1 views

Uploaded by Hong Chul Nam

eigenvalue

- Matrices
- SolSec4pt2.pdf.pdf
- m520ln1
- ABCD
- Ah p Maintenance 1
- CSF 469 L20 L22 Recommender Systems SVD
- Vectors Matrices
- Ferreira 2005
- math notes
- mas114 Geometry I
- MTH210F09 Review
- test1a
- Mth603 Solved Online Quizzes GURU
- Taller Mates p 3
- ExpMatrix 701 Imp
- Numerical Instructions in Matlab and Octave
- ominimal-gpappas
- Basic Linear Algebra
- Asymptotic SNR on Phased-Array MRI Combination Techniques
- Miii Sample 06

You are on page 1of 2

Learning Goals: to see the difference between algebraic and geometric multiplicity.

We have seen an example of a matrix that does not have a basis’ worth of eigenvectors.

⎡ 1 1⎤

For example. ⎢ ⎥ (note: this is not the Fibonacci matrix!). The characteristic polynomial of

⎣ 0 1⎦

this matrix is (1 – λ)2, so 1 is a double root of this polynomial. Finding the nullspace of A – λI

⎛ 0 1⎞

leads us to consider ⎜ , whose nullspace only contains (1, 0) (and multiples of it). There is

⎝ 0 0 ⎟⎠

no place else to look for eigenvectors, so this matrix does not have an adequate supply!

This leads us to two definitions:

Definition: the algebraic multiplicity of an eigenvalue e is the power to which (λ – e) divides the

characteristic polynomial.

eigenvectors associated with it. That is, it is the dimension of the nullspace of A – eI.

In the example above, 1 has algebraic multiplicity two and geometric multiplicity 1. It is

always the case that the algebraic multiplicity is at least as large as the geometric:

geometric multiplicity.

Proof: Let x1, x2, …, xr be all of the linearly independent eigenvectors associated to e, so

that e has geometric multiplicity r. Let xr+1, …, xn complete this set to a basis for Rn, and

let S be the matrix whose columns are xs. As usual, consider AS. Because the first few

⎡ ! ! ! ! !⎤

columns of S are eigenvectors, we have AS = ⎢ ex1 ex 2 " ex r ? " ? ⎥⎥ . Now

⎢

⎢⎣ ! ! ! ! ⎥⎦

–1 n

multiply out S AS. (S is invertible because its columns are a basis for R .) We get that

the first r columns of S–1AS are diagonal with e’s on the diagonal, but that the rest of the

columns are indeterminable. Now S–1AS has the same characteristic polynomial as A!

This is because det(S–1AS – λI) = det(S–1AS – S–1(λI)S) (since the second product just

equals λI again) = det(S–1(A – λI)S) = det(S–1)det(A – λI)det(S) = det(A – λI) because the

determinants of S and S–1 cancel. So the characteristic polynomials of A and S–1AS are

the same. But since the first few columns of S–1AS are a bunch of e’s on the diagonal, we

see that the characteristic polynomial of S–1AS has a factor of at least (λ – e)r, so the

algebraic multiplicity is at least as large as the geometric.

Now we have also seen that the geometric multiplicity of each eigenvalue is at least one

(there has to be some eigenvector). We also know by the Fundamental Theorem of Algebra that

the total number of roots of a polynomial, including multiplicities, must be the degree of the

polynomial. Thus, the total algebraic degree is at most n for an n × n matrix. So there are at

most n linearly independent eigenvectors. There are at least as many as there are different

eigenvalues, but unfortunately we can’t say much more than that.

When there is a basis of eigenvectors, we can diagonalize the matrix. Where there is not,

we can’t. We can come close, but that’s another very complicated story. So the good case is

when the geometric multiplicity of each eigenvalue equals its algebraic multiplicity because then

there are just enough eigenvectors to make a basis.

Reading: 6.2

Problems: 6.2: 1, 2, 3, 7, 11, 12, 15, 16, 17, 18, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 30, 31, 32, 35,

prove that if a 2 × 2 matrix with just one eigenvalue (of algebraic multiplicity two) is

diagonalizable if and only if it is already a diagonal matrix

- MatricesUploaded byMaths Home Work 123
- SolSec4pt2.pdf.pdfUploaded byEngwarwick
- m520ln1Uploaded byJoe Lee
- ABCDUploaded byUmair Siddique
- Ah p Maintenance 1Uploaded byIker Bibliotecario
- CSF 469 L20 L22 Recommender Systems SVDUploaded byKriti Goyal
- Vectors MatricesUploaded bySanjeev Neo Jaiswal
- Ferreira 2005Uploaded byShyam Radsun
- math notesUploaded byscarletfields
- mas114 Geometry IUploaded byLed-zeppelin Net
- MTH210F09 ReviewUploaded byschreckk118
- test1aUploaded byBob
- Mth603 Solved Online Quizzes GURUUploaded byGuria Saddiqui
- Taller Mates p 3Uploaded byElima Vp
- ExpMatrix 701 ImpUploaded byChaudry Arshad Mehmood
- Numerical Instructions in Matlab and OctaveUploaded byjulian1606
- ominimal-gpappasUploaded byCamilo Ignacio Arriagada Jara
- Basic Linear AlgebraUploaded byken219
- Asymptotic SNR on Phased-Array MRI Combination TechniquesUploaded byvolarchico
- Miii Sample 06Uploaded byxyza304gmailcom
- Cisp Modified PaperUploaded bymariauxilium
- Explanation of Divergence and CurlUploaded byChristopher Paul
- Power Oscillation Flow MethodUploaded byDavid Villarreal
- Emotion Classification Using Facial ExpressionUploaded byEditor IJACSA
- 152_2009WT2_2Uploaded bySteven Shin
- quantum algorithm.pdfUploaded byBowei Zhao
- KL SimplexUploaded byPopon Kangpenkae
- SubstitutionUploaded byEuwan Tyrone Prias
- cis515-15-spectral-clust-chap3-3Uploaded bymaxxagain
- Solids and Fluids Turbulent Flow Turbulence ModellingUploaded byMohan Gowda

- NUS2_Uebung_5_ML.pdfUploaded byHong Chul Nam
- Skript_NUS_II_VL11.pdfUploaded byHong Chul Nam
- SEH_Anleitung_v1.9_Tablet_A5.pdfUploaded byHong Chul Nam
- ML_BP_TM_S14.pdfUploaded byHong Chul Nam
- 토플60일 보카 Day by Day for PrintUploaded byHong Chul Nam
- NUS2_Uebung_4.pdfUploaded byHong Chul Nam
- PP-L03-JAVATHREADS.pdfUploaded byHong Chul Nam
- PVK Digitaltechnik W17 SkriptUploaded byHong Chul Nam
- Serie0Uploaded byHong Chul Nam
- kapitel3.pdfUploaded byHong Chul Nam
- Skript_NUS_II_VL3.pdfUploaded byHong Chul Nam
- s04-marklaptop.pdfUploaded byHong Chul Nam
- Skript_NUS_II_VL2.pdfUploaded byHong Chul Nam
- Folien.pdfUploaded byHong Chul Nam
- Skript_NUS_II_VL7.pdfUploaded byHong Chul Nam
- S07.pdfUploaded byHong Chul Nam
- Serie 02Uploaded byHong Chul Nam
- Accepted.pdfUploaded byHong Chul Nam
- Mathematical notation from different countries.docxUploaded byHong Chul Nam
- nus II serie 6Uploaded byHong Chul Nam
- S18Uploaded byHong Chul Nam
- U5Uploaded byHong Chul Nam
- ZF HS17 LarsHorvathUploaded byHong Chul Nam
- skript (1).pdfUploaded byHong Chul Nam
- U9.pdfUploaded byHong Chul Nam
- AW-Skript190219.pdfUploaded byHong Chul Nam
- U8.pdfUploaded byHong Chul Nam
- U6Uploaded byHong Chul Nam
- Lecture2.pdfUploaded byHong Chul Nam
- Lecture2.pdfUploaded byHong Chul Nam

- Welding Work EnvironmentUploaded byAnouar Abdelmoula
- SamsungUploaded bysagar pajankar
- Arhan Ertan TradeUploaded byAbdinasir Hersi
- GP477R577R-MM11-ENGUploaded bySyed Mohammad Naveed
- Chapra Applied Numerical MethoUploaded byMukesh Upadhyay
- CS 2336.004 Spring 2017 Assignment 1 Class Amp Object Practice Banking ProgramUploaded byvuygvunvjmk
- Difference Between Metallic and NonUploaded byhabibullah rustam
- Design of a Wing Section in Ground Effect_ Application to High SpUploaded byRogerio Guahy
- Time Table Generation using Constraint Programming ApproachUploaded byRahul Sharma
- Henry MorayUploaded byas
- Modeling Press Brake Machine.pdfUploaded byLê Duy Minh
- EE308 Electric DrivesUploaded byelecengg
- Metatech-Report on Severe Space Weather-January 11, 2009Uploaded byALBINOCYCLOPS
- EPS 1 IntroUploaded bySarfraz Moiz
- ElecSteels_110408_Final_brochure.pdfUploaded bypminhhien
- Communication Systems Carlson Solution Manual PDFUploaded byRonny
- Kema Man Smart CommunityUploaded byAwer
- Mathematics and Art_AMSUploaded byjohn_k7408
- Mine Resourses and Reserve EvaluationUploaded byedson_dario_2
- As 1038.9.3-2000 Coal and Coke - Analysis and Testing Coal and Coke - Phosphorus - Ash Digestion PhosphomolybUploaded bySAI Global - APAC
- DIAdem_DataAcquisitionUploaded byMartha Pillajo
- Analysis of Different Inhibitors for Magnesium Investment CastingUploaded byRaistlin1
- Novel Nanodiamond Synthesis Company seeks Strategic PartnersUploaded byE. McClarence
- 01_1_020Uploaded bycmkoh
- Read the ArticleUploaded byゴンザレス ピーター
- zener drUploaded byArchana Sadanandan
- CRO new mannualUploaded byAnkit
- HSU-12CKA-BUploaded byEvak Avek
- excel shortcut key.docxUploaded byKishan Patel
- How Space Elevators Will WorkUploaded byJoe Waller