6't"f}'t1l.C; 1tOU t~1te:p~txe-raL mO\l 1tA."'16uvnx6 i5't(XV 1J.~A&Ile. YLt.X a-tOllf.(, O"tL 111topoUI-lE: va cru'VayayoUll€ 'tOU.C; xuptOUC; X(XV6VEt; y~ci lJ.~Ct. 7tA~PW~ (57Jl-loxpa"t~x'l1 etalJ.~O'Yl Tile; XOLVOO-

102

01 OMIAIE::E I:THN EAAA6A

vfoo;. AAM. Btv aU~"Il'taw 1tep~aa6-te:po 't6 et~(X Otm6 ~ BtOt~ BE-v I-la; eupopa al1!J.epo:. M6vo IJ.L6. 1ta.pcro1Py}0l]. E!1ta. O'tL a&t6 e:tva~ -r6 1tpiYro ee:fl((. xcd 't6 1tpW'to avnxe(lJ.evo ti]~ 7tOAr;'tLxfl~, 6'1AaOl1 v6; ~07Je71ee:t ~ xotv6tytt'(l va a7Jfl~DUm(JEL 6€op.ouc; 1:tt-OLOU~ 1tOV, mav 'ttl. a'tolJ,ot "t'o6C; E.oc..,ytE.p[.xe:uouv" 01 t)(av6-t~"t'E~ (Xlrto'J0lJfru;

'11".1 , , ~ "I

't'ou<;, (XV'tt vex O"'t'E:veuou'J t eupuvoY't'l'.Xt. AU't6c; Elvat 6 7tpw'to-t; O:7tO

'toUs ax01toU~. npwm~ YLa::d, Elvcu ~ 1tpotl7t66e011 (JAw'J 'twv aAAcu'V, xa( i5LQ-tL Bu'V6:lte~ 'ta ElL1te:PLtxe.t. «llOGLXa intapxouv K(x( aAAo~ oxorroi xaL aAACX &~'ttxeLlle:va "t'a. o1tota 8EvelvaL BEuTepe:uO\rt(X+ 01tW~ t yta 1tapaa£tYfla, ~ (57JI-LLOUPY£a. £l5txwv 6e:OllWV 1tOU aV'tct1toxpfVOV't'(xL at. (lu't6 1:'6 astfJ)IlCX Kcd 't6 auyxexpLllE.V01tOLOUV llEO(x o't'£~ Bs:8oll€VEC; OUVe~KE:<;~ (bt"wr; e:lvcxL qJuaLxa xa.( fJ alttOKOf3tPV"fjCTl1, 07tWC; xed ol1tprYt6caet; xed ol lx1tocpaaeL~ nov C((POPOUV "'ta OUAAoy~)(&. lpya xaf"'ttl. auAAoy~)(& tYXE~M~a'to:.

rta"'t( T} a.U"t'oVD(.Lta atv E:tvcu au"'toaxo1t6~~ OUTE O''tO lx'tolJ.~x6 OlYrE: tl"t6 )COt\,wvr.xo 1te5io· 11 tJ.O:.AAo\,l Kat elvc(L (XtYroaxO-1t6~ xo:£ rd"a~ )(OCtL A~y6-'CE:PO lut6 a;u"t'oaxo1t6r;~ .a7)Aa&) BeA-DUlLE --o1v amovo[J.(a. yux n1v '(Bta -o1V ctu't'ovo~(a:, etAoulJ1t -niv EAe:u6Ep(o; lho-n etAOUliE -u1v EAeu6ep£o:, eXAM ~ 6eAoull€ €7t£a"1lt; y~&. va. et(.Lcxo'tE SAe:u6e:pot wi 1tOtOuflE xed va 1tpanoofJ.E ~ xat 'VeX 1to~ouv.e xal va 1tp6.noulJ.e auyxltxptlLEva 1tp<iy~(X"t'a.

Kal ot. Bi\e:.C; alrrE~ 't(~ tpyaofe:c;, 'to. xafh2xo'V't(X~ 1tpt1tEt va QUIllle't6;OXE~ IJLcX 7tpay~a:nxiJ, «Kqat'V~ 7tOAL1:tX"ti. ~H 1toAt"l"ucil litv e!vat oU't'~ 9rtlJuXCXVCX~t;"ri]c; xo~vwvfcu;~ OtJ'tE 6 1t(.([.Baywy6.; ttic; XOtvwv(a.~, om-E. ~ auve£81?a'l 't'ijc; )(OLVhlVLtX~~ Elvett IlL& ~aaLxYJ xed OUO'LW&}~ BLaO't'CW'll tile; (Xlrtoa·roxaat"Lx&t7j'to.~ "t''1~ xcd ~r:; ama(X'VaxAfXO"tf. K6t,Y}1'<Xt; 't'l t; .

Ka£ w~ 'tE'tOUX €I'Va[. U1tOXPEW(J.Evq va (Spa nave.> at'eX av(}pw1tf.VCX o'V'tct, ee:wpwV't'(x~ "t'cx 6,)C; amovolJ.(( xa( J30l}8wvrat; 't'tX 'Va qnaaouv 'to: tBtet. O~\I (({navOI.da 'tou~ t xwp£C; 1tm'e wi ~'Ja.e:L o-n ~ 1:eAE.U'tabx 'tOO'Irq 't"iir; la'toptx71~ a'Y}lltOupy(C(~ elv(Xt ~ P['~tX"ij CP<X'V't(Xo£a. tile; &vwvu~l1~ x.o~v&t'1't(Xt;. Mit aUTfJ n1'V ewo~a \,J0llo;oo 111topoUIlE: 'J& xcttaAa~ouJ:Le y~a't£ ~ 1tOAL't~X~ ~rvcu EVa. b.Buv(X'to, ~ fl~ (SuvtX"t'6

H WYXANAAYEH KAJ TO npOTArMA THE AY'TONOMIA:E

103

e1tayy&AI-UX, 01tWC; II tVuXCX\ltXAOO"f), lhtw.:; "it 1t(X~[5aywyu(l1 Kat ~lawc; ax6lJ.Ct 1t~6 aB6vcx""tcx aBuv(x1:o ~ aeBo~tv"1J~ TI)~ cpuoew-c; xed "t(;)V BLCX(l'C'aaE.Wv"tou 6ttlcx"t'6C; '"tlJC;.

* * !Ie

Tektwvw ~ IlEP~XtC; napa't"l}p1]ae:LC; a7tavw O''t'O 7tLO aYnJ.aV't'~K6 Ct1t6 OAct "t'tX epcu-nll-Lcx'tfX 'to 07tOLO e:!V(lt KOt vo xat <Tt""J1v tlJuXa.VaAU- 0Yl xa( aTIJ'" 7tOAL'tLX~ ~

Ot xOt.v{J)\I~XOt eeollo( XUptapxouv 1tavw ma OCr0t-La lx1tAWt; Btan xamaxe:ua1;ouv "ta cx'tOlJ.cx xed 'ttl BLctllOPCP.wvouv. T& xa'tf.WX£UCt", ~ouv xat TrX 8uXIlOPcpwvouv, 1CA"'PW~ G't£; 1tapaaoa~c()c£.c; XOLVWV[ec:; xed 'tt.X xo:'tr.taxe:uasoov xat "to: BLalLoPCPwvouv .. a€ EVO:V 1tOAU 0'lJlJ.(Xvt~xo [3a.6lJ.6 t at'LC; tpLAE:As:u6epe.; KO!.'V(UVt€C; O"'dr; 01tOtES" soulleA ~x6~1) fluX cpapa alYnl s:lv(lt Y} ta(U't'Epb(~uo'1J 't'WV ee:a~&v anD 't6 a't'o~o 1tOU B~apKE.i lJA1] -eou "tiJ £;wl}. A&t6 nov EX€t o'1)(.Laaia at O:lYnl n]\I E:.aw"t£p£j(~UO'l1 e:.lvcu ~ totv"t'eptxE:ual'] 'twv O"7]llaoLwv, 'twv KOLVtuV~KWV cpCXvtaaLaxw~ GYltlCXO'LWV ol 61to'tc:<; Evaapxw'VoV't'aL ~E.O'(X at au'touc; 1:ou<; 6e:o(J.ouC;. ~H xOt VWVLCt. ano01tii"t6 CJUYKEX(ltIlE:VO b,vSpc.:l1nvo 0\1 ano 't6 KAEtO'tO aUll1tct'V -riit; Ctpx'LXij<; ~ux~>rii~ lJ.ovaliar;, "to U7t0XP€c,J\I€ L lJ-E IJ. u:X €VVO La 1ta.V'tcx ~ LCXtW<; va. tJ.1tE: i: lJ.toex tTtO\J OXAYlP6 x6a~o Tijr; XOt'Vwv~Ki1c; 7tpaY!J.(x'TLx&t'1J'too;~ B'1Aa(5~ a1tA-We; TflS 7tpaYlJ.cx:tLXm7]'tru;, yta'tt iJ 1tpayv-cx-rtx6nyta E.lva~ 1taV'"t'CX KO~\lW'J~>n1 7tp(ly~a'tt}t6nrta· itA-ha "tou 1t{JoacpepE.t x6:'t"~ oav av'taAAaYllCX •

Au"t6 7tOV 'tou 1tpO(J(pepeL aav O:V'taAAay(la e:lva~, liv Jl1top&t va 1tW; eva ~1le:PLV6 v6"1Jt-tcx~ t5'1}Aa5i] Eva v6"t}(..lcx 1tOll BEv €t'Ja~ YLO: 'ta iSV£Lp<X, f.VCX v07Jtlcx nov mexE"'t"C(t Ilt 'to cpw<;. ~"t6v 1tpaylla't~x6 x60llO,. "t'E-tOtOV 1tOU KaeE r.popa "to" lhU.l.toupyet ~ xo~vw"fa, "ttJ. 'JtP6:yIl(X't(X exouv 'V6lJlJ.cx~ ol axea€tC; E.XOUV vOYllla ~ ol aAAoL av6pw- 7tOL t iJ 6tCTtJ ~ac; <Tt""J1v xo~vUJv~a, ~ OXeo"f) (LE. 'tou~ aAAoUC; a.v6p6J.- 1tOU; E:x.1t~ V6"'lIJ.Cl. ~H ~w~ ~Xe:L Eva vO'1]l-ux ~ U1to't(ee:'t'ct~ lYtt ax6(la xed 0 6a'Vcx"'t'oc; EXE:L fvct vO'1l11a. ~XE:r.peer't'e okC; 't~C; )COt vwvter; ax_eB6v 1tA~V -djc; O'rUJ.€pL vile;·

T6 v6'ru.LCX e!va~ w.e:; 1tp6.:; 'TO li"tol-lo t 'to. aY'tta·t"O~Xo 'tWV XO~\lW-

J04

01 OMIAIE~ I:THN EAAAAA

VtKWV mUHxOLhlV we; np6c; 't'6 XO[.\lUlVtXO-tO'l'0PUCO. "Ercn y£ve't'a~ 0:1t6 TIlV xo~vwvia (!ta Sinagetnmg, [.ltcX vO~lla'toa6'"t1'JCTYJ .. t] CtXOllfX K{xAU"t'Epcl tl~a Sinnschoptung, ~r.a B"t}~ . .uoupy(tX 'J0lJl-.UX1:WV xai oYlllaOtc71V, 1tOU elv{X[. ""to xa£p~o xa.( 3UaxoAO O')'UleW . .o.t6"tL 1tpocpavw~ fj $UxaVaAUOl1 5tv (5(\leL~ Btv 1tpoorpepe:t xed (lev a~a&aX€t xaveva vO"f]llcx yt& -n1 ~WYr ~1topet (lova va ~olJ6iJaE.t '"t6'V avaAu6~e:vo va ~PEi:, va eq>€UpEt ~ va. i5Yl!J.LOVmm:& 6 "{atO~ eva \,01JI-HX yu~ Tij C;w~ 'tou. Ked aln"6 -r6 v6"fl(la 7tOU Ba ~1tOpE.r b lx'JaAUO!lEVOC; va B~~uoumae~ y~a n1 ~w'" 'tou t anoxAet:e:--rO!t va lL1tOpeO'E&. xctvevcx.c; va 't6 6p~C1e~ tx 'twv 1tpo'"tepw.v )(CX( Ilt xaeOA~KO -rp61to. :EE l .. uav lx1t6 ""tt~ 1ttO a1t(uO't6ao~.; ~~pe<; -eou ~ 0 1tcttptapx'Y]~, EWO~ {) ¢lp6u~"t ~ e:ypa$e o'tt ~ a~w..uc,.,. Btv E1ttr.pepe~ n]v e:ln~ux.(a, aAAO. ~1topgI "to '}toM vei lle:mr.L0pcpwae:L ~ veupw't~)C~ ll~~epr.a at XO~\J&tU1n1 C5ucTtUxta, at 00Vl16tOIlEVy) (5ua-rux(a, at. 'te;-cPt~lltv'1) BUG-CuX(CX. N 0(.1£~w o'n OE au-ro ~mv i)1tEpa1tatu~6ao;o~. ¢1ua~Ka ~ tVUXClVa.AUG"fl aEV 7tPOOtpipe:L nl'V e:.u-rux£a O:AAO: J30Y}6ru:L 't'6v tX'VaAu6(J.E:'VO Qxt t-t6- vo va O:1taAAa.yt.r a7t6 ~ veupu)"nx~ li~stpta, ixXNi wi 5~cxlJop<pwaet 1'6 atXa 'tOU 1tp6-tCXyp.lX yux 't1j ~wiJ "tOU.

~AAcX tXln:6 8tv EsaV't'Aer 'to ~~"'t''1}lla. rurtt auxveX, yui v& !l~\J 7tW 1to/..u GOxva. ~ ixv6.AUUl1 b.1to"tuYXa'Ve~ il y~a'd xaEHmc(l'a~ a'tU£tw"t71-il Ct1tspav't'Y] ; ~vo: (x7tO TO: 'teAEUm:LCX ypctma ""tOU 4>pOU\l1: €hUXL ~ n epaTI] xat thrtpa1)TYl aVaAuO"y], 01tOU 6 Cl>p6u'V't ~bn){(xAe:I't(Xt 1tOAAoU~ A6you~ y~Ct alrtijv n1 axe'tLx~ a7to-ruXta:, xed 'tw ~WV€L EltLGY1lLtdvov't(l~ ctu't6 1tOU 6vol-la~t (3paXD. () 61toi:oC; 1to:paa6~w.; xed a'de; atJo e:xcppaGet<; 1tOU 'tOU ai'V€~ ~ a'VtXyE'ttxL m6 ra~o. 'O ~paX0t; el'V(X~ ~ a7to)(~puSl1 't7js e~AUX&t"'rrw;, G-d! yuva(xa. (J.t n1 ~oprp~ 'tou q>66vou (aY}IlEtWCTYl: fJ-t Tr1v D:pxaia tAAY}VUC~ OYHltxot:a: r;~~ Ae~a. t1tteu~i(l a1t6x:tYlaYJt;) "rnu 1ttouc;, errov av{}prx lout n1 [J.oPCfYr1 Ule; (nt6ppLq,11~ ~C; 1tlX6"t}-rr.xY}C; o-raoy}c; ~ 11 «Br,AuxllC;» mao'1}C; ~ omv -o1V ExBlJAr.lVe:t €va~ aAAOC; ixpO'e'V~)(6s. 'E1t(ffi']~, o't6 nho xe:{~€\lo. a.\larpepe:~ ·tt~ xamo-rpe:rrrtxt; X(X( t1t~aa:'ttxtc; tvop~iJoe~c; xed -n1'J E:1t~6u(.da 6av<XTou. No~(~w 5'n 1tpaylttX'tt 6 6&va-roc; 1tr.d~~ E~a" 'te:pao"CtO pOAO aE a:u~ n}v i.a"top~a, aAAcX. 'tOAlJ.W -va 1tW, lSx~ llE 't6\1 -rp01tO nov "to oxttp"tE't"a~ 6 cll'p6uv!.

H wrXANAA "fEH KAI TO DPOT ArMA THE AITONOMIA:E

105

Au--r6 reOll xapc()ct7)p~e:L I-uav O:1tepa,rt"l) a\laAU07) ~tvC(~ cpua~xa i] e7tctvC<A"I]$1). ElvfXL OtXV I.uti ~e:up{UO'7l at aVWTepo E:7ttne:i5o ~ [J.a.AAO'V 06:\1 llteX ~eupoo<7rJ CTt6 TE""tpaycu'Vo. r~(l'"d lXtrn'J il E1t(xV<XAy}$"1}; rt~ va 1thl auV01t't'LXO:, ~ Ibt(X'VaAlltP1I lJ-E -djv E'V'VOta 1tOU llii~ E:'VBtacpipe:.t taw, t51}Aa3ij ~ the small change of death, 't'cX lJltM -rou 60::va'too, £tV(l~ ~ ~geOaor:; nlv 01to(o:; XMGLfl01tOteI 6 ava.l-.o6lJ.E:voC; y~ri va «lIlUvee:.i EVfXV'tio\, Tijc; 7tPayll(X't~x6'trrt"(Xt; 'tOu 1tA'ilpOU~ aaVtX"tou. 'EBt;) ExOUIJ.E: Eva" xAaar.x6 CPUXtx6 llYJxavr.alLo, aAAcX ai lJ.ta 1tOAU !-l€y6}"1l Buxotao.,...

'O M.rt0~ y~a -eov OrcOLO ~ iIVaAuo'Yl b.1tmuyx6;'V~~, ~ yive:.-ra~ a1tE.pav"tYl. EI\JCll fjoif3-aL(l 1tpwm. 1tpw'"t"(x ~ aVLXtl.\lm7J-r(X "too &vMuo(.Li\IOU xed 1'0u. aVctAlYt'ij ~ nor) BouAeuet tJ.a~( 'tOU. veX a~€.E -rov 6tX\la"to IJ.E: flt6: 1tpw't'l llOPCP~ .. C511i\a(5~ rov G6:vcX'tO exmou 1tOV ~'tav 1tpo)Ce~(1iyou va rivet xa7totOr;; eXAAOC;. Au--co ~€~at(x 6 <l>p6u'V't' 't6 YlSepe: 1tOAU xaM Kat 'to Me:t~ "'['0 Tte:.p~ypaq>e:.t ~i aAAOUC; opouC;. 1\io.A& 'VO!l(~w Ott 'to ae:&tepo x(Xt 'to 1t~6 aYUJ.tXvt'Lx6 S:L\I<xt ~ avr.xa\lo-nrCCt -roo. tX\laAuo(l£vou, xa.( at aUTO xa:t~ awxyx"t}v e:: lva~ o:pxpca X(X[ "t~tX& llO\lOC; "tOU, va BEXt'e't n1V TtpanUX"tLxm'Y']'t<X 'tou 1tPcxy~ lla-rLxou~ 1tA~pOUr; 6ava"tou.

NOlJisw iYt~ 6 e6:v(X-roC; Elw:u <rn1v ouoLa "t'ou 6 eaxa:toc; ~p&xoC; 1Cavw atOv 01tO to ~ a'J6.AUol} (J.1tOpltt va. E:~Ol(e:o..e:L 1j 'Va auv'tp~I3It1:. . ~IO AD ~ lJ. o:~ l;tpo U 1J.e: OTt ~ swij EV.1tE P ~ tx e: t -ril ouve;xW.c; E:1t L KpE (la I-l e: - \I"IJ 1tPOQXC,upOt·'r'C'(.( 'TOU vo1n·l.Ct"toc;. T1Jv 1tpoaxCL~p6TI(tcx -rwv E:1tE.VBUI_J.t'l)wv ixV'tL)(et~8.Vwv, TIl'" 1tpooxatpD-t"IJ'ta -rw.v e:1tE:'Vllu!ltvwv Bpaa1"Ylp~~'twv nou EXOUV v6"1J~a. )\).1..& 6 eavcx'to~ el'Jcu, ontu<; ,;6 ~tpoulJ.e: oAoL tla~ t7tlO1'1C;~ 11 (xvo"lola xed ~ a-vo1J'ttYt1]'tf.X 1"OU tatOU '[00 voiH .. urtO~. ·0 x.pOVOt; (lac; atv E.L\I(Xt Xp6vo~, 6 Xp6voC; I-ttXC; (5EV E.I'Va~ 6 Xp6'VoC;, 6 X(l6voc; [.Lac; t5e:v e:Xet x(Xveva Xp6vo. ~EltallE.pOL (tcrn1~epo~).

'1H (XVaAOG'1l ~ (htwS X(l.[ ft WpL(J.&t"rrtx ~ 8rtv qnave:t txe't nov 1tpE1tE.t va !p'taatt napa ~ovo (ha:v, xcx£ &reo '!ov opo va, yt~€t 1"6 lxVo:AU6 ... lJ.e'Vo a:rOllo txav6 va ~e:I ov\jexwr; ~v oxB7J Ujr; &~6aaou, (leo-a at a&t6 t6~ eox,(X1'o xai a\lU1tEp[3Al)'tO Bt1tA6 ae:OlJO, tX'V tl1tOpoufle: va lJ.e'to:~aaou(le e'ta~ "t6 double bind: ~7ja.e: aa\l 6v"q-r6C;, ~91oe OtXV

106

01 OM IAIEI: };THN EAAAl!.A

va ~aouv a6ava'to~. 'E8w ~ 1ttXA~, 0 J\.pt(J"t"o-rEAJ1t; e1XE xa:t"(X1tA7pc:nxci aO\Jo$U7Ef. -n]V xa:t'cia'ta~ ,.IJ.€ "'to «ttl)' (SOOV EvBtxe-ta~ lt6avc('tf~LV» mt:X "Hfhxrj No,op.axela.

AmES ol 6pUAtxtC; xotvmo1tfe~, 01t6)~ 6& EAeYE 6 ZUA Aacp6pyx. !3pfaxouv e:\}(l OUO'LaatLx6-ta."t'O taolhJvallO om Ko~vwvuc6 1t£8£o xed auVE:7tw.c; rn6 1tOAt'tLXD 7teB£o. Ol ~:·t€POVO~E~ XOtvwv(e:.C; e1tL"t'eAOUY IJta 07n.uxO'LoB6't'YlOl1 xa£ {J.ux m·UJ.aa&Oa~llr.oupy(a~ av Il1tOPW veX 1[&. yta (5)..ou.:; xat U1t0XPI£WVOU\, OAOU~ va -nl'V e:ow"'Ce:ptxe:uaouv. Kat a.U1'tc; ol "(5~E; ol E-te:p6VOIJ.E~ Xotvwv(e~ 6e:olLi1;ouv 1tPay)J.f.X"t'txouC; ~ aull~ohLxoue:; tx1tpoaw1touc; tv6<; txlw'V~ou vm1lLa'to~ X(X( !J.La~ tp(XVtrxut~Kiit; aeav(Xo£ru;~ AEW cpavt'C(O'"ttxYjt; Ox.~ cpav-raouxxTjc:; aeavaa£a~, crt6 61toto tx~w'V~o v6'rUJ.·a. xal O'~'V 61to(a q>o:v'Ccunaxil &8avao[a., OAO~ 0 )C6a~o~ J,te Bt&q:lopouc; ~61tou~ u7to"de~a~ O'tL oU~f.L€"'tE.XE&. Au't'ot ol 'tp61tOL ll7topei: 'Va e:1"(xL 6 IlU- 6oc; rij; 1tpoaw1ttx~t; a.6avao(as, 11 ril~ !l£'t£tJ.r.f>ux~aewc; Yi 'til.; &\'ao"t'cXOE:WC; 'Vexpwv t Wo..j\a Il1tOpe:i: t1d<l11~ va el'V(xL 6 lJ.u6o~ 'til; fXLW"r.O"t7J"ta.s: 'tou 6EOJLt0IJ.E\,ou "tExvoupyfJ (J.(X-rOt;. rr, X. 'to U ~ aOtAtfr, "tou xPO:'t"ou", "too t:6vouC;, -rile; CPUA-qC;, 'too. x6!J.l-Lrrto~. T6 6EoI-lLOllE\lO "t'EXVOUPYl'l!J.(l ~E. '"to 01tOLO b xa6tvac; (l1topEi, 0.00 Y£VE""tat, va 'tctU-

~

"tt(f"t'e L •

IILa't'euw o"t't ~(a Clm6'Vo(l7] KOtV(UVtCX 8E:v 6& 111tOPOUOS: va a:ye: ... xre:i: 't!1tO't(X &.1t6 ofl-a aUT<X, tvvow <n6 <l'1IJ.OOtO 1t&5t:o ~ 1:'0 'ti xa6tvat; 117tOPe:i: va. 1t~(Tte:.uet e:.lv(Xt aAA~ {)1t66eO'Yl ~ xal o'tt (lla a7to "t'l-; XUpLE<; aUc:nc~A[ec:;, IXV oX~ ~ i5um(oALa, nou &V'tL~U:"t'W1t(~t "1'6 1tp6- "MYllCl tii~ Ixlrtovol-lfru;~ ~1'V(X~ il (5uaxoALex. yui 'to; «xv6pwTnvo: oven \.'a BexBouv xcupiC; r.p~i\oAoy(gC;~ XWptt; O"'toAio(la"tc( xcx( 1t(XP'Ylyopte;'t -n1 6vYl't'mlJ't(X 'tou a:t6(.Lou ~ n1 eV'1"t'onrrcx Tijc; )cotv6·nrt'a~ )C(Xf &.xo~a xed -n1 6'V1]'t6'OJ"'t(x "'twv e:pyw'J 'tooe;.

·0 X6~1t; etXE: (5(XtO t av xed. VOIJ.(~{U 5Xt YLa. LOU~ aW(TtOUS A6- you~. IIp&)1Ltx'tL 'to XUptO ~pty~a TClv 6e:oIlWV e:lvaL 6 q>6~oC; 'tOU Bava-rou, oXt 6 tp6(3ot; (j'n 66: IJ.t oxO"twos:r. 6 a~1tAav6C;, 6 (j~xa:tOAOY7lIl€VOC; cp6~o~ o"tt 't<X 7taV'ta, ax6~(X xa£ 't6 \,6.,.v.a, 'tEA&Xa 6a Btw...u6ouv. Ka'JEVt2t; cpuatxa .5tv {-t7topei va Auaet a&t6 'to 1tp6- ~A7)[ .. UX· cxirto Btv Sa ~1topiae:.~ va Au6e:i ~ cx:v xa! lhtO"'t'€ AuBeL, TIapa

H qtrxANAAl'~H KAI TO nror AfMA TH~ ATTONOMIA::E

107

~tO'a an6 l-lLcl. XCUVOUpyLa. )CO~'VCJ)'V~xo-ta'toptxiJ &JtJ.LOUpytcx xed lJ.ux aV't£onHXYJ ahAotwO'71 "Coo Clv6pCD1tt'VOU o'V'tOS xat -rii~ G't'aOl1C; "t'ou O:1teVCtv"t"L ~ ~W"11 xa£ mov e&vcx:to.

rui (l7tOtOV 6tAet va OXEtp"rEL 1ta(Ja7tEpa 't6 ~~T1l1.1(l 6£i 1rtCll' xaAD 'Va. utoxacrtei "'tU; ~€P~)Ctc; lut(xvn1O'£tC; <1't'O 1tp6[3f..7J!J.lX a&t6 7tOU Bwoav€ 01 Buo xO~'Vw'V(€C; 07tOU ""t6 1tp6-ray(la Til~ a&tovo(llar; B11- 1,.uoupyfJeYlxe: xaf O'uvqja'ty}xE ~ l3"f1AaOl1 ~ ltpxafa eAA7)\lt)(~ xat .q atYt~xoEupw7tdr:x~. Kat elBtx6'tEpet xavef~ BEV ~1tapEi 'Va t-t~\J eV't'u1tcuotC(o'te't c(1t6 "t'i]v 'tEpao'ttCX Br.acpopa -"t'wv auo lutctvn1CJt:wv. TEpao'tLO 6E(.L(X (lill't"t1C; xai (fXEtfn1C;. IIwC; ot aP'.X,cxiOL ~AAYiVe~ 0\)'Ve{3£[3C(o(Xv niv cX7te:paV"t'"t) ~W'ttK6-cl'l'tot x(XL (5'YUJ.LOOPYUCCrt7j'ta. 'toor; (ie nl ~a:e~a YVhlrTI1 ~~ 9'V'Y]'tM"1]-rac; "'tour:; (lik~ at lmop(~c; 1te:pf a.6avaa(a~ x.m.; lxeavaotcx~ «1lE. c:muX(ot» .. (xp"XJ~ouv ~e'ta "t'Dv 50 a1.wvo:· 7tPLV, u1tapx.0u\I ol cppLK"ttb; tXELvec; axutc; 1tOU auVCXV'tcXEt 6 '06uaoE:cxt; ~ Nexuta)~ xed 1tW~ ol lllYtf.xOE:upUl1taLoL t l)mv atya aty&. IJ-Loof3yTjxav b.rr:' 't6v xpuTtt.a"'J~aIl6 ~ 1t'POC1TC&~<1(x'V wi ~POU\} iiAACl aVtL~Gtpa xcx( aAk~ olxo'VollLE~ -roo 6rxva't'ou; MEa e:pe:.u'V(X 1tOD e&. npoo7trx6oUO'E. va Bet 1tWr; ol 7tOAL'ttXtt; rtpocm:a8e:.u::.:; xed at 1tOA~'t'LXO( 6.e:0llo( xed ol1toAL"ttxg-c; WxE~ a&t'wv ""tWV 860 xo~"(Uvr.wv el\ltxt ~o:.eux mJ\lBeBElJtV€t; flE ~ o-raO"tl "t'OUC; tX1te:vavn m6 rrpo~Al}lla 'ti}c; eV1ft6'tY(tcx~, 6a e:!X€ napa 1CoM o'1JIl('.('V'TtxtX Cxnme:Ma~o:;'t(X.

~AAa (Xlrt6 ~ ()7tWC; ~Ae:ye E:VOO; IlOetO'"t'optoypacpoc; t e:lvat llL(X aAAYJ

lCJ"t'o pia ~

108

or OMIAIEI: .ETHN EAAAAA

Bt.PAl.oypaq>tx6 mU.Le::t6lp.a

Tti ~~TJ](.ta."t'a 'tou xeq.lE'Vou 'fa f.XW aU~1ln?O'E:t an] C1Jav-raatax'J] BeUf-HUTJ Tilr; J{o~v(U,,{aq (00'. 150-160 xcd 387-450) xed aE 560 loCdt-LEwx:, «'E1ttAey6- !J.E:vrx aE (l~a eewpiCt "ri}e; tPuxfj~ ... » xa~ «H $uxa:vaAUDl'i: rrpo't<XYlla xed:

BtCluyamp>. TIOU O'ult'1tepv..all-~6;vovmt O"t'tt Enxvp08p6p.ta 1'OU Aa{jup(y- 8ov, crtl~ ExB6oEU; r$LAov_

"H q>pa0"lj 'tou 4Jp6Uvt yux n1V q,uxa:vaAuoy! wt:; «&l$uva-t'o E1tCcyYEAI1O:» Lnt<xvxe:t ~aYJ ~ np£v an:' Tt]V II e:prrr/J }la{ anepaliLl} OOIlfAUa?7 (1973) t O'"tov 1tp6i..oyo 1COU fyprope 6 cllp6uV"t' y~a "to ~tt3ALO Verwahrloste Jugend'too Aichhom (t 925). 01'tOU 6 c:Dp60vt -n1\i 1tapOUO't~L w;: YV(iHTtO tr)tpuoA6~ Y"Illla.

TI :EHMAINEI EIIANA:ETAI:H;

~'t(XV au~'J1"tOUll~ yux -nJv E;1tCXVaO'Mo,] 1tpe1te~ 'Va eXOUllE. Cx1taAAayet 'tEAElw~ into 1:(~ E:tX6VEC; 1tOV Etxa~€ a-c6 ~uaA6 ~aC; yr.n 6(50- cppay~.u:X'ta, y~a ~v x(x'taA"fl<P'fl 'tWV «X£LIJ,s:ptV(;)v &vaxt6pwv», y~6; E.IlI.pUALout; 1toAtIJ.OU~, y~a aq>ayt~ ~ '"t'polloxpa:des >C'tA. 1\ v Kat xee"ta reooo +t ~(a elva~ a1tapah7J"to a't'o~xe:tO 11 cX\layxaio x(tx6 ~ ba: )..W<; a:r6):ruJ.(x (accident) 01' ~~ e1t tXV C(Ctt a oe tt;, !J.1tOpoUIle: va "'to au ~"tJ'T"Il aou l.tE 1tcxpaxa:t'cu ~

86. ~6E:Aa. va E7tW<pEAlJ6& cnt6 a~ 'TIlV S:UX(Xtp((X~ y&Ci va e5wow, lawe; YLa 1tpw"C'1} rpopa at 000.; exw ypatlJeL w~ "t'Mpa, EVa." xa.VOVti(O XNxCHXO OPLO'IJ.O "tOU "tt e\lvow e1t(Xv6.oTao'l. "EnavalITQUTJ elvca ~ prrnl 'Kat (Jux.uyar1!:lelly/ ~ rWli fJeq.uJv f.utiJ; XOUJ6.W {a~, 6alsJv O€oP.CJ'JJ qJucnxo: t~ap't'wvTa~ Wro prrn] (}iaf.l~oYl~ fJ.t n] OUMor'X~ 5p&CTYj a~ "rij~ xowwv (a; ij TOO fJeyak}repou fLepouq ~. P7JTil xed atauy(xoll~'V'l al"Aocril ~ YLa"t'i a.AAayE~ 't'WV 6e:ollwV tntapx.0uv cpuoLxa navto'tE. No~~w npoxOt.:; ~tA~oalle: y~a 't'6~ Mwucrij, xat YLa 't'6v Mwa~E:e ~ or. o1toiot aANx;'O:'V art "t"epO;c;no ~ae~6 "t'o6C; 6e:O(.LOU~ 'twv XO~VO"t"J1'tWV: 'tOte Ct.u'to "to ovo~a~U) &1tAW~ aMo(6)Oi']~ WUlXYl7 1'hlV eea~w",. ~aw !-ttAfif.lE yta -n1v XOt\lOtYl-rCt 7tOU ~tp€~ (nJ"ta Ott BtAE:t veX aAMl;e:~ 'tou~ U1CtXpx.oV'tec; ee:alJou~. KUL &ta\J AeW Bu:xuyaalleV1J-Jucide, Bt" ewohl oms: atCl<pa\l~~ xed ome: XtX'V e:l;avtA1j1'~Ka aUV€La~, YLa:d LJ.ou cpa£\'e-tcxt Ka~ U7tE:p~oAtx6 xed aVE:7tapxl:<;. ~'Vvow (yn O''tox.a~'t(Xt xct'ta xa1totov 'tp61tO CXll"'t'O nou XcXV€~ xai YL(X-rt "'Co xa\le~. lDua~x6: 6 nepr.opto!-loC; U'touC; 6EO(lOUt; nou E:sap-rwvtat {x1t6 PTI-n1 etO'~~O'1} !ttva~ npotp(Xv.q.;, B~&n~ 57tw; Et1tall!!~ U1t&pxouv 'te:p6:O'"tLE~ 1tAEUpet; "rYlr; XOt'VWVLX'i1~ 6ea~&CJYlt; 7tOV a€~ e:;ap-rWVtClL a.1tO p1J'tE.~ 1tpa~u; -rC)'v ee:.0'(lL~6v't'wv, 't'WV vOlJ.oBt"t'c7lv X'tA. Ked <poatxa 1tp6)(e:~m~ yta auAAor~Xl1 evt{J~ y~t(X •

r[ve't'a~ \l0tlU;w <pavepo O't'L fl' txlml -01\1 evvota iI E:1tavaam0'1l e:IVClt O"t~va au'V3&t5E:l-LtvYl ",-t -r6 GXtdlO -01tWC; Ate~ {; x. M1touya~,

110

01 OMIAIEE ::ETHN EAAAl1A

~ W 'lrpmr.:tn1fX J -r6 yaAAtKO projet ~ -r6 YEp~a;v~x6 Entwurf, -ri}~ atYto\Olltac;. ~1:t1Aa~hl; 1J.6vo av v0"l1aoulJE: E.'tO'L ~V e1t(Xv6:<Tt£Xm'1. I-l7tO{JOU~~ va Bte;p(tyt7JeOU~E x(X'ta rcooov l)7tiip~E: t-tt& ij 1tEpLOo6- 'te:pE:~ E:Tt(Ivo:o't'ao€~c; 0Ttj\J 'Ia-ropfa. ~'Exoo~e: cX)(Ptf3&~ -nl" rrpocmtl6e:ta 'rile; Xotv6'tYlme; ~ va. aM.aSet "t'ou~ e€alJ.ou~, a"f1Aaa~ va. 1tCq:>E~ "ttl: xtp~« 'tYl<; TIJ (lOLpa 't"'1t:; t ~ 61to(a e;ap't'a'to:~ ~(xO'Lxa ano 'tovc; {JEa(lOU~ 't"l}~, xcx( va -roue; &AAa~t Btauyaa~eva xai 5x~ u1t6 1;0 KprX-rO<; eE£rx.~ (l(.(V(cx.; 11 6e:(w; &7tO)(aAuo/Y]~. 4to'tt (IToxa~"m~ xa£ OxE1t't'E:"tOtL (yn at 6e::0I-L0t 1tOU t)1tCtpx.ouv Bev elven aw(7to£, BEv €lvar. B£xato~, ae" e:ivcu at 1tp€1tov't'ec:; xaL 1tpE1t.e:~ va. lntap~ou" CXAAot eeolJot A&t6 elvat Ilia npw't'Y} antxpo:£'t"11'tYJ 'to1toB~aTJ, yta va SEPoull£ ytcx·t£ t-ttAat-te: .

M~ a&n1 -n1v e:wou.t, VOIJ.~~W (S'n 7tpC<ytJ.CX"t'L U1tYlP;ctV E:1tr.tvao'tCt(JEt';. (Y'1t"ijp!;o:v 11-6\10 OTtjv cXpxa(a ~EUaaa, xtXf B-q OTtjv ~6~v(X, xaf ~ vg6t'E.pYJ EOpw1t1J. bOOO\l iupopCi ~v apx,a(a ~E:u6:aa 't6 6EI-L(X ~1tope:.I va. tpavel liuaxoAo ixn6 -nlV O:'Jt'otP"I1 'ri1<; 6pOAoyi:o:t; -ot &pxrxi:Ot ~.UAOUV yta. "'ECJ.)-reptaIlOu~ )C"tA.-~ yui tltV(l 0IlWC; ~ Lcrropia 'tW\J al1J.!oxpa'ttxwv )\Bljvwv e:lvat 1t~p£7toU ~ tmop(X ou'Vc:x.W\I E1t(x'JaO'taaewv ~ 1tOU Bto:BtxoV"taf. ~ ElLa. TJ1V aAAll. Airto aPl~t Til aj(m£~"~ tX€ivy} E:1toxfj nou 01 ~e'Yi'VatOt a7tocp(Xa~~ou\i va ExM~ouv Be:.0llo6&cEr:;. a"'Aaa~ va ~u'V Cx1t6 -r6 1tapalioO't(Xx6 8tXfUO XC(( Ot1t6 't'fjv 1ta.paaoa~C(xil et<1~~01'l (6EO'{lt0"11 KCX( <>x& 6 emt tGll , y~a''d ol ~e"tjvarOL EIxa\l ~yQk;~ «6e:olJ.o66e:.C;»· ES OU Kat 6 opo~ «Bea[.l6~», 1tO~ ae.tXve:t MAcuG't'E O"t'L .ortfJe-riXl a:&-to "to 1tptXYIJCl, i5lJAalhl &'tt e:!va:f B"'1l.UDUPY"t]IlCl 'ri1c; xo~'VU}v~a~ xa£ at~ EXe:.t tEpa xapo:~pa). ~r1tapxet tlU1. OE!.p6; aAAaywv· 'to 'Ttl}.::; cxo't'e:C; at iYJ..:Aa:yt.~ 1tpa:nJ.C('t01toto[nrta~ tsap"di"Ca~ q>UO'LX~ cnr6 "tU; 1tep~(ttaO€tC;: 'O LOAwV eI"ClL eva: e~a.lp€'t~x6 7tp6ow1to nou 01 av-ttp.a.X6llEveC; 't'aSe:LC; GU~tp(,.:lVOUV va. "'tou ava6tooov va aAAa~e:t 1tOAAOUC; geOflOU~-i(CXt eXAAO:SEt, 01tWC; SEpE'tE., '1tOAh06C; tlE0tJ.0UC;. l\AAa~t -n1'V KOt VWVLx-r; Xct"t(xVOllll, E.loayet 'n1 aE.tGax6e:~Gt, Bfve:~ a~xatWfla1:a; cn6v B~lJ-O X"t'A. Ka( fx.OOIJ-€ -tij fleyaAY} ,bt(xVtXuttxoy} 'tOU KALttaBEtV"fl, 508 - 506 7t. X. ~ 1tO U e 1 va ~ ~ ixp;ol Tile; npC(YlJa't'~xi1c; Bl'} llO xpa'tLCX-t; (.LE:-ra ~~ 1t'tl~al) 'twv rre~aLa'tpCX"t'ta6l" +

TI~HMAINEIErrANA~TAEH;

111

IIap€v6e'nxa, GX.E'ttxa. (It 't6 GtllCl -ri1c; ~tac;, 1] E:7t(Xvcio"t(UT7J 'tOO liMLo6tv"fl etv(l~ 'tw£w,; &\'aflJ-aX'tTJ, art' is ,'tL ~tPOUtle:. Kat t~axoAou6ouv va uTIapxou'V aAAcxyiC; 'tw-V 6e;o(lwv tX1tO 't6 480 xexLllE'tci, xed x(X.'tct 'tl1 aUlpxe:~a 'tOU DeA01tO\lV"t)0LCtXOu 1tOAE~OU -ihtou 01Cap:(oU\I Kat avte:1ta.'Jacrt'cXaE~C;, 01 -rt-rp(Xx60tot, ol 1tEVtE: XtAtaBe; xat ut6 'ttAO~ q>uoLxa ol 'tp~&.)(oV'tC{ 1:'UpaVVOL- a.AAa XtxL cnov 40 atwva., 7tOU EyW 't6v 6e:wpCl 1tAEOV ~v 1tapCt.x~li Ti}e; 811[J.oxPrx"t'(Xt;. Aln'6 rtOU y(ve't(.(L xed 1tOV a1tO'tEkr "'to llEYaA£rO xa[ "TI1 07J~aaicr; cx&ci1~ tiic; 1toi\t't~xjjr; &ttlltouPY[oo; e:.IvCt~ O'tL 1:0 7toAi'tEOll(l l}1t6:pxe~ en: xaeE. cTnYll~ a.AAO.. xed xavtva~ 8tv 'to BEWfud: a~Bollevo IlLn yta 7taV'tC(. ~utJ.<pw",a IJ.t -n1 l5tXT] !LOU 6pOAOyio:: t)7tapx'e:.~ x.a.'ta Xa1tOLOV "tP01tO IJ-L6. OUVE::01C; Buva:rmrrux t1tClvcx.6eOlLtO"J]c;-ri1~ Xotvwv(ac; IJ-E Ct1t6$~t~ 'tou )(O~VOU 1 BY}AaB~ '"tou a~tlou+

~-n1 \le6't€p1l ~1tOxr1 EXOU[.l.E -r£C; BLar.popE~ E.1tavcxcttWx~<; 7tOU ;tpE.'tt. ~ )tat KUpLW~ -rl; 'ttaoEp~~ xAaO'-KEt;. CO x. M 1touyiiC; I-lO"'l}OE Bt)(Cliw~ y!.a avo ~ YLCl'tt elwu rGwt; ol 1tt6 e:lJ.CPC(V€i:~ xcd 1te~Cit'~KE.~. Ka-ra xa1tO~OV 'tp01tO €XOUV acppay£ae:t n1 mJYXPOV'1} E:1toxll). IIap' OAES "de; aLaq>opt~ nov 7tOtfJoua~a~~ Xct£ "t6 1tOAU CTYlIlCXV'ttx.6 BMOXEUTLXO -r11<; <TtOtXE:LO, ~ ~yYAtX~ ~E1t(lvcXa'taa7j 'too 1640-49 elva.t (3i~(xLa ilL&. t1t('(VcXG"'tCXGl] (J-t Tljv e'lvo~a. 1tOU 6p£oav.e:: t)1ttipXet GUAAoytX.~ aUllllE'toxYl, €1ttsrrtEr"t'c(t CtAAtl:y~ -ri1.; eeall~011C; rijc; xot "Vwvf.oo;, 'tel. Bt~a'ttX au~Yl"t'o [)V"mt. l\AAwo'te aev Elvcu 'tuxa~o o-t't €X£[V71 -dJv €1tOxn U'1ttXPX€L 'tEpao'tt(X r.ptAO Aoy£ a , xa( b:rr.6 "roue; lLo- vapxtKOU~ xat tX7tO -rout:; cX\I'ttl-lov(xpx'~Xou<; xed O'tL 't6te: e:llcpa\l~~'ta~ /) Hobbes X"tA. Me'ta, ~e~ar.a, EPX€'tfXL "iJ ~~gpLxa v r.K11 ~E1t(Xwx(Tt'txCTt1, rijt; 01tO~oo; Be" npE1t€t va ~€XVafle n1 07]l-laaia. Kat e(5w 1taAt en E1tctVeA8w a-c6 Btl-lct Tijt; ~LtxC; + 'Eav 6 I3cxa~ALti~ ti}c; 1\ yYA~a~ xed 01 C5~£uauvovl'e~ XUXAOt TI]~ yUpw a-r6 17751rta~ i..oytx.6- 'te:pOt· liv E.1XC<v fjpe't ix:m1x7la"t) (iv6pw1tot 01tW~ () lJ.e1't'Jt'~t't'a avnBpaO't'tx&ta.'toC; M 1t€PX, 0 01tO iDe; EAc.YE (yn « E<p6aov 01 a1totxo~ -rMV 7tOA"'tE~WV 'rile; Nea::c; A.yy;..tac; etAouv \'a odyto~OllYleOuv, Bev !-l1topoulJ.e ?tapa va -roue; aqn1aou~e: va cxu-rovo(J.1l{)OUv»+ a;v Btv e:IX~ e1tE{lfj,c::r. ~ 'AYYAfa w; 1l"fJ'tp6rtOA1j ~ 1tpo01ta:6c;nrrat:; v~ x(X't'(;(- 1tVU;eL -nl" E.1t(XvaG't'ct011 -rwv 6:.1tOtKt~"" 1ttBav6'tO:'ttX iSev 6a e:.!Xav

112

OJ OMIAIE:I: :ETHN EAAAAA

U1ttiP~E~ 1tOAEI,J.LXE~ t7t~Xe:tp~(J£~<;. 01 e~~ytpoe: ~~ au't'E<; qJ(.d'Vovt'(X~ xaeapa aEt OAoU~~ (l€ t~aLp€a'1l €A6:X'-G'te:~ nep&1t"twaEtt; a't'ollwv nor) 1ttpOtoav ~v liAA7J DX6'1 ~ aa~ ltl;eytpOELS' ~J.LaC; 6MxAl]P1JS XO~V6)v((.(t; tvarno\l Ii~a~ 1J"t}'tp67tOAl']~ 1tOU 6tAE:L va Tij; e7tt~A"'lee~" Me:'ta €.px,E"t'CXt cpuO',-xa. ~ raAA~x~ ~1ta'Vam:a:O'Y] xed I-u::-ra ~ Promx~. Nov.Q;w mr.. av 6e:wp1]aoullE: xed 'tiC; -rioDEptC; au-r€~ E:7tuvaO'Ta.O£L~, M~ alHJ.ClV"nxe~ (n1 Po aLx~ crnlv 7tpw't')'} <pao7) 'tl1~ ~ 1:0UAaXtmOlJ an' 'tOV q,e:.~pouap~o we; -eov 'Ox-cwJ3ptO 1:0U "17 xlXllxxolJ.'l (lCt'cX .or6v ·Ox'twJ3.P'1l 'too ~18, 50'0 Btv e;1~ "t'EAe:.t:W<; 'te:.ee:~ &rc6 't6v EA£YXO 'TOU ~1toAae:.~buxou x61l~Ct'toc;) 1tapa"t'lpOUIlE: 1taAL a&tijv 'nl OUAAOYtK~ C5pcu:Tt71p~6'tl]'ta "tii; XOtvwv(cxc; ~ (l€yaA.w'V "t'lJ.",~Otl'WV Tijc; KOI.Vwv(a~~ nou 7tpo07ta6ouv wi aAM~ou~ -rout:; 6e:o(louS· xed aUn1 ~ npoarccdJs:r.a lxAAayj]~ 't'W\, 6£G[.1&>v auvoae:ue:-w:;~ (x7tO "to mo~xe:~o nov OVOlJ.&~'taL a71lloxpa:t~x6nyta, nor] txrppru;~at tJ.€ "tEe; a~oopoptc; YVWllWV, 't£~ aut;l']~OEt~, 't6\J &\,'t'fAoyo X"t'A.. Atv l)7t«ipxe:.~ a"'Aa(5~ xa.7tOto<; 6 01toi:oC; hEEL: « 160u b 'Vto~ A6yoC; "tou BEOU •.. »

IIavw a' alYr61 6a lj8EAct va. u1tev6u(.L(ow a1tAW«; ~ Xwp£~ va 't6 ixv{X1't'tuSUJ ~ eva 07)(lELO y~tX 't6 Dno to (l~A-qO'C(lle x6tC; "'to ~palju ~ IIp6x€L'tcu yui -n1V -re:.pao'tux C5taq>opa 't'ijc; 7tOArretr.u; 'twv l\6J1vaiwv ~ crnlv 61tota c:L[.lCX<Tt'E l11toxpewll e:"o~ va lxvacpep6oulle: taw. 1:71- ~e:LWO"t'€ e'1tt1tAiO\l X(lt a&t6 ~ nov Erven eva. Cx1t6 'ta 3pa(.L<X'tGt ~c; t<Tt'OP~)(~C; xc.tt qnAoaorptX~C; yvwoYl<;: l,u.Aa~E auve:xw~ y~a rt1v apx.Otla tEAAa8a xat Ex,OU(.LE floAtt; 'to 1/50 'tWV 1tA~pOq>Op~(;)v "'t£~ onotec; ed"~1tpe:1tE va e:1:'xalle: yux va (l1tOpEO'OUJ.Le: va I-lLA~aoutl£ IJ.€ lxx{l£~€ta. MtACt(lE: yui a"IJflO)(p(X"t'~xtc; 7tOAt'tete~ xat yvWp£~OU[J.E 1J.6vo, xed cx&t6 5XL napa 1tOAU xa;AO: ~ .or6 1tOAtl'EU~a 't'hlV ~fu}vwv Kat TiJv E:seAt;~ 't'OU. 't}rrw~ ~tp€"1'€ 6 ~pL(1't'o't'eA"1l~ Idxe aUAAe:se:t ~ e:IXe: f3an~ TOU; !Ja&rrCE.C; -rou cn6 A6xE:to va aUAM;ouv uA~x6 y~a va ypaqrtE:'L iva crUyypalJ[.LCX 1te:plnOAt"tE&WV, &1t6 "'t6 61toto llOVO ~ «J\thr .... odwlJ nOA~"t'tdct» aw~c(t, xed T6 6noto 1tep~tXE:t ne:pi1tou E:xct't6v ti.;~v'ta 1te:p typacpEtt:; TIOAl TE LW'V Ileacx aT£; 6no ie~ (l1'tOpO U [lit va u1to6eaoulJ.e: o-tt xovtptxa tnriJPXctv 6y5oV"t'cx rceptypacpe<; C5"'1ll0~ xpaTLXW\I )tal oX~ OA~yC(PXtx.wv 1t'OA~Te:tWV. 'H llE.yaA'r} (3u.xtpopr.X

TI~HMAINEIEnANAETAEH;

113

~v 1tOAt"'te:.£a "twv J\6rfvwv AOL1tOV e!v(u an liE-v tl7tapx.ouv €1tcxv(xcrt'aO'e:~r; (.J.t 't-qv evvotcx Tl1'V eKPl1Xl't)(~ )(a.L n1V 7t<xpot;UOlJ.tx." 'tw~ vemgpw\I XpOVWlJ. BS:{3atwr; Otcapx.0u'V O''ttYllt~ CU«(l:qs: TIle; 1tOA~'tLX71; ap(XO't'"I}p~&t"1J't'(XC;:t aANX ~ (le-rappu6tlL07) 'twv l>7tapx6\''tw\J 6eo(.J.w'V yiVE.'t(X~, Oitws: gIna, KenO; 'tp67tO 1tE.pbtou ouvem. Ka( (Xu't'o aUlL(3ar.v€r. we; 't6 ttAOr; t w~ -n) llaxYl ti]~ Xa~p!Al'V€~r.tC;, tJ.€ u1'V lvvo ~(l 'ri1~ Bte:pr;: u'V'l 0"1)<; "t'hl\l xp<X"C ~ xwv 6e:0tJ.w v ~ 'to u txB'YJ IJ.. OXpCX't t - OIJ-OU 'tou~. TtxlITox.pov(X E.xouv.e: -n1 auve::m OUllllE."tOX"1 'tW'V 1tOAt'ti:lV aTIJv 7tOA~'t'tX1J apaa'tl1pt6nr~C(. ~E'V&) <rt'o6t; ve:.6-repouc; XP6- vouc; exou~€ 1:0 EX B~a(lE'tpou tX\lTf6n-o cpa~\'61lE:vo, Ct.XOll"fl xed O'"t'ouC; ActOU<; 1tot> ttJ.q>(Xv(~ovt'aL a' alrn1v -n1 O'u~iln'101] wr:; ol 1tt6 0lJIJ.IXV't'tXO( «(J.tAa~E XUpt(U~ y~a "tour; raAAous )Cat TOU~ ~lleptx(Ivo6.:;~ at PwaOL elvat aAA'1J u7t6e~0''r1 My6) 'ri;t; t;tAt~"1]C; 1[06 1t~pe: ~ Pwa~KTj "E1t(Xvacrt'cxol}). Kat 0' amoue; tl.xoll"tJ 'touS Aaouc;, EVW l>1tclpx,E:t cut6 "t'6v 130-140 al. evoo; a'Ja~paO'll6<; iBewv, E\I W 1tOAAa 1tpay(lcx-ra. 'd6c:vrcu l.l1t6 lx[.Lq>taf3~'t."Ol} --U1t&pxouv 01 6p"t)OXEU't'LKot Tt6Ae:ll-0t nov 1taG;ouv 't'e::p&.a't~o .p6AO, U1ttXpx.£t 6 1tpo't€a"tavt~a~6r:; 1tOV E1t(011':; 1t'a~t -repao'tto p6i\.o anD n1v ii1totV~ Ti'ic; ~o'V-rtpvar:; tB€C(~ "tou. a'tollou xat E.'t'ot 8rtv ll7tOPe:i: va: '1tE~ xo:vei~ o"t''- l)7teXpx.€'(H a XOt veo VLa. 11 tnt ota e: l v at a't~y<xv~, "teA!, (X:tW fl€\}l'J - ~ ~ 1t 0 At 't r.>Oj apaa't'1JP~6TIft'a 1tCXtpVE:L xup[wr; n1 floP'Pll EXPliSEWV ~ G1ttlotJ.wa~xwv Y1 0X'-. a..AAa 7ttXv'tWC; E:v-r6vwv xp(oewv not,) 1t'pOXaAOUV EKpiJ~e:,-C; .

YE'tot ~1tOpe.L xavdc; 'Va -net o"t't cXVC(rrtuO'aE"ta~ au-r6 1tov: lxoulJe:

VAOt uta fluaAD ~ac; yui ~ {.1o'V't'ipvcx E:nO;m xat 'to onoio Be'V e:!vo:.~ e:mpaA[.tEvo 7tE:p~ypo:r.ptxtX: a"l1A(la~ ~ (lui Ko~v{Uvla ~ o1tofa €!v(X~ (.(no-rpaJ3YlYlJe'V"tJ anD 'ttl. 1tOAt't'-X&' xa:( a~v o7tota ~t6: XPLO"q e;W1:epLxYJ (oX'- IJ-E -nlv EVVOta 'tou e:~w't€P~XOU 1tOAellOU crAM. rr ·x·, flUX a.1t6cpaUll 'too pCXO~A~a, +1 i] U1to$(a. O'tr. 6 f3aa~A~cit; etM:.~ 'Va E1tav(XqJepet "'to" xa60AtKtO[.l6. 07tVJS fytVE: ~v ~YYAfa, ~ 'to ye:"yov6~ i5'tL 't'6 xaBE:O"'t(J)<;'; rp6avE.~ a' eva OtXOVOllLx6 xai xOt.'JwvLx6 aaLt~oao Kat auyx<XAe:I "to 'catO 'tel. etets genereux, 07tw"C; yfVe:'tC<L ~ raAA~a., "fj TO €1tE:LO'ociLo "'tou J..qJ.CtVtOU 'rile; Boo't'WVYl~, 1tOV Y'Ve1:ctt 't6 EvauO'(.LCX y~n '"t1]V €'Vap~'1} ~~ e1tClvacnrxtTr'}S ~v l\l-leptx~) AEt-

114

01 OMIAIE::E ETHN EAAAl1A

'toup-yet 7tPI'XYlJ,.ct't'LXa 0<1" cnttVeY]pext; ?too 1t'tqnc:r. ae ,,!La ~1tapou'ta7toO~x1)· xa( (]'to a7J~E:(o (lU-CO t;eO'llXWvE.'t(u 6 x60~ot;, Se0.,pcwVE:'Ult ~ x.oLvwvla xaC xa6wt; g.orp(wvE"'t'Gtr., avtx7t"t'uO'oc:t 'It(JayllCl'tt llta. auAi\OyU'~ B7]!lLOUpytxii apC(CJ't'-qp~&t."m. .6.'1HJ.LO UpyE'L opyava 8tX'ijc; "t7JS el;oumoo; oTIJ'" 1\1le:.P~X'1i 1:6. town halJ meetings, -ca 8Y1llo't~xa OU(J.13 OOMCt , 'fa 61tota l)llwC; E:lvcu xa"t" ouoiav «txx):r'Jottx» "tOU AaD U, l-lE n]v Ctvx.a:ta EAA"f1'VtX1} EWOtct ~ 11 a~ DxAAto:. -rU; sections "tou IIapLotou. No~U;(i) B-n am6 EXer. (leyw...-q Ci1Ulcto(a, Br.6t'r. (lu't'o iuept~i3<; tLa~ 6&tet "t'6 ~1rtYnJ.a 'til.; O'XEm'l<; ·t'Ou 4U"t'ucoeupw1ta~ou ~E -ro txa.o-rO'te:. e:.yxa6r.Bpullevo XCX6EO"t'Wt;. .6.~AaB~, 01tW~ ~Bl] Itt 1tall~ t lnt&px.e:L ~ lBtex mt -r6 xpa-roc; Woe; xpa:'t'oc; l.ui; e:lvcu ;evo, erVCXL ~'Vo O'-rov 7tOAL'tYJ. TtXU't'6Xpov(X 5~(UC; e:lvar. &.va- 1t6t.pEOxtO ~ tvBEXolltvw~ 'tltpa'tw8e:.s;, xal an 1'6 XaAVtEPO nov 111tOP€L va yfVEt, elva:t va 'to 1tqJ~oP(oooll€ d Eva !1avtp( ~e ye¢ l;uJ..a rUpcu y6pw xaf lYrav (3yatVeL U1t€P~OALXlx lut6 "t6 lJ.aV"tp(~ ~ tTIaV 6tAeL va [J.O:~ p,aAe~ Ella.; 'tEM:(Wt; ~E.aa. o-ro (!avtpC 'to-te: ~Emt'CXllE: )tat ;ea"l])(WVOIlCXO't'!:. A&t6 €!v(X~ la£w<; xapaK"tY1p~a'ttx6 "tilt; ta"t"opfa~ -ri1~ raAAta~, Tilv 61to~cx f5txa~w~ aAAwcttE 0 MapS lutoxaAouae «~ )(Arunx~ yi] "t'ij~ 1t"oAt""ttX~'i» CaE av"t'f6e:0'Yl IJ.€ TIl TepI-ta-v(a) , 01tOU 1tPtXylJ.O:'t~ CX1t6 1'6 1789 lJ.tXPL 't6 1936, av oXt (J.€Xpt xed -cov Mci.,. 1"OU 1968, exou(J.e: aiYn] "n1V 1tEpLOaLX~ 8pWTt7jp~o1tof'1I<Ti1 ~C; )(ot'Vw'Vtar:; t ~ o1to(a we; -r6-rE. aq,l1v&tav a'JtAW'; va o:v'tt1tpoOfJ)1teoe:"t'o:~ an6 'to xpa:to~, 'tou~ [30UAt.u-rtc; X-rA+

"ExoUile €no(,J.€.Vc.tl«; ~~a 'teAe£W~ C:haq>opE.'ttX~ a'V6pW7tOAoytxf] xa( cpa\l"'t'adr.'rxXll OXtO'1l 'tWV 7tOAt""tWV, 6Ehlp1Tt~xa "tW\I l)1tO't~et~evwv lJ,eAW'V 'tOU 7tOAr.-rr.XOU aW!la'to~~ (.ut 'ti}v tl;oua~(X. rux -rouS 1\- 6"t}vr.t:louC; lJ Esouafa e:lvcu ol '(Btot, y~cX 'tour; v€mepour:; ~ e:~ouo(a e:lvat 0 ;tL YL6: 1J.fu; TO V't'of3Attt ~ ahA&; 't6 VTO[3At1't Twpa (5ev elvo:~ oTIJv n6A'1, elvcxt oTIJv A~va. (orne. XtXV O'n1v ~e~v(X~ a.AA6. 0"t6 Ka(J'tp~ ~ crnlv ~EKCcA1}, oTIJ t.pWAr.6. ""tOU aPXYlYou) evw G"t'U; o) .. Ae.~ xwpe:C; e:lvcu 1 ~Etat, 'to Kpa-roC; ~ the Government X"tA.

~pxo~at -rwpa 0't"6 8e:&re:.po epw"'t"f)(J.<X 'tou it. M 1touyCi: 1tOLa Yrc(Xv 'to: cnto-reA£o!J.cttct <XlrtWV "tWV E:7t(X\Jao-raaehlv. NOllt7;w Ott '1 cutavTf}CTY] a' a&t-6 -r6 E:pW"tl'llLtx (aqrt,vov't(X~ 1tp6~ O"t~)1lYj'V -nl Pco-

TIEHMAINEIEnANA~TAEH;

115

ar.>n1 'Entxv6.m-ao"l) 1tOU ~a~r. &AM ~'YfC"Ill.l.a:ta, tvaS:X0l1EvWt; 6& t1tavtAtlou~E:) OUV8EIt"CCXL lLE. 't6 tp~lJ.a ?tou e:6eacx 'twpa a(J.eaw~. l17JNxi5i1 ~ €VW 7t ,X. 11 raAAr.Kl) 'E7tavaU"taa71 ""tou 1 789 (~ KofJ.~ou",a elvClt 1tcXAt t-tta &A)''1 &11:66£0'11, lSt&t't Xrl'ttX1tVLYE't(xL ow a1lla) ~XLV6:EL 1tOAO ItlaUAALOO(6:~ llE 'tU; tBEEC; "tou AaOU au(.tcpcuva (lE 'de; 07totE<; 6 ~aaLAr.ac; elvar. XaAo1tpOa£pe:.-roc; xat Sa BEx6e:i va &AAri~t 'to; 1tpay1J,oct(X xt'A., OLYck atya 6 A(X6~ xed ol IlLXpo( xat lieaato~ acrro£, 1tOU lbttu;av lleYcXAo p6Ao crnlv E;7tavao-raCTll -roo 1789, auvetOrJ-ro1tOtOUV &tt 8tv elvOtt ~"tOL 'ttl; 1tPt.Xyllat(X XfXL Btv IJ.1tOPEt va U1tcXp;e:L a1tAWt; lJ.LO: Et{YflVLK"J1 e;eAL;7J (xa( "to O'uVEtlSl'l"t01tor.OU\I tljlwc; -Ka( airt6 EXEL axEO'lJ ~t 't6 9tp.a. -rile; ~(ar;- ~M- 1tOvt~ 't'll CTtQ:O'1) tilt; AUA~~ i1 61to(a pott5toupyEi, iI 01tOLa 1tpoO'1to:6e:L v6; xtvIJaet >eo:( x.tve't 1tpaW<X"tL 't'ou~ EUphl1tafouc; {.Lovapx,e:.c;; Evav·dov TIle; raAAiac; )('"tA.) 0 11t&px.£~ hat IJ.ta yevtx~ Xtvl}'t01to(l'}- 0"1} ~ u7tapx£t V-ux Up&.O'tLCX lhU.uoupy~X'l1 apacrt"flp~&t"l1't(X )(Xt, IJ,E'tC< (UtO lL~a OptO}lEV-q (J"t'ty(.L~, xed ain:6 e!vat -r6 TCe:.p£e:pyO -q>UOtxa ~ lCTtop£a el"ar. q>o~e:pa 1tOAU1tAoKl1-~ 6 Aa6c; Ka-ta xanotov -rp61tO apx~L va. a.1toaOpttCXt a1t6 ~v 1tOA~'tLX-q Bpft011 . .6.'1Aalhl ~ an' 'nl a"tLYIl~ x(X'ta"t'1]v oTto£a ~ ~(.(aLAe(X xa-rapyijBYJxE., xa.pa:tOlL~ellXE 6 [3a.ar.Atro;, xa-rap~e"fJKot'Y -rel 7tPOV6~Ul, $1}cpt<Tn1XE. -r6 1tpw'to auVtay(la xat iSm ""ta liAAa., uav va Cx.px~~ 'Va U1ta.PXEt t.J.UX lx1t0llaxpU'VO'Yl "tou xoav.ou O:1tO TfJv 1tOAL"rtX~ BpaCTY], a.7to~axpuvOlJ 1tOU a1tmEi\eO'e xa:rti Tt1 yvw~"1l ~ou Ttl\' ava-yxaLcx auv&fp('1 yux \1& ouyxe:v-rpw6eE 61..1111 tsouo£a <net Xtpt(X 'tWV rLax(U~fvw'V xed yt6: va o:px£oe:t nAtov llLO; 'tfJOllOXpa."do: liAAoU e:raou~: ouanU.la"ttx~ "'Cpol-Loxpa-rta;, iJ Terreur, we; oUCTtlJ lJ.a 1t!.0:. xa£ llXt w~ £1teta6ato, E.XP");'11 , E:)(t"po~ 'tou 1tA:~aOUr; xt'A.

To iUtmiAeol-lr.t rils lCTt'opt:a.~ nota e:lva.L; Kat BE\, ~!.Aacn f3E(3a~a y~ti -r6 a(leoo Xpo'Vuux Cx7tO"t€Ae:O).l.(X 1tot} trra'V 6 NanoAi:oV"t'ru; xa( lJ£'ta /) AouBo[3£xot; 6 t8or;. Ela. 1l'tav noM xovtocp6aAlJ.0C; Cll)'tOt; nov 6a EAe:.ys: m~ ey~\'av 5Aet; aiYttr; ol e1t'a.vam&O€~<; YL&' va lx\lClae:LXeE~ e:'VC(~ cttYroxpa'topro; il EVo:t; ~aoLAL6:t;. T6 o:no'ttAEoll(X axpt~w~ "'ri1~ tmop£(.(~ e!v(u (jon, napa. '"t'ov Na1toMoVta Xa.L 1:0" AouaoJ3(xo 't6'V 180 xa.t 't6 1830 t fut&px.E:L fva 'te:priO"'t~o XlX"ttXAot-

116

01 OMIAIE::E ::ETHN EAAAtlA

7tO: '"ta dLXa~ulll(X't'a 'tOU )\v6pw1tou, ~ Atax~pui;Yl 'rile; i\p)j]e; 'ri]s Kl)p~(lpxfo:r; 'tou Aaou - (Xu"t'o va Il11V "t6 ;qva~e, YLct"tL Wt; 't6'te: ol ~aatAEI<; Yr'tav ~(Xa~Ae:tC; fh::tt:y l;~Ka£q>. "H i5r.ax~pu;7j m!. xaae: e:!;ouo(rx 1tY}Y~L an' 'to", Aa6 xed Btv IJ.1tOpe:'L 'Jex aax'1l6e: t napa EV ov6- !-.ltx't't 'tou c:!V(U ~~&. tXn' 'tU; 1tPW-rE~ 7tpo"tam:~~ "ci1~ At(t)olpUr;"fJ~ 'twv .6.~K(.u(U~.uhwv 'tou Av6pw7toU xat: 'tau IIOAh-fl. J\7t~ DAY} a.Unl Tijv lxv(x"tcxpaX'1 (.lEver. €7tO!J.EVWt; ~ cptAclsuee:{J'Y] )(OL'VW"((x, 01tW~ 1te:p£- 1tOU ~ ,..,,(UpU;ou~e.

T6 'tt ( .. Uh~~L fx.1t' -n1 PWO~X"I] ~1CCX,,6:(J"t'CXOY), fdvat llUX aAAll ou~irclJa~ - Btv ali ~6e:Aa WI u1te:r.oeA6Ul "t'W-pa. Ain:o 1tot) Ile.ve~ elva~ a1tAW<; Kat 116vo 1-UtX Tepao-rux apv7J'ttX~ 7tE:~pa, 811Aa(5~ ·d (5EV 1tPE:1tE:L va Elvf.u ~~a. €1tC(\'aGt'C(Q'Y] ~ 't'L 8EV 1tpt1tEt va )(ave.~, 1tW~ 8tv 1tpt1te:~ va E:sEAtXee1 K'tA+ ~PV7)'tLX~ 1tEtpa Ox~ a.1tAWe; llE nlllopq>"il cru!L7tEpaa~OCtUl'V I:.iAAa. 1lE: ~ Ilop<p~ YEtyov6'twV! llTIOPOUllE va. ~6.i\o U 1J.e: "t6 tici::cruAO 0' eva acup6 ~ IJ.~ to:, IJ. y}x(XV ~atJ.o u~ ~ 1tPtX~e: tC;, e Eallo6c;~ ol 61tolo~ 6B'1iY71oa\l a~ aiYt6 1tOU ov6~a~av napaBoar.axti ExcpuA~afl6 ~~ Pcoa~xi1c; ~1tCX\l<iat"«xo7);. rraVtco~ xcx( ani'J 1t€(lLrrrco all "t'YjC; ra)..) .. [ar; xed G-n1'V ne:pL1t't'wG't] Tij.; P<uofac; ~ !lEVE: ~ 't6 YEyov6~~ OTt OAct OUJ.L~a.(",ou" ~ hlC; e&.\1 6 veme:poc; aVepW1tOC; va ~'tcxv b((xv6~ 'lei ~1tE:i at lluX c.paa"l} E:Vt0Vl1':; 1tOA~"t~K'ijS apam:7jp~&t7J'too; y~&. Eva X,POvtx6 BtacrtrUlQ. t l .. LltO'(X 0't6 61totO (x\la1t't'Uaa£L X(X'tct- 1tA'1X't'~Xt~ C5TJV.r.OUPYLx€S lx([v<Yt'l'tE:;. r~a:d amo nov eytve ani rCtAALa (J.e"tflSU TOO 1789-92 elva~ 7tpexYtl(X-rLxli cpa'J'tatTttx6, w~ aui\).:1f3«57J'V CtAAcxy-t] 'tot) )(001l0U9 ii aOtO nOD EyLVe: on) Pwa£a~ ~ alrr6~ nov eyt'VE on]v Oiryya.pla ·de; EAtXXtrrt'€C; ~(lEpe~ 7tor) AeL ~ "t'oupy7]oa:\J 'ta :EU~~OUAt(X 't6 1956. B).tnOOl-LE a7JAaa~ 1tW; 01 liv6pw7tOL a~aeE't'OUV eva "t'eparyno XCX"'tct1tLE.O'Il€VO Buvall~x6 all~~oupytx6: opya:vW'"t'~x6 ~ aUAAoytx1jt; cXAAl1i\eyy&q<; X'tA~ 1tOU 1'6 a..vrJ.- 7ITUaaouv (l£ x(X't'a7tAy}x'tLX6 'tp61tO 0' CUYt€C; 'tic; 1t€pt6(5ou<; xa.t 1tOU an, au"tx.e.~cx. l)1tOxwpet. ~1t" au1'ou 6a fl6e:)..a {lOVO vO: 1tW o'tt iJ t)1toX,WP"'1O'Tl alro1 atv elvat avexyxafa. Ucp€G\EtCXt 'Vot.J.U;w m6 YEyov6~, 't'6 01tOtO ~e~cu(X 6tv elvcn 'tuxcito, Ott 1t<Yt't w~ 'twpa atv eyt'VE xa6<X{J'fJ auvE.tBY)01] 't'wv aVepW1tWV o't'r. 1Ir.0: E:'lt(lveXo"t'a.O"fJ X(x'awe; 1tpOxwp6:€~, B'1lAa&] xaBw; 7tpOxw{J&e:~ I .. uti tpaO'"fl apa<Tt~p~6-

TI~HMArNEIErrANA~TA~H;

117

"tT]'[a~, 7tpene~ x6.ee G'ttytJ.~ va 'Jtayr.WVEt tXu'tGt not} ~Xe:t ByU.uoupyqOEL we; f)€a~ou; aU'tovol-.t,(a~, we; 8e:.0IJ-0uc; auhAoY~Xj]~ OUl-lllfI'toxij~. Nit 'tit 1taytwve.~ oXt ll€ -n1V €vvota Tile; G.P,U.1 "tWV cpuAaxl}v xai 'tw-v xupwaecuv, va 't'rX 7tayLWVc.t hl~ a~aB~xaa~c; 1tOU t1tt'tpl- 1tOUV <TtOUC; lxv8pw7toor:; va aU!1Vo€'t€XOUV ani~ 1tOAr."t~X~ xed on1 a~axuJ3Epvy}~ "t'wv XOtv&>v~ XUlPU; veX e!ven U1tOXPItcJ)~tVOL va. Se;vuXt(XVE. aapa'V't'a. ox't'w c:!Jpe:t; ou'JExEta, 1tpay~a 1:0 67to~o yive:'ta~ E:1tc(VEtA"t]lllJ.tVt»t; ani-v ~Icrtop(a. Ol la-tot «iv6pw1tOt, 01 61to1o~ CxpvouV'ta.r. va xavouv 't6 1tapa~~xp6 ~E.aa a' eva aUo't'1Ilcx' 1tOU atv 't6 7tapcxtitxoV'tCXt t e: 1 va ~ txa\lot va. I-l ~ tpii\'E xed va fl ~v xo ~IJ. "i}- 60uv yta lltO: t~ao(J.6.aa, n.x. a-rav Xatt 'tou~ 1taBta.Y::L. Alia txu"to ~€fjaLa (3ev !_.L1topouv va 't6 X.cXVQUV en' ii7t£r.pov. Ti' cx&-t6\' rov A6yo 1tpt1t~~ at xc:i6e f3illlC1. \10: B"J1IlLOUpyoOV"tClL Beop.of 1tOU va e:UXOAUVOUV xed 'Va €1l7te5w\louv ~.lLa xavovtx~, OIl<XAl1, aove:.xJj xed etpLX-n] aU[.Ll-le-roxfj -rwv aVepW7t(rJv on]v e;ouma.

l:X,E'ttXtl. 'twpo:. (.I.€ "t'6 'tp('to aa~ EpuYtl'lI.lCl «reoio Elv(xL 1:6 llEAAO\l 'tOU E:1tcxvao'tu'ttXOU axe(l)iou». (5tV ea ij6ucx va ou~rrtr,uw -n1 BEtTtJ Tils XawCL j\PEvt., yux'tt 3ltv ou!J.r.pw\lCl. NOl1o;w {j'n €1'VClL 1tOAU ~t(X(TttX~ ~ BLa1tLmW01} O'tL {) dxoa-r6; al~vCtc; CtVnx(X'tEOTflOe 'tou.; 1tOAtllou~ (.I.e: 't£~ t1t(Xv(X(J'tcioe:t~ . .6t" urE.X€"tfXL M 1toux-daa ~g xat a1t6 t1ta.vCla"taae~c; xaL ano 7tOAelJ,OUC; "t'6v e:lxo0""C6 o:!WVtX, xat r.ut6 cnpa't6ne:8a auYX€V"CpWat{l)~ xed a7t6 u8poyovo~6!!~e:C; xcx( a1t6 'ta 1taV'tCl· 6& 't6v 6ulJ,olJ.cxCJ1t 't'ov e:bco0"t'6 alwva.

T6 YEyov6~ o'tt ~ epya:t'r.x~ -ra;'1} litv 7t(X.(~~ 1tAeOV xaf BE-v [l1tOpei va. 1tat~~ -r6v p6Ao nov 'riit; iX1ttBLBe: 6 Map;, xa:ta. "t""fj yvhllJ.~ lJ.0u, Btv e:XE~ ("111.0:0£(,(. LY}(tcxoia ~xe~ .r( twooUIle: il-r<xv AE.~e: lL1tOpr;L veX ~oulle "to 't'EAoS a.mou 'tou E:7tcxvao"ta'ttXOU 1tpo"t'<Xy[.Lcx'tot:; + 'Eyw a.u~ TJ1V lata 1tOU at\' 7tapaBtxo~cn ~t~a~CXt ea. ~v E.~a~a a1t6 avo 1tAEUpEC;. ME 'itor.a E:\lvmtx ait 117t0POUOCXIlE va ~ptm<6~aat'€ O'E IJ-La. 1te:p(oC5o nov EXE:t ~aet nLOUl 't"l)-t; "to €1tClVOOTt'Gt't't.x6 1tp6'tcty[.L(X; LUllfPW\,(X {l' ama noo el1tct on1v i:t.wJI. ~ 6& m1!J.at'J€ O't'L qoulJ.e acp-qaeL 7dow flac; T/rv 1t€pLo50 Til; tG1'Op£O:~, 01tOU E:!l1taLVE: 1:0 ~~uUJ.a ~r.a:.t; p"l}'rii<; xat ~lLaOY(X(Jt-tt\J1JC; lxAAayYj<; -rwv 6Eq.t6.W a7to -n1 aUAAoYLX-q XOtVWVL>n1 apaa7J. ~r'1t6 1tOLt; 7tpoU1tOetae:~e; Ba

118

OJ OMIAIE::E I'.THN EAAAllA

~1tOpouoa.J1.e v6: ELXIX(,LE qrt'aae:~ d eva "'t'£"tOLO O-ralSLO; ~H (lux '7tPOo1t66w"fI 6& YrttxV fur. atv ll1ta(1X,E.t 7tA€OV MyoC; &AACC)'"jjc; 'tt7lv 6e:OllWV. (H all.ll en ~'t(X'V O'tL qOUIlE. qrr6:0EL oro 'ttAot; 'ri1t; fIatOPLa~ ~ -n)v tye:AtQV'l} MaLa: oxr. m6 'tEAo~ 'tou x60'{lou, MAti tTt6 <T1lIJE:LO O'7tOU cxirr6 7tOV 6& yf'Jlt-rlXt tcpe~"ii~ e!vcu (fut(r)~ AieL 6 XtYXS:A, cYra.v qnav.e:t 01'6 'time; 't'WV 1tapo:Boos:w\I )"ta Til t])r.Aooocp[a Ti]; ~Iat'op£oct;) e{Jtr:E:'plxr} Bookux. Ked 1tOAAt~ cpopi<'; m J3A£1t£L xavE((; uirto o·tUUC; &)(1tpoaw1tou.; tJ.tOO; 'touAax~crro\l 6:1tOXPwae:w~ 'tOU mU1.EptVOU cptAeAeuBe:pr.OJlou, 01 61toiot me: an «'to: 7taV"ta BE\, e:lvaL 't'EheLfX» (lhtw~ et1tcx XtX1tO"t'£, ol tJ.toflo( 'twv (icxO'0cpuAaxwv "tou vo(.lou Kot6:Vt}~ 6& E1tpe.1tE va aU~"1l6ou\l xa1tw; -elvat Ilr.a a/It' -de; irttM:LE:t; Tiis: O1}~e:.pE.vTjc; XOL'VW'V{ro;-, i} u1tapxouv aK611~ tle:ptx~ A.a.xxoi)~e~ a-r6v 8p6IJ.O a1t' 't'6 Pt6uIJ.VO 1tp6t; TIIv J\yia rUAiIV"q) «aAM 01 ~aaLxo( 6EOIlO( rdV(Xt altto(». K(X( axoAou6et 6 Ule:oAoytx6t; exj3LCXlJtl6t;, 7tOU ytvE-'tcn e3w xed Bexa1te\lu Xp6\lLCt 'l"wpa t o'tt ~ «av 7tpomta6-qOE't1t va 'tOUt; &Ai\cX~'t'E;, eli 6B'1y-"Oe:L'tE at6 rXOUA&'yX» .

.6.EV votJ.£?;;cu iYrt ·ExOU~E qnaaE.t o"t'6 "tE.M><; n,.:; ~IaTop(a; ~~ alrtTj n1V EWOtfX, BT}Arx&1 BE-v vOllf~(r,) un ll1t0POUll-E veX 1tOUtJ.E un qouIJ.E qrt'aaeL ~'J xaAlrrEp'Yl O:V6PW1tLVO: Ecptx-nl BOIl1J -rYi; xotvwvio:t;. Ka£ tcp6aov 1tOm auxva IJ.E 6ecupou'V 0 l)'t'01tr.Onl, lLe 't"1)\1 xax~ e:vvoLa cpurnxcX. avtunpE<pw 't6 tpW'tTU .. UX xed pw-t&w: ?toG 'Lcrta-tat, «1t~ errW» .. 01tW~ ea ekye: () Apxt~~a7]~, a&t6~ 6 onoTot; AEe~ (ITL a&t6 E.I"'gt )(CX£ 1teptoao"tE:po lit\' yivE"tat; 1\1t6 not) f3yr.dve:.t am6;

J

j\1t6 xti1tOtC(. 7tMrt(U'V~>nl6EWPl}0l] 'tWV [Be:wv; 1\1t'6 )«(X1tO~O tyEAta ..

va aUU"nltJ.tt; Kat 1tWe; 'tOA(J.oi)v va. "t'eX htve o:v"t'cX 7tOhr:ttKOt cptMeoeor, 01 01tOtOt a.XPt~w<; EXOUV apv'r1eeI KafJe aXEcrl1 IJ.€ IJ.L(XV oV'"C'oAoy£a 'tOU aV6pW7tLVOU oV'"t'o;~ il 61tofa £VBEX0IJ.€VW; 6a 111tOpo om:: va 1tei lXlna, 7t .x. ll~a. xpf.mux\luol ovroAoyia, ~ Ctx61J.l) ~ui xaV'ttavil 6s:wP'laTJ 'tou a'J6pW1tou - yurd aUflqJw\,a; ll' alrtTjv n1 6e6lpT)oY) 6 avep(U1tO~ e:lvcu ~ao~xa eva Br.ac,..'tpe(3AhlI-lE\lO ov, liEV ~1tOpe:r; 1tO'tE: va. e:l'Var. ~Buc.6 (Sv. n&vw at "'te'toLec; ~&ae:tr; aa IJ.1tOpoGO's: xave:fC; vO: 1tpOO1ta6i}oEt va xctt'0xupWOE.t tptAooorptXa TIi lata. i5Tt atv 't'LOE'tlXf. nux' ~iJT7llLcx Pt~LX~C; lxAAay1j<; 'thlV 6e:av.w.v. Te-

TJ ::EHMAINEI EnANA~T A::EH ;

119

"totec; xa:toxupwaetC; Btv EXOUlJ.~ Be:t 7tou6eveX ~ e:XOUllE BEt 1tp<kylJot'ta ltvexB~Yjy7J't'(X, o'Jtw~ 01 )(r.t'taa)cEUE.~ "tou von Hayek.

Sa ~1tOpOOOIt xaVEtt:; \1& 1t£t un (31£(3CXLWC; Y} ~Iat'opLa lStv exet 'tE.A£tWOE~-Otv ~tpoulle av amo 'to oUO"Tl}lla. erVfX~ ""to X(lArYte:po a:rt' ooa e!va.L av8pU}1t(v(i)~ ecpf.X't"a-, aAAa SE(lOUllE o'tt ~ lo'topkl 7tOO qEt myoupa 't'w~wae:t E!V(Xt ~ lO'top£cx 'tou 1tpotaYllu'to~ Tii~ AtYrovo(J.((X~.1.'1Nxa-q l;EPOU(lE O"t"L "to (lEAAoV "'tw.v aV6pW1tLV{tlV XOLvwv~wv elvcu ~ 1tael)'tLX<Yt"J'l't<X, e:lv(Xt ~ £1ttxpa:nlCJ11 ~<; <pLMAeu6EPl1r; OALYapx(ec; Ilt oN.>: oaa OUVE1tOCye-tUt. ntiV{l) d amo OCt ekya liuo np<iy(.La-ra. T6 1tpc,'to e:.lvcxt am6 7tOV e:.17to:: xat xate; 't6 ~p&.au, O'tL a1JAoa~ lSaot laxupU;ovttXt xa't't 'tCtOLO a"nlp~oV'taL at El17tE:Lptxtt; CtJCtA6m:L~, (Xv DXr. Efl1tE tptx€<; ~e TIf xuBa£a EWD LeX, 'tooA<ixt(]'tO\l 1tpaYlla'toAoytxer;: (571Aaa~ «an' iSao f.L1tOfJOU~E 'Ja y\lC!)PU;oulLe:~ i)7tWC; Mve ol r&'AAot, ol (i"OPW1tOt ~Ile:pa Bt\l eV8tClq>tPOV'tttt 1t).tov yt6. 'ta XOLV6:" 1tpOaflE"'t'OV"M«; E1tt1tAEOV U1tOX86v~ct x.a.£ iJtoPP'1't(X mt Btv 1tp6KE:L-m~ va !;avO,£vBtaq>£p6ou\,. Kat 7tot) 't6 ~p£"t"e: xup~Ot, to£IC; .shOt 1tOU ~1crt'E. xa6YlY."..rec; xo:( 1tOAL"t'€t.OA6ya. at 1t(l\,E:1tt~ Il~a , U1tEP€~01tAtO'I .. utvOt Ile ~ tl3ALO - ypacpiet;, eaew; fiOU (5!,UA~'te:. "t'ov KWVWTta. O'XE'tuc& !J.t -nlV (xxp(f3,S:LCX xo:t n1v ttu<Tt71p6nyttl 'tWV l}ux-ru1twv6fl£VCUV 1tpataO£wv; nw~ 5La:teLve:o't£ ht l;epE"C'E: a1t6 'twpa <Yt~ 't6 2000 Btv aa l;a\laE:vBtCl<pe:peouv ol w6pw1tot llc(~1x6. YLa. ~v 1tOht'tr.X~; ~7t6 1tOV f3yafve:~ (Xu'to; TIor.6C; e:l"at 6 -r61toC; 1tOU Sa tJ.7topouae 1tatE 'Va <rra61tL au't6c; 6 o1tob~ 6& E.kys: XcX'tL 'tttOtO;

}\)..).O: €7ttn..E.OV, Civ crra60ulle eTtO TCPaylLa:t"owytx6 e7thtElJo, alrtTj ~ aiol} ~xvaeL an !-l7tope:.i: xave;tc_; va 01tOC1'tl'lP(~L ?'toM 00- f3apa tJ.t O'uy,exp~lJ.tvec; aVaAUae:t~ 1tWC; 'to O"I'JlJepLVO aUa"t'"t]f.l(.( Btv e:lvat f3u~aL(l':o BLcYn Ae:.L"tOUpye:t f3ao~O'~ivo aE xcx'ttXAot1ta 7tP01}yOU(lEVWV xO't'<XO'tao&wv XUt a~ "CU7tW'V eXv6pw1ttVWV OV'tUlV t nor) Bt€:v e.1v(u lxxv6 va e;o:xoAoufhlOEL va napayer. xcd mJve7tw<;,. oiYrru<; il aAIw<;, ta'V 1tPtxyfl(rt~ ol liv6pw1to~ t~ax<?AoUeOUV vei a7tEx0UV 'teAttCUr; CUt' 'tee xo~va, fX&t6 "to 01tOLO (..LaC; 7teptlJ.ivet 0(youpa Btv e~(l~ ~ BLar.wvL01J "rOU 07jl-.LC:pr.VOU aucJ'tTJllm-oC;. El"txt KOCtr. iXA"'Ao. Nt 1-.tLCt: EWOtCX" liv XUL 01 to't'Optxtt; a\laAoYLe:~~ e:1"(xL

120

01 OMIAIE~ I:THN EAAA&A

1tOAU Ct1ttX'01Aec;, [J.1tOpe~'t€ \}a liet't'e 'tt en ~'tC(V xa"tt ij.)J .. o t &" KOL-raSe"tE 't'1]V ESEALSYJ -ri1s res publica Romeos, ~ 01tota (5ev ~"'t'o:v ~E.~ [3rua a"UJ.oxpaTta i:iAM xC('t'a Xt.X1tO~OV 'tp67tO e:.1xe f.tt6:v OpLGI-l£:V"fl eA~UaqJtCl )(.(t.~ IlVX E.ArXxt(J"[l} GUllllE:l'OxYl TOU Aaou crrO: xotva a7to ""to" 40 cdwva 1t.X. (lEXPt -n1v €yxae~8puG'Yl ""tou Auyouo-rou. 06:

CJe:L'tE t5l1AaB"t) liTt. Ct1t6 n1 cnty~~ x<X'ta -n)v onoia at Eva 'tE't"O~O aUO'tl1Jl.CX 0 t ~(Xatxo l ave PW1toAoy~xol )(0 t VWVtXO- t01;'O P~)(Ot IlYlXO: ~ 'JtO'(loL nov 1trxp6:youv XC(.( &vo:.7tCXpayoU\I O'uvex,w<; 't6v Ctv6pcv'JtoAoytx6 ""tU1tO o'V"t"o~ 6 61toto~ ~1tOp~~ va. xo:ve:t va Aet'tOUmae:t ~ res puotic« Romana ihtru,c; ~'tav "tOV 40 Kat "tOV 30 cd.. , l(cx"t'o:pptouv. Ka:'tappEeL ~ res publica Romana xat O:px.LSOU\I va t~cpav[~ov"t'cu 0 t mpa:tllYO( M6:pto~. L.UAAru;. nOlJ.1t~to<; xJ .. rc .• ot €tJ4lUAtOt. 7tOAe-.flOt. 1] TtA71P"1<; (5tc«p8opti -rou MoD, C>mtOU 'VeX Eyxcx6tC5pu6e;t 6 princeps" 6 AuyouG-roC;, Il€ "dC; a1t6AU'te:.:; Esouafe~ 'd<; (ntoLe<; XCl'tExe~ Kat "d~ 61tor:&~ "t'UX(llV€L cxu't6~ 6 yatO~ va Tf~ aOXlZt XtX1tWr; ixv6pw1ttva. Ked ~e:'ta Ba. ~peouv aAAol" ~eptxo( elvat 'tipOfta~ lS7tU)~ 6 Kct.AtyoUAaC; x.Art., llepLKo( elven ctlrC'oxpa'tope~ €u1tpe:1tetc;, lhtwt; 6 T pri(avci r; t 6 j\aptav6<; it. a. AtYnj Elva.t ~ !L0 (po.: Tij.;: res publica Romana, a.1tO -nl anYll ~ xcx:ta ~v o1to(a npay(ul'nxcX xai 01 "to:;et<; -rwv nobites x('.(t ol '[6.l;et~ 'tci1v t1rnew'V. fiOr) glv(Xt ol XUpr.Ol Aet'tOupyo( tXu-ri]s "'t'iJ~ u1t6eem'lt;~ aAArX )CaL ~ plebs, ex,OUV& 7tcXtJ>~& va e!vCt.& Ol1tctA~of PculJ.c.do~ nobiles, brne:i:r; x(X£ ~ 1CCXAta plebs 'ta.~€~C; 1tOV 'ttS a~EXptVe {lta aAA"t} O"nXC1Y1 a1t€\lCl\J'tt crt'a )(O~v6:. ~1t6 E:xe:£VYl ~ a'tty~'fl 't6 au<rt7U.la llEoa ai E.Sl1V't'Ct. XPovLa

~

a.xoAoo81Jui !J.ta (J~tp6: et-tlPuA.ttvV 1toAiIJ.<Ov ~ 1tpoypa<pwv, 'tE:.pa"tttl-

Btwv X"'t'A. Xtxi. at exa'to XV6\.1HX xo:'t'eA"'l;e O"'rir'J cx.u't'oxpcx't'op(a xed 'teAetwae ~ res publica Romans.

de'V Atw (yon ~ ~I(1't'opfCt E7t(lVaAo:.~~6:ve't(Xt, olh€ (.rn l-l1toPOUl-L£ va lJ.a6oulJ.e a1t~ -n1'V ~I(itoplot. AE.w O'tL Bt", ~1tOPOUlle: va ax~cp'too(.J.e. -n1 CTtLY(l~ 1tOll ~AeltOUllE ~"(X aUO'"t7)(la Bnwc; 'to O'1lflC:PLv6 va BLtxWixEt ~v XPLO'Yj 1tOU a ta:tpexet:> YLO: ~a.eu'ta't'ou.; Myou~ ~ ~ xptO"fl Bev elvcn ~e~at{x ~ 1t"tW<1Yl 'tou rrooocrroii 'tou xepBou~ xaL O:J..AES 't€"tOtE:S- avol1ot€.<;, Elvat 11:0).U f3afh.Yt'e:pot ol X6yot- O-rr. fl1topei t1t~ a1te.tpov 6 7tA"11eua~6c; va a5&rupope:~ )({x( "rtX xupiapxct O'tPWlllX'!ct

TI ~HMAINE1 EllANAr.TAEH;

121

va ES(XXOAou6ouv (It {.Le:yaAotfJvx£cx va a~(l't'lpoU\l aU1'a 'tel CPtAe:AeuB€pa: U1tOAot1tct 1'tOU Ka"tct~e"'1x(xv l-le 'de; E:1tava.o"t'6.as:tC; xa( II It "to u') ay6_wE:'; tnt aie;} VE r; •

TO TIPOBAHMA THl: .dHMOKPATIAL ~HMEPA

96: aa~ IJ.LAYJOt:U yta -ra "YUJ.e:PLVrX 1tpo~AiUl(J.'ta Tii~ Bl1~OKprX"da.~. Aew aY1(.1ep~\,la 1tpo~)"iH.J.a"ta -ri]c; BY)(ioKpa:dac; xa( <Sx~ 1tPO~)..~I-lttta. riJr:; aYJ~e:ptvij; all~oxpa'da~ yttx'd o'n1V 7tpa)1lCt:rtx&r'frlX m1!!Epa Btv &Tt(:xpxe~ 1tDu6eva &'lJ.0xpocna. ~Y1ta.pxouv -r6 7tOAU t.ptAtAEU8epee; OAlya.px(e:~ at bPLOJlEVEt; X&pEt; ~ tTX£tLX&' 1tP0'V0I-LLOUXE:S. rtpoVOIJ.LOUXe:C; CUtO 1tOAAet; lx1t6$e:tC;. rrpe1Ce:~ va eYlJ,(XIT'tE. rx&n;v 'TIl GtLyt.L'J'} 1te;p~aa6te:POt ano 1tevrE iStae:xtTr0ILI1Upux iivOpw1tot 1taV6.> ~ y1l xal £lvar. ~~'t~lJ.a av fut&Qx,ou'V 500 71 600,1:0 1tOAU 700 txt'X-r0IJ.tJ.upto: &"OpW1tWV 1tOO ~ouv at Xc71pe<; 07tOU ~ 1tELVa (ltv elveu )(cx6'11fleptv6 1tpOf3)..'l~.ux, 01tOU ~ xa-w.B£wS"tJ. ~ CPUAaXtal] ~ ~ eAAEUpl) EM:u6e:pta.:; Bt" e:.l"cxt ~ xaBY}l1e:.pt\lYJ 1tpCtYlJ.a'ttx6'tY(ta. ~AA6: xed at a&tt~ 'de; otxovo(.J.txa Cx'VLt1t'tuyt..ttvet; xat 1tOAL'ttXCt cpLAeAe:u6e:psC; XWpEt; ~ )(ccr6.a't'(l~, £vw rpat"E"ttXt 1tEphtou f3LWatl-!7J ~ £l"at O1:'Ijv 1tPtTYI-lQ"'t'l.x6"t'l'(t<X a1te}..1t!.crrtx~ • Et veu Ct1te:Anta-tt'K'Y] y~Ctt( Bu - G'tuxw; x(Xvtvar; Bt" ~Ai1tEL 1tt6 7tipa <X1t6 "t"IJ lllYt"1) 't'ou. eve;) 'ttX 1tpof3A~l-.u:t'ra not,) avnil£'tw1tf~~ aiUlEPa. ~ av6poo1to-nyrtx elvat "t£parrt'tcx.

~T7t6.pxE.t xo::t" lr.pxYjv 'to 7tp6~AlJJla nou avEt.pe:pa 1tpoYJyou(J.i\i(r)~.

TO; 6/7, t6:v OXt 'tcX 7/8, 1'0 U x6o(.tou ~oi)ye: at eva xa6ecrrw<; qrrwXE.~CXt; xa£ "tEpamto:r; )«(.('t'(l1ttEO''1C; ~ ~T1tcXpx'Et E.n:Er:t'a "t6 OhtOAOYLx6 1tp6(3A')'ULCX YUl1"O o1toio 6 xaatvar; ailtcxcpopE:L ~ €V(SUXcptPE" 't'a~ yui IJ.e:PLxt<; roo a1t6$Et~~ evw ~OUlJ.e: 1tQ:'VtJ) aE lJ.tci 11l'to:povm- 7to6ip(y) ' 11 yux va X(l'J1otllo1toniacu (ita" w..Al'I 1tapo!lollila.", 1tPLOV(~OOfJ.E aom"/Ulcrt'L)Ca, xafhlt-tEpt\'a, -r6 KMx.8£ E'Ttt.X"W mo {)7tOtO £t'llaatt xo:6tCJ1J.eVoL. AU-n1v "n1 att"fll~ 7tOll lltAa~e 1tp6tEt 'Va ll1t&Qx,OU'V 1te:.pl1:£~ £xtTt'6 XtALaa€~ Ex't&pLa -rp01tLXWV 8aaClv o'n1 Bpru;LA(a, 'to: 07tOUx xafyovttXL auanuux'ttx<x yux v~ BY}~tl)upy"tlf:Jouv aypmtXE~ eX't'aaeL~. llXL 1l0VO rrn1 Bpr.U;LAEa t at 6A6xA7J(17l TlJv 'tP01tLX~ ~wv7j,. 'to: i5aO'7l xCl'tamplcpo'J'tctL, O1:'Ij\l EUPhl'ml bdaYl~ -ra BaOl1 KtXTCtO'tpiCPOV't(xL. Me on1V x(X"tCCa1'poq>il "t'wv BctaClY GU(l-

124

or OMIAIE.E ETHN EAAAliA

~aa£~e:t ~ x(X""[C(mpocp~ xtAt&i)wv xct£ Be:xa«'5cuv X~A~aBw'V ~~oi\oy~)(W\l eH5wv. "'01tWC; -r6 £xe~ 1tEI e:\loo; lleyaAoc; e1tt~~wv, {'(u"t'6 1tOU ol lo-roptxo( 'tOU ,..utAAOV't'OC; Ba 6ewPlJoouv we; 1:'7] lle:yaArYtEp-tl -,piAa 'tii~ lxv6pW1CCJ"t7)TCXt; rrrov elxom6 alwva litv en e: lva~ ome: ol1t6AEl-lor.. OU"tE ol 1tUP'7lVtxt~ ~6ll!3€C;;, OUTe: x.av "eva.;: "'t"pi:rot; nClyx6ol-Ltoc; 1tUp11VLXOC; 1t6A£I-l0S. A&t6 reou 66. qJave:~ w~ ~ ~€ya.AU~ -reM 'tp€Nx. -ril~ avBp(.J1t6't'"'I'to~ <no ~eAAov au e:lvctL "il xa't'aCTtpo~

-rou ~~oAoytXoi) 1tAolttOU rile; yij~.

:E -de:; 1tP01jYtJ.E ve:~ Xrx.L 0'X£"t t xa cp tkA.e:ufl e: pe:~ XWP€S' , --rL y£ VE:-rcu ~\I 1tpa.wrrnx6nyra ; .6J}{J.o ar.oypa.cpoL xai 1tOAt""tr.xa\l~aEC; IitAave: yux lJYJP-oxpct't'£a. To 7tpay~a:ttx6 xa6E:<Ttwc; elvat tpUOf.XcX EVa. xcdl~(7'twC; 1tA";PWC; oA~yapxLx6. ~Y1t&pxouv cpuo~xa ol <pr.AU.£Uee:pE.~ 1tA£uptc; fX&tOO ""tou oA~yapxlxou xa6€0''t'CrtOC;: onrXpxouv 6pLOllEva ar.xatW~aTa. "t'w'V ilv6pW1ChlV XlIi: 't"wv 7tOAt"t'WV, u1t6:px'e~ EVcx.C; Aey6!lEVO~ EAE:UeepOC; Tunoe; )(TA~ }\)...Ati eav xorttXS€~ xave::tc; 7tO~O£ 1tpa.YI.uruxa xu~ep'Vouv ~ 1tOtOl 1tPay(.L(X'"t~x6. exou\' T1Jv t~ouma O't'cX xtp~a rooc, 66. av'ttA"1]q>8ei {)"tt ou-re: ctt(~ XE[.pO-tEPEC; E:1tOxt~ ~~ M.yOflev,.r; pWI .. ui~x~C; BYl!J.oxptX-rfoo; -nou BE" Yrta-v TIo"t'e B1JJ.LoKpa1:fo: MAti. oAr.yapxta-""to 1toaoG't'6 a&twv nou EXOUV 86- VClIlYl tlgaa 0"n1v xo~vwvr:tx litv ~-rave: no"!e 't6oo {lr.xp6 000 el"ClL cn1l1E.pa. sa. 1ttXpw yux 1tapaa~tYl-la -n1 ycx)..)~~)(il xa:tao"tcxo1j 1tOV 'tijv ;epw x.a1tw<; xaA&tepa. '0 EV"t}Atl(Or:; )(a£ ~e BtXrx(WIJ-Cl tV1lqlou 1tA"eUO}l()t; onj raAAia etvat 7tEpt -ra. 35-37 E:xa"t'OlJ.[ .. uJpr.a. j\v aepO£OE:t xa.'V;:i.; -nl AIty6I-LE'J"1J 7tOA"'t~X~ 't"tXl;'1) ~ 'tOUS xup(cxpx.0uC; T7j~ ob,ovol-Lfa~, J(X&rou~ nov 1t(d~ouv 1tpay[J,o:nx6 POAO onj xeLpaywY7joY} ~~ xor.vYjt; y\&!w[.lll<;, t(5((Ut:; ~E: -rti lLa~Lx6t ~taa 1tA't]pocp6pYJCTtl~. xed XtX7tOtEC; iiJ..Ae:<; x(Xnrropi:e~, 6& Cf1t&.0E~ gVae:XO!J.E.VUl~ Ctt6 aUvo:>"0 3.700 0:1'6tJ.wv. Amo Ilar; a£vEt ~((l avr:£Aoyia ev6e; o-d<; Bexa XtAF.a.C5e<;. Tau"toxp6\iw~ l)7tcXpxouve:. lXv6p6.l'1tOt 01 61toro~ aaxouv XPt't'L)(~ ~v b.pxa.(a o:~vciiK~ B'1JIlOxpa'tta:o Bt6tL Eva;- e.AeuBepor; 1tAy}6uGfl6t; tx(X-r6 xr.Ataliwv av6pw1twv elXe: "aw~~ aTfr XEtp&t~(Jl1 1t€pt1t"t"<uo"l} ~ EXIX'!6 XLAux8e:.s- BOUAOU<; . .6.S:'V 'to Atw cpUOtxo: (lu-r6 yr.ci va litxo:toAoy-tlaw 'tYl'V U1to:PS1'] ~C; aouAe-la.C;. To )..tw y&a 'Va lJe:tl;w 1tOL6. e:.lVr.lL 1) 1tpayl-L(X'tL~ K(.('taCT"t<Xal'} a1Jl1epa. 4l(X\Y[ti~olJ.ar. an av

TO IIPOBAHMA THI; 6.HMOKPATIAI: IHMEPA

125

XaVE'tE xo:'noto Aoyap~aol-t6 rX\I-dtTtOtXo yta TIl auyxpoVYl ~EANX5a. Sa !3pet'tE: 10 1tOA6 x()..lOUr; 11 0Xt'(.(xoatou; av6pw1touS; 01 61to~o~ 1tpay~a't~xti 7ta[souv eva. p6Ao at i>Awv "t'wv s:lBwv 'tL~ S:~ouO"i:e:.C; 7tOU tYTC<XpxOUV. AUn1 e:.l va: t ~ xcx'ta(f't'(Xoy}.

TIapaAA1]ACX {.L' a.irn1 'tYJ'V xa.maCTt(W')j 1tapa:tYlpou(.L£. fva aAAO e:;£oou xpfaq1.o .. E:~(onu (3apu cpa:r.'V611e:VO. at Aaoi (lu"t'wv "t'wv xwpwv e1tat~Cl\J evav lJ.lty&Ao pOAO onjv LO"'"top£a. atv lJ.tNXW ytri 'tic; (ltXX£<; )(aL 'tU; xa.'CCU(nl0etc; ~ !J.tNXW YLtX rov 1tOAr."t'tav.6 xed t(5(cu; yux Tilv 1tOA~'t'tK~ "lll-ltouPYUx. Me:.'ta. a7tO 'to I-LEYaAO oxo't"a.B~ not) E1tUCpa-r"f1ot lx1to Til PWlJ,cXLX"rl a.moxpa:top£a lS<; Tijv am "twv veo"tEPWV xp6vwv ~ Sava.B"l1l1touPY"1f)rrx.€ a~ .6lYt"X~ Eupw1t"fl Eva e"AE:u6e.pw"tLX6 XtVllll(X. E£:)(h~."oe ll~ TiJv 1tPW'tli rXcrt't>n1 't&~'" 1tot} a'1fltOUpy~(JE 7t6Ae~C; 1tOV 1Cpocma6ou'V va au't'ox.u~epv'1l6ou'V, ~earx. ixn6 a:ywvec; O'To6~ o7tolouC; xed 1] ao'ttxij 'ta~l1 E1tCU~e: cpua[.xa p6AO Xa.L ~ (.uxpoa.O''ttx1J )(a( &pyo-repa't'epa.(rno poi..o E1t(x~~E XCXL ~ tpya:tLX~ "tt:iS'l' E&v X(x1:aAOt1tO (xl)'tWV 'tw.v rxYWV(l)V ~ €IlEtv(XV cx&t-a 7tOLl xrxpaK"t7)p(~ov'tar. ain.u::pa w~ a"J'](J.oxpa:""t~xo( i1 cptAeku- 6e:pOL 8€(JJlot a' alJ't€S 'tLc; X61PE:t;. Au-co( OL ee:o~o£ atv ~-ro.v 7tO'tt Bwpo "twv KUp~6:px'W". oiYte BClpo "twv )(a1t~"'t'(XAr.a"tiJ". olYce avayxaLa Ct1tO'twol-lcx"t(X TOU OtXo"\J0lltXOU au~~a;'tOC;. Ka:raxn}fl1?x.av {J.E: o"Etpa ayWVW\I. E:G'tOtXtoav f30uva 1t't'(U~a'"t<'uv xed 1tO'ta.flouC;

u

f.XtlJ.tx'toc:; .

Iloii f3piOXOvt(J.L «mOL ol MOL a-.11..1ltpct x.a( 1tOU ~ptaXE"'t'(lt &A.Illil-

<Tte: xaL 6 tAA.,,\nx6~ Aa6~; ~O tlJ.q>avemepo<; xapax"tY}ptGJl6.; 1tOU 6« (l1topoooe va BWoe:L xexv£U; e:.lvar. o'n ~pf(Jj(ov'W.~ alt Il(a. xcrtam-cxaYJ 1tOAL l' & x.'l1 c; ana Be ~ txC; ~ ti5 ~urt'LX01tO t "f}0'l1~, aVEu6 UVD-T'1)m.c:; ~ xuvtOll0i) , lWtoopop(at; yt6:. -rt.X XaLVa XeLt "ta 1tOAt'ttKCt xaL YE:\lLx&'tepcx lltiX<; <Tt'acrtj; an€\lO:V'tr. 'toaD ~v l"t{!YCLX-q 00'0 xat ~v XO~\rl} sw~ ""tour; 1tor) dvat 1tE:pbtou {-lLCX crt'ftOTl CUtOXa.U\lwoy}C; tJtoa m6v X(X"CC(vc(Aw't'tx6 XClL 'ty}Ae:.o1t"t'tx6 cxuvavt01-l6. "H o1]lJ.e:p~ VlJ x(X"'Cao'tao'l Be\&! EIvcn a.1tAW.C; Ct7tO"'CeAeO"l-lcx aO'V6l(J.ooLWV, {5oA01tAOXthlV, xe:.tpCXYWY"1O'Y]~ tK Iltpou~ 'twv XUptcxpxwv (f'tpw~a-rw". 'Eav i6. xop~apXCf. mpwl-!ata tJ,1tOpou\' \lex xCt.\lOUV a:tLtJ.wp.,,'t'( cx&t6: "'["6: 01tolct x6.\lOUV -Ka.i vol-l~w cht sB& <Tt""fiv tEAMBa etaa.o"tE 1tOm xaAa TIA:fl-

126

OI OMIAIEI: I:THN EAAA~A

POCP0P"1]lJ.tvo t ~ 't'6 ~cte: 1tcXvc.u (1"t6 1te"tm aa<; ~ O'tL xavouv€, a't L ~wP"')U oaa xavou'VE:-i&v <XlrtO: 't6: xup£apx'a a-rpc:illCl"ta 111tOpoUV 'Ja KtX\,OUV a01'a 1tOU )(cXVOUV& e;.tvat a.XPL~W~ BL6'tt at AtXO( ~EVOUV tl:1ta6e'tc; ~ 'to 1tOAU OllXWVOUV mue; w(louC; 1:ou'i MYOV"tar;, «"touS S€pOUftE, elva.t OAot ol y(5tO~ 7tcx)..tav6pw1to~».

Tti 'tEAeumIa xpoy~a t~cpav£o'tllxa.v 6e:W{JJl'tLKOf 1-lE. nlv avctyEvVl10'7l '"rou Aeyoll€VOU cpr.Aekue€pLOIlOU~ 01 07tOi:OL e)(e£t6;~oov aU-n) n]v xo:ra(1'ttXO'll AtyoVttt<;: "'twptx tp'taoa(.LE: 1tPcxy~CX"ttxa. 0-nl" ~- 6r.vII tku6E:p(a, U't6v Cx:t0IlLXtot.t6· 0 xa.eE.vct.~ &OXOAs:L'tf . .u tlE: ""tit (5txa -rou xaf auv.e:1t6>c; Bev Exou~e XOLVCUV~)(t~ )(.(X( 1tOAL"t'LXtC; ouyxpo6ae:te;~ Btv lxoullE l<Ttop(e:-; xed cpaa(Xp~c;~ )(oJ E'tOL 't6 ooon'l~a AEt"toupy~L ~X"t6C; a7'CO n1'V u1toxptoia 6 auA).OYLatJ.6~ OttYt6r; 1Ce:ptqe ~ )Cat: lJ.£a "tE.prurna au-m. 7ta:rl1. T6 U1tcXpx'O'IJ oU(n7U.La. ~ ~Ot 01tW~ EtV(xL ~Il€pa, x((mo .. tpi:t.pEL -nlv Ylha "tilv E.1tL~lwm1 -rou, 1\v e;axoAouf:Jer xed AE1'roupYEt x(X'ta K&'7tOtOv -rp61tO, BE-v k~'toupyei X.&pLS; <TtOU~ aVepW1tOOS; xa( '"tou~ 6ea(lour; 'tou; ono£ouc; 1tapayeL. ML"t'OUPYE:t at6'"t~ ~ napa n1'J e1ttxpoctouaa VOO't'po1tLa., 1ta.pa nlV 1tO~6t'1"'t'(X "tMV t5LEU6IJVOvtwv9 e;axoAou6ouv XlXL u1tapxouv ot. Opto~tV(l 1J.€p11 -ri1<; xotVwv(ru; xed tTt'OV X{Ja'ttx6 ~'1X(Xvt<7!J.6 --00; 1tOU~ !lE fP% 'tWV B~)(a<TttxWvt X% --ewv EX1tfXLBeu'tLxwv i} q,% '"t"wv s:pya~olltvwv EV yt~e:t- Xa7tOLOL ol 67tolo~ ~ a"'TI veX aUllllOrxpw6ouv IJE nl'-' t1ttxpa'"touaa. VOOOtp07tta, S"fJA• va AtVIt «'"t( ~& VOt~t E(..lEV(x; IIot6; 1tAl1PW'VEt 1tE'.p~O'CJ6ttpo; IIpoC; OqlOOr; fXtrtOU J3yashl TiJv anocpCXO"fl»:o (htCU~ 6a E1tpe:1tE va x&vouv xa'tit -n}v 1tpaylJ.a't~)c& tbttxpa"touoa' ~LAoaocpfaxc.d xa:TO: 'tf~ 6e:wpfe:t; '"t"ou. <pLAe:Aeu6epLo(J.ou ~ t~axOAouaOOV va AE:t'toupyouv xa:rti 1tCXpaBoot(Xx6 'tp61tO, I-LE xa'"t!. XoctaAot1to: ~BoUt;, 1tOU xeX'VOOVE: tJ.epL>COU~ BtxaO"-rec; 'tOuAax~O'tov va e:I'V(xL xCt'ta '"to. l-LaAAOV 'fj ~'t't'ov ixliE:x(xO"'"t"or. xa( auve1tw~ va '"t'ou~ q>o~ouV't'at. ITapa.AA1}Aa. apxe'tof ex1tCXtBe:mLXOL aVtt "IJ& x~uouv llEoa o-ol\l 1:6;;"11 1tpo01ta6ouv va ~aaouv )Cat~ mel: 1tCXtBL6;· lJ.eptxo( tpycX-te~ ~tawVouv "t'~c; (3(ae~ xat ~at Btl' EX:tpOXLaC;ovra~ Bta:pxw.C; "t"a "tpe"a. K(Xvov~xa Be\l EXOU'V xavE'Va i..6yo va ~taWVOUVE. ami:; --etC; (3((}e;, 5eBor;.tvou -rou ott -roue; 1tA'1- pwvouv x(X~ BE-BollE-VOU 1:0U 't£ P.Mnoo'V va. ytvE""tat ~e xGtt'aXP'1a~tt;

TO DPOBAHMA THE l1HMOKPATIA.E EHMEPA

127

a~o"€X(l'tOllllUPLwV ~ (..l€ xavovu,ec; €1tLxetpTJoetc; 01tOU 'tEprXcrn£-t; 1tepLouo{ec; ~~LoupyouVtat XCtlp(.; xav£v(X ),,610 tx1C6 TfI ~£a (Jtpa crrftv a:n .. ll. At" IJ.LA6:w YLO: '"t'a 1tall1te:p~, llLMw y~6. O"ofiapO"tepa 1tpay~a 1tOU y(vo\Ytcu 1t .X. o-r6 XPlll"-a'"t~crrftPLo 'til; Ntar; T6pXYJ<;, iS1too (x1t6 -rr, (lUx tJipa crrftv ID..A1J t XcJ)p~ )(cxtJ.LCX Ob(OVD(.LLX"'I1 ~aOl'] oUtE: xt:Xv )(aA.6}C; E.vvoou(le:vYJ x.a1tt"t"a.)..La"tLx~, &)f.lLOUpyoUV't'(lt Btatxa'tol-l~upta BoMpta ~t )(cx6cxpa a£pL'"t~tat"£r; E:1ttXE:LP11- O£L~. '"'Av alrrYl ~ xa'tacrtctOl1 auvEXto"tei, ome ~ f'LooqJcupa ~EO"a 0'tYI'V onofa ~oufle: 6a. !X\l't"ESEL E1t( 7tOAAet; (5exae-ne:.;, om€ ~ XOtVW'n6ocpa~a, liv !lOU E:1tt'tpt1t~aL b ve:oAoyt(J,!.L6~ ~ Ba lJ.1tOpeOEt va t~(x)(OAoUae:t va AE~'"toupyet.

Tti xa6eo't"w't"(X 1tOU futcXpx.oovs: if a&ttc; 't£r; x.&pEr; e:lvcx.L IJUx IJ.~XVl1 llE~OWt1q>(o: 'tOU 1tAYl6uOIlOU riit; yii~. AU1;o(X1tOXaAouVtaf. B"f}lLOXpa1(~C;, AEST) 1tOU 01tWC; l)}..e:C; ol liAAE<; Exe:~ into<Tter crlU.J.epa Il(CX ~o 1J.€¢l EK1t6pv€oal}. EI\'cxL lxaUVCl-rOV 6 61totocr8if7tO-rE l\cpptxa\}6~ aexa'Vt~ lJ.1t Btx(X !J.uapaALo~6AfX xCli e:."lXOCH 't"~£7t xfX"taAafjEL TIIv esouafa va tL~ (5 LaX7)pU;et o"n 1tp6)Ce~-rar. va. ty)Caa~apuae:t €vav all~oxpa't~)(6 aooLaAt0t-t6, E:; OvOllCt't"oc; 'tOU o1tofou r.pUOtx6: aq>a~L lOUe; tXvt't1tai\ouc; 'tOU, xtX't'aha(i~aVE:L n1V 't"l1AE6pacTtl xed ixq)Lov¥~ 'to", Aa6 "t"OUA To tliLo EXe:.L aUflf3er xat tJ.E n1 MS1'J aoatetAtal-16~' E,~eic; ol ~AAlJVEC; e:.L{J.a.O-r£ at 1tpo\Jo~tOUX(X 6tmJ v& X(X'tfXMf30ulJt 'tL eXEL YLVEt lJ.E TIl Ae~l1 aOOtaAL0ll6;. To tBLO qEL yt:\lEL xa( J.l€ n} AES'l Enav6.o-ra.o"l). cIlav'tru;o~a~ Sa {3Aine-ce: xaSe: fJ.tpcx BuxqnUlmtc; y~a 'Ojv €7t(Xviw-raU1] rna .puye:"ta t tJ YLa n1V E:1tcxv6:-

I 'If' ~

0't(X.0"1] ero X(X{Yt'~ UY€to:~.

IIpE.1teL va e7taVEAeOU~E: O-n1V &px.~)(~ a.,.~(Xa(a -rr;c; At~E:WC; «t5Y1- I-Loxpmta». 6,YU.loxpa'tLCt Btv OTJllaL\JE:t 'to: aVepW1t~\lO: aLXa~w.lla't(X, Bt'V Oll~afve:f. ~v eAAE~$7J hoyoxpLo£ac;, Bev O11p.aiVEt E:XAOytC; olou8~mYte 't"U7tOU. l)Aa rx(n& e:lv(Xt XClAa xed CtyL(X9 aAAeX e!vcx~ a EU'tipou xcx( -rpi "to u ~o:.a llo u enC()COAO u6cx 1.i] ~ 5"tJ II oxp(X1:"(a~. A"'1- IlDXpmkt, el",a~ '"to XPrErOt; TOU B~(..lou. ~:ij~oc; e:lvat 6 Aa6~. Kpa""toe; en« ap)(cxLa E:AAYlVLXa, 8tv OYJIlCXtVeL XPatO~ ll€ ~ 'lT11~Epwil

128

OJ OMIAIEE l:THN EAAA'&'A

Ewor.a. Kp(ito~ t5iv U7t71PX.E Gn]V O:Plata; "EAAaaa:. 1] lx61]vciCi(~ 7tOAt"tE£U B!tv ~-mve: xPrX'to~ 1}'ttl.VE: 1f6A~r; ~ 1roA~Te(a. Kpa:tot; O't"a tXpxctIa tAA"fl\n~a a"[.la~ve~ Buv(X!-t'1 xed tvaexo!Jt~w~ (3£a 1} ~~.q [3£a. (Erva~ xa.{XlX""C'YlP~aT~x6 o't"[. <JTJ] "trx t"EAAMa B7Jflr.OUm61JXE 1tpaylla'"t~K6. EVrx xp(ito~~ 1t'fjpa~e: a.7tO 'Tn (zpxaIct E:AAYlV&KO: T'ij AtSlJ xpa't'oc; 1tOU D'"1lflCttV€L BU'VO:lJ.Ylll (3t(X· 6a (l1topo6aO:!lE va Erxa~e 1tape::~ n1 AES~ 1tOAtTe:la~ aE'V e:.lveu €'tOL ~. l1YUloxpa'da. elVCtL ,~ e;ouO"fa 'tOU a~~ou. 'E{tv axe:<p'tOU~E ame~ 't'£r; i\t;e:t.; m6 ~aao~ 't"ou~ ~ at-teow.; 4t<pa\}(~oVtat "ta ouotaanxa 1tpO[3A~~a1:a.. IIpoo't(X 'l'tPW'M "tt €£Vctt {; a~llO~ 1 1tOL6C; EI",at 6 BYi(.1ot; t 7tot6t; a'V~x€t at6v a'ij~o; Ae:6-t'e:po'V. -ri Ba 1!t::1 esou-o(a; Kat 'to yeyo'V6~ (lAAwat"e: &n 6 'CSLOe; 6 xapaxt'TlPlOIl6~, 6 YBr.0'i 6 opOC; 7tOU u1toBllAWV£l aul'O ""t6 1tOAL-t'€U{lCX eE:'t£~ (lina 'La epwn}lla""ta, aE.(XV€~ rov tB~cx('t'€pO xtxpax:nlPa: TOU TtOA~'t'Eu~a:tO~ ~ 1tot) y~~v~t'W.~ TiJv TB~C( OTty~.q ~t -n1 qltAOOOr.p~X~ avrU;frt~o'1l.. at avtle eo"t) ~E &AAa 1tOAt'tE.U (lena m& onoIa "t'€-roux tPW··riU1.Cl'ta Btv YEWlOU'V'Ta:~ ..... A v 't6 xo:6£o'twC; e!\lcn ~ ~o",apx~a, ;epS'te: is't~ e:.l-vaL ~ CtPX'1 'tOU I-lOVclPXy} xed rxlr~6c; 6 {-tovapx7JS' e1v(X~ nav'tot'E. )(CteOp~allgVO~ XA1Jpovo~~x6: ~ xa.lll€ 01tOto'Va~1t'o't~ &AAo 't'p6no. To ra~o ~crxUE~ att lAta apLo'toxpa:tta: ol apto'to t elvat CXlrtOt 1tOU EX ye~e:'ril.; O:.V7]XOU\I at Il£a. 6p~o[li~11 XOtvwv~KlJ 't"as~. ~H a.,.l-l0}(pa"da ~a1] OCtV 5po; 6e'tet e:pwn]lJ.fX't'cx xed 7tpO~Al1tJ.a't(x. l\7tO nun; n1V (X.noc.1nl 5EV etvClt ~uXC(io OT.( ~ yivv"IloiJ T),]S' aUIl1ti1t't'e:.~ )cUT&' ,,[E:AE:tW~ ouO"u.x0"'t~x6 1P01tO Il€ nl ytwYlO'7l atYtiJc; Tij; tX't"ep(J.ovl1C:; tpw'[llm'l<; TrOU ~lvcxt it t.ptAoaocpict.

~H aYltJ.tf)(pCXT~a e:!vat. tl etAEL 'Va e:.lvrn eva: 1toAf-rE:U!J.fX 7tOU i.nto~AE1tE[' cr'ti}v xo~'Vw'JtX~ xa~ ~v a'to~~Kl) aU't'oVOflta. r~(X,'d taw lJ.tAfilJ.€ YLcl C(i)'rovo~tC( ; A~&n 6 [J.ty~a'toc; apl61-l6~ "tW'V b.vepW1t~vcu\' xoi VWVtWV e:yxa6r.Bpue,.xe 1tcXV'to't'E: 7taVlU ani ~a01'J lltO:C; E:'te:povotJ.Lar;. 01 Be:OllOt 1tOU lrn~pxav 7 GEGIlOL [J.E. 'Ti] yev~x6'"taT'1] E:vvota, CxAACC xa' ol 1tOAt,.tXO~ 6eov.ot £L3txCt, 6etvpouV"t<xt naV'to'tE w~ BeB0I-lE'VO~, xat v.~ EltLae:X6~evor. alJ.rpta~~~a7J. 01 GEO(lO£ au'tot ~'t'aVE. xaIJ.hllJ.EVOL luna. l't't'OtOV 'tp61to, wCtt'e: va l1~V Elven 5uvot1'oV veX 1:e6ouv unO. EpW'tYJO'YJ. Il .x. ot ac.at-ttaet~ 1tpw't6yovwv cpUAhlV. ol 8EGI-lOL TI1~ <pui\YJC; E'X.OUV aVExa6ev 1tnpaa06E:L a1to TOU~ 6€r.LeA~w-

TO npOBAHMA THE Ll.HMOKPATIA:E ::EHMEPA

f29

'tie; ~p(j)e:<; ~ anD 'roue; npoyOvouc; xed fh~wpouv"t'C(L (Xu-rov6'1"t'o~. T6 op86 Kat 'to ~~ OpeD. 't6 Lbu'tpEm:6 xed LO 1l"t1 e1tr:rpe7tTo Elv(Xt xn- 6oPLOllivC( ~ta yu:i 1t<Xv'tC( ~ at oAa 't"(x 7t€C5kx. atv ixTIayope:ue:"ttXt va. a!lrp~(J~'1~aEt xa\}e:~c; '"touS 6EO[J.OLU; .. BE-v xp€La~e:'rCXt xciv va a1t(Xyopeu6e:.i: ~ a~6n e:IVott aatctv6Y}'"to "ti oq.lq>r.o[3'ln'leouv. Oi {XV8PWTtOL 'tOW; ~ouv tvO'wllcx'twae:t~ 'roue; qou'V€ eoUYtltpUcEUO'!tt ~t TfJv raUl. roue; TlJv Ctva'tpocp~, B"I1A. ~€ 't'fJ\I La~a 'touC; -nlV xa1:aaxeu~ ~~ xorVW'V~X6)V eX-r6!J,wv.

T( eytve <JTJ]v apx'a(a <:EAAo:(irx y~a 7tpuYt-'J] t.popa xo:£ 'd e1taVeA:~cpa" OnlV EUpW7tl1 a1t6 ~6v 120 -130 al.~va. xed tl€'ta; ~H MSl'J 'tOU n£(l6'Vo!J.ou xaeEO'1"W't'O~ il e:lJ.cpavtCTIJ ~dxr; 't'~C; 1tp6C; -n1" au"C'ovoll(aA AUn1 ~ "t'aoy) eKcppa~e:.~(Xt 1tOA~'tL)(6. (J.E. 't6 BTttLOxpa't'lx6 x(VTlI.ux Kat [J.t 50'oo~ a1l~Oxpo:t'~xou; 6eallou<; lh'ULtoum61puxv. 'H ¢!;Y} l-tt -n1V t't'~povo(.L£a aiJlJ.a~ve -rr,v a.tJ.CPta~~'t7Ja~ 't't7)'v ~B1llrnap'J!JVC(i}V ee:olll)-v xa( au'to e:ytve: o-rqv (xpxato: ~EAAa.Ba. Alrto 7tOU ~)t7tou~e:. rr. X. O'-n1v l\e~v(X a1tO 'to 7 00 Ewe; '"to 400 1t.X., xed cX)(O~Dt xat Il€"ta e:lvc(t i} 1t€pbtou OUVEms tlE"1"ct.~OA~ 'twv ee::a~w". tJ.tv 3YI",-tOUm6"f]xC('V 1to't'e U5ewC5eLt; ee:cr110L. at l\e1]vaio~ 1t0"t'€ BE'" in:atfJa"J \lrX tJ.e:.'tappue~£~ouv -roue; v6~ouC; 'roue; Xct-rti '"tP01tOV wcrce vO. BtEUPUVOuv ~ allll0Kpoct'LX~ 1tpaKT.~K>1 ~ OO}A. 'nl Buvu't'(ytTrra. ftPaYlJa't~X'tj~ oulJ.~e-t'o;.6]c; 'tou Bru..t·ou r:rcf,v t~ouO'£cx.

Amovo~ta o7)(lCdVE.L O"tt ~ 7tOAL"C'tX-q l<Otv0nrt'ct ~HVEL ~ Teita a'to'V bu)'t6 '"t",C; 'tou<; \J6tJ.ouc; 'tytc; xed 'tou; Bfve:t SEpov'tac; 5T~ 'roue; a(Ve:L~ 811). · a1tD XAe: (o'v"tcxc; xCt.£:) e rata. e~w)Co ~ vov ~ xi] t; m]yiic; "twv VOIl W~ ~ 't6}V eE.a~wv, Et'tE aUn] Tf 7t"fl~ 6e.wPY16er q>uar.x~ et'TE rX1tAW.t; 'lil(>aaoouxx1l. ~r;'t'~ U1tEp~oct'~xii ~ BEla. "H 'tE:Ac:mcxta 7t€p(1t'"rwO''1) ~uaLa~"tGf.t (J.e 1:0U~ ~E~pctf.ooC; Ti;c; IIaAa~fu; l1Lcxe~XYlC;: "roue; ~w; TIOU 8fv€L 6 '1€xw~a <Tt6" Mwuc:ril.

"u't~volJfo: a~lJ.(dve~: ~?L\J?U~: oi ~a<; "tou~ "6~.?o~ 1J.~r; xed 'tou~ IIcrt.LOU.C; lla~ SE{Jov"Cac; an EllEtS 'tOUt; B"11IJ.~OUpyOUIJ.E, ~epov~ o'tt 'ItC; 1'00<; xCtmoxe:u&~ou(J.e. Alrr6 e:lvat -r6 !lE.Ya.AtYt~po xpa'to<; .. ~ elv(xL ~ ~eyaAtYt;£pYl ESoua~(X 11;00 on<Xpx.e:& lLeacx at lJ.(X XOt.,,,(0.: va (l1tOPOUllE va BivoUIl-E mou~ E:(XtITOUs !letC; 'tou.c; vOl-l0u,:; Wit;. ""lA. vei ~3(\loufJ.e O''t'DV Eau't6 l .. uxt:; xat 'to6~ eea!lo6~ nov a~E.-

13IJ

01 OMIAIE::E I:THN EAAA.1A

1tOUV 'n1 ~U)-f] floo; xed TfJ'J xl)~epv'la"t} lle til\' o1to£a &.1tor.paot~ou[.J.E- 1tp6C; 'ta noo 1tl]ycdvootJ.e:..

~H xot~w\Ji(X Btv C:!VCXt 1to'!€. ~ia lx1tA~ oU'J6e:01J, ~la Cx1tA~ rrpoaBEO'll Ct;--ro(lwv, Bt&t"t "to; taLcx "tcX a"to(.la a"l1IJ.~Oupyou'VmL a7t6 ~v xOLvwvfa. LUVE-1tWS mcxv ll~A&~e yt6: au't'Dvofll1 Xotvwv(a xal 6i:Aoulle [.L£a cxirt6vo!J."I1 XOt\Jwv(cx edno orUJ.o{(vltt -mU'tOAOYLXa., ipso facto, D-tf. BeAoulLE E:1ttoy}C; alYt6vOfllX a:t'O~a. 0eAoullE a'tolJ.(X bcava va Bwaouv 0'"'t6v tam6 '"tOUt; -r6v v6110 'to US" , oflr.u<; atv e:lvc(L Buva-rov at Jifrx. xotvwvfct 6 }(aeevcx~ va Bfve~ crt6v tal.Yt6 'tou Eva vo- 110• ora a'to(la amti 1tpi:1t£~ va aU(lt1E't"EXOU'V aTIJ 6eol . .u0"l1 't"ijc; XOtvwvfa~. Airc6 orHJ.cdve~ [3aotxa o'tt -q 1tCtt5e::£a TW\I 6:;'t6~wv~ oX~ anAl); lle nJv EWOt(X ""tw" aXOAE:(wV xaf Tij~ i:x1tcd8e:007)t:;t O:hAeX ~ 1tUt(5e:(rx wr; auvemc; l3pao'1 Tile; xowwv(a~ 1tavw O'-ra tX"t'o!J.cx ~ Bpa- 0Yl7tOU Ctpx(~t ano -n1 a"nY!1~ 1tOU 'ta a:tO!lCl r€\alV~OUV[(:U Kat cp-ravet we; "tOV 66:VClTO 'tOUS' 1tOU i5LOXE:"tE.UE:'taL ax,t lJ.6vo v.t '"t& axoAei:a .. ixAXtX tJ.t -nlV or.xoyftve:ta, ~E -nlll"t)'ti:pa, ~E -rtt:; ouv .. tpoqnt~~ tlt 'ttt; ye~'tov~b;'t 1lE: WV atpcx-r6 ~ IJ,E 'd.:; auvavao-rpor.pi<;. J.l€ 't(~ €qJY1lleptC5e<; 'tile 'tct paB~6tp{U'Va, lJ,t 'tLr; 't"JlAitopCiaE.t~.

~H 1tCXt8E£a Aot1tov (l€ -nl yeVtxo-m:"t"ll E.WOLtX xai at OAE~ 't'1l.; ''d~ lJ.Oprptr; 7tpt1te:~ va OUIJ.{3-fU...AE:t crt'O ",eX ~1tOPOuv "'ta litOflC( wi ytvouv npaYIJ.Cl1'tXtl am6vo(J.(X. Au-rovolJ,(X a'"tolJ.lX <T7JtJ.al.\lE[. a"t'otJ.C( 'tel 6TIoia 1tpoa7ta6ouv Ox~ a1tAWt; va pu6fltaOUV xC('t<X 'tp67to ctl)'tOVOIlO -rr,'J a:t"olltx-IJ 'roue; tw~. ahA&. ,,6. OU~IlE'ta.O'xouv erov 1tpDalS~opta~6 l'WV VDllwV. 7tOU e:lv(x'L )«(.('!' avaYX7}\1 xo~vwv~xo(, nov 1te;pt6pt~ou\l ~ xaeOpt~OUv "TIl ~w~ 'touc;. LUVe1tW~, e:av IlLAalJ.€ ltD: airt'6vOllct a:to(lCt.~ xcer' lxvayx~~ (.uAiillE: 'tt.xO'toXp6\1UJ~ yta ~iCt (XU'tOVOllYl XOLV(vV(CX~ allA. yta. lJ.(X XOL\JwVta llioC( O-nl\} 01tola 5EV E:1t~XpCl'te:t xa!J.ta eELCX Ct1tox.cu..utJn1 t xcxr-tui l(5ea. cpua~KW"IJ VOlJ.w'Y 1tO U pue f1.£~OU" 't"f1V xo t'Vt))'V & X'l1 ~wiJ ~ KCt.lJ. to; xa e ayuxO'I-lEV"f) 1tapaB 0 - a-q 1] 6nola laxuet a7tAWC; xed (lOVO lh.O-'t"t Erven ncxpaaoo'r], 0:)(611a:

AtYOl'epo cpuoLxa xcxl-ua e~ou(Jfa ev6~ x6( .. qJ.cx't'OS nov excppa~L Bil6ev ~v ~(TtOptxiJ vo~O"te)..e:La: xal 't£~ 10'Toptxt~ avayxcxt6-rYr~EC;~ ~ tt;ooot:cx >canOtOU yeVLxou rPatL~.ux'tiwC; l11tpoeBpou, O:AAO: yta totfo: XOLVWVta. 1tOU fI tBtct 6eav-(~e~ ;eal xu13epva 'tov tau"t'6 't"IJ;. Mo-

TO IIPOBAHM A TH~ ARM OKPA TIA!: EHMEPA

131

VO" o't'<xV 'ta &tOlJ.tX 117tOpoOV v& 1tOO\l l>'t'L ol \'6tJ.Ot ~C; XOLVc..>V(tx~ £1'V(Xt xed 8txot ·tUUS: v6~o~, IlOVO 'to'tE. IJ.1t'OPOUlJ.1t veX 1COU~e: o,:t «mel "'["6. ii-rO!-1(l. £lvrxt Ctln:6vOlLa, b.AA6. E:.1dm']~ O'tL xed TJ xO~'J{Uv(a el'Vat cxU't6v01J.11.

Tt a'1UJ.(d"IJ€~ WI 111tOPOUV lJa 7tou'V 'ta a:tOIlO: o'tt at v6(J.ot -rilS' XOt\lw\lfac:; e:{va~ xcx£ BL)(Ot "tou<; \l6~o!., Kat: mt "tou~ Evme:pv(~ovtCXt 1tAl1PW';; Ae" Ol'llLfl.tv.e:t xa-r' av&yx"t]v o't't O'Ul-Upwvouv ~t -rou~ \10- IJ.OU~ 'TCOU l17tapx'ou,,· mUlat\l.Et olJ.w~ a.1tapatnl"'C'w~ o"t't exou", outJ.- 1-lE""t"&axEL 1tpay~(X:ttxa xai tve:pya a-n1 <5LClIl6pr.pwOll orwv ~6llWV aivrwv xat: 'tWV 6e:o(.lw'V xal cpuouccX e1t(aYJ~ a-n1 Aet'toupy£a. -rou~. AlreD O'uVE1tay&"tClt, G(1t6 "n1 a·nylJ.~ nor) tJ.f(X Xo['vwvLa ix1tO't£Mt'tlXL a.1t6 fva 6ewpYftuca a7tEptopU:rtO xa( a1tpoaBtoptato 1tA9JaD~ c("'[oIJ-WV,o"tt U1tCtpx€t 7tAiU)Y}~ ta6tTJ'i au~llE."toxi1~ okvv 't'6>V &"t'6~w\l at OAe~ 'd; eE-a(l(~ooac::t; tsooof£C; nov ~1tOpOUV va u1tapxouv a-n1 8e:(5ov-tV'YI crt'tW'1I oE tJ.faxoL\lwv(a xcx( ~ Ae:~'toopyfa otlrtw'V TMV 6eO'IlW v. :E U'VE 1C W S , axe::tt xli !J.E irttB~1tme (.L nope t veX yi VE.t 0: von Ke:.(~.e: - \10 pTrrije; 8iot-LtU1'JC;. (Y1lTil~ VO~OeET1la7JC; llEo-a ~v Xotvwv(a e::t-rE: 7tp6x~f.""t(lt ytCx a&t6 1tOU ll7topei: va 6votJ.t.X0'E:E. x.Otve:~C; (lE:alJ.~ouao:. E~ouO"(a. C5Y)A. -n1v t~ouQla 1tOU xaeop~et 'tOUt; ~a.o"L)'OU~ BeGI-l0uc; IJ.taa o'tOUC; 67tOLOU~ ~ei: ~ )(Ot'Vc.uvta ~ e:t't'E 1tPOX€f;'tCU yux TYJ'V aO'K1'}- 0'7) 6e:.ol-uO'(.l€'Vwv t~ou(n(;J\J, 1t~X. xed -di.; vOlioee:'t'tX~C; E:Soua£a,;; 1<0:( -tilr; xu[3epv7)'t'tx'ij<; E;oualoo;, 7tpi1tE:L va Bt:ve"'t'Gtt at OAOU~ '1 tJ.eyaAu'!EpYJ e:cpr.x-dJ (iuva-ro"t'1]·t"a ~ OxL a1tAW~ '[U7ttX~" a"'AM ouat(W"tt)(~ ~ 'VrX autJ.~~aaxouv a't"IJv a.ax~O'Yl OM..>V ClU-rWV 'tWV E:!;oua~wv xed 'tWV Ae: L'tOUpYU7l\l. MeyaAu'tepY! lS U'V(X'tOnytfX, DXL tX1tAW ~ "t'u1nK~ ~ MArX ouaLaa't"tX~: (lo'to O7]lJ.ah.tL (yn 8iv 1tE(nop~~61J.aa'tE 0't6 'Ja AtIlE is't't ol 1tOAL'tE:~ llta cpopa crt'<X 1ttV"te xp6vta. X(XAOUV1'CXt va Bt(xAe~ouv aV'n1tPOow7tOU~ ollntoLot 6& a.1tocpao(oouv yta au'touc;, a.AMx. o't't ol 1COAt'tE~ ix1C'oq>«a~~ouv 1J.6vot 'tOue; yux 't'ou<; v6lJ.oo~ )(6:'tw lx1t6 'tou~ ono(ous; fliAoUV va ~~O'OU\l. ~ll11atve:& t1t(a'1~ o"'["t Bev BtaAEyou'J,8lv e:xhtyou'V E!lIlE.OWC; ~ QtJ.E.OWC; aVepW7tOUC; pi 61totot 6& 'tour; xu~ep'Jouv., r£A."Ao. Ol'L xu~~pvouv !J.6vot 'tou;. ~Yn.La£VeL o'tt o"Ae:~ 01 ~o::atXEC; O:1to<parn:LS 1tOU acpopouv 'to ~EAAOV 't"fi.:; XOLVWv£ru; -aLtYtL «&-to elvcu XU~4M1a"ll9 xu~e.pvW eo: net Aa~~a."w Cxno-

132

01 0 M IA1E::E l:THN EAAAh.A

<paaEtC; 1tOV atpopouv tXlrtcX 1tOU 7tpe1tet 'lit yivouv eLl'S: w~ epyct. .e:t-rE:: we; apaCITt'}p~&t7J'te<;- {) ~-rr. b.q>opn Ao~1t6v ""t(C; f3aa~xEC; xu!3-e:P"lJ't'~xtc; a1tocpaae:t~ 1tptrcl!L va avil)(e:~ a-t6 aUVOAO ~c; xo~vcuv(cxC;, Ctt'O auvoAo "t'w\l1tOArrWv. ITpe1tE:r. OAot, 0X[. a7tAW~ ""tU1tLXa, va exou~ "'to (5LXr.x(WIJ,CX \Jtl O'Ullll€"tEXOUV. TIpe1tet va e1vcu EX1tataE:Uf.1tvo~ a&v a:to!-ul a:It"' lSAe:~ 'tLt; (x1t6tPE~~ 'd~ 61tote~ Ctvacpepa 1tpOl1YOU~tvws KCl"t'a 'tp01tOV ~(J"te: va !l1tOpouv.e:: va. oul-! 1-LE."'tEXO U\I.

'El)C> e& ~e£Aa va xavw Buo tj 'tpEt~ 1tapCX'"t",PllaE~C;. OpGYt'a 7t~"ta !-l£(% Ctvc((popa a·t"Ou~ avxa(ou~, ~ (lallov crrov ~EYru.o 8ouxuBtt5Yl. U"'tlX\I 6 90uxuB£li-q<; 8tA£L va xcxpax:rYlptoe:t IJfa 1t6AT] W<; EA€u6eM! 'nl xapaX't'1lp~e:L «a&tOVOllOV, C(u't'oB[.xQV xa.l amo't€.A.Yl». lldAU;, yux 'tov 8ouxuB(5YJ Elvcx" 7taV'tO'tE: or. 1tOAt'te::;. 'O 0ouxuBiB"t}; BE\! l,.uM€~ 1to-rt ou'tE: yux XPCl-t"l OUTe: yta e1tLXpa'te:tec;. n .x. ol At~e~t; «~e"iiVc(L» ij «L1tapTYl» Q'"t'ov ®ouxuBt:lh1 EXOUV &1t'AW~ -yEwypacptxil ewoL(x. f<(}tTXV l-'-tMe~ yui -tis 7tOA~'t'EL~t; nou ouyxpOUOvra.L orov ns:A01tOvvY}o~(X.x6 II6Ae:[J.o AtE~ 1tcX'Y'tO'te «ot ~eY}\I(Xtor.~ oL A(xXEaCXLll6v~at, ol Ke:pxupcx.io!., ol Koptv6tOL». Ka- 7tO~OC; ano -roue; pYrt0pec:; lleoa o-rov @ouKuC3£(511 Ae€t «av(5pe:c; ya.p no AL~» . ~H l Bta 5't t ~'V(X xpa'tot;, Ilia t1tLxpa"tE ~a , Il tlX 1tOA~ 'te tIX e:lVClL (J.£a e:Cia<ptKl1 €X'MO"fl ~ laia 7tOU €'1tLxpa"tE1 0'"n1 ~eOt€PTl <pLAOO'oqJLa "'tou 8txatou xed. au,,-raYlla"'t~K-r1 ae{iJpta~ E.l'Va~ x(.dlapa. cpeOUBapxL)(~ ltv"t'tAl1$-q, Blv EXttt xUl!£a OXtOYl IJ.E: -rq BYl(loxpa'ttX~ 1tap&aoO'"t}. AtEt AOt 1t6'V 6 0ouxu(l)(By)C; <xlrrDV0l10C;. AeeL (t.U"tO(5lXO~ WlA. mt i} taLa. BtX~L "de; 1tapa~aa£~<; 1tOV yiVOvtCU tJ.€oa

, ~

at6v X6lpo, m-fj O't.pa(pa. Tij~ ~(UYi-c; "tou ACtOU. ~01tWot; ~tPE'te:, 't<X

a.rYXfl.ta a.8"1]\lcitx6: Bucam-fjpLct frtav xA"t)PWL'tl. xat <>Xl €7tayY£Afla"tLxa i5ncaO""tiJp[.cx A A€E:L a&tO"tEAl1c;· 'tEADC; ervcn ~ aPXil, it ~~oua(r.x lJ.t -n1V EVVOta Tile; xu{3tp"1l0"1r;. :E't<X apxcda tAAYlVLX<X «ol ev 'tCi> reAEt» elven at xu[3e:pvWv'ter.;. Mfa 7tOAt"teta elvar. Eva auvoAo 7tOA,,'tWV 1tot) xu~e:.pvouv 01 ~ca~o~ 't6v E(Xm6 'toue;. ~UVE7tWr:; l:av BE-v eLllcxo"'C'e am6voJ,.toL, alrt6a~xo~ xa£ o:&tO't'eAeU; B~" !!7topou~e OU't'E ~a sou~e: ~ ome va AElle: o-r," ~outJ.€ oi: aYJ~oxpa.-r(cx.

~va Be:&te:po a1}~€rO 7tav(l) 0"t6 onoLo 6& ~eEAa va €1tLt.udvw elva!. ol O'xtaeLC; EAeu6ep£a:c; Ktxt la6-nrroo;. ~EXe:t lntap~t a1t6 1tO-

TonpOBAHMATHEAHMOKPATIAE~HMEPA

133

AU" xcup6 ~ -11&rJ a7t6 -r6v 190 alwv(X. ~La 7tOAU BLaBlU)olJE.v"fJ p1}"toPtX~ xcd O'OCPLO''tLX~, ~ 07tOLa ~o:vcxE(J.cpav£O'Tl1xe liUVCl(lUl(lEV"t} Kat: a"ave(U~E.V1I anD ""tll O'"t'ty[.l~ 7tOll urrijp;e: ~ Pwo(a 6.lt:; C5"ij6e:v «xouI-l0UVlO-rUcYP> xo~'VU),,((.X t 1tOU ME~ 't6 E:~11~: eav 6tAe:"t'e va eraaU't'e EAs:OeEpO~, l>w ~7tope~'te va eioCW't'E rao~-{h&n BYj6.e::v 0""tiJ Pwata ol avepw-1tO~ e:Iven toOt r.v..Acl. Blt" Elvat. tkue~po~- xa£ a~ atA£'t~ va e: !o-rE: i oo t -thtw t; E:l\lotL r:rrtl Po o(a - BEV !l7tope t -re va e: Im;E: .E:Ae:U- 6E:po[.. Am6~ 6 O'uAAOYLO'~6~ 1te:PLEXE." 7tOAACX1tNX oocp(o!J.o:ttx ~ tPEUl)'l. "E6:v xot'ta~ool-le: ~v 1tPo.Yll(.('tLXOt'l'ta, 0""tiJ PWo!(l ol &'v6pw1tot 00 elvo:.t ou"t'E: raot. ome:. EA€u6ePOL. AlYt6~ 7tOU e:lvaL Ileaa o't6 0"q)a't'61t€Bo ouyxE,\I'tpWOEWr; Btv elv(Xt too.; a1t6 x(XIlLa a1totPYJ OVtE. lJ.t "t6\1 cpUAo:xCt. 't'ou a-rpa:t'o7t€Oou auyxe:\I't'pC:>oeC!)c;, ou-re llE 'to'V GUvt'aY(la't'Upx7J nor) 8LOtXEt ""t6 <Ttptx't'61t€'Bo ome:. ~E. rov ypa~tJ.mtCl TIlt:; )(olJ.l-la:ttX~e; e1CL'tpo~e; 1tOO atO~)(£~ -n1V 1tE:ptOm ~ ou-re lJ.E -roUt; ave PW1tOU~ 'tOU 1tOA~ 'uxou YPtX<P E:LOU .. Ked e1t€t&] axpt~Cl; u1ri!Pxe ~ 1tOAt"t'L~ aVeAeu8c:pta ~-ra:v 8u\'(rt6v tbda,.c; va lntapSe~ <ml PwaLa xat ~ 1tON:ttK~ xn! ~ OtXOVOIl~>nl &VtoCrt'1}t;. }\V"rta1:'p6<p(Ur; 0'1;(e; X(x1t~mAto'tLxt.:; XWpE~ xed at (lett; ml!J.epa AEYE't'Clt Ott lJ1tapx'er. eku6ep£a., ir..AAa. liev u7tapxe," L06TrjC; obcovo~~x~ .. Be~a(U}s 3iv U1tCtPXEr. la&1'"IJt; Ob(O"'O~LX~ ~ a.AAa BE\! U1tapxEl cpuatxa oirce x(Xt 1tOA&'t'LK~ la6'tl1<;. ~H 7tOA~'tLX~ ta6't11C; iJ 01tOtCX unapx,ltt Elvcxt "tEAE:fUl~ 'tU1tL)(~. ~O IlEOOC; ~EA).."t]V 1tOAt"t11~, 6 XUlp~&:tl1C;, 6 6up(Up6; ~ 0 ao~€p. 6 epya:tl1C;, 6 'tP(Xllf3ayr.~PllC; )(aL 61totoaa"no't'E:

MAoe; at" Extr. 'to; raux 1tpexnUX't'LXtX C5tXatW(.Lctt'fX Ilt Tn l .. utAl1 tile; apxouo-q; 1tOAt"t'~X"1i~ 't'a~e:w~. Doev lJ-tMcu YLa olxoVOll'"X~ aVLaO"n1- 'ta. (l~Mw l~a nOA'T~Xlj av~a6't"IJ"OO. .. ~T1ta.px£t I-lUx 1tOA~'t'LX.~ 1tpOVOl.lto6xa -ttX~1j (Tt-rr'J ~E)"A&aa~ i} o1Co(a (3ptoxC'Cat at 'tWt(Q~ a'V~O'"'l 1COAt'tLXij 6EGTj at aXECJl1 (le -rov )(oa~ax7J .. x.a( cpuar.xa a7t6 ni O''t'ty- 1l"IJ x(l'ta TJlV o1tola U1tapXE:~, ()1tW~ U1tixpxe:~ U"ta Xa1i-t'taA~(rnXa xae€crt'6>'t'O! -rtp&'o'na OlXOVOIJ.Lx-Q av~a&t'1~, Btv lJ.1topet va u'Jt'o:p~e:L 1COAt't'~X~ ta6't"l1~: liv Ext» 1toAAa Aeqrta a.yopa~w !:VCtV pal5~ocpunnx6 ma6!J.6 )(QJ &yopa~(U XCXL ~(a nJAe:6paoYl, ~TaL iI olxovojn~ b:vL0'6t'"1]~ ~e:'!atpp~(X~ at 7tOAt'"t'~X~ a.v~a&tTJ'['a (5,,6n AeUl enDV xoO'~tXx'1 'tt 1tpi1ts:r. va axtcp'tE't'CXL xa£ "tOU Moo 7tO~Er; e:lvcxt ol ~dB"'-

134

01 OMIAIE::E .l:THN EAAA.6A

O'e.t~: Y~VE"t(Xt 1t'W'tO'tE: cptA'tpaptO'IlO: 'tWV E:l&laEwv, Y(VE'ta~ 1tapouafam'] 't"wv 1tAl1POtpOptW" xa't"w anD eva 6ptolJ.t'Vo 7tp(OJ!a.

J\'V fltAOu'_"e: va; e:tl-Lacne eAe66EpOt J1eoa an]v Xot'Vwvta 1tpe1te~ va etll<XcrtE 1tpcxylla'tLxa 'COOt. lJ.€.v xpe:La~'tcu va OU~Yftl1OE~ XCl"S:(S ora taAa aocp(OJ.LlXm "t'c:X 6noWx qouv 1t'po'taxtle~ EVa'\fttOV 'rile; 81j6EV !ao1tEBwDT)s" 1tOV 6a E:ntcpepe: ~ 1tpay[.tcrt~x~ lo&n~'ta. tl'tav tLtAa(l€ yui ta6t'1'tGt at'V E.voou~e 6lJ.o~o(J.opq>(a. 'tWV a-ro!!Cr.)v. ~Av tntapxe:t Xa7tOta Xotvwvta 1tor.) &,~tOUpyEt 6ll0~O(.LOPrp£(l 'teDV i.n:6- (.LWV £lva~ ~ O1JI.l£ptvr1. "0 xa6tvw; VOIJ.(~t is-rL e:lvat a1tOAtYtWr; ~ova.(5tx6~, L(l~6~opcpo~, xed atacpopE't~K6C; 0:1t'6 -eov xa6E aAAo'V, aAM <n£C; 8 'to ~paBu 1ta"t'tXet 't6 ra~o xou~.t.1d xai ~M1tE~ -r~C; ~l(5.te~ ir.vo1}me:,~ ~v raUl 'tYlk6pCWll xaf lxyop~~ "ta ra~(( pouXa. Au-rr, elvcxt ~ a'tof.L~~ E:AEUeepto: nou 'too. E1tt"'tpE7tet 0 xoi 'Vw'Vr.x6~ 6el1ll6~ tile; ll68ac;. "'O't(X\I lltAtXll€ ytU to6't"fJ'W., E:WOOUIlE E:K£h,l7J T7Jv to&t"f)"t'tX il 61tofa e:tvcu 1t'OA~l'tKa (3cxpuvouoa t 51JAtx{}"iJ ~v to6-tYJ'ta 'twv 8uva't'DTfrtwv 7tOU 1tCXPtxOV'tlll af. OAOU~ wi oU~tLE,tlwxouv 1tpaYlllX't"Lxa ~ 8lfol-ltO'7) ~C; XOLV<t.)v(ac; Ked ~v tXOX'YlO'Yl 01tOtWVi51J1tcrtE: tJ;ouor.wv untXpxouv ~Eao: 0'£ (X~ -rr,v XOtVWVtcx. At'Yt6 auVE7taYE't'at Tt]V fXflECJl1 ~!loxpa't£a YUI TlJv 01tOt<X Etix 1thl ~eptxtX A6yux 7tapaxa.tCAl .

~H lata "tile; la6t-YJ'toc; ~XE.t aOqJ<XAWt; xae aYl~avnj(i~ otxovOfl~XE.C; E:1ttrrtwO"et~. Atv e:lvat Buv(X't6\', tBthlC; at lJ.fa KOLVWV(a "tile; 07HJ.e-

P L vYi<; lJo(Xp7i; ~ TIl ~ 011 L.L sp ~ vlit; ucpii~ ~ Uj r:; all ~ ep t vi}t; auyxp&t7J OllS ~ va l)1t6;PSE~ 7tpaYlla'tlX~ 7tOA,"1:~lO} tao-rqt(X, b:If.' Til rrnYl-I."Il 1tOll U1t6.pxod~ 0 t "t'epcXU'tt€t; 0 lxovo f.L ~ XE.e; av La&t"1l't~r; 0 t 61to Le:.~ &napXOU'V6 ~t )CavEVtx"'J 'tp61tO BEV ll1tOPEL \1& ~pEeEt IltO'O~ xaf OWE. ~pEe~xe nOTE: t \'& b(x(X"t(X(1"tCdJEt eva crte:yex\'6 XWPLO'fl<X Ccv&.{.Le:aa 0"t6'V Or.KOVOll~XO xat 1tDArrU(() xwpo. J\no -n1 O'·ttYIl~ 1tOU unapx'et, 07tW~ m}~€pa, ~(a -re:pao't'ta otXOVOIlLX~ lxv~a&t"fj"t'(X, 01 av6pw7tot olll1totot exouv o'teX Xepux 'tooC; n]v OtXOV0l-UKy] aUva~l1, xcer' Cxv6:YKl}V xa£ aoxttwc; ""twv 1tpo6eaewv -rouc, 66; TI] lle:m"t'pi$ouv xa:t at 7to)..t"nx~ BUvcxlJ."q. \).11 ~ lo-ropfa, 0XL 't6ao ~ cXP'X,aLCl E:AA'lV~xil ~v ll1toirx ~v 7tpaytlct'tLXmYl'tCl 'to xpi}llct e1tClL!;e: OX,E'ttx6 pOAo ~ aA)"Cx xcx£ ~ pCJ)~di)(1j xat oAll ~ aUYXPOVYl ttYt"op£a: "'to l[1tOaE~XVU.E:r..

TO TIPOBAHMA TH:E .6.HMOKPATIA::E EHMEPA

135

Au'to tJ.iX.; b8lrrs:i ~hda.,.c; ot. {.LLCX CiA),,'] 6Eulp7]O"l). I1tv e:tVCXt Buvo::rov 1tO'te va ax£q.noutJ.E. o-tt .ora &-rolla 'tit 61toi:cx "ret atAoullE w~ S:AEufhtpou~ 1toAhe;~ ~1topet va e:!va~ tAeUa~pOt an]-v 1tOAt'tucli ~w~ Kat veX e!va~ axAa~ot Xfl't' ouo(av Ileoa: o1:'ijv o!xovo!_.LtX~ rtcxpaywytxi] "tour; ~c.}~. atv E!VUL lSuvcx"t'6v va ax~OOf.Le: t5YJAcx6li Ot~ 't'L~ Kupuxxtt; -ra a:tOllO: eo. 1t7lycdvouv at [ita tk66ep-q 1tOA~Tt)C-.1 auvtkUO'71 Kat M-l. 'ttc; (iAAE:t; 1ttv't~~f;t (J.epe; "ri)c; e[3Bo~.uxao~ aa EtVO:~ Ct1tAWS ~fae~ a1ta'Vw ae eva ll7JXa.VtXO aOOTYUJ.(l 7tapaywyqc;. dE-v etvcxt auva"t6v va ex7tar.Bc:uaouv.~ 1tOA('t~ -aLmL a)(6~a. (J.tQ <pop&: it 7ta.~aEta t&'v 1tOA~'t'WV Btv o't'(X!lGt:ttXet oiYre: o-r6 (5;"'l..L0"t'~x6 ~ owe mo YUllvamo-1tou va e!vat EAEU6s:pot xa( u1t~o6uvo~ Kat va fleAOU'V veX OU~~E"t'EXOUV (Tt'Lt; )(O~vt~ 01tOeea~t~, xa.t 'tau"t'oxp6vw~ va 1tepviiv€ 'to llE-yaAu'tepo lJ.epOC; TIr~ EV E:.Y(»Jy6pO£L ~{UYi~ 'touc; at tJ.LtX ie:.pcxpxLx-rl aOIl~ Ileon ~v 61to(a Btv 'to6~ 1teqnEt xaVEVat; Myo.:_; e)ft6~ a1t~ "to va. EX'teAOU'V auVI::XW~ t a.rpe:v6C; Gtt)'nx 7tOU 'tOUt; Atve ol cX-vW'tEpO£ -couc;~ rupc:'ttpou amel. 1tOU 'tour:; Atv~ ol xevovrallot, ol 01totOt 1te:vr]'V't'cx !pope; IT"de; EX(X't6 c:lv(Xt xWlJ,txa 1tCtpaAOYO'". l\'J xmop6wvouv 'ta epyoo-raatcx xed ol BY11l00tEC; {ntl1p£o(e:c; va Ae~'tOUPYOUV, etv(Xt t1tE.ta~ XCl"t'a. eva ~eyaAo IlE:POC; ol tpya~6- IJ.E:VOt 7trxpll~(dvou" 'toue; xavovLO'(lOUt; yta 'Va. xrt'tacpepouv ~6: xa.vouv -n1 BOUAE:ta "'t'ou~. J\7t6(5Ed~YJ 6-rr. 1-1(0: a1t6 ''de; O:'JtO-reAe:O'IJ-(X't'tx6te:pec; tJ.opcpE.~ aTte:py(cxt; e:lvcu auTiJ 7tOU uta yaAAUCa. 6volla~e'tat Cx1te:pyia tilAOU· 01 tpy(X~6lLevot B"I1Aaa~ apxf~ouv \lit ecpap(.Lo~ouv xmCc: M;"fl "t'06; xavov~a~ou~ Xt a&to. ~1tOpe:t va xave:~ "to; 1tav'ta va xmappe:uaouv (J.taa at JJ.ict Klpa. rtct'tf lXm6; L\~6t't 't'OUC; x(xvov~Ollou~ <puo~)(a at~ -roue; €x(XVtx'V 01 tPYCXS6!lEVOt· ,,[,DUe; Exava'V B~c((popot 'tqVtxo( ~ tJ.11xav~xo(, av6pw1to~ 7tOU 'teAet.waav 7tOAU't€X'JEr:CX~ 1«(It (J.~y&i\e:C; axoM~, 01 07tOtOt at'V l;tpouv 1tw.:; ytve'ta.t -q (50UA€~& onlV 1tpay~a"t'txm7J'ta:. Bt" ~tpouv 1'( avfl~a(ve," ma'V y(ve.'tat 1tPCC'flla"'ttKa ~£a BouM~a.

M(a (XU1:0VO(l11 xO~\Jwv~a Be') Sa ~1tOpoucrr;: 5x.t yta AOYOUC; cptAaVepW1da~aAAa yta. 7tOA~-rn(OOr; Myou~ va Be:;(tE.1 (lla obeovojux~ xa:tamflaJJ (.LEan o't"i}v onota. aq>ev6c; l.l1tapxe:~ IJ.~(X 't~pa(j't'ta otl(OVOl-UX'I] &v~a&t'l'['a xed acpE.'tE.pOU ol tpYC'lS0(levot., {57JAaBl1 't6

136

01 OMIAIEI: ITHN EAAA~A

aUvOAo 'tOO 1tA~eUa[.lOu, ~p(aKOVta~ ro1tOeE"t"f)~evot aa." llUPlllJYXLa ~eaa at. i£pcxpxtxtt; (}O1l6; 07tOU at" 'touc; ngqnEt x(Xvt-vCU; AOyO~ yui oro. "tt xavoul' xat 1tW~ 66: 't6 xa~ouv. "H c:tl)'toliLOLK1lO'"1l 'tWV 1totpaywYLxwV tJ.0vaBc.uv cX7tD ~our; 1t'ctpaywyouC; elva~ xcx( Cx.napctfn"[t"1j 7tpo u1t66 e:Ol1 yta l-.do:: 7tpaYIlCl'tlxli Cllrrovo ~1l )(Ot V(Uvla xed (57l11oxpa·nxo OX,oAe:io .

.E~~epa atv B~a7t~mWvou(J.E t-tovo 't"'r1V u1tap~Tl ol)(ovo~tXW~ Ilopcpwv xup~aP"Ltoo;. O:Y1tO:pxouv llO(Xpe:t; xuptCXVXLat; 1tOO ErVen X(Xeapa 7tOAt'tf.Xe~. "Eav ~ Pwo(a ~e'tcX 't6 1917 a't)lJ.~OtJPY'1e"llXE E:va tXIJE:'tfXAAEU't'u(6 xed Xf.X'tcx7t!.E:crnxo xa6e::o-rwc;, XCl"ta. neXaa ,u6avo"'t7rra tX~E:TIXAAro"tr.)(&tepo Ked Gtocpcx.AW<; noM xlX't'aTC'te.o"tLxmepo anD 61to~o&717tatlt YlJwmo Wt; "to't'€ o-n1v tm:np£rx 't'Cd;~K6 xa6€Ctt'Ctlr; ~ au-co atv oq>e£k:"clXt a-rou~ X€cpaAar.oxpa:tES ~ aAAa o-ro ye~ yov6t; O-rt. (lEon Cr:7tO "'to lato 't6 )(OlJ.(J.ou"tCTt~K6 x61J.1J.C(. "tou.; I-L 7tOAas: fj(XOUC;, C5Y}(l toupyfielJXE lJ.£a YPcupE:toxpa'da rro U ouvBefhp<.E III nJ YP(Xt.pE~oxp(X·"da -rwv e:PYO<TtClO(WV ~ ·tUU OlpCCtOu Ked aAAwv XOtvWVtXWV xAtiBwv xed ~ 01to((l &px~'ta yp~yopo: xa'toxupWerp{c: oeXv a.1tO)..UTCX xuptCXm "t"a.l;Yl xai ltyxaeUJpUaE "to Xo:6EO'tW~ 'tou ypatpEt oxpa't'~xou, 6AOxA'lPW't'r.xo U XCX7t ~"taAtO,!lOU ~

~uve:7tWC; at" elva~ uovov 01 OhtDVOlLtxci 1tpO'JOI-HOUX~S: xed xupia(Jxe:.; -raSEtC; of. 61toi:e:<; tXvt't't£ee:V"'tCXL <1TIj al1~oxpa'ria· elv(Xt Ked ~ 1to)." 'ttX~ ypaq>E~oxpa'tlcx lj 6'1to~o: auvexw.c; 'te:~"'Er. va 7tapayem~ xed veX o.va1tcxp&YE:-ro:t· aAAo't'€ 1taAL aumtetpWVE:'tCtL yupw a1tD ~(a xaptCJt.la"t'tx~ ~opq»j ~ nor) '!e(vE~ xat XCt-rop6u}vt;;t rpuolxa va (.1.0\.10- 1tWA~ad.F/ -rr,v E!;ouota xaL va t~(X.AEjcpet o1Cotai511'tO'tc; mtEPtltXm BrU.Loxprrnxwv 6EollWV. O:H auy:xp0vTj 1tOAL't'~xYt (lOPCf>11 'too )(6(.l~a'to~ e:lvC(~ Kct-r(lA)"71A6-rtxTt'} y~ci 'torl B"f)lJ.toupy~a nj~ ypacpe~oxptX'ttor;<;. E>UfJ.'Y16EiTE: OTt )(6f,l~r;c't'(X~ ~i ~ aYl~e:ptviJ EWOta: roo opOU, Be\' lnt~pxo:v ~v ixpxr.da 1\6-q\.lO:. TO: xOIl[.La"t"a B"fu.uoupnG"pcav ~ v€me:p"'1 E7tOxjJ. Elvar. I-lfa ano 'tLC; 'tpay~xt~ elpWV~tE<; rij~ 1o-top(a~, l5'tt "t6: 1tPCYm 1tpo:.YlJ.cx't~xa x6~ ~a't(X nov 8ru.uoomfup::a'V I-lE Tilv evvota nov' 8ivoU~E crq~gprx d au~v Tij Ai~"1l. elva~ &JlJ.toupYJl~a."tc( 'tile; tpya~u61<; 'ta~Yj~. <TtOV aywv(X 't11<; yr.a Ct1tEM:uBepcuaYJ, xed xaTa tJ.i~l1m? 't'Ou~ EytVO:V 'teX aanxn X6V.(lfX"tCl crnlv

TO npOBAHMA THI t.HMOKPATIA:E ~HMEPA

137

Eu~1tl}. Ta epya'ttxtX x61J.lJ.cx.orr.t E:XCPUMO''tYlXctV axe-t~Ka. ypirropa x(Xi. y£ vcvs ypcupE.toxpa'ttxti.

T<i xup(apxa o"tpwl-tC(-ra "ta 01tota 117tOpEl xed 1tpi1t~t v6. i.tv"tt!J,e:-

'tW1tf.a£L eva ~f1oxpa:nx6 xiv"1]tJ.cx~ Btv EI'Va.~ ~6\1ov ~ ob,ovolJ.~xii ciA.r.yr.xpxta· elvar. xat ~ 1to)..t"'ttX~ OALyafll..ta. Kat ~ 1tOALT!.xl} yptxcpetoxpcx'tLa. ~EaGl 6a ij6e:Act va 01toypa.lJ.~taw eva O'TJ[J.e:to TrOLl e:lvat a']'[o 1tCXAUX "'(V<uo'to crnlv 1tOAt't[.Kl1 qnAoO'ocp£a. ~ aA)..tX 1tOO 1tOAAOi "1"6 ~X\lave~ xa( i.l5tw~ OTi]v "Ei\Aalkx. Ka."tYfYOPOU~E OU"EXwC; 'tour; xup!apxou<; o-rt xupuxpx'ouv. Au"t6 Itlvcu. -r6ao av6'1l't'o 000 av xrx't"1)yopoutLE: 'touC; xAiqne:~ o-rt xAt~ouv ~ ~ "tout; ~avaouC; BtO"'tL elvat ;av6oL. ~H aooA£~a "thl" XUPLc(PXWV Itlvtxt va. xuptapxouv. ~a'V '7tpE.1tEL va. xa't'"'iYOP'1aoo~E xa1to~ov, 1tpi7t€,t va xanrroP'fjaoull-e "'tOUt; xupto.PXOUIJ,EVOU<; ~ 1tOU ixqn1VovTa~ va XUpUxpXOUVTa~. .6.e:v ~'JtOpOU~E va: )..e(J.& "talYtoXP6vw<; u'n 6 AO:O':; elvat 1t(xVTOa()'va~o~ xa.~ B'tL {) on:otoaBiFto'tE: &{~aywy6~ "'tov aEp'Ve:~ cl.1t6 ~ IJ.UT11. llpe'1ter. \.'a 1tOUIl£ o"n lnt&PXE~ tJ,(a E-u6uv"Il 'tOU 1..0:00 ae exm& "t"a. 67tora yfvovtrlt Y€VLXcX Kat at am&: 7tot) y(vov'tcu oiu.tepa E.la~xa. <I>ua~K& Cllrt6 Bev qrrcX\lS:r. ~ Buy!!. e:3& Btv xCt.voutJ.€ 'i}6 ~xoAoyta. T6 Ml-L~ GtlYt6 yta va u1tev6utJ.fooU(le: CTtOV.C; 1to)..(.orec; is'tt cdrca -ra 01tot(l au~~cdvouv. aU!J.(3rx(\lOU1J (lE -n1 aUlllLe'toxrl 'tOUt;, ~e n1 (1Uvltvoxfl 'tou~. :4.A.Ati (5E'V 111t'OPOUlLE: va o'taBou(l€ d Cllrc6. ft(X-rt l)7ta.PXEt ~ auve:voxfJ, 1tOV 7tcx(pV~t 1:~ f,.lop<pil tilt; rX1taaEMI~. ~S aa~cupop~, "Cou xUVtO'llou~ x.Art. ; ~7t" nlllL6: (lEpta.,. OhO -r6 1<1't'Optx6 peUll(l T7l~ oUyxpo'J7IC; XOtv(Uv£a~, 6t5'1]YEt "tou~ av6pw1touC; a' (x'l)'d~ n]v ix1toxauvwoT] ~ at (XlYt6v 'to", a;'t'o~~x~a~o ~ (J~ airr6v "CO\l l«(.~:'t'a\laAw"'(OO> xed 't'"1JAEo1t"C~x6 auvavLoll6. )\1t' u1V aAA"I) tJftpux U7tapxe.~ KCXt Ka:n fi) .. ) .. o , 1tOU E7tLalX€"[a~ at)l;~TI1o", xa( Ev8E:X,Oll€vwc; avaaXEu~. npoxe:rrat yux -n1 aLEiaaua~ lJ,taa o't6v 1tAYJaua~o

... -- , -,

tJ.ta.c; )Ce;vtptK.q~ l«(UtL'taA"o't'LX'1}C; tpC(v'CaOl(XKYJS Ollt-t(Xrnrx-c;. 'tou lJwu-

eou ~~ yvwa"fl<;~ Tile; E.1ttOTi]I-lT}r; 't{;}\1 er.(5r.xwv, 't'(;)v E1Ccitovtwv:t Ct(yt'wv 7tOU ~ouv. "Exe:t a'tTlPt~e:-m.~ fl xe:v'tP~K"ft (3o~~ Tli.; auyxpoV"1)~ xOt vwviW;, 'CeAeLWC; lxou(J.~t(3a.Gn1 (lE x6:6e 8Y1[.Loxp(rctX~ eeolJ.~- 011 ~ 811Aaa~ ~ btpotfJX.ta. rux't'( 6 .ora5E etvat o-rilv xoprpii Ka~ at liAAO~ e:tvr.u )t&.~w ; LiuJ."t"t e:lvar. o1too8aollivo-c; ~ B[.6tL el'Vo:.~ t1tcx.twv ..

138

or OMIAIEE I:THN EAAAl1A

Zito-tt ~EPEt xaAu-re:pa, 8uJ't't e lvat. EU3tXOC;, X..AR .

A&t6C; 6 l·UJeo~ exEt ~cxeui at~taauae:t lJgt; CJTfj ~w~ 't'WV a""C6flW\I xed y~&. ~Ct am; BtaoxEB6:uw Aiyo }Cat v~ BL(lx6q.tUl .on1V taMe; o:v~txp1j auvtx£~(X au'tWv ~w~ OUAAoyt0IJ.WV. Sti oa~ Bt7JYYJ6w eva aVEx8o'TO ~ IlUX r.o-rop!a nov nprxY{lCl'tLxa llOU au\'t~l'J. Ln1V (EIJ..&(5a xpct'tafJ.e: £:&tI)XWC; aUn1 ~v xa)..-q oUV7j6e:r.a; an oU~TI'tii~e: {lit 't6v ri:v6pw1to nor) 6B"tJye:i: "1"6 "Cast xaf E."'t(J't XO;VOU!!!t 8tOOpopE.r; at.puy~o~e~OE~t; 'tOU 'tt yive"t'f.X~. nJv E:1tOm Tiic; «a1toO't(Xa£ct~» xed 'thlV mpaXhlv i)lJ,ot>'V o-dJv Aa."va )Cat m;pex Eva ""tcd~L to 'ta~"'t~lJC; 'irtCl'V aulJ.1tae7J'tLx6~ xed ;lrn'Jto<; av6pW1tO;. Tofi AEW: or( yt:VctIXL t t.patve"CO:t aoXl1!J.YJ ~ xc("tacna.CTr}. Ned, Me:L~ ElvaL CPptxn1t aAAa 1l~'V ixvljouXel"'tE. Atw, YLa'tt va f1~'V (x'VljOUXhl; ""E, MEL, un:tXPX,ltt 6 J\v-rptat;. 'j\ thEW, xa( -rf 6a )(6cv£~ 6 J\V1'PEa:C;; Ae€t: au"t'l]'V nl (rnYIl~ (lev ~1tOpEr va XrX~e:L 'tL1tma, B~&tf. Ex€t <PUyEL 48 ~pE~ 0111 BouAyap£a. rUl"t'l EX€L rpUye~ 6 1\ 'V°tpea<; 48 wpe<; CJTfj BouAyapLa; .6.~&n, lloU Atet 6 "t'a~r;'[~~<;~ i1 [30UAyaptKi} XU~EP"'"f1aYJ 'ta €XeL l3P!!t 1tOAU oxoupa III Tljv ob(ovo(oUX~ x(x"t'cXo-t'fX011 xa( xtiAe:oav "tov ~VtpEa y~a. 48 wpe:~ yt6: va 'rove; TU a~OpawaeL~

No~£sw m~ xa6s: ax6A~O elv<xt 1tEptnO. to lXvBpM7tO<; ?tou flOU 'ta gAey~ Cllr~cX ~'ta.ve 1tOAU xavovtx6C;. tSe:\I iftavE EX YE:veTil~ T,ALer.oS". ~l'ave 1tOAU E:vt'ci~€L, 65"f]YOuO£ a~oya, !lOU £l1tE: v60't't[,.l(x <XO'"t€ta a~ aVVExeta ~ Xl"A. Mit CUYn1V Ttl voo-tp07tta; at li'V8pw1tOL qnJqnoav auo cpope~ "tov 1\ vt'pta xed 'tDV q>epO:'VE (ITa 1tpay~rna. --nJv 1tpw-t.,. 6& I.l7tOpouor:: x(Xvel;- v6: 'tour; aoYX(U(n1o!tt ,-n1 BetYt&PYl OXt. 'O 1\. vtp€tX<; etva~ It ~anco~, £5:lv el~(.u E:1:0t; 'O Ko ul'a6y~{UpyC(t;, e:lvcu €1ttOl'JS c:~a~)C6c; xa£ Uta nO:!l1te:ps xed DE 5tacpopa aAAC1. Ka£ OAO~ ol iiAAOt e:!v(.(~ ItU5LXO£' €1'V{X& e1ta:tOV'tEC;~ ;tpouv~. 'AC; aqn1GOU(.if: aUTouC; rtou sepou'IJ va ixnocpcxa(.aouv.

To ra~o xat lJ€acx tTI'O tpyot'tLx6 X£VYllla.. ~Y1tapxou"e: at Ct.pxytyOt 1tOU SEpou'Ve .. ol yevtxot ypalJ.!lIJ.<XTELS. ol ZaxaptaB"'1liet;. x.Arc. Ked E:.xei: --r6 1tpayv-a. Elven XE~p6't".e:po -xal yt" atrc6 qrra(€t 6 llapSLOlloC;- A6yCJj 'ril~ eE:WpyZ't~KYrC; x(X't'oxupw~C;. IItow cX1t6 -r6v YE'lJtx6 YPCX[ll-lfX'tECl, il nCaw (x1t6 La: o-re;Ae:;Q1 TOU x61l~a:to~~ 01tapx,E.t fJ r .. uxp;~lYrtX"J} 6e:wp(cx 7tOU Ate~ TlJv rXAt,eE~Gt y~ri ~~ XOtVwvLa, YLtX 't6

TO npOBAHMA THE aHMOKPATIA:E ::EHMEPA

139

7tW~ 1tPE1tE~ wi reVEl O'oO'tCXA.tO'tJ.6c;, y~r:i 'to 1tCrtE 1tpe1tEt \1& x&'Vou!Le:

Ot7tepyLfX.~ 1t01:'E. 8ev 1tpE.7tEt, 1tfrte. 1tP€7tEr. va napoull£ 'ta 07tAa. ~ 'Va. xa'tCXAci~ou~~ 'to: X.e:LtJ.EfH va lxvO:.xtopa x."A:rt. ~A(x edna el"aL 1lE:Ae·nUlEva Xctt: Au~tva mous -r611ou~ '"t'ou KE:rpa).a{ov ~ fTt'OUC; 60 "'C'O[.LOUC; "tWV l\navrcuv -rou Atvtv. Ta qouv tJ.u..e:n1aE~ 01 ei(hxo~, 01 o7toio ~ ~tpoov. 'Rau rn1Y(X~ ve 'Va XOAA110~t~ "tit; 7t POX'Ylpu;c: t~, yt(X"tt lloVO a.&t6 ll1topei~ va XtX\lEtC;. Airt6 "'to cpcxtv0l-le'Vo ex€~ afFtjarn e:.Bw xed evav ex t6lVtx t al1AaB~ a7tD "C6 1880-1890. ~ e a.v-rf 6€0l] IJ.€ 1:6 "t( ytvma\,€ o'n}v &pxfI O''t'tX epycx'tLx& auvl>L>cCn'a xaL ata tpya'tLKCt. x611lJ.(X'ta. ~ 51tou 1tpayf.La't~ 6'1ri1PXE [J.£a ailE-OU,) Bl1~o)(pa't~(x, lipxLOE va. a1]lltOUpyE~"C(lL llLCl ypacpe:.~oxpCX"tta. Ol ES1J~aE:tC; 1tOU Exouve BoBet mJ~tp(J)"a fli 'tU; 61toi:E~ fJ av6.1t'tuSTJ "ri1c; Epyo:'t'~K~C; 1tOAt'ttx.:q.; xat OUVBLXaA~<rt~ X1]~ yprup£ to )(p<X"d~.. a cpe: lAe-co. t at «O:Vtt xel~€'vl)(o6~» A6yoUr; (or.XOVOltLXO UC;., avayxa tm71tt(~ 'rii~

'opyti"hlOllt; x.An:) ~1'V(xt xa'ta -n1 YVWIlYl f.LOO EA;"t1tt(f'ta'te:~ }taL a<popouv floVO SS:U1:€pc:uoV't(X Ol']lle:ta, ~ (x1tAt~ ou'Vt1tete~ 1-u.Ci.r:; ~cxBo-tE.pY1C; atodctt;. 'H [3o:.66tepY1 a~ oJ'do;. TJ 7tpa)1.urnx~ tS~Yy}01i ElvCt.~'I ax6(lcx lJ.fa cpopa, ~ che:taBuCJ1llleoa CJTfjv epya'nx~ 'tt.XJ;~ xed EV yEVE:t tJ.eoa O'tO aU\loAo 'tOU 7tAl1BuO'llof> Tij~ )(a1t~'TtxAHTttxii~ <pc(v'OO.O'L(X.x.li~ rTf]lJ.CW£a~ oUtuP<.Uva (LE. -n1v ono[o:, 1tpe1tE-t va 5totxouv XeLt: va a~e:uauvouv au't'o£ 7tOU EXOUV '1'& rtpooovm va a~o~xoov xed va {5t&u6uvouv ~ 1tOU ~Xouv B"1)ArWl1-n1V t1t~CJTfj(J.Y1, TIlv -rexv t~ 'ri]<; (5~e: U 6u\lm'lC; .

AU-n1 ~ lata dwxt q>uCJLxa p'"~txa aV"d6e:'n1 tl€ ~v ix{lxa(o: EA):'1V~Kl1 U5c:a YLa 't6 n €!V(u (5'71~oxpa'tLc( xaL -d €1'V(X~ 1tOA~'tL)(-q, nou -nJv i!:x6e-C£L 7tOAU wpocia 6 IIpcv"t'ay6pac; C1't'6\J 6~hl\lUllO BU2AoYO 'tou nNitwvoc;. to TINX'tWV, -nap' BAo nOll r::!vGtt EXep6C; -ril~ B"fllJ.oxpa'tLac;;, 'n1 tJ.e:'truptp~~ Xtx-rrX ~ YVW(l"t] [.too 1tOAU 1t~crt6:. To aElla a' (Xlrt6 1'0 arn..tELo "too. B~aA6you etVClt 1to[.6~ e:tVctt 1'toAt'tn(6~ xaf 1to~6~ at\} £lva~, 1tot6~ xa:'tExe:t 1tOA~ 1:t~ E1ttO"tYUL1J )(C(£ 1tOLO<; 3t-v X(('tEXE:L 1tOA!;ninl £1ttOTIUJ.TJ. Ka( 0 Ilpw"tay6pac; 0:1'Ca."'J't0: o' cxirn1 Ttlv S:pWn'}O"fJ liE fvC( llu60. ~Ottt'J 6 Zeus aoxoA~6rj){E: l-LE 'tou~ aVepW7tOU~ E:tJ.0(po:ae m6v eva 'torYt'7J n1V etB~x&tYJ'tC(. mov iXAAOV (.Lta aAA"tJ, a:AM tlJv 7tOAL"nxYt YVWG'rI -nllloLpam toa O'E: OAOO':;· y[.~

140

OJ OMIAJE~ l:THN EAAAAA

cdrt6, Mer. 6 llpO>'tay6prxt;, [3AE1tE.t~ fJ'tt mav at ~e1]v(do~ egAoU~ va anocpaaiaouv ~v txxAllma "tou atJl.l.OU 7tw.c; va xtXmoxe:uaut'DUV TO; xapa[3!cx ij 7tW~ va xt'tat"ouv ora 1:'ei;Ql ~ ol vaal, cpwva~ouv 'touS e:llhxooS xat 'tou~ axou\I xed &\1 Ka:Vg"a~ Ill) e:lBLX6~ ee~ A1)OEt va. 7taper. 'tov 1..010 'tov ytouxat~ou"e. '1}tav 0llWt; 1tp6Ke:.~ 't"C(~ va. aus·qt'1}6oov 0\ ye:Vtxe:S 1tOAt't~Xt~ tntOeeoett; ti]~ 1t6AEW~, 01tOtooB~1tO"te:. 1toAh'lt; !l7tope'L veX ~th-qae:~ xaf OAO<; 6 x6olJ.oC; -rOv axouet !lit npoaodl. IIiaw ano (Xu't6v .orov ~6ao xpu~E1:at ~ ~o:e6- 'taTIJ 1tOAr."ttX~ xoo cpr.AOOOCPtx~ lBea 'tW'V apxatcuv~ o-tt yui "t'a 1tOAt'ttxt:X 1tpay[.l(A['(X at\' tnttXpx.et Entanjp.Yj, Btv 01teXpxe:t ovO''tl'UJ.(x't"tx.~ yvwO'Yl ~i a1tOa€(;e:t~, (..l€ 'texvtx.~ E:x7taUlE.uoy} x.Art. ~ a.A"Ni ll7teXpx,ltt ad;a~ (57}Aa(5~ (nnpxer. -1] YVWI-l"t) "t'WV avf)pw1tw'J ~ YVWl-L'rJ ~ (>7tota cpuQutci 1tpt1te;~ Xtx( aUT7] va BLBClx6Et Kr.d i] o1t'o(a XaAm€pe:u£~ [J.E n]v €p:rct::tpia MAlt. Btv €iv(u E.7ttanl~Ti.

IIwC; ll1topet i? oos-a -rGrv aVep611t"CuV va BtBa.x6et, 1tW~ etvcu Bu~ vcerov OL a,v(JPW1tOt va. OX'H1Cl-ra;OOV 6AoEVot x(xAmeP"t} YVW(.L"11 )Cat: cpp6v'1oYl ytti 'tit 7tOA~'t"uca npaYlJ.ot't"ct yr.a 'tcX 61tOtCl 8ev U'1teX{JX€t tbtto-nlI1'1 ; ""Evac; :<0;£ (J.6\JoC; 'tpO'Jto.; intapx.e:t: va 0:0)(00\1 -dJv 7tOAL"'t'tX~ t';ouata, va. ous"t}'t"Ouv xed ",Ix 1ta(pvouv a1t'ocpaaeLC;. TWtCtl<; &v"t'We't'Y} cpuouca ~r\la~ ~ ~a\l'trtpV(l CxVtO"T]t(rt] ~ 61to(a E1t€XPO:'Tl}aE, a7JAa(5~ ~ tata tJ't~ ~ &ril-Loxpa't"t(X I£lvext ~ EX7tPOGc,)1t"1J0Y}. ~ ~ CxV'tL- 7tPO<16l1tE.utTrl· ArJn1 ~ O'u~"tl't"i1O'7J E:Xer. y(ve~ anD 7tOAUV xc.up6 xat 0 "{Bto~ 6 Pouooor, 6 67to~ot; Eypct<pe: 0't6 "["tAo,; 'too 180u txtwva t ~Ae-

y.e: atxcpwr; Ot~ 1l tJ.6~"t] lJ,opCf>l1 (}eKTij~ ~ 1tpay~a'ttxi1r; B1}(loxpcl'tfro; Elv(X~- ~rlil-LeC1l) fu]v.oxpa-r(a~ ~r1trXpxet m6v Pouooo tl[a cppa071 ~v

01tOt(X 6a lJ.1topoUOIt v& e1xe ~pEI xavetc; xat e-eov AC:VLV xo:£ orov Maps, O"t'fXV apy6-repa ibcavav ~v )(Pt"ttx~ "tou XOlVO{3-0UAeV't't- 0llou. Ol ~yyAE.~ot, Mer.:- \lOIlG;oov O't'r. elvcx~ tAe:66€po~ Bt6'tL txAEyouv 'tou<; J30UAe:u"t'tc; "'tou«; ~[a cpopa (ITa 1ttV'tE: XP6vttX, MAcX amo:.1t{X't'Cnrrat· eJvctt S:Ae.u6s:pot ~La llepa o'tcX 1teV't'e x.p6v~a. "'Eyw eli ekya ll'tt 6 Pouoow Bev 7tpox.wpaet "tov ouAAOyt0t-L0 "'tou !ltxp~ 'tE.AOU.c;, y~a"'t'( tpuatxa Btv elvat E:kue€po~ 01t{U~ Btv eYtlC((TtE xa:~ Btv ttYoao-r.e: EAEU6EPOt. ou-te lJ.((X [.lEpa. o'ta 1tE:VtE. xp6vLa~ T6 'ti eti tV"I}cp&ae:-rf: aU-n1v n1 lltpo:. <neX 7ttvt'~ X(J6vta elva~ ~a71 1tpoBtayt::-

TO llPQBAHMA TH!: aHMOKPATIA~ l:HMEPA

141

ypallllg\lO. IIpw1"tt 1tPW"tCl €tvc(t 1tpoBr.a:yeypoqJ.flEvo art' alrta lLl 't«X 01tO ia [LaC; EXOUV ye:.~.ttoe ~ "to xe:t.pw..~ tnt 1tEV-r£ x.povta. E I vat 1tpo8tcxyeypalll·utvo (x1tO 't(~ K(x'to:Cttciae:t~ 'ttC; 01tOtEC; EXOU\J Y1lil1 a.\le:1t~(J'tPE:1t't"£ aruuouma€~ ctu"t'Ot 1tOU ~p(axOVta.~ ~&i etta 1tpaytLct"t'a. Ked Ba tJ.7topouae va auvexiaeL veX eKee't€L xfXveCs lilO: 1-l(X.xpOO'V 'to 7tw.t; e:.l .... cu 1tpoBr.a.y£ypoql(J.e'Vo. A7t6 -n1 o'tr.Y[.li} arc' Tljv 61tOLa. itxouv tXAe:yet &~ctcXxA"IJ't'Ot ixv-ct1tpOaw1tOt, ~ 1tpw"t~ xa£ xupt(x BOUAe:~a a&t6lv 'tW\I alJ.€"tCtXA'l'twv b.V't~ 1tpoaw.1twv --tX"t'6~ e&.v 1ttO"tEUOU[lE- O''tov 1\yr.o Bexoo..7J- E:I\la~ va x(x"t'oxupwvouv n1'" t1t(xvExAoy/J 't'ou~. O:;Oi\a 'ta liAAn. e:lva~ Beu't'Ep€'uOV't'tX xaf cdn6 'to ~M1te:"t'e a;{Yn1l1 TfI (tt'tY(l~ xa( o-ro e7t(1tE-Bo 'twv av'tt1tpOaW1thlV, Kcd crt6 t1tbte50 n;c; IIpoltt5p(a.C;. TO. 1J.6vo Sella -r6 into~o ev(3uxcpipEt s:lVClt 1tWr; va XOC't'oXUpcu6e:.t ~ E:1tCXVeKhorYI. Au"ttX 7tOU a~Baoxouv ot xcx&tjY'1)1'tt; ::Eu\I'tayllCX'ttxou tlLxa(ou O'"'C'o naVe1t~O'T'I]flto £!VCt~ acrx.e'ta. ~H aV't[.1tpooW-1te:UO'l'l e:'iva.t 1tOAL"'tr.~ c(t)'t'oa7to~vw- 07] 'tOO 1tOAt'ttxou aWllc("to~. ElvClt «nape Aya (lOU "to axo~ ,,( veX (Je xpe:~aaEt<;». 'H 1l6VYl BuvctTi) lJ.opqn1 C511110xp<x"r(a<; e:.IV(XL 1t dlleoy) 8'1JlJoxpa'tta.. tJ."I}AaB~ ~ fu}~oxpa"'t'[a 01tOO ol o:v6pw7tot (Utoq>aoL~ouv ~6'VOL 'tOU~ xed. alL ll-eOtfl rXI-lE;'t!lXAYrrWV ExrcpoaW1thlv.

1\1t'O 7tOAUV Xf1LpO intapxe:.~ Eve< e:1t~xdprUJ.a xext lILa aU~"11'n1Dl1 not> 6ii e:.L\Jcxt &'vtV'tqJ.o \la ixq>ilaoUflE: )(o;""'ca llEPOS· ~~(le.a"t] B"t]tJ.oXptx't((x lnt~p~, 'to l;ipoUlie .. ~Y~p~ a'tiJv 1\_e~\J(x' Kat at tJ.Ep~xt~ alle:~ ell7i'V~x~ rt6ktc:;. ""Ox.~ ai 6kt;. !J.EV u~p;e 1tO'tE o-rq PWlJ."1J. "Av 7to't'€ axouaete xaVE-va'V xa6"y]Y"1Jn1 7tCtve:1ttcrt7JtJ.(OO veX 0'«; ~r.AofJaE~ yta pWllrux~ 8Yll1oxpa·da, YUaO''teA ~H PW(J.1] +]wve:. OAt yapxt(f.. anD -n1\1 am ~txpr. 'to 'ttAO~. "J\v cl.xooO'E.'te xav€'Vcxl.' lJ.apt;r.o-rq va aiXc; 1te:'E (ht ~ ld}l1Vdt>01 8YJt.toxpa""tta o'tYlpr.~m(X", aTl]v liouktrx. ;(xvo:y~A£i(Tt'~. ~ooAe:(a u'1riiPX€ 1t(.(V't'ou G1:6v apx.cxIo x6al1o ~ MAo.. 1tou6eva lxAlou atv tl1t7lPXC: 81Jlloxpa1:"La.. IIet'te "'tou cXx6IJ.tX lYn Bev ~pe:t 1'6v lLap;lO"(l6, yta:tL b YBtoC; 6 MapS YPrupeL9 1tOAU oooo-ro:, mt iJ 1tpa:n.J.a:'t'~x~ XOtV(UVtKO-OLxovofl~xij {3&o"Y] tii~ apxafC(~ BT]flOxp(X'dW; ~'tav ol E:AEu8€pot lxvesapnrtot lltXpo1tapaywyot. ~H ~a- 07J 'tfj~ Ct.(hrV(XXK~~ a"'(l-oxpcl"da.C; Btv yttClve ~ (5ou).£(o:. at 7tAOUa~O~ EtX(lVe: (5ouAoLX;, ol1tEp~O'o6tE:por. tX7t6 'tou; U1t6AOt1COU~ A6l']vai.-

142

01 OMIAIEE I:THN EAAAAA TO IIPOBAHMA THI .!1HMOKPATIAE :EHMEPA

143

OU~ Bev ~rXcx'Ve.. ~H ~aal1 T"fl~ a6"1]VlXtxilc; ~IlO)(p(X"t£aS' ~""tav€ 6 aypo-r"l]<; nou exCt.ve IJ.E: 't6. 7t65La 25 x.~A~6~e:.'tpa y~a va xai'te~et a-rr,\J "ExxA7'jo£a 'tOU a~tlOu ~ va au~7JnlaeL xaf va (x1tocpaaiaet· 'to rBto xat b ~f.}yl'LI(x'EO~ 'te:xvh7J~ xed 0 ne:tpatw't"tlS va.&t.,.r;.

Au't'o cpuatxcX npoU7toet"te:L o-n exouJ.lE: ~fa 1toi\t··tUC~ xOLv6't"1J"'t'cx n€ptopto!J.€W) at apdJ(lo. ~r1t&px'e:~ aAAwGTE: xat iJ 1t€plq»]fl"f} cpp6:OY} 'tOU IIAtXtWvo~, t7tOUt; N6f-1.olJ~ liv 6uf.L0:lJ-cu xlXAa, 01tOU au~l1- ""taE~ 't"o !fkxvtx.6 ~Eye6o~ (.uCu; 1t6Al1«; xcd AtEt o'tt am6 1:'0 tao:.'V~x6 !--tEye:So;: 0:1t6 linoc4JYl 1tA116uo(lou (OXL tl5acpou<;) el~('.<L 6 <X(>L6110r; a.vep~1tWV 1tOU" (l~",t'Vo~ cn6 tBLO lJ.epoc; ~ IJ.1tOpOUV veX axouaouv tr, <p{lrV~ tv6s plJ"topa. A&n1 ~ laia elvf.u 1tOAU O'YnJ.aV't~Ki], [3Ai1t~'t'e:

O:[J.eoCllC; 't't~ Buxqlope~ 1tPO€X;ttXoe:tC; n]c;. ~Et;(aou 0'Y]Ilcxvttx6 Elva.t 'to yeYO\lOt; o"n 6 xtx6tvexc; 7te::plnou sepc:L -r6v cUAO\l. ~TOU~ 1tAa'tluVt)(OUC; C5UXA6youc; rr ·x. {J1J.)'tcXEL 6 :EwxpcX't'l~ (l EVC( YU!J.vaato i txe.~ nor) E1va~ O'uyx~Vtpw~evor. ol "to~, 1tOL0S" e!vcu ao-r6r;; Kal ""tou MEr. 6 tlAAoC;,. 1tC>t; atv SE.PE~C;. elVCXt /) yt6C; 'tOU ""taBe. VA! MEL b :Ewxpch-7)t;, [3.e:f3a.£w~, Ka( Btv E1Xe l;ti5eAcpo "t6v BEivlX; .6.t&n all-a 01 e:A£u6e:pot 1toAltt.; e:lvat 30JX)(), Cx1tO 'tou<; 67to(ou~ 10.000-15.()(X) lLEVOUV G'tijv 1\eliv(X, OAOt yvwpo;ovw;~ lJeml;u 'tou;, nepi1tou )(C(eE\la~ S£pEL yui -r6v MAov t ~ tJ.1topei: euxoAcx va [.taee:~ "tL €papa elvtxL" 't( ~uy(~e:t, 'tt: e:l",f.u lxav6~ va xave:L xed \}6: l1:tfV xrXV&&.

~O ~ey6;AO~ A~eptxav6t; XOtvwv~oA6yor; AtOLlLS" Mallt.pOP"'t au~l]-rae:.t n1 cppaa7j 'tou IIA&-twvor; a~ Eva ~t{3A!O 'tou "tOU '36 xed MeL (JWatp. &n lJ-t -n1v t<pe:upeo"t) 'tou paBLocpwvOU "ttl Opto:: 'rile; a~e<Jl'}C;

~ ~

a,.(.toxpa'tLac; EXOUV y~v!tt 8ptCl 'too 1tAo:VI1'tYl. 'Eye;} 6 ratO~, a~ [.tou

E1tL'tptne:.-rat va lxvf.«pepw rov tau't6 (lOU, 20 Xp6'VtlX ~e:.'ta. a1't'6 "t6~ McX~ .. upOpvt (x'VecpEpa 8A7JV alrn1 -n1V 01t11pe:.OLct. (oro IIep'€Xof1e'JIO TOU }JoouxAlap.ou, 1957) xed Ot\'€cpepa e7t~~~ Ttl\! Tl1AeDpa.O"l1. T6 ye;yov6r:; mt XCXt 1} --r7JAeopaoyt cpuatxa tl1topet ,,6: 1l1t£t aniv {)1t"f}PE~ afa 'til~ Cit-tE:GYJ'; B"flIlOxpa'tLac;. Bt(3(X~a [J.€ 't6 1toA~'t'tx6 ){a6S:<TtwC; nor) 07ta.pxe~ !-l1rilxs: O"TI1v U1ty}PEO(c( TIle; cpo:uAoxpa--r(a~. 1\M& aUTO Btv e:lvat €VBLCU.plfpov xaB' tatYt6' au"t'o nou 6tAw va 1tW elvcu o-n U1tcXPXOUV 'ta 'teXVLxri (l€OCX yta 'Va ~1tope:aouv v6: U1tap~ou~ Wp~(J.Er; xed (J"toxaafLEve:~ lJ.E'tn Ct1tO ausYrt'1J0"fj auAAoyr.xe~

Cl1tOcpaOEtS, nov wi U1te:p~C(t:voo'V a1te(pw'i ~a lip~a 't'ij~ KAaoLx'i1<; Ci~e:.C1"'~ 8T1[J.oxpa"t{as:o T1lS ixth}vdCx"t1~ rr .x. IIpt7tE~ \leX E7tLV01l6ou\J, 1t{)E1CE-t va B"fJll~OUpy1]eOUV 'Vee:~ (5011lit:; xed vEe~ !-lop<pt~. A&-n1 i] cbtoo/tl Dllw~ e:Iv(.u eAA'-IDJ;. rLti va ~1tOUV --r6 paBt6rpwvo, ~ "'t'lk6- pn07l X'tA. 0'n1V lrnYlPe:.afa --rr;C; t5"tU..Loxpa:tUxc; .npt1teL va xa--rao't{lar.pEt ~ a'1}(.Leptv~ l-L0'VO-7tOAtX~ B0tl~ ""tOU<;: fvo:e; evepy6c; 1tOIl1t6<; xa( a1tEL¢pt6[J.OL 1tae'1"'ttxo~ C5tx'tE:t;. IIpe1CE:L 6 l-lov6Bpo(lo~ va. yfv€~ 8~1CA6(5poIlOt;, yta va xa:tacrcet -q 't"t)Ae:6pa01'j B"I1lloxpa'tLx6 (Spyavo.

Movov axpofhYhl-C; ll1tOPW v' O:'VCXq>EPru E\'(X G.AAO "tEpam-tO 7tp6- ~AYJlJ.a "CYi~ O'YUlEPtyjJC; E1tOx7]~: 1:"0 olxOAOytx6. To ava:r.ptpw lJ.ovo yux va .orov(aw M~ allfX. "'to Aa~OUlle U1tO$"I) ~.UX~ y(ve-rllt alLeawc; 1tpocpa'Jt~ o'tt "'to S~'tl'U.ux T1i~ B"I}(10KPc('ttru; e!v(X~ 1tayx6a~~o ~ Mt ~t1VCtt ~Yrt"l1lJ.a 1tC(yx.6o!l~a~ a"tJtJ.oxpa'tta',;. Atv u1tapxoov «Eevtxb;» MOE~; o-r6 otXOAOYLXQ 1tp6~/"lH .. UX. IIepvac;t EVa. 1tE't(JeAaLocp6po 500.000 't6vwv at 100 X~AL6[J.€"tpa fx.1t6amor] (UtD nt:; &X'tEt; ao:~ xat &.\1 rux6v vauanae:t~ O'1tw<; E.Y~VE (xlrt6 1tOAAEt:;; cpoptr;. ol O:X"'t'"t<; oac; !lE"t'(.(lloPcpwVO'V'uu at 1t(aaa E:.1tL xpovta. XWPU; ~a (J.~J..:qooUllE. yta 't"frJ (x-rl-!oacpcxtpa, yux "ta. Baa"!] x. A7t •

fux va 'tpacpeL atYt-t] ~ tX(J.eo"1l Bl1~oxpa't£C( '1tpe1tE:L va e:tVtXt 1tpo:y~CX"ttxa a.(J.EO'1 (5rUJ.oxpa"da O€ e:\la 6p~otJ.rtvo e1tL1t€8o. npt1t€~ 'Va e:lvat otov££ (dj'1}'Vd~xou 'tU1tOU Blllioxpa1:"tcx at'6 e:rdTte:i5o ~r:; ~aall~· fu}AalJil 7tpE.7t€t va l)1tclpxet Eva 8£X'tuo )(Qtvwv ~ xo~'VOTfrtwv a1CoxtVtpw(lEVWV )Cat tXmoxu[3e:.pvwv.t'Jwv. Ol ii\l6pc.l1t'OL 1tPE1te:t va tX1ttx"aEO't'OUV ~v (xu'tovo~((l, ~v au-roa~x(cx -oxt lJ.t Til" E.vvo~a 1t'Or) XPYla~~o1to~OUV 'tOV 5po ol ecp1111epU5€t;- xed O"TI1v cx.&tO'ttAeUX m6 E:7tt1teBo ~ o-dS a~a<Tt'cXaef.~ (l~fxr:; 1t6A1]~ tJ.e'"t"Cl.;u 20 Xelt 50 'Yl itO"t'cv xo::t 100 XtAta5wv xa:to(KwV~ ~ O"''d~ B,-a<TtaoEtC; t\J6~ e.pyoataOLOU, o't(Xv 1tp6xe:vt'ClL y~a nj~ 1t(Xp(Xyc.uytX~ au'toBtO:X.e(pLG"Il, ~ a't(~ lltao"tQ:ae:Le; aoVE't'C(~p~o"~.u;)v 5-10 xwp~w\J. MEoo:. d (lUtEs "dt; BLao'tao£~c; ol aVepW1tO~ (.L1tOpOUV 7tpay~.ux""t~x& v6: xavouv tL(a auvtkuO"Y) xat va rX1tocpaaG;ouv yux BAn -r<X 6ella:ta 1tOU 'tou~ acpopouv IX1tOxAe:.t<Tttxa. AnD xe:i ~1top~i va ;eKt~aEt ~ «Xv&Be:O'fl,OXL E:X1tPOaW1tY1011, a"A.ACr. &,,&6e:0'Y] I!hapxwc; (xvax):rrt'1)~ (36-

144

or OMIAIE~ :ETHN EAAAaA

V(X(1.TJC; at aVepN1tOU~ 1tot) va au~t.J.e'ttxouv OE avw'tEpw\' 5~cxcrt'aae:w'V t\J6-t"tj"t'e:; - E:1tapxla, ~otJ.6<;~ 1te:PLOXJ)~ EeVO~~ ~ ~1t€~POC;~ 1tACX~ vqT"t}<;. !:X€'r[.xa ~€ 't£; ~aO'tx€t; tv6nyte~ TI}~ a~eG'tlt; B7Iv-oxpa::tiac; ol a.pxctiOt ~ 1tOpOl),V va lla«; {nto8e:£l;ouv 1tprXYtlfX'ttx Ox~ yta "Va "en ll~flYlt)ou~e:~ aMeX yux va oxE:q:rroUIlE:. IT .x. O-n1V afIXaia A6Yjva 1tOAM~ f3lXatxi~ t;ouo(e:c; ex1tAl1pwvov't(XV EX 1te:P~Tp07t~<;· KaBE (.l~vo:: ~.tt6. q>UA~ aaxouoe: (5~rupop£'tU(6: lxt;twLJ.cx'ta. :E't6 taw't€ptx6 atm;c; tii~ <pUA~C; x6;Be ~tpa eva lhacpope-tLx6 a:totJ.o 'iTta'Ve E1ttO'"'ta"t~c; 'tOO" npu""tavEwv ~ B."i\aB~ 1tpoe:.8po; Tile; clrUJ.oxpa'dar;. "Evev aAAo fll1VCl 't6 cXstw{-t(X 1tep"ouoE: ot !J,tav aAA"f) CPUA"I1. I:e aAAet; 1te;pL1ITW(JE~~ ~ a'J6:aet~Y} t"w'V fxpx6vtwv y~v6't'a'V ~E. xA~pO. '"Exe:i (htou ot j\~vaioL e;e:Aeya.v .. 01tWt; ~tpE.'t'e: ~ €tvC(~ txe:i (htoU 1t'paY[J.cx"tL xpe~a~e:-cat ~(a. €,t8LxCrn]1:a Xctt yt' a&to 1t.x. ol o-rpa1:"fjyo~ exAtyo\l"tcxv. dUyt't 'to va alOLX~a€t xtx\let~ o-tpa-r6 crt ~.p'(XXl1 (5ev e!vo:~ 6e[J.fX -rou )(cx6e:.v6C;· el",aL eEIJ.<X I .. uiir; e:18£x.e:uGlJS xed !Jtat; -rtXV'1Jr;. ~xAtyovtaV aAAa. ElJ.€VaV aVClxA:rrroL. T6: oUyXPo'V('{ £ku 6epw'ttxti KtvfU.l.(x'ttX xcx( LBLC(t'te:pa 'to epya:tLx6 xfv"lJlJ.<X i5l]l.!tOuPl"f)aa'V (lla aAA'1) ouyyevfl B'11l0XpCX'tLX~ LJ.0pQ»1. TIJ !l0pq>~ "too (JU!J.(3ouA£ou. 'tDU e:pya-nKoo ao~~ouA'OU. ~H YE:Vtx-Q cru'VE:AeuOY} OA(r)~ 'tWV t"auxcpe:polltvW'V tXAtye:L E>C1tpOaW1tout;. ol o1toiOt O~Wt; EX7tpOaW7tot ~dvat ouvex_WC; a.vax.A"f)"t"O(., oX~ a1tAW<; intEUeUVO~. Etva~ aU\lex~<; l)7tEUBu'VOL ~ aAAO: elvat xed oU'V€X,WC; a.vO!.xA;J']'toi. e:ivcx~ U1toxpe:<Al~t~o~ ~a (:)(.)000'1 AOYO m'ou~ txAoyeL~ 't'ou<; yux o;n

':h'

eKavav.

~

!ltv er~at b -r01tOC; xaL 6 Xpo\Jo,; "t'wpa va E1t~aOeOu[1.e at Ilia Ae~

mO(.Lepl]7tEpLypaqnllltCtc; i.i1l~OYJC; BY}[.J.oxpa.'da; nor) 6n 1tEPtEA6.~~a.ve 1tA:'16u01l6 Exa"t'o~flupfb)'V. J\px~~ va 'to'V(aou(le Buo ~(Xotxe.c:; o:{)XtC;: CUt' 'ti] (.L~(X !-lEp~a 1tpcxYl-la't~xiJ allEO"f} a1]~oxpa'da at £\10- 't'Y}Te~ ~aaf.:wv, tJ.EOO: mtc; 01tOtEt; ~ 1tpay[J.a'"ttK~ a1]~oxpa't"£a va ll1topel va. Ae:t"t'OUmOEL. An9 Til'V cl.AAY} lJE:pta. xa6E: CtPXf]1tOU XCl't' aV<XyKl1'V 1t'PE1t£t 'VeX tXAe:y€r, ItxAE.ye-tar. tiE" ~ exAM elvllt auvEXws aVaxA~n1, u1t€u6uvy} Kat 1tpE1tet va (5(VEL A6yo. "Erot (.L1toPOU!J.e: va O:p)(Looulle 'V~ aVtL~E'tCt)7ta;OulLe: 1'0 1t'p6~A1llla -ril~ ri(.lEUlJC; &J!lOxpa'dac; at: !J"trx XOLVWVta 1tOU exe:~ 'tit; ato:;O'taO'E:t~ 't'c7>v OTH1.e:P~\iW"

TO llPOBAHMA TH!: 6HMOKPATIAl: l:HMEPA

145

XOLVWVtWV xcx~ 1tOU Sa enpE1tE va e1t€x"t'ct6et at ~1te.~PW1;r.XOUC; xc:d '"t'eALx.a 1tAaVYft~KOU~ xwPOUt;.

(J)-ravw 'twpa o't6 "twu't'ato O'71IJe:LO T'fl~ 6~.uAtac; [.Lou. \)Ao; am&; EXOUV ~t~(.na n1 o"1Jllaola 'tou~ .. 1tPOXE~lltvou va lJ.1topeoe:t ~ a~e- 01) a.,UJoxpa:tLtx va AEL'tOUmoEt MArX B€v el'Jc(t Kaip[.a. TIPOXEtIJ.€VOU va t..tTCoptoe~ va U1ta.pg:r. e.Ae:oAe:p!a, C:L-rE oe 3to:mam:lC; 20- 30 xr.Ata(5wv aVepC;)1tw'V, E.t'tE O'E Bta(J'taae:tC; 'tPLWV lhoEXCXtOIJfJ.Opiwv av6pul1tw'V, 1daw .. xO;"tW Kat 1tr.XVW fx1t6 o:Wu; 'to6~ 8e:CJl-touC; XPEt6:.Se"ta~ x6."t~ aAAo 1tOU xC(vt\la.~ BE-v (17tOpEt \ia 't6 tX1t0CPQ.o(oe:t ~ va 1'0 t3a.AEt aa:v VOtJ.O. XpeLaSe"ta~ Y] ouv£:d]c; a7J~tOUpy~xTj Bpa.- 0''t1'}pt6'tY}'ta 'too XOt vo fJ. M6vo 't6 xor vo 111tope t va ~PEt, OUtE tyw. ou"t"& l!aE:~C;, 7t~C; elv(.(t 5u\ltXt'6v va. ~J7taps~t ixAA1]Ae1tLZiplXO"J] ivo~ XE"'tptKOU 1t0Il7tOU paa~ocpwvou ~ 't''tJAt:opo:aewc:; Kat 'tOU XotVOU not) -rov BtX£'tct.t. To xowo , 6 Arx6~1 ol A«.Ot e6. ppoov X(lTtl 'FtOLOV -rP01tO 111tOpoi)v 'Va Bl1l.ltoupy'J']6ouv tJ.Op<pE<; 'de; o1tote~ oint cpav-cru:6lJ.CXO'tE crq~ep(X~ xat 01 67to~E:C; 6a ll1topouaav wi AUOOUV 1tpo~AiUl.a"t(x 1tOU [J.W; cpafvo'l't(X~ ((VU'1ttp(3A"I]'Cct.. XpE~~'t~l AOtnov alrdj 11 auveX'l1~ al1~tOupyt)(~ BpaGT'1)p~&t7rta 'tOU KO~VOU xed a&t6 Ol]tJ.(x(VE~ xop£wC; 'to nrifJOr; l>AIJ.)\I yt6t 'tel XOtv<X. AUto Bc:v t!va~ atK~ f.lou Ct'VCtxeXAUtP"'1. U1tcl.p){€t aE exetvo 'to xa:t'aTCA~Kl'~x6 XOPLXO 'rijc; }\ VT,ydV'1Q nou a.px£~& llE 'to «1tOAA!x 'to! l)e:L"Vrx xal. oua~v a,,6pw1tou (5E~'V6't€po" 1tEAEr.» l(CXt 01tOU 6 LOCPOXA~~. b.vaIlEoc( <ita. a.AAa. 6au v.(lo't<X X(X{lctK't'"t] p ~o-n xa "to U &\1 Bpw7tou! 11 v~ - !JO\l€ue:t a&t6 1tOU ov0v-aY:L «ixo'tu\l0tl0t; opyer.». ~o'tuv6tto~ 6a TIel ee:O'l.um~>n1. xat opya -«no 't6 Onoio f3yai"e~ ~ M;'1j 6pyrx- 0'!l6~- Elva~ il6pll~. 'to rra6oc;. Ol aVepW1tO~ anavw ~v 6PIllJ "tOt) 1taaOU~ a~(jav 7tPexYll(X'tLxtr; 1tOAtL€re~~ 01twc:; a~ (1£00: 0't"l1V lntOLa yew-qEhp<'E 6 :EOCPOXA"1jC; xat yta tijv ()1tota eypo:$e: t(~ 'tpay(Ulj(ec; "too.

'"Av 8t\' u1t<lpxet (Xu"t'o 't6 7taeO~ yr.&. 'ta KOt\la.~ atYni ~ CtO'tO\l6110C; opya, (.L1tOpoUlle: va AillE hlpat:oOt; A6you~, Il1tOpOU~E. lJ& WUrpoulJ,e wpai:a J3t~A(a ~ \let xa'taaxe;oa.~OU~E: GUa"nllt(X"t'ct ~a onotrx. va elv(Xt atPoya ~ ql['AOO'OrptKcX )(0:;( 1tOAt'tE~oAoytKa, lxU&.. oAa aut&' Bev 6& oy}lLatVOUv "t'b'to~~. Ka( 66. il6EA.ct ~eAetW\lovta~ wx 1tW noui

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful