The Internet is a global system of interconnected computer networks that use the standard Internet Protocol Suite (TCP/IP) to serve billions of users worldwide. It is a network of networks that consists of millions of private, public, academic, business, and government networks of local to global scope that are linked by a broad array of electronic and optical networking technologies. The Internet carries a vast array of information resources and services, most notably the inter-linked hypertext documents of the World Wide Web (WWW) and the infrastructure to support electronic mail. Most traditional communications media, such as telephone and television services, are reshaped or redefined using the technologies of the Internet, giving rise to services such as Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) and IPTV. Newspaper publishing has been reshaped into Web sites, blogging, and web feeds. The Internet has enabled or accelerated the creation of new forms of human interactions through instant messaging, Internet forums, and social networking sites. The Internet has no centralized governance in either technological implementation or policies for access and usage; each constituent network sets its own standards. Only the overreaching definitions of the two principal name spaces in the Internet, the Internet Protocol address space and the Domain Name System, are directed by a maintainer organization, the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN). The technical underpinning and standardization of the core protocols (IPv4 and IPv6) is an activity of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), a non-profit organization of loosely affiliated international participants that anyone may associate with by contributing technical expertise. The terms Internet and World Wide Web are often used in everyday speech without much distinction. However, the Internet and the World Wide Web are not one and the same. The Internet is a global data communications system. It is a hardware and software infrastructure that provides connectivity between computers. In contrast, the Web is one of the services communicated via the Internet. It is a collection of interconnected documents and other resources, linked by hyperlinks and URLs. The Internet is also often simply referred to as the net. In many technical illustrations when the precise location or interrelation of Internet resources is not important, the Internet is often referred as the cloud, and literally depicted as such.

The USSR's launch of Sputnik spurred the United States to create the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA or DARPA) in February 1958 to regain a technological lead. ARPA created the Information Processing Technology Office (IPTO) to further the research of the Semi Automatic Ground Environment (SAGE) program, which had networked country-wide radar systems together for the first time. The IPTO's purpose was to find ways to address the US Military's concern about survivability of their communications networks, and as a first step interconnect their computers at the Pentagon, Cheyenne Mountain, and SAC HQ. J. C. R. Licklider, a promoter of universal networking, was selected to head the IPTO. Licklider moved from the Psycho-Acoustic Laboratory at Harvard University to MIT in 1950, after becoming interested in information technology. At MIT, he served on a committee that established Lincoln Laboratory and worked on the SAGE project. At the IPTO, Licklider's successor Ivan Sutherland in 1965 got Lawrence Roberts to start a project to make a network, and Roberts based the technology on the work of Paul Baran, who had written an exhaustive study for the United States Air Force that recommended packet switching to achieve better network robustness and disaster survivability. Roberts had worked at the MIT Lincoln Laboratory originally established to work on the design of the SAGE system. UCLA professor Leonard Kleinrock had provided the theoretical foundations for packet networks in 1962, and later, in the 1970s, for hierarchical routing, concepts which have been the underpinning of the development towards today's Internet. Sutherland's successor Robert Taylor convinced Roberts to build on his early packet switching successes and come and be the IPTO Chief Scientist. Once there, Roberts prepared a report called Resource Sharing Computer Networks which was approved by Taylor in June 1968 and laid the foundation for the launch of the working ARPANET the following year. After much work, the first two nodes of what would become the ARPANET were interconnected between Kleinrock's Network Measurement Center at the UCLA's School of Engineering and Applied Science and Douglas Engelbart's NLS system at SRI International (SRI) in Menlo Park, California, on 29 October 1969. The third site on the ARPANET was the Culler-Fried Interactive Mathematics centre at the University of California at Santa Barbara, and the fourth was the University of Utah Graphics Department. In an early sign of future growth, there were already fifteen sites connected to the young ARPANET by the end of 1971. The ARPANET was one of the eve networks of today's Internet. In an independent development, Donald Davies at the UK National Physical Laboratory also discovered the concept of packet switching in the early 1960s, first giving a talk on the subject in 1965, after which the teams in the new field from two sides of the Atlantic ocean first became acquainted. It was actually Davies' coinage of the wording "packet" and "packet switching" that was adopted as the standard terminology. Davies also built a packet switched network in the UK called the Mark I in 1970. Bolt Beranek and Newman (BBN), the private contractors for ARPANET, set out to create a separate commercial version after establishing "value added carriers" was legalized in the U.S. The network they established was called Telenet and began operation in 1975, installing free public dial-up access in cities throughout the U.S. Telenet was the first packet-switching network open to the general public.

the subscriber chooses a username and password. the subscriber can access the Internet any time of the day or night to cruise the World Wide Web. which will tell the modem what phone number to call and how to communicate with the dial-up service. he or she must have a computer and dialup modem. During the next nine years. a "handshake" takes place in which information is exchanged between the computer modem and the remote server. designed and first implemented in December 1970 by a team called the Network Working Group (NWG) led by Steve Crocker.The early ARPANET ran on the Network Control Program (NCP). Most ISPs lease a set of telephone numbers. Caching frequently visited pages. The modem is controlled by software in the computer. Vinton Cerf and Robert Kahn developed the first description of the now widely used TCP protocols during 1973 and published a paper on the subject in May 1974. sometimes local. and other software tricks and tweaks can speed up the experience of dial-up access in 3 . To respond to the network's rapid growth as more and more locations connected. Before a person can subscribe to a dial-up service. sometimes national. and configuring the computer to dial a specific phone number. connected to the computer by a serial or alternate type cable. work proceeded to refine the protocols and to implement them on a wide range of operating systems. Here you can setup a profile for the ISP. The ISP itself provides this information. send and receive email. Due to the limited bandwidth . Once the modem calls the phone number and makes a connection. This grants the user access through the dial-up gateway to the Internet.  TYPES OF INTERNET CONNECTIONS DAIL UP Dial-up Internet access is a type of Internet connectivity that operates through a standard telephone line. that dial into network pipelines that feed into the Internet. The first TCP/IP-based wide-area network was operational by 1 January 1983 when all hosts on the ARPANET were switched over from the older NCP protocols. the computer is granted Internet access. Dial-up service is the least expensive but also the slowest type of Internet access. Subscribers to the ISP normally pay a monthly or yearly fee. A modem is an inexpensive component that fits into a free slot inside the computer.the ability for the modem to send and receive data . the Network Connections utility that comes with Microsoft Windows operating systems. For this fee. The username and password is supplied by the modem. Upon joining a dial-up service. There are also external modems that sit alongside the computer. participate in IRC chat rooms and USENET newsgroups. By running the telephone line to a modem device in the personal computer. implementing the host-tohost connectivity and switching layers of the protocol stack. A telephone line feeds into the modem. Dial-up Internet access is offered through a number of Internet service providers (ISPs). for example. Use of the term "Internet" to describe a single global TCP/IP network originated in December 1974.dial-up service can take up to five minutes to download just one megabyte of data.

Small businesses that often use two voice lines. This process introduces not only a slight lag time. ISDN(Integrated Service Digital Network) ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network) is a type of digital phone/data and Internet service that preceded ADSL (Asynchronous Digital Subscriber Line) and has for the most part been superseded by it. movies. and graphic-laden websites). An inexpensive ADSL service offers speeds up to 384 kbps. if your main purpose online is multimedia-centric. while more expensive versions are improving in speed all the time. an hour or less per day. but is many times faster than dial-up. DSL service requires a DSL modem. may prefer ISDN.5 and 3. reduce line noise and enhance signal quality. ISDN became a viable alternative to provide speeds of up to 128 kilobits per second (kbps). along with a single 16 kbps D-channel for the phone line. standard ADSL speeds range between 1. translating the computer’s digital signals into voltage sent across the telephone lines to a central hub known as a Digital Subscriber Line Access Multiplier (DSLAM. As of fall 2005. Companies and individuals wanted a faster way to connect to the Internet. versus the standard connection of 30-53 kbps with a dial-up modem. Coexisting with telephone service in this way allows users to surf the Net and use the phone at the same time. or to remote networks other than the Internet. DSL does not tie up the phone line. Dial-up modems and telephones are examples of equipment that use analog signals. However. This technology creates two B-channels on the existing copper lines of 64 kbps each. was very expensive not widely available. Although ISDN may not be the best choice for packet-switching networks like the Internet. say. allowing telephone or fax use while online.some cases. While ISDN is inexpensive and about twice as fast as dial-up service.0 mbps (megabits per second). In lay terms the DSLAM acts as a switchboard for 4 . which connects to the telephone wall jack and computer. or 1536-3072 kbps. ISDN might also be a better choice for high-speed connections to intranets for video-conferencing. This separates data channels from the voice channel. In addition to being faster than dial-up. but the technology behind dial-up modems had reached its threshold. it has been largely replaced by affordable DSL service. or ISDN BRI. (music. The most common type of ISDN service for Internet connection is the Basic Rate Interface. The device acts as a modulator. dial-up service may be so slow as to be unsatisfactory. Normal telephone lines carry analog signals that must be amplified and converted to digital signals by the phone company. DSL DSL (Digital Subscriber Line) is a high-speed Internet service that competes with cable Internet to provide online access to local customers. DSL operates over standard copper telephone lines like dial-up service. or dee-slam). but also distortion in the signal. and only require limited Internet connectivity of. it is still widely used for professional audio and broadcast applications where digital clarity with integrated telephone services is specifically required. ISDN makes use of digital signals running along existing copper lines to increase the data throughput. such as phone and fax.

local DSL clients. data and programs between non-local networked offices. Synchronous DSL or SDSL offers the same high speed for both downloading and uploading. If you are at the outskirts of the service area. or downstream and upstream signals. graphics. is traveling faster than upstream data. with slower speeds costing less than plans that offer higher speeds. You might think of bands like lanes of a freeway. • ADSL ADSL uses standard telephone lines to transmit upstream and downstream data on a digital frequency. which sets these datastreams apart from the analog signals telephones and fax machines use. standard DSL is called Asynchronous DSL or ADSL. Bottom-tier DSL might be as little as $12 US Dollars (USD) per month. The DSL “service lane” is split for two-way traffic. the telephone can be used normally. To keep the voice band clear of bleeding signal noise. Among the various DSL packages. The only requirement will probably be inexpensive DSL filters on each phone or fax line. or the data coming to your computer from the Internet. Since requests only require small bits of data. routing requests and responses between each client’s computer address and the Internet. you might not see the full speed of your subscribed plan. the upstream lane can be fairly narrow (low bandwidth). Voice signals are sent in a relatively low band. • SDSL SDSL (Symmetric Digital Subscriber Line) is high-speed Internet access service with matching upstream and downstream data rates. The "asymmetric" in ADSL refers to the fact that the downstream data rate. The drawback is that it is more expensive than standard DSL. to remove any "white noise" on the line that might be generated from ADSL service. Voice calls and DSL can coexist on copper lines because each service utilizes its own frequency band. Because the ADSL signal is operating on a different frequency. as signal degrades with distance causing latency issues. plans are based on speed. Your distance to the nearest DSLAM will determine in large part the actual speeds you achieve. Businesses. and is still many times faster than dial-up. however. That is. might require sending large files. Thus. files and programs. When you click on a link. Upstream data rates are slower because Web page requests are fairly miniscule data strings that do not require much bandwidth to handle efficiently. you are requesting something from the Internet. Mid-range plans might run closer to $20 USD. in which case a different flavor of DSL might be preferred. a small filter is commonly installed on all telephone lines in the house. because the download speed is much faster than the upload speed. or the data traveling from your computer to the Internet. multimedia. The returned webpage arrives as downstream traffic. blocking the higher frequencies. even when surfing the Web with ADSL service. data can be sent to the Internet from the client machine or received from the Internet with equal bandwidth availability in both 5 . but the downstream lane must be much wider (high bandwidth) to send webpages. The closer to the DSLAM the better. initiating upstream traffic. and $30 USD can typically buy top tier plans. while Internet signals occupy a much higher band.

long-term contracts are required for SDSL service regardless of the grade chosen. so that one can talk on the phone or use a fax machine while online. ADSL would be slow and inadequate for this purpose. not sending it. it can be even more so in the workplace. which is why most wireless LANs are configured with password security. sometimes referred to as a "hot spot. This means that multiple users can connect using the cable. in which the password is requested. An Internet service provider offering SDSL may offer different grades for varying prices. A wired network can not only be very time consuming to install throughout a building. phone and fax services on that line must be suspended. this disadvantage was 6 . CABLE Cable Internet connections are possible through the Cable TV lines. SDSL is normally used by businesses with a Web presence. VPN. any machine that wishes to get wireless Internet access must first complete a "handshake" with the LAN. SDSL utilizes a digital frequency traveling across existing copper telephones lines to send and receive data. the more expensive the service. Cable Internets connection can be as fast as 27 Mbps. or additional. While wireless Internet access is very convenient in the home. the slower the connection is. which "leaves room" for both standard analog telephone equipment and the digital signal. If the proper password is not supplied.directions. In these cases the client server may be required to upload large streams of data to the Internet on a regular basis. Any family member with a laptop or desktop in another room can connect wirelessly to the Internet to share the main connection. Neighbours may also be able to access this wireless connection. it is also very expensive. with the bulk of the bandwidth reserved for receiving data. Wireless Internet access is broadcast from a central hub. Cable is also called a shared medium. line is needed for SDSL service." is a local area network (LAN) run by radio waves rather than wires. Normally. When using the telephone line for SDSL service. The faster the data rate. and floors. a desktop system setup for wireless Internet access will broadcast connectivity throughout the immediate area. The hub. broadcasts Internet connectivity to clients. access is denied. therefore the more people who are using it. It shares the coaxial cables you use to watch TV without affecting your TV's performance. located at the main computer system or server. Ethernet cables used to connect client machines might need to be routed through walls. In the past. SDSL bandwidth can be as high as 7 mbps in both directions. ceilings. In the home. as the bandwidth available for uploading is normally less than 1 megabit per second (mbps). WIRELESS Wireless Internet access. which is basically anyone within receiving range who is equipped with a wireless LAN card. which is a hard-wired device that actually brings in the Internet connection. extranet or intranet needs. DSL service is asymmetrical (ADSL). This differs from ADSL. In this case. Security protocols for wireless Internet access have improved with Wi Fi Protected Access (WPA) and Wi Fi Protected Access 2 (WPA2) options. Usually. Therefore a dedicated second.

e. User surveys also improve intranet website effectiveness. such as HTTP (web services).. Increasingly. An intranet uses network technologies as a tool to facilitate communication between people or workgroups to improve the data sharing capability and overall knowledge base of an organization's employees. Wireless LANs can be installed in virtually minutes by nearly anyone. Intranets are also being used as corporate culturechange platforms. Furthermore. the radius of the signal is limited. however. website traffic is often similar to public website traffic and can be better understood by using web metrics software to track overall activity. SMTP (e-mail). collaboration (to facilitate working in groups and teleconferencing) or sophisticated corporate directories. productivity. Businesses can send private messages through the public network. For example. They have the ability to screen messages coming and going keeping security intact. WPA2 encrypts all traffic on the LAN. are extremely inexpensive. sales and customer relationship management tools. shielding the intranet from unauthorized external access. When part of an intranet is made accessible to customers and others outside the business. and FTP (file transfer). Internet technologies are often deployed to provide modern interfaces to legacy information systems hosting corporate data. using special encryption/decryption and other security safeguards to connect one part of their intranet to another. encryption of messages. and other corporate issues. such as client–server computing and the Internet Protocol Suite (TCP/IP).g. These advantages have been largely mitigated. to advance productivity. large numbers of employees discussing key issues in an intranet forum application could lead to new ideas in management. quality. INTRANET Intranet is the generic term for a collection of private computer networks within an organization. that part becomes part of an extranet. project management etc. Since wireless LANs use radio waves that distort over long distances. and can have data transfer rates that rival hard-wired Ethernet LANs. In large intranets. The further from the hub. the weaker the signal. Therefore cities that provide access will cover a specific area within the city where people can park to gain access. Any of the well. intranets are being used to deliver tools and applications. An intranet is built from the same concepts and technologies used for the Internet. ADVANTAGES 7 . Intranets may provide a gateway to the Internet by means of a network gateway with a firewall. known Internet protocols may be found in an intranet.sometimes overlooked due to the advantages of greater security and faster data transfer speeds through Ethernet cables. and often virtual private network (VPN) connectivity for off-site employees to access company information. computing resources and internal communications. The gateway often also implements user authentication.. addressing the problem of eavesdropping. Larger businesses allow users within their intranet to access public internet through firewall servers.

Web publishing allows cumbersome corporate knowledge to be maintained and easily accessed throughout the company using hypermedia and Web technologies. and UNIX. teamwork is enabled. Some examples of communication would be chat. intranets are useful to communicate strategic initiatives that have a global reach throughout the organization. you can personalize your Intranet based on role (job title. By providing this information on the intranet. the most recent version is always available to employees using the intranet. more accurately. Enhance Collaboration: With information easily accessible by all authorised users. for example a time keeping system. business standards. Flash files. With the help of a web browser interface.• • • Workforce productivity: Intranets can also help users to locate and view information faster and use applications relevant to their roles and responsibilities. Knowledge of your Audience: Being able to specifically address your "viewer" is a great advantange. rather than being distracted indiscriminately by electronic mail. company policies. email. Communication: Intranets can serve as powerful tools for communication within an organization. newsfeeds. in turn. Examples include: employee manuals. and with confidence that they have the right information. and who to speak to for more information. users can access data held in any database the organization wants to make available. staff have the opportunity to keep up-to-date with the strategic focus of the organization. results achieved to date. From a communications standpoint. Time: Intranets allow organizations to distribute information to employees on an asneeded basis. Because each business unit can update the online copy of a document. can be accessed using common Internet standards (Acrobat files. It also helps to improve the services provided to the users. who is driving the initiative. increasing employees' ability to perform their jobs faster. CGI applications). benefits documents. department) or individual. anytime and . Business operations and management: Intranets are also being used as a platform for developing and deploying applications to support business operations and decisions across the internetworked enterprise. Which. you know exactly who you are interfacing with. Employees may link to relevant information at their convenience. and even training. and or blogs. Cross-platform Capability: Standards-compliant web browsers are available for Windows. vertically and horizontally.from anywhere within the company workstations. Supports a distributed computing architecture: The intranet can also be linked to a company’s management information system. Mac. may allow Intranet developers to write applications that only have to work on one browser (no cross-browser compatibility issues). Promote common corporate culture: Every user is viewing the same information within the Intranet. Built for One Audience: Many companies dictate computer specifications. The type of information that can easily be conveyed is the purpose of the initiative and what the initiative is aiming to achieve. So. Since Intranets are user specific (requiring database/network authentication prior to access).subject to security provisions . • • • • • • • • DISADVANTAGES 8 .

the issuance and use of digital certificates or similar means of user authentication. One of the differences that characterizes an extranet. military networks of different security levels may map onto a common military radio transmission system that never connects to the Internet. These can include firewalls. geographically united organizations.• • • • • • • • • • Management fears loss of control Hidden or unknown complexity and costs Potential for chaos Unauthorized access Abuse of access Denial of service Packet sniffing Overabundance of information Information overload lowers productivity Users set up own web pages EXTRANET An extranet is a private network that uses Internet protocols. but managed by more than one company's administrator(s). Such access does not involve tunneling. and the use of virtual private networks (VPNs) that tunnel through the public network. network connectivity. Any private network mapped onto a public one is a virtual private network (VPN). It has also been described as a "state of mind" in which the Internet is perceived as a way to do business with a selected set of other companies (businessto-business. ADVANTAGES  Exchange large volumes of data using Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) 9 . server management. usually via the Internet. An extranet can be viewed as part of a company's intranet that is extended to users outside the company.. or other companies. institutions have been interconnecting to each other to create private networks for sharing information. B2B). when we use the term VPN we will not be distinguishing between intranets and extranets. enabled by authentication mechanisms on a "login page". is that its interconnections are over a shared network rather than through dedicated physical lines. We regard both intranets and extranets as VPNs. A site can be in more than one VPN. but rather simply an authentication mechanism to a web server. For decades. an "extranet" designates the "private part" of a website. An extranet requires network security. often using special security protocols. In general. e. Many technical specifications describe methods of implementing extranets. in isolation from all other Internet users. but often never explicitly define an extranet. in an intranet and several extranets. however. where "registered users" can navigate. encryption of messages. In this sense. Similarly. For example. An extranet can be understood as an intranet mapped onto the public Internet or some other transmission system not accessible to the general public. customers. "extranet" is a useful term to describe selective access to intranet systems granted to suppliers.g. for smaller.

COMPUTER NETWORK A computer network.g. often simply referred to as a network. if hosted internally rather than by an application service provider. such as an online banking application managed by one company on behalf of affiliated banks  Share news of common interest exclusively     DISADVANTAGES  Extranets can be expensive to implement and maintain within an organization (e. Networks may be classified according to 10 . hardware. employee training costs). is a collection of computers and devices connected by communications channels that facilitates communications among users and allows users to share resources with other users. software.Share product catalogs exclusively with trade partners Collaborate with other companies on joint development efforts Jointly develop and use training programs with other companies Provide or access services provided by one company to a group of other companies..  Security of extranets can be a concern when hosting valuable or proprietary information.

such as printing a document on a shared network printer. Sharing files. office building. In a networked environment. data. instant messaging. Each computer or device on the network is a node. A computer network allows sharing of resources and information among devices connected to the network. It would be more correct to call them access routers. The reach of a PAN typically extends to 10 meters. Those inside the library. or closely positioned group of buildings. school. fax machines. authorized user may access data and information stored on other computers on the network. All interconnected devices must understand the network layer (layer 3). where the router at the top is a distribution router that connects to the Internet and academic networks' customer access routers. Computer networks can be used for several purposes: • • • Facilitating communications. which have only 10/100 Mbit/s Ethernet connections to the user device and a Gigabit Ethernet connection to the central router. Using a network. telephones. A wired PAN is usually constructed with USB and Firewire connections while technologies such as Bluetooth and infrared communication typically form a wireless PAN LOCAL AREA NETWORK A local area network (LAN) is a network that connects computers and devices in a limited geographical area such as home. PDAs. and information. A PAN may include wired and wireless connections between devices. Users connected to a network may run application programs on remote computers. Sharing hardware. and video conferencing. computer laboratory. because they are handling multiple subnets. scanners. In a network environment. phone lines and power lines). HOME AREA NETWORK 11 . printers.hn also provide a way to create a wired LAN using existing home wires (coaxial cables. chat rooms. Current wired LANs are most likely to be based on Ethernet technology. and even video game consoles. •  NETWORKS BASED ON PHYSICAL SCOPE PERSONAL AREA NETWORK A personal area network (PAN) is a computer network used for communication among computer and different information technological devices close to one person. although new standards like ITU-T G. could be called "layer 3 switches" because they only have Ethernet interfaces and must understand IP. each computer on a network may access and use hardware resources on the network. people can communicate efficiently and easily via email. Sharing software. Some examples of devices that are used in a PAN are personal computers.a wide variety of characteristics. video telephone calls. telephone. The capability of providing access to data and information on shared storage devices is an important feature of many networks.

Cat5 cabling etc. cables. such as telephone companies. using a communications channel that combines many types of media such as telephone lines. university. government etc. routers) and transmission media (optical fiber. country. WAN technologies generally function at the lower three layers of the OSI reference model: the physical layer. GLOBAL AREA NETWORK A global area network (GAN) is a network used for supporting mobile communications across an arbitrary number of wireless LANs. often a broadband service through a CATV or Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) provider. such as printers and mobile computing devices. The key challenge in mobile communications is handing off the user communications from one local coverage area to the next VIRTUAL PRIVATE NETWORK Sample VPN used to interconnect 3 office and Remote users 12 . academic departments. It can also be referred as Office area network(OAN). The networking equipments (switches.) are almost entirely owned (by the campus tenant / owner: an enterprise. CAMPUS NETWORK A campus network is a computer network made up of an interconnection of local area networks (LANs) within a limited geographical area. the network is likely to link a variety of campus buildings including. or spans even intercontinental distances. satellite coverage areas.In the case of a university campus-based campus network. usually a small number of personal computers and accessories. A WAN often uses transmission facilities provided by common carriers. WIDE AREA NETWORK A wide area network (WAN) is a computer network that covers a large geographic area such as a city.). An important function is the sharing of Internet access. the university library and student residence halls. and air waves. copper plant. and the network layer. etc.A home area network (HAN)is a residential LAN which is used for communication between digital devices typically deployed in the home. the data link layer.

A virtual private network (VPN) is a computer network in which some of the links between nodes are carried by open connections or virtual circuits in some larger network (e. a peer-to-peer (P2P) network is created when two or more PCs are connected and share resources without going through a separate server computer. One common application is secure communications through the public Internet. Generally. Network processors are one means of implementing active networking concepts. The use of real-time genetic algorithms within the network to compose network services is also enabled by active networking. PEER TO PEER(P2P) In its simplest form. e. client–server and peer-to-peer (workgroup) architecture.g. VPNs. but a VPN need not have explicit security features.. such as authentication or content encryption.g. This enables such ideas as sending code along with packets of information allowing the data to change its form (code) to match the channel characteristics. Or a P2P network can be a network 13 .  NETWORK ARCHITECTURES Computer networks may be classified according to the functional relationships which exist among the elements of the network. capable of routing or switching as well as executing code within active packets. active network research must address the problem of optimally allocating computation versus communication within communication networks. can be used to separate the traffic of different user communities over an underlying network with strong security features. the Internet) instead of by physical wires. Active networking allows the possibility of highly tailored and rapid "real-time" changes to the underlying network operation. The data link layer protocols of the virtual network are said to be tunneled through the larger network when this is the case. A VPN may have best-effort performance. Active network architecture is composed of execution environments (similar to a Unix shell that can execute active packets). In order to do this. for example. A P2P network can be an ad hoc connection—a couple of computers connected via a Universal Serial Bus to transfer files. or may have a defined service level agreement (SLA) between the VPN customer and the VPN service provider. Active networks have also been implemented as overlay networks. active networking. a VPN has a topology more complex than point-to-point. It also consists of active hardware.Active network research addresses the nature of how best to incorporate extremely dynamic capability within networks.. A P2P network also can be a permanent infrastructure that links a half-dozen computers in a small office over copper wires. This differs from the traditional network architecture which seeks robustness and stability by attempting to remove complexity and the ability to change its fundamental operation from underlying network components. a node operating system capable of supporting one or more execution environments. ACTIVE NETWORKING Active networking is a communication pattern that allows packets flowing through a telecommunications network to dynamically modify the operation of the network.

While sneaker nets seemed an odd mix of the newest technology and the oldest form of transportation.on a much grander scale in which special protocols and applications set up direct relationships among users over the Internet. a classic P2P workgroup network is all about openly sharing files and devices. enabling users of those networked PCs access to one another's hard drives. and service requesters.) or Fast Ethernet (100M bit/sec. floppy disks. called servers. printers or perhaps a shared Internet connection. or external hard drives from one computer to another. CLIENT SERVER MODEL The client–server model of computing is a distributed application structure that partitions tasks or workloads between the providers of a resource or service. 14 . Clients therefore initiate communication sessions with servers which await (listen for) incoming requests. Category 5 (twisted-pair) copper wire runs among the PCs and an Ethernet hub or switch. by physically couriering removable media such as magnetic tape. The obvious solution was to save files to a floppy disk and carry the disk to the intended recipient or send it by interoffice mail. but both client and server may reside in the same system. A server machine is a host that is running one or more server programs which share their resources with clients. A client does not share any of its resources. The server component provides a function or service to one or many clients. which served up word processing and other applications to dumb terminals from a central computer and stored files on a central hard drive. the model is really the basis for today's small P2P workgroups. In contrast to the mini mainframes of the day.. USB flash drives. This is usually in lieu of transferring the information over a computer network. called clients. especially computer files. But soon they needed a way to share files and printers. compact discs. The initial use of P2P networks in business followed the deployment in the early 1980s of free-standing PCs. DESCRIPTION The client–server characteristic describes the relationship of cooperating programs in an application. office and home P2P networks operate over Ethernet (10M bit/sec. but requests a server's content or service function. Many workers felt liberated by having dedicated PCs on their desktops. the then-new PCs had self-contained hard drives and built-in CPUs. which meant they could be deployed to desktops and be useful without an umbilical cord linking them to a mainframe. Whereas earlier centralized computing models and today's client/server systems are generally considered controlled environments in which individuals use their PCs in ways determined by a higher authority. In general. Often clients and servers communicate over a computer network on separate hardware. such as the VS system from Wang Laboratories Inc. SNEAKER NETS That practice resulted in the term "sneaker net. The smart boxes also had onboard applications. Sneaker net is a term used to describe the transfer of electronic information.) and employ a hub-and-spoke topology." The most frequent endpoint of a typical sneaker net was the worker who had a printer connected to his machine.

The Internet increasingly uses a three-tier architecture. are built on the client–server model. web access and database access. Users accessing banking services from their computer use a web browser client to send a request to a web server at a bank. Specific types of clients include web browsers. In turn. Functions such as email exchange. Many business applications being written today use the client–server model. the servers can accept these requests. application servers. Although this concept can be applied for a variety of reasons to many different kinds of applications. The two tier architecture means that the client acts as one tier and application in combination with server acts as another tier. and terminal servers. SMTP. Most web services are also types of servers. The client–server model has become one of the central ideas of network computing. Thus the three tiers become . for example you can switch to a different Web Server while maintaining the integrity of the model. So do the Internet's main application protocols. It allows devices to share files and resources. which in turn serves it back to the web browser client displaying the results to the user. Telnet. That program may in turn forward the request to its own database client program that sends a request to a database server at another bank computer to retrieve the account information. such as HTTP. the architecture remains fundamentally the same. This type of architecture is sometimes referred to as two-tier. and return the requested information to the client. The balance is returned to the bank database client. NETWORKING MODELS OSI MODEL 15 . database servers.Client. For example. process them. name servers. In this the server side consists of an Application Server (such as Web Server) and a Database Server (such as a SQL Server). email clients. and DNS. ftp servers. a web browser is a client program running on a user's computer that may access information stored on a web server on the Internet. Application Server and Database. mail servers. file servers. and online chat clients. Each instance of the client software can send data requests to one or more connected servers. All three tiers are relatively independent. print servers. The most basic type of client–server architecture employs only two types of hosts: clients and servers.which initiate requests for such services. Specific types of servers include web servers.

OSI model consists of 7 layers. across a network provides the path needed by applications above it. Its purpose is to guide product implementers so that their products will consistently work with other products. Conceptually two instances at one layer are connected by a horizontal protocol connection on that layer. the packets into frames and then the frames are sent down the wire. the segments into datagrams and the datagrams into packets. signal and binary transmission Media Packet layers Frame Bit  PHYSICAL LAYER 16 . while it calls the next lower layer to send and receive packets that make up the contents of the path. Physical Interhost communication End-to-end connections and reliability. Flow control Path determination and logical addressing Physical addressing Media. As you would understand things were quite messy. a layer that provides error-free communications.g IBM. You see the problem was that when HP decided to create a network product. usually twisted pair. Network 2. OSI Model Data unit Host layers Data Layer 7. A layer is a collection of conceptually similar functions that provide services to the layer above it and receives services from the layer below it. For example. Transport 3. Presentation Data representation. to the receiving computer. Starting from the top layer we will see how the data which you type gets converted into segments. Each layer has been designed to do a specific task. until the OSI model came into the picture. On each layer an instance provides services to the instances at the layer above and requests service from the layer below. you would make sure that the rest of the equipment would be from the same vendor.OSI is a standard description or "reference model" for how messages should be transmitted between any two points in a telecommunication network. Session Segments 4. it would be incompatible with similar products of a different vendor e. to ensure compatibility. It is a way of sub-dividing a communications system into smaller parts called layers. Data Link 1. The OSI model was created by the IEEE committee so different vendors products would work with each other. encryption and decryption 5. Application Function Network process to application 6. So when you bought 40 network cards for your company.

for example maximum cable length o Electrical specification of transmission line signal level and impedance o Radio interface. repeaters. including electromagnetic spectrum frequency allocation and specification of signal strength. it defines the relationship between a device and a transmission medium. mechanical. host bus adapters (HBAs used in storage area networks) and more. such as a copper or optical cable. The Physical Layer provides an electrical.The Physical Layer is the first and lowest layer in the seven-layer OSI model of computer networking. training sequences. The Physical Layer defines the electrical and physical specifications for devices. It is a fundamental layer underlying the logical data structures of the higher level functions in a network. voltages. The bit stream may be grouped into code words or symbols and converted to a physical signal that is transmitted over a hardware transmission medium. including o Mechanical specification of electrical connectors and cables. The Physical Layer defines the means of transmitting raw bits rather than logical data packets over a physical link connecting network nodes. The Physical Layer consists of the basic hardware transmission technologies of a network. mesh or star network Serial or parallel communication 17 . o Specifications for IR over optical fiber or a wireless IR communication link o Modulation Line coding Bit synchronization in synchronous serial communication Start-stop signalling and flow control in asynchronous serial communication Circuit switching Multiplexing o Establishment and termination of circuit switched connections Carrier sense and collision detection utilized by some level 2 multiple access protocols Equalization filtering. ring. etc. hubs. and procedural interface to the transmission medium. for example bus. the modulation scheme to use and similar low-level parameters. pulse shaping and other signal processing of physical signals The Physical Layer is also concerned with • • • • Bit rate Point-to-point. This includes the layout of pins. network adapters. the frequencies to broadcast on. The shapes and properties of the electrical connectors. SERVICES The major functions and services performed by the Physical Layer are: • • • • • • • • • Bit-by-bit or symbol-by-symbol delivery Providing a standardized interface to physical transmission media. are specified here. analog bandwidth. In particular. multipoint or point-to-multipoint line configuration Physical network topology. cable specifications.

Once a MAC address has been assigned to a particular piece of network hardware (at time of manufacture). Data Link frames. Delivery of frames by layer 2 devices is affected through the use of unambiguous hardware addresses.e. and media arbitration. do not cross the boundaries of a local network.The Data Link Layer is the protocol layer which transfers data between adjacent network nodes in a wide area network or between nodes on the same local area network segment. frame collisions occur. i. This guarantees that each device in a network will have a different MAC address (analogous to a street address). It provides addressing and channel access control mechanisms that make it possible for several terminals or network nodes to communicate within a multi-point network. The Data Link Layer is concerned with local delivery of frames between devices on the same LAN. It corresponds to. This makes it possible for data packets to be delivered to a destination within a subnetwork. that device should be uniquely identifiable amongst all other network devices in the world. many data link protocols do not have acknowledgments of successful frame reception and acceptance. When devices attempt to use a medium simultaneously. allowing Data Link protocols to focus on local delivery. is a sublayer of the Data Link Layer. The Data Link Layer provides the functional and procedural means to transfer data between network entities and might provide the means to detect and possibly correct errors that may occur in the Physical Layer. and some data link protocols might not even have any form of checksum to check for transmission errors. a physical network consisting of several network segments 18 . The MAC sub-layer acts as an interface between the Logical Link Control (LLC) sublayer and the network's physical layer.. and may provide mechanisms to reduce or prevent them. half duplex or full duplex transmission mode Autonegotiation  DATALINK LAYER The Data Link Layer is Layer 2 of the seven-layer OSI model of computer networking. as these protocol data units are called.• • Simplex. A frame's header contains source and destination addresses that indicate which device originated the frame and which device is expected to receive and process it. That transfer can be reliable or unreliable. typically a local area network (LAN) or metropolitan area network (MAN). addressing. Inter-network routing and global addressing are higher layer functions. A MAC address is a unique serial number. Data Link protocols specify how devices detect and recover from such collisions. Addressing mechanism The MAC layer addressing mechanism is called physical address or MAC address. Layer 2 addresses are flat. or is part of the link layer of the TCP/IP reference model. The two sublayers are: MAC(MEDIA ACCESS CONTROL) The Media Access Control (MAC) data communication protocol sub-layer. also known as the Medium Access Control. meaning that no part of the address can be used to identify the logical or physical group to which the address belongs.The data link thus provides data transfer across the physical link.

An LLC header tells the Datalink layer what to do with a packet once a frame is received. An IP router may interconnect several subnets.  NETWORK LAYER The Network layer is responsible for routing through an internetwork and for networking addressing. or reserve resources to establish a logical channel if a circuit switched or channelization based channel access method is used. the Network layer knows the address of the neighboring nodes in the network. The channel access control mechanism relies on a physical layer multiplex scheme. Routers.interconnected by repeaters. but not by IP routers. In the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) communications model. packages output with the correct network address information. which is the Network layer. This makes it possible for several stations connected to the same physical medium to share it. wireless networks and half-duplex point-to-point links. The multiple access protocol may detect or avoid data packet collisions if a packet mode contention based channel access method is used. Channel access control mechanism The channel access control mechanisms provided by the MAC layer are also known as a multiple access protocol. hub networks. LOGICAL LINK CONTROL (LLC) This sublayer is responsible for identifying Network layer protocols and then encapsulating them when they are about to be transmitted onto the network or decapsulate them when it receives a packet from the network and pass it onto the layer above it. The most widespread multiple access protocol is the contention based CSMA/CD protocol used in Ethernet networks. ring networks. This means that the Network layer is responsible for transporting traffic between devices that are not locally attached. For example. CONNECTIONLESS COMMMUNICATION 19 . Examples of shared physical media are bus networks. hubs. interconnected by bridges and switches. selects routes and quality of service and recognizes and forwards to the Transport layer incoming messages for local host domains. This mechanism is only utilized within a network collision domain. bridges and switches. SERVICES • • • Encapsulation of network layer data packets into frames Frame synchronization Functions performed by LLC and MAC sublayers. An Ethernet network may be divided into several collision domains. are specified at the Network layer and provide routing services in an internetwork. a host (computer) will receive a frame and then look in the LLC header to understand that the packet is destined for the IP protocol at the Network layer. or other layer-3 devices. for example an Ethernet bus network or a hub network. The LLC can also provide flow control and sequencing of control bits.

Some Transport Layer protocols. dividing of the data stream into packets called segments. where a user may move from one location to another. IPv6 has a better designed solution. This involves statistical multiplexing of data from different application processes. forming data packets.For example.e. for example TCP. The transport layer provides convenient services such as connection-oriented data stream support. IP is connectionless. called gateways or routers to forward packets between networks. In the OSI model.  TRANSPORT LAYER In computer networking.e. MESSAGE FORWARDING Since many networks are partitioned into subnetworks and connect to other networks for wide-area communications. This involves connection establishment. i.e. segment numbering and reordering of out-of order data. It also hides details of any network-dependent information from the higher layers by providing transparent data transfer. an identification address of the process-to-process communication. Detailed characteristics of the classes are shown in the following table: Service TP0 TP 1 TP 2 TP 3 TP 4 20 . the Transport Layer provides end-to-end communication services for applications within a layered architecture of network components and protocols. networks use specialized hosts. the port numbers constitutes a network socket. This is also of interest to mobile applications. On the Internet. in that a frame can travel from a sender to a recipient without the recipient having to send an acknowledgement. i. HOST ADDRESSING Every host in the network needs to have a unique address which determines where it is. reliability. i. provide connection oriented communication over an underlying packet oriented datagram network. support virtual circuits. Together with the source and destination IP address. and adding source and destination port numbers in the header of each Transport Layer data packet. The OSI model defines five classes of connection-mode transport protocols designated class 0 (TP0) to class 4 (TP4). Version 4 of the Internet Protocol (IPv4) was not designed with this feature in mind. Connection-oriented protocols exist higher at other layers of that model. flow control. addresses are known as Internet Protocol (IP) addresses. and it must be arranged that his messages follow him. this function is supported by the Session Layer. The Transport Layer is responsible for delivering data to the appropriate application process on the host computers. and multiplexing. Within the service layering semantics of the OSI network architecture the Network Layer responds to service requests from the Transport Layer and issues service requests to the Data Link Layer. although mobility extensions exist. A byte-stream is delivered while hiding the packet mode communication for the application processes.

such as the Internet Protocol model of datagrams. so the Transport Layer provides it. In general. when the packet queues are filled and the network nodes have to delete packets. It is normally easier to deal with than the underlying connection-less models. The simplest way of doing this is to give each packet a number. and allow the receiver to reorder the packets. Connection-oriented: Interpreting the connection as a data stream can provide many benefits. Packets may be lost or corrupted in Ethernet due to interference and noise. but often this is a desirable feature. because not all applications require all available services. Reliability: Packets may be lost in routers.Connection oriented network Connectionless network Concatenation and separation Segmentation and reassembly Error Recovery Reinitiate connection (if an excessive number of PDUs are unacknowledged) multiplexing and demultiplexing over a single virtual circuit Explicit flow control Retransmission on timeout Reliable Transport Service Yes No No Yes No No No No No No Ye s No Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s No No No Ye s Ye s No Ye s Ye s No No Ye s Ye s No No Ye s No Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s No Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s No Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s SERVICES There is a long list of services that can be optionally provided by the Transport Layer. None of them are compulsory. for example TCP. often a connection-oriented service is built on top of that in the Transport Layer. By 21 . Some Transport Layer protocols. bridges and hosts due to network congestion. switches. Packets may be delivered in the wrong order by an underlying network. where the Network layer only provides a connection-less service. Same Order Delivery: The Network layer doesn't generally guarantee that packets of data will arrive in the same order that they were sent. since Ethernet does not retransmit corrupted packets. can fix this.

the Session Layer responds to service requests from the Presentation Layer and issues service requests to the Transport Layer. closing and managing a session between end-user application processes. This situation can be avoided by adding congestion avoidance to the flow control. for example a checksum. Computer applications will each listen for information on their own ports. the transport protocol may check that the data is not corrupted. it rarely matches the communication model which will normally be a sequence of messages of user defined sizes.  SESSION LAYER The Session Layer provides the mechanism for opening. and distinguishes between different occupants of the same house. and verify that by sending an ACK message to the sender. but of the Session Layer in the OSI model. the Session Layer Protocol may close it and re-open it.225 or ISO 8327. Flow control allows the receiver to respond before it is overwhelmed. but where it is not. Communication sessions consist of requests and responses that occur between applications. This keeps the bandwidth consumption at a low level in the beginning of the transmission. the packets can be sorted in order. Flow control: The amount of memory on a computer is limited. including slow-start. An example of a Session Layer protocol is the OSI protocol suite Session Layer Protocol. a semi-permanent dialogue.means of an error detection code. This is nicer to deal with than random packet sizes. 22 . or after packet retransmission. Automatic repeat request may keep the network in a congested state. It provides for either full duplex or half-duplex operation and provides synchronization points in the stream of exchanged messages. the Transport Layer may add it on. For example. the first line of a postal address is a kind of port. It is part of the Transport Layer in the TCP/IP model. as memory is cheap while bandwidth is comparatively expensive. i. and without flow control a larger computer might flood a computer with so much information that it can't hold it all before dealing with it. the Transport Layer may add the ability to view communication just as a stream of bytes. but in earlier times it was more important. Ports: Ports provide multiplexing. however. error free is impossible. Within the service layering semantics of the OSI network architecture. Automatic repeat request schemes may be used to retransmit lost or corrupted data. but it is possible to substantially reduce the numbers of undetected errors. Of course. also known as X. Byte orientation: Rather than dealing with things on a packet-by-packet basis.e. If a connection is not used for a long period. Nowadays. which is why you can use more than one network-based application at the same time. Session Layer services are commonly used in application environments that make use of remote procedure calls (RPCs). In case of a connection loss this protocol may try to recover the connection. By introducing segment numbering in the Transport Layer packet headers. this is not a big issue. Sometimes this is already provided by the network. Congestion avoidance: Network congestion occurs when a queue buffer of a network node is full and starts to drop packets.

i. It relieves the application layer of concern regarding syntactical differences in data representation within the end-user systems. perhaps originating from different sources. An example application is web conferencing. Another example is representing structure. Note: An example of a presentation service would be the conversion of an EBCDIC-coded text file to an ASCII-coded file. instead of simply sending data in form of datagrams or packets between hosts. the Presentation Layer responds to service requests from the Application Layer and issues service requests to the Session Layer. SERVICES • • • Authentication Permissions Session restoration (check-pointing and recovery)  PRESENTATION LAYER The Presentation Layer is responsible for the delivery and formatting of information to the application layer for further processing or display. halfduplex and full-duplex. and the Presentation Layer will deal with the rest. where streams of audio and video need to be seamlessly merged and transitioned from one to the other to avoid silent airtime or excessive overlap. often by using XML.whether they use the Pascal method (an integer length field followed by the specified amount of bytes) or the C/C+ + method (null-terminated strings. in which the streams of audio and video must be synchronous to avoid so-called lip synch problems. which is normally standardized at this level. Two common examples are 'objects' in object-oriented programming. like strings. although it can be done on the Application. It coordinates communication between systems and serves to organise their communication by offering three different modes: simplex. and the exact way that streaming video is transmitted. Session. each having its own advantages and disadvantages. Encryption is typically done at this level too. Within the service layering semantics of the OSI network architecture. This layer deals with issues of string representation . The two sublayers are: CASE 23 . or Network Layers. Serialization of complex data structures into flat byte-strings (using mechanisms such as TLV or XML) can be thought of as the key functionality of the Presentation Layer.The Session Layer of the OSI model is responsible for session checkpointing and recovery. The session layer basically keeps one application's data separate from other application's data. to be properly combined or synchronized. As well as simple pieces of data. Floor control ensures that the person displayed on screen is the current speaker. It allows information of different streams. more complicated things are standardized in this layer.e. Transport. The idea is that the application layer should be able to point at the data to be moved. The Presentation Layer is the lowest layer at which application programmers consider data structure and presentation.Another application is in live TV programs. "thisisastring\0").

Access and Manager) VT (Virtual Terminal) MOTIS (Message Oriented Text Interchange Standard) CMIP (Common Management Information Protocol) MMS (Manufacturing Messaging Service) RDA (Remote Database Access) DTP (Distributed Transaction Processing) Tel Net(a remote terminal access protocol) SERVICES • • Encryption Compression  APPLICATION LAYER The Application layer of the OSI model is where users communicate with the computer. each one for a specific task. This is why we have so many different protocols. TCP/IP MODEL 24 . In plain English. client/server processes. such as • • • • • • • • FTAM (File Transfer. Definition of a"Protocol" is a set of rules by which two computers communicate. The user interfaces with the computer at the application layer. such as: • • • • ACSE (Association Control Service Element) ROSE (Remote Operation Service Element) CCR (Commitment Concurrency and Recovery) RTSE (Reliable Transfer Service Element) SASE The SASE sublayer provides application specific services (protocols). The Application layer is responsible for identifying and establishing the availability of the intended communication partner and determining if sufficient resources for the intended communication exist.The CASE sublayer provides services for the Application Layer and request services from the Session Layer. for example. remote access. file transfers. applications may unite communicating components from more than one network application. e-mail. Computer communication works pretty much the same way. It provides support for common application services. I need to structure my sentence in a "standard" way which you will understand. Although computer applications sometimes require only desktop resources. network management activities. English. for example. you can say that a protocol is a language. There are various protocols which are used at this layer. For me to speak to you and make sense.

because it is descriptive while the OSI Reference Model was intended to be prescriptive.  TRANSPORT LAYER The Transport Layer's responsibilities include end-to-end message transfer capabilities independent of the underlying network. In this scenario. which was the world's first wide area network and a predecessor of the Internet. as TCP/IP is designed to be hardware independent. an agency of the United States Department of Defense. This regime is called the link in Internet literature. TCP/IP. or Internet Protocol Suite. then actually transmit the frame over a physical medium. The TCP/IP model includes specifications of translating the network addressing methods used in the Internet Protocol to data link addressing. These will perform data link functions such as adding a packet header to prepare it for transmission. segmentation.  LINK LAYER The Link Layer is the networking scope of the local network connection to which a host is attached. Such a connection. congestion control. It evolved from ARPANET. The TCP/IP Model is sometimes called the Internet Model or the DoD Model. As a result TCP/IP has been implemented on top of virtually any hardware networking technology in existence. Protocols exist for a variety of different types of communication services between computers. The Link Layer is used to move packets between the Internet Layer interfaces of two different hosts on the same link. as well as on firmware or specialized chipsets. TCP/IP provides end-to-end connectivity specifying how data should be formatted.The TCP/IP model is a description framework for computer network protocols created in the 1970s by DARPA. addressed. The processes of transmitting and receiving packets on a given link can be controlled both in the software device driver for the network card. End to end message transmission or connecting applications at the transport layer can be categorized as either 25 . has four abstraction layers. This layer architecture is often compared with the seven-layer OSI Reference Model. The TCP/IP model. Thus. This is the lowest component layer of the Internet protocols. however all other aspects below that level are implicitly assumed to exist in the Link Layer. hence being a reference model. routed and received at the destination. but are not explicitly defined. or virtual link. transmitted. may be established with a transport protocol or even an application scope protocol that serves as a tunnel in the Link Layer of the protocol stack. however. the TCP/IP model does not dictate a strict hierarchical encapsulation sequence. flow control. the Link Layer data may be considered application data which traverses another instantiation of the IP stack for transmission or reception over another IP connection.The TCP/IP model and related protocols are maintained by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). using terms such as Internet reference model. such as Media Access Control (MAC). along with error control. incorrectly. The Link Layer is also the layer where packets may be selected to be sent over a virtual private network or other networking tunnel. sometimes referred to as the Internet model. describes a set of general design guidelines and implementations of specific networking protocols to enable computers to communicate over a network. and application addressing (port numbers).

e. where the overhead of setting up a reliable connection is disproportionately large. also can provide reliability.. e. or for simple query/response applications like DNS lookups. Like IP. such that if one fails. the File Transfer Protocol expects a reliable connection.connection-oriented. such as VoIP. correctness) duplicate data is discarded lost/discarded packets are resent includes traffic congestion control The newer Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP) is also a reliable. IP can run over a reliable data link protocol such as the High-Level Data Link Control (HDLC). not transport. The appropriate transport protocol is chosen based on the higher-layer protocol application. connectionoriented transport mechanism. but not the reordering or delay that could be caused by retransmission. can tolerate some loss of packets. It is Message-stream-oriented — not byte-stream-oriented like TCP — and provides multiple streams multiplexed over a single connection. the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) is a connection-oriented protocol that addresses numerous reliability issues to provide a reliable byte stream: • • • • • data arrives in-order data has minimal error (i. Protocol (TCP). By convention certain well known ports are associated with specific applications. or The Transport Layer can be thought of as a transport mechanism. it is a best effort. implemented in Transmission Control connectionless. implemented in User Datagram Protocol (UDP). but the Network File System (NFS) assumes that the subordinate Remote Procedure Call protocol. the connection is not interrupted.  INTERNET LAYER 26 . It was developed initially for telephony applications (to transport SS7 over IP). but can also be used for other applications. unless another protocol layer is responsible for safe delivery. The applications at any given network address are distinguished by their TCP or UDP port. such as RPC. The Transport Layer provides this service of connecting applications through the use of service ports. the Transport Layer is the first layer of the TCP/IP stack to offer reliability.g. Reliability is addressed through error detection using a weak checksum algorithm. Real-time Transport Protocol (RTP) is a datagram protocol that is designed for real-time data such as streaming audio and video. video. "unreliable" protocol. Other applications. Protocols above transport. in which a connection end can be represented by multiple IP addresses (representing multiple physical interfaces). Voice over IP etc) where on-time arrival is more important than reliability. For example. Since IP provides only a best effort delivery. a vehicle with the responsibility to make sure that its contents (passengers/goods) reach their destination safely and soundly. It also provides multi-homing support. For example. will guarantee reliable transfer. TCP and UDP are used to carry an assortment of higher-level applications. User Datagram Protocol is a connectionless datagram protocol. UDP is typically used for applications such as streaming media (audio.

the Internet Layer is not responsible for reliable transmission.e. Since packet delivery across diverse networks is inherently an unreliable and failure-prone operation. Examples of application layer protocols include the File Transfer Protocol (FTP) and the Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP). protocols. In its operation. FUNCTIONS The Internet Layer has three basic functions: For outgoing packets. for example. if necessary. rather than on the network. This is one of the reasons of the resiliency of the Internet against individual link failures and its proven scalability. Internet Layer protocols use IP-based packets. This means that the network makes no guarantees about packets' proper arrival. the burden of providing reliability was placed with the end points of a communication path. It provides only an unreliable service. such as the local network topology. and conservative in what you send”. The Internet Layer derives its name from its function of forming an "internet" or facilitating "internetworking". as a misbehaving host can deny Internet service to many other users. capture packets and pass the packet payload up to the appropriate Transport Layer protocol.A particularly crucial aspect in the Internet Layer is the Robustness Principle: "Be liberal in what you accept. the hosts. In Version 4 of the Internet Protocol (IPv4). during both transmit and receive operations. Such protocols belong to the Link Layer. Data coded according to 27 . and that usually use protocols that are based on the framing of packets specific to the link types. However. Integrity of packets is guaranteed only in IPv4 (not in IPv6) through checksums computed for IP packets. if appropriate. select the "next hop" host (gateway) and transmit the packet to this host by passing it to the appropriate Link Layer implementation. this feature has been dropped in IPv6. It is the group of methods. IP is capable of automatic or intentional fragmentation or defragmentation of packets. the hosts. The function of providing reliability of service is the duty of higher level protocols. In addition it provides error detection and diagnostic capability. to the destination host specified by a network address (IP address) which is defined for this purpose by the Internet Protocol (IP). as the communications end points. for incoming packets. which is the concept of connecting multiple networks with each other through gateways. such as the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) in the Transport Layer.The Internet Layer is a group of internetworking methods in the TCP/IP protocol suite which is the foundation of the Internet. The Internet Layer does not include the protocols that define communication between local ("on-link") network nodes which fulfill the purpose of maintaining link states between the local nodes. and specifications which are used to transport datagrams (packets) from the originating host across network boundaries. This was an important design principle and change from the previous protocols used on the early ARPANET.  APPLICATION LAYER The Application Layer refers to the higher-level protocols used by most applications for network communication. on the maximum transmission unit (MTU) of link elements. and "best effort" delivery.. based. i. now have to perform path MTU discovery and assure that end-to-end transmissions don't exceed the minimum discovered.

and the commoner servers have specific ports assigned to them by the IANA (Internet Assigned Numbers Authority): HTTP has port 80.) of a computer network. and is an almost ubiquitous feature of modern domestic broadband routers). i. Telnet has port 23. Distances between nodes. on the other hand. layers are not necessarily clearly defined in the Internet protocol suite. rather they just provide a conduit for it. Clients. some firewall and bandwidth throttling applications do try to determine what's inside. as with the Resource Reservation Protocol (RSVP).e. Any particular network topology is determined only by the graphical mapping of the configuration of physical and/or logical connections between nodes. As noted above. Topology can be considered as a virtual shape or structure of a network. Routers and switches do not typically "look inside" the encapsulated traffic to see what kind of application protocol it represents. (NAT allows hosts on private networks to communicate with the outside world via a single visible IP address using port forwarding. port numbers assigned at random from a range set aside for the purpose. nodes. This shape does not correspond to the actual physical design of the devices on the computer network. Application layer protocols are most often associated with client–server applications. tend to use ephemeral ports. Transport and lower level layers are largely unconcerned with the specifics of application layer protocols. It's also sometimes necessary for Network Address Translation (NAT) facilities to take account of the needs of particular application layer protocols. etc. However. etc. which in turn use lower layer protocols to effect actual data transfer. Application Layer protocols generally treat the transport layer (and lower) protocols as "black boxes" which provide a stable network connection across which to communicate. although the applications are usually aware of key qualities of the transport layer connection such as the end point IP addresses and port numbers. Since the IP stack defines no layers between the application and transport layers. This is usually done through libraries. The computers on a home network can be arranged in a circle but it does not necessarily mean that it represents a ring topology.application layer protocols are then encapsulated into one or (occasionally) more transport layer protocols (such as the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) or User Datagram Protocol (UDP)). The study of network topology uses graph theory. 28 . NETWORKING TOPOLOGIES It is defined as the interconnection of the various elements (links. physical interconnections. the application layer must include any protocols that act like the OSI's presentation and session layer protocols.

but as the number of computers increases so will the network traffic and this can greatly decrease the performance and available bandwidth of your network. This works well in a small network of 2-5 computers. you can see network cables coming out of every computer that is part of the network. absorbing the signal so it won't reflect back to where it came from. There are two types of topologies: PHYSICAL The physical topology of a network refers to the layout of cables.transmission rates. if you were to try to see how the network works with all the computers talking (think of the computers generating traffic and packets of data going everywhere on the network) you would be looking at the logical part of the network. The arrows clearly indicate that the packet generated by Node 1 is transmitted to all computers on the network. Also. The way the computers will be talking to each other and the direction of the traffic is controlled by the various protocols (like Ethernet) or. Traffic generated by any computer will travel across the backbone and be received by all workstations.  BUS TOPOLOGY Bus topology is fairly old news and you probably won't be seeing much of these around in any modern office or home. What you're looking at is the physical topology of that network ! LOGICAL Logical topology is the method used to pass the information between the computers. all workstations are connect directly to the main backbone that carries the data. if you like. computers and other peripherals. all computers are attached to a continuous cable which connects them in a straight line. and/or signal types may differ in two networks and yet their topologies may be identical. looking at that same room. If the bus (the long yellow cable) is damaged 29 . In other words. then those cables plug into a hub or switch. With the Bus topology. because of the way the electrical signals are transmitted over this cable. rules. Try to imagine yourself in a room with a small network. As you can see in the above example. its ends must be terminated by special terminators that work as "shock absorbers". regardless the destination of this packet.

multiple LANs can be connected to each other in a ring topology by using Thicknet coaxial or fiber-optic cable. Thinnet . cause big communication problems between the workstations. The remainder of the network functions normally. The advantage of the star topology is that if one computer on the star topology fails.10 Base 5 (Yellow in colour) is used in these type of topologies. which normally has a blue colour.  RING TOPOLOGY In the ring topology. then only the failed computer is unable to send or receive data. Unlike the bus topology.  STAR TOPOLOGY The Star or Hub topology is one of the most common network topologies found in most offices and home networks. then it will most certainly cause the network to stop working or.anywhere in its path. because of the cost and the ease of troubleshooting. also known as coax cable (Black in colour) and Thicknet . The signals travel around the loop in one direction and pass through each computer. at the very least. computers are connected on a single circle of cable. It has become very popular in contrast to the bus type (which we just spoke about). the entire network fails! A classic example of this type of topology is the UTP (10 base T). there are no terminated ends. On a larger scale. which acts as a repeater to boost the signal and send it to the next computer. if this device fails.10 Base2. 30 . The disadvantage of using this topology is that because each computer is connected to a central hub or switch.

For example. Each network has only one token. two or more topologies are combined to form a complete network.  MESH TOPOLOGY In a mesh topology. Thicknet coaxial cable or fiber optic cable. you can connect multiple LANs using mesh topology with leased telephone lines. each computer is connected to every other computer by a separate cable. 31 . so if one computer blows up. This configuration provides redundant paths through the new work. Again. Possession of the token allows a network device to transmit data to the network. A token is a special series of bits that contains control information. On a large scale. These are also the most common in use. you don't lose the network. the big advantage of this topology is its backup capabilities by providing multiple paths through the network.  HYBRID TOPOLOGY With the hybrid topology.The method by which the data is transmitted around the ring is called token passing. a hybrid topology could be the combination of a star and bus topology.

In this topology. fails. each computer in a star-ring topology has an equal chance of communicating. However. the computers are connected to a central component as in a star network. By using token passing. This allows for greater network traffic between segments than in a star-bus topology. it will not affect the rest of the network. or hub. if a computer fails. that attaches all computers in a star. however. it will not affect the rest of the network. if the central component.STAR BUS In a star-bus topology. several star topology networks are linked to a bus connection. STAR RING In the Star-Ring topology. 32 . Like the star-bus topology. then you have big problems since no computer will be able to communicate. These components. are wired to form a ring network. if a single computer fails.

The branching factor. A network that is based upon the physical hierarchical topology and with a branching factor of 1 would be classified as a physical linear topology. also with a point-to-point link. the second level) with a point-to-point link between each of the second level nodes and the top level central 'root' node. since a network with a central 'root' node and only one hierarchical level below it would exhibit the physical topology of a star. Such a type of network topology is very useful and highly recommended. • A network that is based upon the physical hierarchical topology must have at least three levels in the hierarchy of the tree.e. of nodes connected to it at the next lower level in the hierarchy. is independent of the total number of nodes in the network and.. Each node in the network having a specific fixed number. while each of the second level nodes that are connected to the top level central 'root' node will also have one or more other nodes that are one level lower in the hierarchy (i. if the nodes in the network require ports for connection to other nodes the total number of ports per node may be kept low even though the total number of nodes is large – this makes the effect of the cost of adding ports to each node totally dependent upon the branching factor and may therefore be kept as low as required without any effect upon the total number of nodes that are possible. therefore. f.e. TREE TOPOLOGY TREE TOPOLOGY The type of network topology in which a central 'root' node (the top level of the hierarchy) is connected to one or more other nodes that are one level lower in the hierarchy (i. being referred to as the 'branching factor' of the hierarchical tree. If the nodes in a network that is based upon the physical hierarchical topology are required to perform any processing upon the data that is transmitted between nodes in the network. • • • • 33 . The total number of point-to-point links in a network that is based upon the physical hierarchical topology will be one less than the total number of nodes in the network. the top level central 'root' node being the only node that has no other node above it in the hierarchy (The hierarchy of the tree is symmetrical.. the number. the third level) connected to it. the nodes that are at higher levels in the hierarchy will be required to perform more processing operations on behalf of other nodes than the nodes that are lower in the hierarchy.

can operate at any layer of the OSI 34 .CONNECTING DEVICES   GATEWAY A Gateway is any device that connects network environments that are not alike. also called protocol converters. a gateway is used to connect LAN (local area network) environments to mainframe environments. Gateways. For example.

a gateway must convert one protocol stack into another. and a switch.X will be sent to that network's gateway.0. For example. the gateway might or might not perform Network Address Translation.model.255. a node or stopping point can be either a gateway node or a host (end-point) node.255. A router has two or more network interfaces. then any data going to an IP address outside of 192. if a network has a base IP address of 192. which knows where to direct a given packet of data that arrives at the gateway. A gateway is a network point that acts as an entrance to another network. a computer server acting as a gateway node is often also acting as a proxy server and a firewall server. Both the computers of Internet users and the computers that serve pages to users are host nodes. A gateway is often associated with both a router. While forwarding an IP packet to another network. which furnishes the actual path in and out of the gateway for a given packet. the routers exchange information about target system addresses. although other devices (such as any PC or server) can function as a gateway. which may be to different physical types of network (such as copper cables. and selectively interchanges packets of data between them. Where multiple routers are used in a large collection of interconnected networks. The subnets in the router do not necessarily map one-to-one to the physical interfaces of the router. Each data packet contains address information that a router can use to determine if the source and destination are on the same network. the computers that control traffic between company networks or the computers used by internet service providers (ISPs) to connect users to the internet are gateway nodes. Conceptually.168. so that each router can build up a table showing the preferred paths between any two systems on the interconnected networks. Typically. a router operates in two operational planes (or sub-systems). while the nodes that connect the networks in between are gateways. 35 .  ROUTER A router is a device that interconnects two or more computer networks. or wireless) or different network standards. On the Internet. A gateway is an essential feature of most routers. or if the data packet must be transferred from one network to another. fiber. which do not share a common network address. For example. by using either statically configured statements (called static routes) or by exchanging information with other routers in the network through a dynamical routing protocol. In the network for an enterprise. Routers connect two or more logical subnets. • Control plane: where a router builds a table (called routing table) as how a packet should be forwarded through which interface.168. A subnet mask defines the IP range of a network.0. Each network interface is a specialized device that converts electric signals from one form to another. A router is a networking device whose software and hardware are customized to the tasks of routing and forwarding information.0 and has a subnet mask of 255. clients should automatically send IP packets with a destination outside a given subnet mask to a network gateway. The job of a gateway is much more complex than that of a router or switch.0. On an IP network.

by following rules derived from the routing table that has been built in the control plane. It belongs to an end user (enterprise) organization. Subscriber edge router (SER): An SER is located at the edge of the subscriber's network. A demonstration of a router forwarding information to many clients. Inter-provider border router: Interconnecting ISPs. • • •  ETHERNET HUB 4-port Ethernet hub 36 . it speaks EBGP to its provider's AS(s). Core router: A core router is one that resides within an AS as back bone to carry traffic between edge routers. Routers are also used for port forwarding for private servers. this is a BGP-speaking router that maintains BGP sessions with other BGP speaking routers in other providers' ASes.• Forwarding plane: where the router actually forwards traffic (called packets in IP) from incoming interfaces to an outgoing interface that is appropriate for the destination address that the packet carries with it. This type of router is also called PE (Provider Edge) routers. This type of router is also called CE (Customer Edge) routers. Routers intended for ISP and major enterprise connectivity almost invariably exchange routing information using the Border Gateway Protocol (BGP). • Edge router (ER): An ER is placed at the edge of an ISP network. The router speaks external BGP (EBGP) to a BGP speaker in another provider or large enterprise Autonomous System(AS).

and any packet entering any port is broadcast out on all other ports. Since every packet is being sent out through all other ports. 10BASE2. Even if not partitioned automatically. Repeater hubs also participate in collision detection. The need for hosts to be able to detect collisions limits the number of hubs and the total size of a network built using hubs. When a network device becomes active on any of the physical ports. known as a dual-speed hub. This has largely been eliminated by reductions in the price of switches. dividing the 10BASE-T (10 Mbit/s) and 100BASE-T (100 Mbit/s) segments. as appropriate. The device is a form of multiport repeater. active hub. For 10 Mbit/s networks. They also remove the need to troubleshoot faults on a huge cable with multiple taps. disconnecting it from the shared medium. This prevented the need for an all-ornothing migration from 10BASE-T to 100BASE-T networks. Some computer clusters require each member computer to receive all of the traffic going to the cluster. Thus. devices can be disconnected from a hub one at a time much more easily than a coaxial cable. hub-based Ethernet is generally more robust than coaxial cable-based Ethernet (e.An Ethernet hub. the limit is reduced to 3 segments (2 hubs) between any two end stations. These devices consisted of an internal two-port switch.g. DUAL SPEED HUBS In the early days of Fast Ethernet. and partition the port. Hubs suffered from the problem that if there were any 10BASE-T devices connected then the whole network needed to run at 10 Mbit/s. a hub is an alternative to a network tap or port mirroring. up to 5 segments (4 hubs) are allowed between any two end stations. a hub makes troubleshooting easier because status lights can indicate the possible problem source or. For 100 Mbit/s networks. Ethernet switches were relatively expensive devices. where a misbehaving device can adversely affect the entire collision domain. the main reason for purchasing hubs rather than switches was their price. 37 . network hub. Hubs work at the physical layer (layer 1) of the OSI model. thinnet). Therefore a compromise between a hub and a switch was developed. These devices are hubs because the traffic between devices connected at the same speed is not switched. The device would typically consist of more than two physical ports. forwarding a jam signal to all ports if it detects a collision. repeater hub. but hubs can still be useful in special circumstances: • • For inserting a protocol analyzer into a network connection. hub or concentrator is a device for connecting multiple twisted pair or fiber optic Ethernet devices together and making them act as a single network segment. packet collisions result— which greatly impedes the smooth flow of traffic. and even that is only allowed if the hubs are of the low delay variety. the device attaches it to either the 10BASE-T segment or the 100BASE-T segment. as a last resort. such as excessive collisions and jabbering on individual ports. Hubs also often come with a BNC and/or AUI connector to allow connection to legacy 10BASE2 or 10BASE5 network segments. Most hubs detect typical problems. Hubs do not manage any of the traffic that comes through them. A network hub is a fairly unsophisticated broadcast device. USES Historically.

When a switch is accessible for end users to make connections, for example, in a conference room, an inexperienced or careless user (or saboteur) can bring down the network by connecting two ports together, causing a loop. This can be prevented by using a hub, where a loop will break other users on the hub, but not the rest of the network. (It can also be prevented by buying switches that can detect and deal with loops, for example by implementing the Spanning Tree Protocol.) A hub with a 10BASE2 port can be used to connect devices that only support 10BASE2 to a modern network. The same goes for linking in an old thicknet network segment using an AUI port on a hub (individual devices that were intended for thicknet can be linked to modern Ethernet by using an AUI-10BASE-T transceiver).

A network switch is a small hardware device that joins multiple computers together within one local area network (LAN). Technically, network switches operate at layer two (Data Link Layer) of the OSI model. Network switches appear nearly identical to network hubs, but a switch generally contains more intelligence (and a slightly higher price tag) than a hub. Unlike hubs, network switches are capable of inspecting data packets as they are received, determining the source and destination device of each packet, and forwarding them appropriately. By delivering messages only to the connected device intended, a network switch conserves network bandwidth and offers generally better performance than a hub. Mainstream Ethernet network switches support either 10/100 Mbps Fast Ethernet or Gigabit Ethernet (10/100/1000) standards. Different models of network switches support differing numbers of connected devices. Most consumer-grade network switches provide either four or eight connections for Ethernet devices. Switches can be connected to each other, a so-called daisy chaining method to add progressively larger number of devices to a LAN

A switch won't simply receive data and transmit it throughout every port, but it will read the data and find out the packet's destination by checking the MAC address. The destination MAC address is located always at the beginning of the packet so once the switch reads it, it is forwarded to the appropriate port so no other node or computer connected to the switch will see the packet. Switches use Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASIC's) to build and maintain filter tables. Layer-2 switches are a lot faster than routers cause they don’t look at the Network Layer Header (information). Instead all they look at is the frame's hardware address (MAC address) to determine where the frame needs to be forwarded or if it needs to be dropped. If we had to point a few features of switches we would say:
• • •

They provide hardware based bridging (MAC addresses) They work at wire speed, therefor have low latency They come in 3 different types: Store & Forward, Cut-Through and Fragment Free

Below is a picture of two typical switches. Notice how they looks similar to a hubs, but they aren't. It's just that the difference is on the inside!

All switches regardless of the brand and various enhancements they carry, have something in common, it's the three stages (sometimes 2 stages) they go through when powered up and during operation. These are as follows: ADDRESS LEARNING When a switch is powered on, the MAC filtering table is empty. When a device transmits and an interface receives a frame, the switch places the source address in the MAC filtering table remembering the interface the device on which it is located. The switch has no choice but to flood the network with this frame because it has no idea where the destination device is located. If a device answers and sends a frame back, then the switch will take the source address from that frame and place the MAC address in the database, associating this address with the interface that received the frame. Since the switch has two MAC addresses in the filtering table, the devices can make a pointto-point connection and the frames will only be forwarded between the two devices. This makes layer-2 switches better than hubs. Most desktop switches these days can hold upto 8000 MAC addresses in their table, and once the table is filled, then starting with the very first MAC entry, the switch will start overwriting the entries.


And after the first frame has been successfully received by Node 2, Node 2 sends a reply to Node 1, check out what happens:

Notice how the frame is not transmitted to every node on the switch. The switch by now has already learned that Node 1 is on the first port, so it send it straight there without delay. From now on, any communication between the two will be a point-to-point connection :

FORWARD/FILTER DECISION When a frame arrives at the switch, the first step is to check the destination hardware address, which is compaired to the forward/filter MAC database. If the destination hardware address is known, then it will transmit it out the correct port, but if the destination hardware address is not known, then it will broadcast the frame out of all ports, except the one which it received it from. If a device (computer) answers to the broadcast, then the MAC address of that device is added to the MAC database of the switch. LOOP AVOIDANCE


41 . or vice versa. if Switch A fails. When you setup redundant switches in your network to stop failures. you can create problems. we get the Third Round. This way. At this point. The above picture shows an example of two switches which have been placed in the network to provide redundancy in case one fails.It's always a good idea to have a redundant link between your switches. as the arrows indicate (orange colour) the Second Round of this broadcast starts.. it sends the broadcast out to the lower section of the network. Things will work fine until a broadcast come along and causes a lot of trouble. this then is sent down the wire and reaches Port 2 on Switch B which will send it out Port 1 and back onto the upper part of the network. since Switch A has Port 2 connected to the other side of the LAN. and then the Fourth Round.. So again. The server is going to send a broadcast over the network.. then Switch B takes over. the broadcast reaches Port 1 of Switch A and goes out Port 2 back down to the lower section of the network and back up via Port 2 of Switch B... Both switches have their first port connected to the upper section of the network.! This is what we call a Broadcast Storm. in case one decides to go for a holiday. Fifth Round and keeps on going without stopping. After it comes out of Port 1 of Switch B.. The Server for one reason or another decides to do a broadcast. while their port 2 is connected to the lower section of the same network. As a result. This First Round (check arrow) broadcast is sent down to the network cable and firstly reaches Port 1 on Switch A.

and they did. is to find the redundant links. In this mode. In this mode. STORE AND FORWARD MODE This is one of the most popular switching methods. it will forward the frame straight out the designated port without delay.. check it for errors and corruption. This is why we say it's -Real Time-.the switch reads the frame until it learns the destination MAC address of the frame it's receiving. it will discard it. which this case would be Port 2 of Switch B and shut it down. there is no delay or error checking done to the frame. LAN SWITCHES TYPE The latency does vary and depends on what type of switching mode the switch is operating at. CUT-THROUGH (REAL TIME) Cut-Through switching is the second most popular method. if it discovers that the frame has errors or is corrupt. it will store it in memory. so they had to solve it one way or another. The frame's first 64 bytes are only checked before forwarding the frame 42 . Some advance switches will allow you to actually pick the mode you would like it to operate in. otherwise.A Broadcast Storm will repeat constantly. chewing up the valuable bandwidth on the network. but also has the highest latency. and if it passes the test. The picture below shows how far the different switching modes check the frame: The fact is that switches can operate in one of the three modes. FRAGMENT FREE The Fragment free switching method is mainly used to check for frames which have been subject to a collision. thus eliminating the possibility of looping to occur. it will forward the frame out the designated port. This method is the safest. with the Spanning-Tree Protocol or STP in short. What STP does.. when the switch receives a frame from one of it's ports. This is a major problem. Once it learns it. while others don't give you any choice.

DIGIPEATER A "digipeater" is a blend meaning "digital repeater". the attenuation will finally make a signal unrecognizable by the receiver. so that the signal can cover longer distances. Repeaters are used in both copper-wire cables carrying electrical signals. retimes.[1] Because repeaters work with the actual physical signal. A repeater is an electronic device that receives a signal and retransmits it at a higher level and/or higher power. or performs a combination of any of these functions on a digital input signal for retransmission. If there is a corruption in the first 64 bytes. the first layer of the OSI model. A wireless repeater. or onto the other side of an obstruction. Reason for this is because almost all collisions will happen within the first 64 bytes of a frame. In telecommunication. reshapes. and do not attempt to interpret the data being transmitted. If a cable is long enough. because the attenuation (signal loss) over such distances would be unacceptable without them.  BRIDGE 43 . they operate on the Physical layer. it's most likely that that frame was a victim of a collision. particularly used in amateur radio. unlike repeaters that receive on one and transmit on another frequency.out the designated port. they degrade and become distorted in a process that is called attenuation.  REAPTER As signals travel along a network cable (or any other medium of transmission). the term repeater has the following standardized meanings: • • An analog device that amplifies an input signal regardless of its nature (analog or digital). A digital device that amplifies. and in fiber optics carrying light. Store and forward digipeaters generally receive a packet radio transmission and then retransmit it on the same frequency. Repeaters are often used in trans-continental and submarine communications cables.

This difference means that a bridge directs frames according to hardware assigned MAC addresses while a router makes its decisions according to arbitrarily assigned IP Addresses. however. Bridging and routing are both ways of performing data control. but work through different methods. a switch being a bridge with numerous ports.in making individual forwarding decisions Bridges are similar to repeaters or network hubs. it depends on flooding and examination of source addresses in received packet headers to locate unknown devices. bridging makes no assumptions about where in a network a particular address is located. for example. Host C or any other hosts on port 3 are not burdened with the response. As an example. On the return path. its location is recorded in a table where the MAC address is stored so as to preclude the need for further broadcasting. Unlike routing. A is connected to bridge port 1. Host C examines the destination address and ignores the frame. Bridges can analyze incoming data packets to determine if the bridge is able to send the given packet to another segment of the network. A bridge and switch are very much alike. Instead. the destination network will respond and forwarding database entry will be created. The forwarding database is initially empty and entries in the database are built as the bridge receives frames. Switch or Layer 2 switch is often used interchangeably with bridge. TRANPARENT BRIDGING OPERATION A bridge uses a forwarding database to send frames across network segments. A. Bridges are more complex than hubs or repeaters. If an address entry is not found in the forwarding database. Host B recognizes a destination address match and generates a response to A. As a result of this. Two-way communication is now possible between A and B without any further flooding. consider three hosts. B and C and a bridge. with bridging. B is connected bridge port 2. The bridge has three ports. Once a device has been located. The frame is received by hosts B and C. inspects each incoming Ethernet frame including the source and destination MAC addresses. The bridge examines the source address of the frame and creates an address and port number entry for A in its forwarding table. the bridge adds an address and port number entry for B to its forwarding table. C is connected to bridge port 3. The bridge examines the destination address of the frame and does not find it in its forwarding table so it floods it to all other ports: 2 and 3. traffic from one network is managed rather than simply rebroadcast to adjacent network segments.Bridging is a forwarding technique used in packet-switched computer networks. 44 . the frame is flooded to all other ports of the bridge. bridges are not concerned with and are unable to distinguish networks while routers can. Bridging takes place at OSI Model Layer 2 (data-link layer) while routing takes place at the OSI Model Layer 3 (network layer). An Ethernet bridge. By means of these broadcast frames. and sometimes the frame size . The bridge already has A's address in its forwarding table so it forwards the response only to port 1. The utility of bridging is limited by its dependence on flooding. A sends a frame addressed to B to the bridge. Bridges inspect incoming traffic and decide whether to forward or discard it. devices that connect network segments at the physical layer (Layer 1) of the OSI model. A network bridge connects multiple network segments. forwarding the frame to all segments except the source address. and is thus only used in local area networks.

FILTERING DATABASE To translate between two segments. For example. A modem is given digital information in the form of ones and zeros by the computer. The spanning tree protocol helps to reduce problems with complex topologies. 45 . ADVANTAGES • • • • • • • • Self-configuring Simple bridges are inexpensive Isolate collision domain Reduce the size of collision domain by microsegmentation in non-switched networks Transparent to protocols above the MAC layer Allows the introduction of management/performance information and access control LANs interconnected are separate. a bridge reads a frame's destination MAC address and decides to either forward or filter. converts them back into digital data and sends the data to the receiving computer. repeaters and segment length don't apply Helps minimize bandwidth usage DISADVANTAGES • • • • • Does not limit the scope of broadcasts [broadcast domain cannot be controlled] Does not scale to extremely large networks Buffering and processing introduces delays Bridges are more expensive than repeaters or hubs A complex network topology can pose a problem for transparent bridges.Note that both source and destination addresses are used in this algorithm. If the destination address belongs to the same segment as the source address. A modem converts data from digital computer signals to analog signals that can be sent over a phone line (modulation). the bridge filters (discards) the frame. The analog signals are then converted back into digital data by the receiving modem (demodulation). Another modem then receives these signals. multiple paths between transparent bridges and LANs can result in bridge loops. and physical constraints such as number of stations. Source addresses are recorded in entries in the table. it forwards it (retransmits) the packet to that segment. The bridge uses its filtering database to determine whether a packet should be forwarded or filtered. the bridge establishes a filtering database (also known as a forwarding table) of known MAC addresses and their locations on the network. while destination addresses are looked up in the table and matched to the proper segment to send the frame to. The modem converts it to analog signals and sends over the phone line.  MODEM Modem is an abbreviation for Modulator Demodulator. As nodes transmit data through the bridge. If the bridge determines that the destination node is on another segment on the network.

The users would run terminal emulators on their computers to emulate a dumb terminal.6 Kbps 56 Kbps .In a configuration like this. When personal computers started appearing in the late 1970s. Modem speeds went through a series of steps at approximately two-year intervals: • • • • • • • • • 300 bps . it is necessary for modems to collect bits of information together and transmit them via a more complicated sound.First appeared in late 1990 and early 1991 19. • DATA COMPRESSION Computers are capable of transmitting information to modems much faster than the modems are able to transmit the same information over a phone line. in order to transmit data at a speed greater than 600 bits per second (bps). which is a lot more characters per second than a person can type or read. Modem compresses them and sends over. The reason this speed was tolerable was because 300 bps represents about 30 characters per second.1960s through 1983 or so 1200 bps . This allows the transmission of many bits of data at the same time. with theoretical maximum of up to 8 megabits per second (Mbps) .Gained popularity in 1999 Here we discuss some internal functions of modem that helps in the modulation and demodulation process. People got along at 300 bps for quite a while.2 kilobits per second (Kbps) 28. This gives the modem time to group bits together and apply compression algorithm to them.Gained popularity in 1984 and 1985 2400 bps 9600 bps . However.8 Kbps 33. A person would set up a computer with a modem or two and some BBS software. a dumb terminal at an off-site office or store could "dial in" to a large. • ERROR CORRECTION 46 . A dumb terminal is simply a keyboard and a screen. and other people would dial in to connect to the bulletin board. central computer. bulletin board systems (BBS) became the rage.Became the standard in 1998 ADSL.

Though error correction data transfer integrity is preserved. If not. Hardware flow control uses wires in the modem cable. it sends a certain character signaling pause. This is faster and much more reliable than software flow control. Since software flow control regulates transmissions by sending certain characters. PURPOSE A network interface card.Error correction is the method by which modems verify if the information sent to them has been undamaged during the transfer. • DATA BUFFERING Data buffering is done using a UART. It allows users to connect to each other either by using cables or wirelessly. The computer communicates with the serial device by writing in the UART's registers. It is both an OSI layer 1 (physical layer) and layer 2 (data link layer) device. Error correcting modems break up information into small packets. 47 . A UART (Universal Asynchronous Receiver/Transmitters) is an integrated circuit that converts parallel input into serial output. or LAN adapter is a computer hardware component designed to allow computers to communicate over a computer network. • FLOW CONTROL If one modem in a dial up connection is capable of sending data much faster than the other can receive then flow control allows the receiving modem to tell the other to pause while it catches up. when a modem needs to tell the other to pause.  NETWORK INTERFACE CONTROLLER/CARD A network interface card (NIC) is a hardware device that handles an interface to a computer network and allows a network-capable device to access that network. network interface controller (NIC). The NIC has a ROM chip that contains a unique number. It means that the first data to enter the buffer is the first to leave. With software flow control. The receiving modem checks whether the checksum matches the information sent. it sends a different character. Without the FIFO. This basically helps the CPU to catch up if it has been busy dealing with other tasks. called frames and send over after adding a checksum to each of these frames. thus hanging the transfer until the proper character is sent. the entire frame is resent. network adapter. UART is used by computers to send information to a serial device such as a modem. UARTs have buffers through which this communication occurs on First in First out basis. When it is ready to resume. Flow control exists as either software or hardware flow control. The NIC exists on the 'Data Link Layer' (Layer 2) of the OSI model. line noise could generate the character commanding a pause. information would be scrambled when sent by a modem. the media access control (MAC) Address burned into it. The MAC address identifies the device uniquely on the LAN. as it provides physical access to a networking medium and provides a low-level addressing system through the use of MAC addresses.

the low cost and ubiquity of the Ethernet standard means that most newer computers have a network interface built into the motherboard. connected through the PCI (or the newer PCI express) bus.Although other network technologies exist (e. Whereas network cards used to be expansion cards that plug into a computer bus. IMPLEMENTATION The card implements the electronic circuitry required to communicate using a specific physical layer and data link layer standard such as Ethernet or token ring. because card vendors purchase blocks of addresses from the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) and assign a unique address to each card at the time of manufacture. This removes load from the CPU but requires a separate processor on the card. or AUI socket where the network cable is connected. Programmed I/O is where the microprocessor alerts the designated peripheral by applying its address to the system's address bus. DMA is where an intelligent peripheral assumes control of the system bus to access memory directly. A network card typically has a RJ45. Ethernet 10Base-5/2 NIC. Every Ethernet network card has a unique 48-bit serial number called a MAC address. which is stored in ROM carried on the card. Every computer on an Ethernet network must have a card with a unique MAC address. These either have Ethernet capabilities integrated into the motherboard chipset or implemented via a low cost dedicated Ethernet chip.g. and whether 48 . A separate network card is not required unless multiple interfaces are needed or some other type of network is used. • • • • Polling is where the microprocessor examines the status of the peripheral under program control. Normally it is safe to assume that no two network cards will share the same address. allowing communication among small groups of computers on the same LAN and large-scale network communications through routable protocols. Newer motherboards may even have dual network (Ethernet) interfaces built-in. and a few LEDs to inform the user of whether the network is active. the NIC may use one or more of these techniques. BNC. Interrupt-driven I/O is where the peripheral alerts the microprocessor that it's ready to transfer data. Token Ring). Ethernet has achieved nearubiquity since the mid-1990s. This provides a base for a full network protocol stack.There are four techniques used to transfer data. such as IP.

it is less encompassing.or not there is data being transmitted on it. Network cards are typically available in 10/100/1000 Mbit/s varieties. 49 .Sometimes the words 'controller' and 'card' are used interchangeably when talking about networking because the most common NIC is the network interface card. expansion card. 100 or 1000 Megabits per second. printer interface or a USB device. The 'controller' may take the form of a network card that is installed inside a computer. a router. This means they can support a notional maximum transfer rate of 10. Although 'card' is more commonly used. or it may refer to an embedded component as part of a computer motherboard.

install. but for 10Mbps CAT3 will suffice. For higher network speeds (100Mbps plus) you must use CAT5 wire. This type of wire is not capable of supporting computer network traffic and is not twisted. it came to replace the good old coaxial cable which was not able to keep up with the constant growing need for faster and more reliable networks.NETWORK CABLES  UNSHIELDED TWISTED PAIR (UTP) CABLE Unshielded Twisted Pair cable is most certainly by far the most popular cable around the world. CHRACTERISTICS The characteristics of UTP are very good and make it easy to work with. CAT5 and CAT6 are network wire specifications. UTP cable is used not only for networking but also for the traditional telephone (UTPCat 1). CAT4. There are 6 different types of UTP categories and. depending on what you want to achieve. expand and troubleshoot. Different wiring schemes available for UTP are shown below: CAT1 is typically telephone wire. CAT2 is used mostly for token ring networks. CAT3. CAT2. It is also used by phone companies who provide ISDN. CAT3. supporting speeds up to 4 Mbps. CAT4 and CAT5 cable are actually 4 pairs of twisted copper wires and CAT5 has more twists per inch than CAT3 50 . This type of wire can support computer network and telephone traffic. you would need the appropriate type of cable. where the wiring between the customer's site and the phone company's network uses CAT 1 cable. UTP-CAT5 is the most popular UTP cable.

The "twist" effect of each pair in the cables will cause any interference presented/picked up on one cable to be cancelled out by the cable's partner which twists around the initial cable. but contains a physical separator between the 4 pairs to further reduce electromagnetic interference. that's CAT 5e). not in the definition of what electrical signal is on a particular color. Ethernet is generally carried in 8-conductor cables with 8-pin modular plugs and jacks. Pairs 2 & 3 are used for normal 10/100Mbit networks. There are two wiring standards for these cables. The pairs are twisted together. you should not untwist them any more than necessary (like about 1 cm). all 4 pairs are used. the 4 pairs are labelled. As you can see in the picture . The other two pairs. In Gigabit Ethernet. STRAIGHT THROUGH UTP CABLES The eight-conductor data cable contains 4 pairs of wires.therefore can run at higher speeds and greater lengths. 51 . Brown and Blue. To maintain reliability on Ethernet. The connector standard is called "RJ-45" and is just like a standard RJ-11 modular telephone connector. It is similar to CAT5 wire. which color is on which pin.that is. CAT6 wire was originally designed to support gigabit Ethernet (although there are standards that will allow gigabit transmission over CAT5 wire. Each pair consists of a solid colored wire and a white wire with a stripe of the same color. The pairs designated for 10 and 100 Mbit Ethernet are Orange and Green. They differ only in connection sequence . while Pairs 1 & 4 are reserved. CAT3 and CAT4 are both used for Token Ring and have a maximum length of 100 meters. can be used for a second Ethernet line or for phone connections. called "T568A" (also called "EIA") and "T568B" (also called "AT&T" and "258A"). except it is a bit wider to carry more pins.

.7). pairs 1 and 2 are on the centre 4 pins..) T568A goes: 52 .. The wires connect to RJ-45 8-pin connectors as shown below: FOR T568B Pin color ..... TxData 3 white/green (pair 3) .5.. The jack should either come with a wiring diagram or at least designate pin numbers.RecvData+ 4 blue (pair 1) 5 white/blue (pair 1) 6 green (pair 3) .3..pair name 1 white/orange (pair 2) TxData + 2 orange (pair 2) .... • T568A The T568A specification reverses the orange and green connections so that pairs 1 and 2 are on the centre 4 pins.RecvData7 white/brown (pair 4) 8 brown (pair 4) The wall jack may be wired in a different sequence because the wires are often crossed inside the jack. which makes it more compatible with the telco voice connections.• T568B Note that the odd pin numbers are always the white with stripe color (1.. (Note that in the RJ-11 plug at the top......

.... which is usually found in telephone lines.FOR T568A Pin color .RecvData+ 2 green (pair 3) ....TxData 7 white/brown (pair 4) 8 brown (pair 4) The most common application for a straight through cable is a connection between a PC and a hub/switch... only 2 wires are used. these do not require any special cross over since the phones connect directly to the phone socket. 53 ..... In this case the PC is connected directly to the hub/switch which will automatically cross over the cable internally.. using special circuits...pair name 1 white/green (pair 3) .. In the case of a CAT1 cable.RecvData3 white/orange (pair 2) TxData + 4 blue (pair 1) 5 white/blue (pair 1) 6 orange (pair 2) ..

You might get a bit confused because you might expect the TX+ of one side to connect to the TX+ of the other side but this is not the case. one will be sending while the other receives. an x-over cable is as simple as connecting the TX from one end to the RX of the other and vice versa. Let's now have a look at the pinouts of a typical x-over CAT5 cable: 54 . e. while others are used to receive data and this is exactly what we take into account when creating an x-over cable. We basically connect the TX (transmit) of one end to the RX (receive) of the other ! The diagram below shows this in the simplest way possible: CAT5 X-OVER There is only one way to make a CAT5 x-over cable and it's pretty simple. If the HUB didn't x-over the pinouts using its internal circuits (this happens when you use the Uplink port on the hub) then Pin 1 from the PC (which is TX+) would connect to Pin 1 of the HUB (which would be TX+ in this case). CAT5 UTP X-OVER CABLE The cross-over (x-over) CAT5 UTP cable has to be one of the most used cables after the classic straight-thru cable.The picture above shows us a standard CAT5 straight thru cable.This happens for the rest of the pinouts as well. Some of these cables are used to send data. When sending or receiving data between two devices. the HUB it will automatically x-over the cable for you by using its internal circuits. The x-over cable allows us to connect two computers without needing a hub or switch. So you notice that no matter what we do with the HUB port (uplink or normal). we need to manually do the x-over. will always remain the same. the HUB's pinouts though will change depending whether the port is set to normal or uplink. As mentioned previously.g computers. used to connect a PC to a HUB. When you connect a PC to a HUB. All this is done via the network cable and if you look at a network cable you will notice that it contains multiple cables. this results Pin 1 from the PC (which is TX+) to connect to Pin 1 of the HUB (which connects to RX+). the signals assigned to the 8 Pins on the PC side of things. We don't have a hub.

The diagram below shows a few examples to make it simpler: 55 . these cables aren't any different from the above. it's just that there are cables running to the unused pins. but a variety of other devices. only 4 pins are needed for a x-over cable. If you have two hubs and you need to connect them. but is just a habit some people follow. This won't make any difference in performance. when activated through a little switch (in most cases). When you buy a x-over cable. you would usually use the special uplink port which. What happens though if you haven't got any uplink ports or they are already used ? The X-over cable will allow you to connect them and solve your problem. you might find that all 8 pins are used. makes that particular port not cross the tx and rx. Prime example are switches and hubs.As you can see. but leave them as if they were straight through. Here are the pinouts for a x-over cable which has all 8 pins connected: X-OVER USE X-over cables are not just used to connect computers.

Shielded cables can also help to extend the maximum distance of the cables. thanks to the uplink port. etc. there is no need for a x-over cable. 56 . shielded twisted pair may be the solution.). in which case we must make a x-over cable to connect the two hubs:  SHIELDED TWISTED PAIR (STP) CABLE Although UTP cable is the least expensive cable. Shielded twisted pair cable is available in three different configurations: • • • Each pair of wires is individually shielded with foil. it may be susceptible to radio and electrical frequency interference (it should not be too close to electric motors.As you can see in the above diagram. as well as around the entire group of wires (referred to as double shield twisted pair). Let's now have have look at how to cope when we don't have an uplink to spare. There is a foil or braid shield inside the jacket covering all wires (as a group). There is a shield around each individual pair. or if you must place cable in extremely sensitive environments that may be susceptible to the electrical current in the UTP. fluorescent lights. If you must place cable in environments with lots of potential interference.

Coaxial cable differs from other cable because it is designed to carry radio frequency current.STP Cable  COXIAL CABLE Coaxial cabling has a single copper conductor at its center. it has two conductors. this requires special construction to prevent power losses. This has a frequency much higher than the 50 or 60 Hz used in mains (electric power) cables. coaxial cable conducts AC electric current between locations. since it is alternating current. However. Thick coaxial cable is also referred to as thicknet. The metal shield helps to block any outside interference. it can support greater cable lengths between network devices than twisted pair cable. Like any electrical power cord. Their two types of coaxial cables. Like these other cables. Different types of adapters are available for BNC connectors. To prevent this. Coaxial cable Although coaxial cabling is difficult to install. If an ordinary wire is used to carry high frequency currents. In addition. 57 . This confines the radio waves from the central conductor to the space inside the tube. or shield. the central wire and the tubular shield. A plastic layer provides insulation between the center conductor and a braided metal shield. from radiating. the current reverses direction many times a second. in coaxial cable one of the conductors is formed into a tube and encloses the other conductor. it is connected to electrical ground keeping it at a constant potential. To prevent the outer conductor. Thin coaxial cable is also referred to as thinnet. CABLE CONNECTORS The most common type of connector used with coaxial cables is the Bayone-NeillConcelman (BNC) connector. Like other types of radio transmission line. causing power losses. reversing direction millions to billions of times per second. it is highly resistant to signal interference. the wire acts as an antenna. and the high frequency currents radiate off the wire as radio waves. At any moment the current is traveling outward from the source in one of the conductors. and returning in the other.

and the fact that glass is not an electrical conductor. Because fibre is non-conductive it can be used where electrical isolation is needed. and terminator. one fibre could replace hundreds of copper cables. these are measured in microns which are millionths of a metre. the cladding (reflects the light pulses back into the core) and the buffer coating (protects the core and cladding from moisture. always use the BNC connectors that crimp. Connectors on the cable are the weakest points in any network. high bandwidth properties of fibre cables they can be used over greater distances than copper cables. Together. it is very. rather BNC connector  OPTICAL FIBER An optical fiber is made up of the core.including a T-connector. In data networks this can be as much as 2km without the use of repeaters. damage. but for the purposes of this explanation we will deal with one of the most common types.). This is pretty impressive for a tiny glass filament. very difficult to tap into a fibre cable to read the data signals. Last but not least is the security aspect. (carries the light pulses). The numbers represent the diameters of the fibre core and cladding. by using multiplexors. ADVANTAGES Because of the Low loss. FIBER CONSTRUCTION There are many different types of fibre cable. 58 . 62. barrel connector. for instance. between buildings where copper cables would require cross bonding to eliminate differences in earth potentials. Fibres also pose no threat in dangerous environments such as chemical plants where a spark could trigger an explosion.5/125 micron loose tube. etc. Their light weight and small size also make them ideal for applications where running copper cables would be impractical and. To help avoid problems with your network. all of this creates a fiber optic which can carry up to 10 million messages at any time using light pulses. but the real benefit in the data industry is its immunity to Electro Magnetic Interference (EMI).

this is known as Intermodal Dispersion (sometimes referred to as Differential Mode Delay. which take the longest route as they bounce from one side to the other all the way down the fibre. This slows down the lower order modes allowing the rays to arrive at the far end closer together. LIGHT PROPOGATION Light travels along a fibre cable by a process called 'Total Internal Reflection' (TIR).Loose tube fibre cable can be indoor or outdoor. this is made possible by using two types of glass which have different refractive indexes. the outdoor cables usually have the tube filled with gel to act as a moisture barrier to the ingress of water. To ease the problem.This has the effect of scattering the signal because the rays from one pulse of light arrive at the far end at different times. graded index fibres were developed. The inner core has a high refractive index and the outer cladding has a low index. 59 . In multi-mode fibres. there are multiple modes of propagation for the rays of light. thereby reducing intermodal dispersion and improving the shape of the signal. which take the most direct route straight down the middle. These range from low order modes. to high order modes. Unlike the examples above which have a definite barrier between core and cladding. these have a high refractive index at the centre which gradually reduces to a low refractive index at the circumference. DMD). The number of cores in one cable can be anywhere from 4 to 144. or both. as the name suggests.

you can get speeds of up to 2Gigabits per second . The explanation is given below: 10/100 The number 10/100 represents the frequency in MHz (Mega Hertz) for which this cable is made. sometimes also called "Thinwire coax". the greater speeds the cable can handle. require special terminators.GENERAL EXPLANATIONS Many times when referring to networking cables we come across terms like: 10Base-T/2/5/F/35 Cable or 100Base-(T) TX/T4/FX Cable These give us the specifications of the cable. Even though the 10Base-F specification is for speeds up to 10Mbits per second.5 meters. Baseband is the type of communication used by Ethernet and it means that when a computer is transmitting. Maximum length is 185 meters while the minimum length between nodes is 0.5 meters. that is. Minimum length between nodes is 2.5 meters. Base The word "Base" refers to Baseband. 10Base-2 This specification uses Coaxial cable which is usually black. The examples are: 10Base-T A few years ago. 10Base-2 uses BNC connectors which. what type of cable is used. therefore. which are used for speeds up to 10Mbit. 10Base-5 This specification uses what's called "Thickwire" coaxial cable. Only 2 pairs of the UTP cable are used with the 10Base-T specification and the maximum length is 100 meters. speeds) then it either will not work or become extremely unreliable. The maximum length is 500 meters while the minimum length between nodes is 2. depending on the configuration. special connectors are used to interface to the network card. these are called AUI (Attachment Unit Interface) connectors 10Base-F This specification uses fibre optic cable. The greater the MHz. "Thin Ethernet" or "RJ-58" cable. it uses all the available bandwith. the 10 BaseT cables used CAT3 cables. 60 . Also. If you try to use this type of cable for greater frequencies (and. depending on the type of fibre and equipment you use. whereas Broadband (cable modems) shares the bandwidth available.

Maximum length is usually upto 2 kms. It is able to carry multiple baseband channels for a maximum length of 3.600 meters or 3. 100Base-TX The TX (sometimes refered as "T" only) means it's a CAT5 UTP straight through cable using 2 of the 4 available pairs and supports speeds up to 100Mbits. 100Base-FX The FX means it's a 2 strand fiber cable and supports speeds up to 100Mbits.10Base-35 The 10Base-35 specification uses broadband coaxial cable.6 Kms. 100Base-T4 The T4 means it's a CAT5 UTP straight through cable using all 4 available pairs and supports speeds up to 100Mbits. Maximum length is 100 meters and minimum length between nodes is 2. IP ADDRESS & SUBNETTING IP ADDRESS 61 . Maximum length is 100 meters and minimum length between nodes is 2.5 meters.5 meters.

IPv4 reserves some addresses for special purposes such as private networks (~18 million addresses) or multicast addresses (~270 million addresses). some of the bits in an IP address are used to designate a subnetwork. IPv4 addresses are usually represented in dot-decimal notation (four numbers. separated by dots. due to the enormous growth of the Internet and the predicted depletion of available addresses. The designers of TCP/IP defined an IP address as a 32-bit number and this system. using 128 bits for the address. a new addressing system (IPv6).An Internet Protocol address (IP address) is a numerical label that is assigned to devices participating in a computer network that uses the Internet Protocol for communication between its nodes.77.166 (for IPv4).  IP VERSION 4 (IPv4) IPv4 uses 32-bit (4-byte) addresses.188. 208. 208. 62 . An IP address serves two principal functions: host or network interface identification and location addressing. e.188. The Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA). e. Although IP addresses are stored as binary numbers.77. which manages the IP address space allocations globally. Each version defines an IP address differently..294. The number of these bits is indicated in CIDR notation. and is therefore called an octet.Two versions of the Internet Protocol (IP) are in use: IP Version 4 and IP Version 6. such as 208.77.967. each ranging from 0 to 255. However. cooperates with five Regional Internet Registries (RIRs) to allocate IP address blocks to Local Internet Registries (Internet service providers) and other entities. was developed in 1995.g.188. they are usually displayed in human-readable notations. which limits the address space to 4. appended to the IP address. known as Internet Protocol Version 4 or IPv4. and 2001:db8:0:1234:0:567:1:1 (for IPv6).166/24. For this purpose. is still in use today. Each part represents 8 bits of the address.166). The Internet Protocol is used to route data packets between networks.296 (232) possible unique addresses.g. IP addresses specify the locations of the source and destination nodes in the topology of the routing system.

g.09 128. The highest order octet (most significant eight bits) in an address was designated as the network number and the rest of the bits were called the rest field or host identifier and were used for host numbering within a network. and avoid the renumbering of the existing networks. All existing network numbers at the time were smaller than 64. The early method soon proved inadequate as additional networks developed that were independent from the existing networks already designated by a network number.77 7. they only used the 6 least-significant bits of the network number field. This addressing scheme is illustrated in the following table: Class Leadi ng Bits Size of Netw ork Numb er Bit field 8 Size of Rest Bit field Numbe r of Netwo rks Addres ses per Networ k Start addres s End address Class A 0 24 128 (2 ) 7 16. defines a different network size (number of hosts).0. 255 191.255. In 1981. allowing more networks to be designated.0 127. Today remnants of classful network concepts remain in practice only in a limited scope in the default configuration parameters of some network software and hardware components (e. 0 192.255..0.255.255. A classful network is a network architecture used in the Internet until around 1993. network mask). network number portion and host number portion. network administrators interpreted an IP address in two parts.3 84 (214) 2. It divides the address space for Internet Protocol Version 4 (IPv4) into five address classes.0. The solution was to expand the definition of the network number field to include more bits.216 (224) 65. the Internet addressing specification was revised with the introduction of classful network architecture.0. Thus it was possible to use the most-significant bits of an address to introduce a set of address classes.0.0. or a different network type (unicast or multicast). each potentially having fewer hosts. 63 Class B Class C 10 110 16 24 16 8 16. Expansion of the network had to ensure compatibility with the existing address space and the Internet Protocol (IP) packet structure.255. but the terms are often still heard in general discussions of network structure among network administrators. coded in the first four bits of the address. Each class. while preserving the existing network numbers in the first of these classes.IPv4 SUBNETTING In the early stages of development of the Internet Protocol.53 6 (216) 256 0. .255. 255 223.

0. 0 240. This was not required in a classful network because the mask was implicitly derived from the IP address itself. IP addresses are associated with a subnet mask.255. but found widespread optional deployment first in IPv4 (into which it was back-engineered). Any network device would inspect the first few bits of the IP address to determine the class of the address. Network security is integrated into the design of the IPv6 architecture. The new address space thus supports 2128 (about 3. 255 255. Today. the number of hosts is 254. for a Class C address with 8 bits available in the host field.  IP VERSION 6 (IPv6) Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) is a version of the Internet Protocol that is designed to succeed IPv4.255. The IPv6 subnet size has been standardized by fixing the size of the host identifier portion of an address to 64 bits to facilitate an automatic mechanism for forming the host identifier from Link Layer media addressing information (MAC address). IPv6 also implements new features that simplify aspects of address assignment (stateless address autoconfiguration) and network renumbering (prefix and router announcements) when changing Internet connectivity providers. which is still in dominant use currently. Thus. This results from the use of a 128-bit address. Internet Protocol Security (IPsec) was originally developed for IPv6. IPv6 is specified by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) . and the subtraction of 2 adjusts for the use of the all-bits-zero host portion for network address and the all-bits-one host portion as a broadcast address. which gained widespread deployment as an effort to alleviate IPv4 address exhaustion.0. 0 255 239.152 (221) Class D (multic ast) Class E (reserv ed) 111 0 111 1 not define d not define d not define d not define d not defined not defined (28) not defined not defined 0 224. It is an Internet Layer protocol for packet-switched internetworks.0. IPv6 ADRESS CLASSES 64 .4×1038) addresses. This expansion provides flexibility in allocating addresses and routing traffic and eliminates the primary need for network address translation (NAT).7. The main driving force for the redesign of Internet Protocol is the foreseeable IPv4 address exhaustion.0.255. 255 The number of addresses usable for addressing specific hosts in each network is always 2N 2 (where N is the number of rest field bits. Classful addressing is obsolete and has not been used in the Internet since the implementation of Classless Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR) starting in 1993.IPv6 has a vastly larger address space than IPv4.255. whereas IPv4 uses only 32 bits. the first publicly used implementation. The IPv6 specifications mandate IPsec implementation as a fundamental interoperability requirement.

A multicast address is also assigned to a set of interfaces that typically belong to different nodes. typically the nearest host. each group representing 16 bits (two octets). 65 . Multicast addresses begin with an octet of one 1-bits. An anycast address is assigned to a group of interfaces. A typical example of an IPv6 address follows: 2001:0db8:85a3:0000:0000:8a2e:0370:7334 The hexadecimal digits are case-insensitive.. A packet that is sent to a multicast address is delivered to all interfaces that have joined the corresponding multicast group. anycast addressing. in hexadecimal and binary. A packet sent to an anycast address is delivered to just one of the member interfaces. Anycast addresses cannot be identified easily: they have the structure of unicast addresses. according to the routing protocol’s definition of distance. and multicast addressing.e. The groups are separated by a colon (:). The Internet Protocol delivers packets sent to a unicast address to that specific interface. and differ only by their presence in the network at multiple points.IPv6 addresses are classified by the primary addressing and routing methodologies common in networking: unicast addressing. • • A unicast address identifies a single network interface. usually belonging to different nodes. Almost any unicast address can be employed as an anycast address. i. An IPv6 address is represented as eight groups of four hexadecimal digits. • NOTATION An illustration of an IP address (version 6). they have prefix ff00::/8.

0:0:0:0:0:0:0:0.128. thus expressing clearly the original IPv4 address that was mapped to IPv6. they constitute logical or physical borders between the subnets. 0:0:0:0:0:0:0:1. DOTTED-QUAD NOTATION During the transition of the Internet from IPv4 to the IPv6 it is typical to operate in a mixed addressing environment. or subnet. each group must contain at least one hexadecimal digit. With this rule. The subnets may be arranged logically in a hierarchical architecture. the IPv4-mapped IPv6 address ::ffff:c000:280 is usually written as ::ffff:192. distinctly addressed part of a single Internet Protocol (IP) network. The process of subnetting is the division of a computer network into groups of computers that have the identical common component of their IP address designated as their routing prefix. This substitution may only be applied once in an address.The full representation may be simplified by several techniques. Routers are used to interchange traffic between subnetworks. and manage traffic between subnets based on the high-order bit sequence (routing prefix) of host addresses. Thus. is a logically separate. as multiple occurrences would create an ambiguous representation. Each bit field must contain at least one hexadecimal digit. 66 . or that may be administratively controlled by different entities in the larger organization. partitioning the organization's network address space into a tree-like routing structure. Subnetting breaks a network into smaller realms that may use address space more efficiently.2. For example.0. and the IPv6 unspecified address. and for this purpose a special notation has been introduced to express IPv4-mapped and IPv4-compatible IPv6 addresses by writing the final 32 bits of an address in the familiar IPv4 dotted-quad notation. SUBNET A subnetwork. respectively. LEADING ZEROS Leading zeroes in a group may be omitted. the example address may be further simplified: 2001:db8:85a3::8a2e:370:7334 The localhost (loopback) address. the example address may be written as: 2001:db8:85a3:0:0:8a2e:370:7334 GROUPS OF ZEROS One or any number of consecutive groups of zero value may be replaced with two colons. are reduced to ::1 and ::. Physical separation of network traffic may prevent excessive rates of Ethernet packet collisions in a larger network.

1. possibly consisting of one or several Ethernet segments or local area networks. The modern standard form of specification of 67 . Routing prefixes are expressed in CIDR notation. and the rest (8 bits) reserved for host addressing. having a 32-bit routing prefix.A routing prefix is the sequence of leading (most-significant) bits of an IP address that precede the portion of the address used as host identifier.168. The most common network addressing architecture is Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4). Host identifier: The remaining low-order bits of the address that are not designated in the network prefix. While improving network performance.0 is the subnet mask for the 192. for instance an Ethernet network. For example. The IPv6 address specification 2001:db8::/32 is a large network for 296 hosts. separated by a slash (/) character. subnetting allows the network to be logically divided regardless of the physical layout of a network.168.0/24 prefix. A typical subnet is a physical network served by one router. NETWORK ADDRESSING Computers and devices that are participating in a network such as the Internet each have a logical address.255. In IPv4 networks. An address fulfills the functions of identifying the host and locating it on the network. However. called dot-decimal notation. It allows a device to communicate with other devices connected to the network. An IPv4 address consists of 32 bits. this is called the subnet mask of the address. This part specifies a particular device in the local network. Usually this address is unique to each device and can either be configured dynamically from a network server or statically by an administrator. An IPv6 address consists of 128 bits written in a hexadecimal notation and grouping 16 bits separated by colons. subnetting increases routing complexity. All hosts within a subnet can be reached in one routing hop. since each locally connected subnet must be represented by a separate entry in the routing tables of each connected router. In order to facilitate routing a data packet across multiple networks.1. The network prefix may be written in a form identical to that of the address itself. In IPv4. which is the prefix bit mask expressed in quad-dotted decimal representation. For example. having 24 bits allocated for the network number. 192. the routing prefix is traditionally expressed as a subnet mask. the address is divided into two parts: • • Network prefix: A contiguous group of high-order bits that are common among all hosts within a network.0/24 is the prefix of the IPv4 network starting at the given address. A routing prefix in CIDR notation is the first address of a network followed by the bit-length of the prefix. since it is possible to divide a physical network into several subnets by configuring different host computers to use different routers. 255.255. interconnected by network switches and network bridges or a Virtual Local Area Network (VLAN). implying that all hosts in a subnet are connected to the same link. for human readability written in a form consisting of four decimal octets separated by full stops (dots).

00000000. usually a sequence of ones (1) followed by a block of 0s.130 Binary form 11000000. The last block of zeros (0) designate that part as being the host identifier. netmask 255.11000000 11000000.00000101. This divides a network into smaller subnets. The following diagram modifies the example by moving two bits from the host portion to the subnet number to form a smaller subnet: Dot-decimal notation IP address Subnet Mask Network Portion Host Portion 192.5.255. Subnetting is the process of designating bits from the host portion and grouping them with the network portion.168.0.10101000. subnet masks consist of 32 bits.5.5.11111111.00000000.10101000. SUBNETTING OPERATION The process of subnetting involves the separation of the network and subnet portion of an address from the host identifier.0.5.00000000.00000000 11000000.168.10000000 00000000.00000000 00000000.130 255.00000010 68 .128 0.0. The following example is based on IPv4 networking.0.11111111.0/16 This latter notation is used preferentially in Classless Inter-Domain Routing and is called CIDR notation.0.00000101.11111111.255.00000000.168. In IPv6 this is the only acceptable form to denote routing prefixes. and the remainder is the host identifier.10101000.255.255.the routing prefix counts the number of bits in the routing prefix and appends that number to the address with a slash (/) separator: • • 11111111.11111111.0 11111111.0.00000101.0 192.10101000.130 255.168.10000010 In IPv4.2 Binary form 11000000. The result yields the network address. This is performed by a bitwise AND operation between the IP address and the subnet prefix or bit mask.0 0. Dot-decimal notation IP address Subnet Mask Network Portion Host Portion 192. The operation may be visualized in a table using binary address formats.192 192.

for broadcast transmission to all hosts on the link. thus creating 4 (22) possible subnets.e. reducing the number of available subnets by two. This affects the total number of hosts that can be addressed in the /24 network (last column).127 192.1 1000000 Broadcast address 192.168. All CIDR-compliant routing protocols transmit both length and suffix. The remaining bits after the subnet are used for addressing hosts within the subnet. This allows for 64 combinations (26). usually point-to-point links.5.168. Network 192.5.5. IPv4 uses the all ones host address.63 192.10101000.10101000. In the above example the subnet mask consists of 26 bits. the last address within a network.168.00000101.SUBNETTING IN IPv4 Internet Protocol version 4 uses specially designated address formats to facilitate recognition of special address functionality.168.255 Specifications reserves the subnet values consisting of all zeros (see above) and all ones (broadcast). leaving 6 bits for the host identifier. A /24 network may be divided into the following subnets by increasing the subnet mask successively by one bit. early on.1 0000000 11000000. In the example (above) two bits were borrowed to create subnetworks.168.5. due to the inefficiencies introduced by this convention it was abandoned for use on the public Internet. where n is the number of bits used for the host portion of the address. RFC 1878 provides a subnetting table with examples.168. SUBNET AND HOST COUNTS The number of subnetworks available.0/2 6 192.168. 1-bit host identifiers).10101000.19 2/26 Network (binary) 11000000.5. in such networks.64/ 26 192.e. When dealing with 31-bit subnet masks (i. In addition. and is only relevant when dealing with legacy equipment that does not implement CIDR. 69 .00000101.168. and the number of possible hosts in a network may be readily calculated.12 8/26 192.5. special usage implications. The only reason not to use the all-zeroes subnet is that it is ambiguous when the prefix length is not available. However. In general the number of available hosts on a subnet is 2n−2. however the all zeros value and all ones value are reserved for the network ID and broadcast address respectively.5. i.0 0000000 11000000.10101000.0 1000000 11000000.191 192.5. only two hosts (the end points) may be connected and a specification of network and broadcast addresses is not necessary. leaving 62 addresses. The first and the last subnets obtained by subnetting have traditionally had a special designation and.00000101.00000101.

255. 248 255.255. they are impractical for local area networks because stateless address auto configuration of network interfaces requires a /64 address. and thus all addresses in a subnet are valid host addresses.255.255. Although it is technically possible to use smaller subnets. It is used to route traffic between the global allocation spaces and within customer network between subnets and the larger Internet.255. as the address space available even to end-users is large. The Internet Engineering Task Force recommends to use /64 subnets even for point-to-point links.This provides 65536 subnets for a site. No such limitations exist in IPv6.CIDR notation /24 /25 /26 /27 /28 /29 /30 /31 Network mask 255. 252 255. Despite this recommendation. IPv6 does not implement special address formats for broadcast traffic or network numbers. 254 Available subnets 1 2 4 8 16 32 64 128 Available hosts per subnet 254 126 62 30 14 6 2 2 * Total usable hosts 254 252 248 240 224 192 128 256 SUBNETTING IN IPv6 The design of the IPv6 address space differs significantly from IPv4. which consisting of only the two end hosts.255.255. 128 255. An IPv6 subnet always has 64 bits in its host portion. other common allocations are /56 (72 bits) as well as /64 prefixes for a residential customer network.255.255.255. It therefore has a /64 routing prefix (the 64 most-significant bits).255. 0 255.255. 192 255. The recommended allocation for an IPv6 customer site is an address space of 80 address bits (prefix /48).255. 240 255.255. particularly to enterprises.255.255. 70 . The primary reason for subnetting in IPv4 is to improve efficiency in the utilization of the relatively small address space available. 224 255. Subnetting in IPv6 is based on the concepts of variable-length subnet masking (VLSM) and the Classless Inter-Domain Routing methodology.

a network protocol is a formal set of rules.PROTOCOLS Actual communication is defined by various communication protocols. accept and use to be able to talk to each other 71 . In the context of data communication. protocol is a standard procedure and format that two data communication devices must understand. In other words. conventions and data structure that governs how computers and other network devices exchange information over a network.

Layering is a design principle which divides the protocol design into a number of smaller parts. rearranges out-of-order packets. the more intelligent protocols become. Due to network congestion. peer-to-peer file sharing. TCP is a reliable stream delivery service that guarantees delivery of a data stream sent from one host to another without duplication or losing data. A packet is a sequence of bytes and consists of a header followed by a body. whereas the lower layers of the OSI Model are quite the opposite. less CPU intensive and less intelligent. and retransmits a packet if the timer expires. 72 . and some streaming media applications. network protocols are "layered" according to the OSI 7 layer model or similar layered models. when an application program desires to send a large chunk of data across the Internet using IP. TCP abstracts the application's communication from the underlying networking details. Secure Shell. including the World Wide Web (WWW).In modern protocol design. that is. each of accomplishes a particular sub-task. TCP detects these problems. the software can issue a single request to TCP and let TCP handle the IP details. The timer is needed in case a packet gets lost or corrupted. That is. File Transfer Protocol. As a general rule. requests retransmission of lost packets. Layering allows the parts of a protocol to be designed and tested without a combinatorial explosion of cases. traffic load balancing. . the higher you move up the OSI Model. the routers to use for forwarding until it arrives at its final destination. IP works by exchanging pieces of information called packets. Understanding how each protocol fits into the OSI Model is essential for any network engineer. and even helps minimize network congestion to reduce the occurrence of the other problems. or delivered out of order.  TCP(TRANMISSION CONTROL PROTOCOL) TCP provides a communication service at an intermediate level between an application program and the Internet Protocol (IP). a technique known as positive acknowledgment with retransmission is used to guarantee reliability of packet transfers. instead of breaking the data into IP-sized pieces and issuing a series of IP requests. or other unpredictable network behaviour. duplicated. The body contains the data IP is transmitting. Since packet transfer is not reliable. keeping each design relatively simple. it passes that datagram to the application program. and waits for acknowledgment before sending the next packet. The sender keeps a record of each packet it sends. Once the TCP receiver has finally reassembled a perfect copy of the data originally transmitted. TCP is used extensively by many of the Internet's most popular applications. Thus. The sender also keeps a timer from when the packet was sent. This fundamental technique requires the receiver to respond with an acknowledgment message as it receives the data. Layering also permits familiar protocols to be adapted to unusual circumstances. E-mail. The positioning of the layer also reflects how CPU intensive they are. The header describes the packet's destination and. and interacts with the other parts of the protocol only in a small number of well-defined ways. optionally. IP packets can be lost.

and an optional extension field . The Internet Layer encapsulates each TCP segment into an IP packet by adding a header that includes (among other data) the destination IP address. when an HTML file is sent from a Web server. At the same time that IP takes care of handling the actual delivery of the data. called segments.TCP consists of a set of rules: for the protocol. For example. 73 . the TCP software layer of that server divides the sequence of bytes of the file into segments and forwards them individually to the IP software layer (Internet Layer). and for the IP. that a message is divided into for efficient routing through the network. The diagram below is the simplest way to show the concept of a 'transport' protocol: A TCP segment consists of a segment header and a data section. The TCP header contains 10 mandatory fields. to send data "in a form of message units" between computers over the Internet. TCP takes care of keeping track of the individual units of data transmission. that are used with the Internet Protocol.

This acknowledges receipt of all prior bytes (if any). This field gets its name from the fact that it is also the offset from the start of the TCP segment to the actual data. allowing for up to 40 bytes of options in the header. then this is the accumulated sequence number of the first data byte of this packet for the current session. 2. Data offset (4 bits) – specifies the size of the TCP header in 32-bit words. The first ACK sent by each end acknowledges the other end's initial sequence number itself.• • • Source port (16 bits) – identifies the sending port Destination port (16 bits) – identifies the receiving port Sequence number (32 bits) – has a dual role: 1. • • • Acknowledgment number (32 bits) – if the ACK flag is set then the value of this field is the next sequence number that the receiver is expecting. If the SYN flag is set. If the SYN flag is clear. then this is the initial sequence number. Reserved (4 bits) – for future use and should be set to zero 74 . The sequence number of the actual first data byte (and the acknowledged number in the corresponding ACK) are then this sequence number plus 1. The minimum size header is 5 words and the maximum is 15 words thus giving the minimum size of 20 bytes and maximum of 60 bytes. but no data.

You will find the SYN and ACK bits in the Code bits field which are used to perform the 3-way handshake. TCP is connection oriented. When the term "connection is established" is used. RST (1 bit) – Reset the connection 9. divisible by 32) – The length of this field is determined by the data offset field. Thanks to the 3-way handshake. URG (1 bit) – indicates that the Urgent pointer field is significant 6. ACK (1 bit) – indicates that the Acknowledgment field is significant. then this 16-bit field is an offset from the sequence number indicating the last urgent data byte Options (Variable 0-320 bits. Some other flags change meaning based on this flag. that the TCP peer is ECN capable. The following diagram explains the procedure of the 3-way handshake: 75 . This is also where the famous 3-way handshake happens. FIN (1 bit) – No more data from sender • • • • Window (16 bits) – the size of the receive window. 10. SYN (1 bit) – Synchronize sequence numbers. and some are only valid for when it is set. 2. Asks to push the buffered data to the receiving application. before any data is transferred. 5. ECE (1 bit) – ECN-Echo indicates 3. this means that both computers know about each other and have agreed on the exchange of data. which specifies the number of bytes (beyond the sequence number in the acknowledgment field) that the receiver is currently willing to receive ( Flow control and Window Scaling). All packets after the initial SYN packet sent by the client should have this flag set.• Flags (8 bits) (aka Control bits) – contains 8 1-bit flags 1. Options 0 and 1 are a single byte (8 bits) in length. Only the first packet sent from each end should have this flag set. CONNECTION ORIENTED What this basically means is that a connection is established between the two hosts or rather. If the SYN flag is clear. 4. the two computers. PSH (1 bit) – Push function. The remaining options indicate the total length of the option (expressed in bytes) in the second byte. Checksum (16 bits) – The 16-bit checksum field is used for error-checking of the header and data Urgent pointer (16 bits) – if the URG flag is set. CWR (1 bit) – Congestion Window Reduced (CWR) flag is set by the sending host to indicate that it received a TCP segment with the ECE flag set and had responded in congestion control mechanism (added to header by RFC 3168). 7. If the SYN flag is set. and others when it is clear. 8. that a packet with Congestion Experienced flag in IP header set is received during normal transmission(added to header by RFC 3168).

For example. STEP 3: So. Host A sends another packet to Host B and with the "ACK" bit set (1). it effectively tells Host B 'Yes. Below is a diagram that illustrates a simple flow control session between two hosts. If for any reason one of the two hosts are unable to keep up with the data transfer. this means ON) so it knows that Host A is trying to establish a connection with it. This packet has the "SYN" bit enabled. it sends a packet back to Host A and with the "SYN and ACK" bits enabled (1). At this point. Once the 3-way handshake is complete. if Host B was a webserver from which people could download games. then obviously Host A is not going to be the only computer downloading from this webserver. the connection is established (virtual circuit) and the data transfer begins. FLOW CONTROL Flow control is used to control the data flow between the connection. asking it to either stop or slow down so it can keep up. I acknowledge your previous request'. This means it might turn to Host A and tell it to wait for a while until more resources are available because it has another 20 users trying to download at the same time. Host B receives the packet and sees the "SYN" bit which has a value of "1" (in binary.. at this step. STEP 2: Assuming Host B has enough resources. it is able to send special signals to the other end. after all that.STEP 1: Host A sends the initial packet to Host B.. means 'I want to synchronise with you' and the ACK means 'I acknowledge your previous SYN request'. The SYN that Host B sends. we only need to understand the concept of flow control: 76 . so Host B must regulate the data flow to every computer downloading from it.

when a machine receives a flood of data too quickly for it to process. TCP/IP measures it by counting the number of bytes. using a window size equal to one. Host B is sending data to Host A. So in this situation the receiving end will simply issue a "Not ready" or "Stop" indicator to the sender. if the data burst continues it will eventually exhaust the memory of the receiving end and that will result in the arriving data being discarded. While some protocols quantify information by observing the number of packets.Generally speaking. or source of the flood. This means that Host B is expecting an "ACK" for each data segment it sends to Host A. it sends out a "Ready" or "Go" transport indicator and the sending machine receives the "Go" indicator and resumes its transmission. After the receiver processes the data it has in its memory. The "ACK 2" is translated by Host B to say: 'I acknowledge (ACK) the packet you just sent me and I am ready to receive the second (2) segment'. it stores it in a memory section called a buffer. WINDOWING Windowing is the number of data segments the transmitting machine is allowed to send without receiving an acknowledgment for them. So Host B gets the second data segment ready and sends it off to 77 . This buffering action solves the problem only if the data bursts are small and don't last long. Once the first data segment is sent. Windowing controls how much information is transferred from one end to the other. Host A receives it and sends an "ACK 2" to Host B. However.

we have a window size equal to 3. The method that achieves this is known as positive acknowledgment with retransmission. The sender documents each segment it sends and waits for this acknowledgment before sending the next segment. ACKNOWLEGMENTS Reliable data delivery ensures the integrity of a stream of data sent from one machine to the other through a fully functional data link. the transmitting machine starts a timer and retransmits if it expires before an acknowledgment is returned from the receiving end. read the previous example again where the Window size was equal to one. it receives the "ACK 3". Let's now try a different Window size to get a better understanding. In the example below. if it received an "ACK 2" again. This guarantees the data won't be duplicated or lost. However.. as the picture shows. 78 . let's say 3! Keep in mind the way the "ACK's" work. This technique requires a receiving machine to communicate with the transmitting source by sending an acknowledgment message back to the sender when it receives data. If you can't understand it. this would mean something went wrong with the previous transmission and Host B will retransmit the lost segment. When it sends a segment. otherwise you might find the following example a bit confusing.Host A. expecting an "ACK 3" response from Host A so it can send the third data segment for which. We will see how this works in the Acknowledgments section later on. which means that Host B can send 3 data segments to Host A before expecting an "ACK" back.

(A UDP HEADER) 79 . Now you see why this method is called "positive acknowledgment with retransmission". UDP as mentioned does’nt offer all the bells and whistles of TCP. It doesn't follow through. much bandwidth on a network. Application developers can use UDP in place of TCP. Like a thin person in a car. Host A sends an "ACK 4" acknowledging the 3 data segments and requesting the next 3 data segments which will be 4. 8 and 9. UNRELIABLE TRANPORT UDP is considered to be an unreliable transport protocol. complete abandonment! This does not mean that UDP is ineffective. Host B sends 3 data segments to Host A and they are received in perfect condition so. or even allow for an acknowledgment of safe arrival. after a bit of waiting. now please send me the next 3'. 5. a thin protocol doesn't take up a lot of room . check on them. only that it doesn't handle issues of reliability. At first. Host B sends data segments 4. it just sends them and forgets about them. but it does a fabulous job of transporting information that doesn't require reliable delivery and it does so using far fewer network resources. 6.Window size of this transfer which is equal to 3. The next step is not shown on the diagram but it would be Host B sending data segments 7. When UDP sends segments over a network. based on what we learned. 5. indicating that it would like data segment 5 retransmitted. it realises that 5 got lost and sends an "ACK 5" to Host B. in other words . At this point Host B sends data segment 5 and waits for Host A to send an "ACK" so it can continue sending the rest of the data. UDP is the scaled-down economy model and is considered a thin protocol. As a result.  UDP(USER DATAGRAM PROTOCOL) The second protocol used at the Transport layer is UDP. 6 but 5 gets lost somewhere along the way and Host A doesn't receive it so.or in this case. Host A receives the 5th data segment and sends "ACK 7" which means 'I received the previous data segment.

you've probably used ftp a few hundred times without realising it ! The picture below shows where FTP stands in contrast to the OSI model. This is because UDP doesn't create a virtual circuit (establish a connection before data transfer). you would know it is a connection oriented protocol. FTP uses TCP as a transport protocol.CONNECTION-LESS ORIENTED For those who read about TCP. LESS OVERHEAD The very low overhead.But there are some instances where port 21 is used for both. but UDP isn't. nor does it contact the destination before delivering information to it. No 3way handshake or anything like that here!Since UDP assumes that the application will use its own reliability method. compared to TCP. Port numbers 21 and 20 are used for FTP.  FILE TRANFER PROTOCOL (FTP) File transfer is among the most frequently used TCP/IP applications and it accounts for a lot of the network traffic on the Internet. This means that FTP inherits TCP's robustness and is very reliable for transferring files. Port 21 is used to establish the connection between the 2 computers (or hosts) and port 20 to transfer data (via the Data channel). Various standard file transfer protocols existed even before the Internet was available to everyone and it was these early versions of the file transfer software that helped create today's standard known as the File Transfer Protocol (FTP). This certainly speeds things up but you get an unreliable (in comparison to TCP) service. is a result of the lack of windowing or acknowledgments. establishing a connection and data transfer and 80 . Chances are if you download files. which obviously makes things transfer faster. it doesn't use any.

this is known as the Data Channel. This can also potentially allow uninvited data to arrive to your computer from anywhere posing as a normal FTP transfer. a PASV command is sent instead of a PORT command.... Instead of specifying a port that the server can send to. This is one of the reasons Passive FTP is more secure. the PASV command asks the server to specify a port it wishes to use for the Data Channel connection... So let's have a look at the process of a computer establishing an FTP connection with a server : ... You will use either one depending on whether your PC is behind a firewall.FTP has two separate modes of operation: Active and Passive. ACTIVE MODE FTP Active mode is usually used when there isn't any firewall between you and the FTP server. When you (the client) try to establish a connection to a FTP server... At this point. 81 . In such cases you have a direct connection to the Internet.. PASSIVE MODE FTP Using normal or passive FTP. This communication is known as the Control Channel connection.. a client begins a session by sending a request to communicate through TCP port 21... the port that is conventionally assigned for this use at the FTP server.. The server replies on the Control Channel with the port number which the client then uses to initiate an exchange on the Data Channel. The FTP server then starts the exchange of data from its own port 20 to whatever port was designated by your workstation. your workstation includes a second port number (using the PORT command) that is used when data is to be exchanged. The server will thus always be responding to client-initiated requests on the Data Channel and the firewall can correlate these. and because the server initiated the communication.I will analyse them shortly.. . it's not controlled by the workstation client..

the client will send its login name and then password. The only assistance that the Internet Protocol provides in Version 4 (IPv4) is to ensure that the IP packet header is error-free through computation of a checksum at the routing nodes. The Internet Protocol is responsible for addressing hosts and routing datagrams (packets) from a source host to the destination host across one or more IP networks. it's allowed access and is ready to download data. the intelligence in the network is purposely mostly located in the end nodes of each data transmission. Since routing is dynamic and there is no memory in the network about the path of prior packets. you would expect to see the 3-way handshake. For this purpose the Internet Protocol defines an addressing system that has two functions. For the benefit of reducing network complexity. The lack of reliability allows any of the following fault events to occur: • • • • data corruption lost data packets duplicate arrival out-of-order packet delivery. IP is the primary protocol in the Internet Layer of the Internet Protocol Suite and has the task of delivering distinguished protocol datagrams (packets) from the source host to the destination host solely based on their addresses. IP is a connectionless protocol and does not need circuit setup prior to transmission. Since FTP is using TCP as a transport. packet 'B' may arrive before packet 'A'. the Internet Protocol only provides best effort delivery and its service can also be characterized as unreliable. After the authentication sequence is finished and the user is authenticated to the Server. No central monitoring or performance measurement facility exists that tracks or maintains the state of the network.  INTERNET PROTOCOL(IP) The Internet Protocol (IP) is a protocol used for communicating data across a packetswitched internetwork using the Internet Protocol Suite. In network architectural language it is a connection-less protocol. Addresses identify hosts and provide a logical location service. 82 . in contrast to so-called connection-oriented modes of transmission.The above is assuming a direct connection to the FTP server. Routers in the transmission path simply forward packets to the next known local gateway matching the routing prefix for the destination address. As a consequence of this design. if packet 'A' is sent before packet 'B'. Once that is completed and there is data connection established. Each packet is tagged with a header that contains the meta-data for the purpose of delivery. For this purpose the Internet Protocol defines addressing methods and structures for datagram encapsulation. meaning. This process of tagging is also called encapsulation. also referred to as TCP/IP. it is possible that the first packet sent takes a longer path to its destination. RELIABILITY The design principles of the Internet protocols assume that the network infrastructure is inherently unreliable at any single network element or transmission medium and that it is dynamic in terms of availability of links and nodes.

 HYPERTEXT TRANFER PROTOCOL(HTTP) HTTP is a networking protocol for distributed. High traffic website often benefit from web cache servers that deliver content on behalf of the original. HTTP Resources are identified and located on the network by Uniform Resource Identifiers (URIs)—or. which stores content. on the other hand. such as HTML files and images. The HTTP protocol is designed to permit intermediate network elements to improve or enable communications between clients and servers. An application must assure that it uses proper transmission characteristics. hypermedia information systems. so-called origin server to improve response time. one of the technical constraints is the size of data packets allowed on a given link.The resolution or correction of any of these reliability issues is the responsibility of an upper layer protocol. returns a response message to the client. HTTP is the foundation of data communication for the World Wide Web. The protocol definitions presume a reliable Transport Layer protocol for hostto-host data transfer.This has the side-effect of discarding packets with bad headers on the spot. The client submits an HTTP request message to the server. For example. URIs and the Hypertext Markup Language (HTML). or performs other functions on behalf of the client. for example. or suitable for performing the data transmission requested. A response contains completion status information about the request and may contain any content requested by the client in its message body. Uniform Resource Locators (URLs)— using the http or https URI schemes. acts as a client. or generates such content on the fly. HTTP is an Application Layer protocol designed within the framework of the Internet Protocol Suite. The standards development of HTTP has been coordinated by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) and the World Wide Web Consortium. form a system of inter-linked resources. collaborative. The server. or provides resources. HTTP functions as a request-response protocol in the client-server computing model. In this case no notification is required to be sent to either end node. a web browser. HTTP proxy servers at network boundaries facilitate communication when clients without a globally routable address are located in private networks by relaying the requests and responses between clients and servers. on the Internet. In HTTP. IPv6. 83 . called hypertext documents. this dynamic nature and the diversity of the Internet and its components provide no guarantee that any particular path is actually capable of. In addition to issues of reliability. while an application running on a computer hosting a web site functions as a server. has abandoned the use of IP header checksums for the benefit of rapid forwarding through routing elements in the network. Some of this responsibility lies also in the upper layer protocols between application and IP. to ensure in-order delivery the upper layer may have to cache data until it can be passed to the application. even if the path is available and reliable. The IPv4 internetworking layer has the capability to automatically fragment the original datagram into smaller units for transmission. more specifically.

and a message of its own. an error message. 84 .1. REQUEST METHODS HTTP defines nine methods (sometimes referred to as "verbs") indicating the desired action to be performed on the identified resource. This may result in the creation of a new resource or the updates of existing resources or both. An HTTP client initiates a request. without having to transport the entire content. REQUEST MESSAGE The request message consists of the following: • • • • Request line. which requests a resource called /images/logo.png from server Headers.1 200 OK". The data is included in the body of the request. TRACE: Echoes back the received request. HEAD: Asks for the response identical to the one that would correspond to a GET request. The empty line must consist of only <CR><LF> and no other whitespace. such as Accept-Language: en An empty line An optional message body The request line and headers must all end with <CR><LF> (that is.png HTTP/1. from an HTML form) to the identified resource. It establishes a Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) connection to a particular port on a host (typically port 80). One reason for this is that GET may be used arbitrarily by robots or crawlers.. See safe methods below. such as GET /images/logo. or some other information. PUT: Uploads a representation of the specified resource. the body of which is perhaps the requested resource.g. GET: Requests a representation of the specified resource. so that a client can see what (if any) changes or additions have been made by intermediate servers. which should not need to consider the side effects that a request should cause. Note that GET should not be used for operations that cause side-effects. Upon receiving the request. such as using it for taking actions in web applications. such as "HTTP/1. A request line containing only the path name is accepted by servers to maintain compatibility with HTTP clients. This is useful for retrieving meta-information written in response headers. An HTTP server listening on that port waits for a client's request message. a carriage return followed by a line feed).HTTP SESSION An HTTP session is a sequence of network request-response transactions. but without the response body. POST: Submits data to be processed (e. DELETE: Deletes the specified resource. the server sends back a status line.

which means they are intended only for information retrieval and should not change the state of the server. PATCH: Is used to apply partial modifications to a resource. they should not have side effects. This can be used to check the functionality of a web server by requesting '*' instead of a specific resource. 85 . SAFE METHODS Some methods (for example. STATUS CODES The first line of the HTTP response is called the status line and includes a numeric status code (such as "404") and a textual reason phrase (such as "Not Found"). methods such as POST. HEAD. but in other cases this could be due to an accident. The way the user agent handles the response primarily depends on the code and secondarily on the response headers. or external side effects such as financial transactions or transmission of email.OPTIONS: Returns the HTTP methods that the server supports for specified URL. In contrast. By contrast. caching. the standard reason phrases are only recommendations and can be replaced with "local equivalents" at the web developer's discretion. In some cases this may be desirable. or they did not receive adequate feedback that their first request was successful. GET. OPTIONS and TRACE) are defined as safe. meaning that multiple identical requests should have the same effect as a single request. If the status code indicated a problem. Also. Making arbitrary GET requests without regard to the context of the application's state should therefore be considered safe. usually to facilitate SSL-encrypted communication (HTTPS) through an unencrypted HTTP proxy. the POST method is not necessarily idempotent. the user agent might display the reason phrase to the user to provide further information about the nature of the problem. CONNECT: Converts the request connection to a transparent TCP/IP tunnel. the serving of banner advertisements or incrementing a web counter. Such methods are therefore not usually used by conforming web robots or web crawlers. IDEMPOTENT METHODS Methods PUT and DELETE are defined to be idempotent. In other words. beyond relatively harmless effects such as logging. and therefore sending an identical POST request multiple times may further affect state or cause further side effects (such as financial transactions). PUT and DELETE are intended for actions which may cause side effects either on the server. such as when a user does not realize that their action will result in sending another request. though this might be unwise since the standard explicitly specifies that status codes are machine-readable and reason phrases are human-readable. The standard also allows the user agent to attempt to interpret the reason phrase. which tend to make requests without regard to context or consequences.

The old zone ceases to be authoritative for the new zone. People take advantage of this when they recite meaningful URLs and e-mail addresses without having to know how the machine will actually locate them. or any resource connected to the Internet or a private network. the domain name www. such as the list of mail servers that accept email for a given Internet domain. each label to the left specifies a subdivision. the Domain Name System also stores other types of information. technically called labels. A DNS zone consists of a collection of connected nodes authoritatively served by an authoritative nameserver. such as example. which hold information associated with the domain name. For example: the label example 86 . and in turn can assign other authoritative name servers for their sub-domains. Each node or leaf in the tree has zero or more resource records. usually in form of sub-domains. for example. Authority is said to be delegated for a portion of the old space. Internet domain names are easier to remember than IP addresses such as 208. DOMAIN NAME SYSTEM (DNS) It is a distributed hierarchical naming system for computers.example. that are conventionally concatenated.com belongs to the top-level domain com.com. and delimited by dots. DOMAIN NAME FORMULATION A domain name consists of one or more parts. Administrative responsibility over any zone may be divided. The tree sub-divides into zones beginning at the root zone. • • The right-most label conveys the top-level domain. The Domain Name System makes it possible to assign domain names to groups of Internet users in a meaningful way. Authoritative name servers are assigned to be responsible for their particular domains. THE DOMAIN NAME SPACE The domain name space consists of a tree of domain names. In general. services.166 (IPv4) or 2001:db8:1f70::999:de8:7648:6e8 (IPv6). it translates domain names meaningful to humans into the numerical (binary) identifiers associated with networking equipment for the purpose of locating and addressing these devices worldwide. It associates various information with domain names assigned to each of the participants. Because of this. Most importantly.77. independent of each user's physical location. The hierarchy of domains descends from right to left. thereby creating additional zones. This mechanism has made the DNS distributed and fault tolerant and has helped avoid the need for a single central register to be continually consulted and updated.188. An often-used analogy to explain the Domain Name System is that it serves as the "phone book" for the Internet by translating human-friendly computer hostnames into IP addresses. or subdomain of the domain to the right. The Domain Name System distributes the responsibility of assigning domain names and mapping those names to IP addresses by designating authoritative name servers for each domain. to another nameserver and administrative entity. World Wide Web (WWW) hyperlinks and Internet contact information can remain consistent and constant even if the current Internet routing arrangements change or the participant uses a mobile device.

87 . user-level client mail applications typically only use SMTP for sending messages to a mail server for relaying. mail submission agent) using SMTP on TCP port 587. the MSA delivers the mail to its MTA. Most mailbox providers still allow submission on traditional port 25. with each host configured to use the next appliance as a smart host. mail user agent) to a mail server (MSA. Each process is an MTA in its own right. and the hyphen.com. The full domain name may not exceed a total length of 253 characters. an SMTP server. and includes the characters a through z.com are also hostnames.  SIMPLE MAIL TRANFER PROTOCOL(SMTP) SMTP is an Internet standard for electronic mail (e-mail) transmission across Internet Protocol (IP) networks. This tree of subdivisions may consist of 127 levels. the domain names www. involved processes can share files. Often. the allowed formulation of domain names in the DNS root zone. digits 0 through 9.example. some domain registries may have shorter limits. Email is submitted by a mail client (MUA. The characters allowed in a label are a subset of the ASCII character set. in the former case. uses a preferred format and character set. SMTP is specified for outgoing mail transport and uses TCP port 25. in the latter case. SMTP is used to transfer the message internally. hyphen). or split among various appliances.com and example. DNS names may technically consist of any character representable in an octet. that is. Labels may not start or end with a hyphen. these two agents are just different instances of the same software launched with different options on the same machine. A hostname is a domain name that has at least one IP address associated. However. Domain names are interpreted in case-independent manner. and most other sub domains. Each label may contain up to 63 characters.While electronic mail servers and other mail transfer agents use SMTP to send and receive mail messages. This rule is known as the LDH rule (letters. and www is a sub domain of example. Local processing can be done either on a single machine. In practice. digits.• • • specifies a subdomain of the com domain. For example. whereas the com domain is not. From there. A through Z. MAIL PROCESSING MODEL Blue arrows can be implemented using SMTP variations.

and the second time after the end-of-data sequence. in this case the SMTP client should send a bounce message. the mail is stored for batch retrieval by authenticated mail clients (MUAs). or envelope sender. It uses the in the Domain name system (DNS) to look up the the mail exchanger record (MX record) for the recipient's domain. a. DATA is actually a group of commands. called email clients. it defines the mail envelope and its parameters. to acknowledge that it is ready to receive the text. It consists of a message header and a message body separated by an empty line. it hands it to a mail delivery agent (MDA) for local mail delivery. Once delivered to the local mail server. or receiver) so that the session is opened. or the Post Office Protocol (POP) which typically uses the traditional mailbox mail file format or a proprietary system such as Microsoft Outlook. sender. This is the address for bounce messages. 3. in which a mail sender communicates with a mail receiver by issuing command strings and supplying necessary data over a reliable ordered data stream channel. or forward them over a network using SMTP. An SMTP session consists of commands originated by an SMTP client (the initiating agent. and the server replies twice: once to the DATA command proper. typically a Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) connection.a. and session parameters are exchanged. Besides the intermediate reply for DATA. An MDA is able to save messages in the relevant mailbox format. to establish a recipient of this message. as opposed to its envelope. or transmitter) and corresponding responses from the SMTP server (the listening agent. This command can be issued multiple times.The boundary MTA has to locate the target host. mail reception can be done using many computers or just one —the picture displays two nearby boxes in either case. A reject is a permanent failure by an SMTP server. MAIL command. 2. Return-Path. They are: 1. An MDA may deliver messages directly to storage. not the message content.k. Negative replies can be permanent (5xx codes) or transient (4xx codes). An SMTP transaction consists of three command/reply sequences. Thus. FUNCTIONING SMTP is a text-based protocol. to establish the return address. SMTP defines message transport. one for each recipient.From. This is the content of the message. using Internet Message Access Protocol (IMAP). Once the MX target accepts the incoming message. RCPT command. a protocol that both facilitates access to mail and manages stored mail. each server's reply can be either positive (2xx reply codes) or negative. The returned MX record contains the name of the target host. to either accept or reject the entire message. such as the envelope sender. The MTA next looks up the A record for that name in order to get the IP address and connect to such host as an SMTP client. Mail is retrieved by end-user applications. Again. These addresses are also part of the envelope. A session may include zero or more SMTP transactions. but not the header or the body of the message itself. 88 . DATA to send the message text. A drop is a positive response followed by message discard rather than delivery.

so that it is not possible for their users to send mail via a relaying SMTP server outside the ISP's network using port 25.e. You can then enter commands through the Telnet program and they will be executed as if you were entering them directly on the server console. The specifications and many servers support both. Server administrators choose whether clients use TCP port 25 (SMTP) or port 587 (Submission). in order to relay mail. Some Internet service providers intercept port 25. The practical purpose of this is that a mobile user connecting to different ISPs otherwise has to change SMTP server settings on the mail client for each ISP. Fully-capable SMTP servers maintain queues of messages for retrying message transmissions that resulted in transient failures. This enables you to control the server and communicate with other servers on the network. An SMTP server acting as client.  TELNET TELNET is a general protocol. to determine whether it is eligible to relay e-mail. they are restricted to using the ISP's SMTP server. To start a Telnet session. End users connected to the Internet can use the services of an e-mail provider that is not necessarily the same as their connection provider (ISP). in the relevant session. Modern SMTP servers typically use a client's credentials (authentication) rather than a client's location (IP address). Some independent SMTP servers support an additional port other than 25 to allow users with authenticated access to connect to them even if port 25 is blocked. OUTGOING MAIL SMTP SERVER An e-mail client requires the name or the IP address of an SMTP server as part of its configuration.The initiating host. can be either an end-user's email client. that is an SMTP server acting as an SMTP client. A MUA knows the outgoing mail SMTP server from its configuration. using a relaying SMTP server allows the SMTP client settings to be used unchanged worldwide. This setting allows for various policies and network designs. i. 89 . the SMTP client. The Telnet program runs on your computer and connects your PC to a server on the network. relaying. The server will deliver messages on behalf of the user. meant to support logging in from almost any type of terminal to almost any type of computer. MUAs should use port 587 to connect to an MSA. for relaying outbound mail to a mail server. typically determines which SMTP server to connect to by looking up the MX (Mail Exchange) DNS resource record for each recipient's domain name. or a relay server's mail transfer agent (MTA). but valid users authenticating on port 587 are allowed to relay mail to any valid address. The main difference between an MTA and an MSA is that SMTP Authentication is mandatory for the latter only. An SMTP server acting as client initiates a TCP connection to the server on the "well-known port" designated for SMTP: port 25. you must log in to a server by entering a valid username and password. Telnet is a common way to remotely control Web servers. functionally identified as a mail user agent (MUA). Some servers are set up to reject all relaying on port 25. It terminal emulation program for TCP/IP networks such as the Internet.

SSH provides much of the functionality of telnet. or at large private and government research facilities. When a DHCP-configured client (a computer or any other network-aware device) 90 . DHCP also provides other configuration information. Hosts that do not use DHCP for address configuration may still use it to obtain other configuration information. switch. DHCP is useful because it makes it easy to add new machines to the network. Commonly used Telnet daemons have several vulnerabilities discovered over the years. the number of people attempting to crack other people's servers made encrypted alternatives much more of a necessity. In SSH. The main advantage of TLS-Telnet would be the ability to use certificate-authority signed server certificates to authenticate a server host to a client that does not yet have the server key stored. and so it is often practical to eavesdrop on the communications and use the password later for malicious purposes. first released in 1995. In addition to IP addresses. and public key authentication. does not encrypt any data sent over the connection (including passwords). hub or gateway located on the network between the two hosts where Telnet is being used can intercept the packets passing by and obtain login and password information (and whatever else is typed) . Computers that are connected to IP networks must be configured before they can communicate with other computers on the network. to ensure that the remote computer is actually who it claims to be. most users of networked computers were in the computer departments of academic institutions. The rise in the number of people with access to the Internet. by default. one for IPv4 and one for IPv6. This prevents two computers from accidentally being configured with the same IP address.SECURITY When Telnet was initially developed in 1969. anybody who has access to a router. eliminating the need for intervention by a network administrator. in favor of the Secure Shell (SSH) protocol. and by extension. These security-related shortcomings have seen the usage of the Telnet protocol drop rapidly. especially on the public Internet. there is a weakness in that the user must trust the first session to a host when it has not yet acquired the server key. security was not nearly as much of a concern as it became after the bandwidth explosion of the 1990s. Even in small networks. DHCP allows a computer to be configured automatically.  DYNAMIC HOST CONFIGURATION PROTOCOL(DHCP) The Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) is an autoconfiguration protocol used on IP networks. It also provides a central database for keeping track of computers that have been connected to the network. • • • Telnet. There are two versions of DHCP. Most implementations of Telnet have no authentication that would ensure communication is carried out between the two desired hosts and not intercepted in the middle. with the addition of strong encryption to prevent sensitive data such as passwords from being intercepted. In this environment. particularly the IP addresses of local caching DNS resolvers.

and so forth. and each client computer on the LAN is configured to request an IP address from the DHCP server during network initialization. and other IP configuration parameters. Address Reservation . Depending on implementation. Only requesting clients with a MAC address listed in this table will be allocated an IP address. On receiving a valid request. other servers such as time servers. so that it can preferentially assign to a client the same IP address that the client previously had. The DHCP server manages a pool of IP addresses and information about client configuration parameters such as default gateway. IP discovery and IP request messages are sent via UDP broadcasts. and IP lease acknowledgement. Static allocation: The DHCP server allocates an IP address based on a table with MAC address/IP address pairs.com. This feature (which is not supported by all DHCP servers) is variously called Static DHCP Assignment. This is like dynamic allocation.connects to a network. IP request. The query is typically initiated immediately after booting. This folder is where the message is kept until either you retrieve it or one of your ISP's administrators finds your account has been filled with spam and decides to delete all the mail 91 . and IP reservation or MAC/IP binding by various other router manufacturers. though. Automatic allocation: The DHCP server permanently assigns a free IP address to a requesting client from the range defined by the administrator.  POST OFFICE PROTOCOL(POP) If somebody sends you an email it usually cannot be delivered directly to your computer. allowing the DHCP server to reclaim (and then reallocate) IP addresses that are not renewed. Your ISP (Internet Service Provider) is online 24 hours on 7 days of the week and will do that job. It has to be stored in a place where you can pick it up easily. the server assigns the computer an IP address. the name servers. When the client and server are on different subnets. Let's suppose your email address is look@example. but the DHCP server keeps a table of past IP address assignments. It receives the message for you and keeps it until you download it. the DHCP client sends a broadcast query requesting necessary information from a DHCP server. such as the subnet mask and the default gateway. The request-and-grant process uses a lease concept with a controllable time period. the DHCP server may have three methods of allocating IPaddresses: • • • Dynamic allocation: A network administrator assigns a range of IP addresses to DHCP. DHCP operations fall into four basic phases: IP discovery. which are manually filled in (perhaps by a network administrator). fixed-address. a lease (length of time the allocation is valid). IP lease offer. The message has to be stored somewhere. DHCP reservation or Static DHCP. but IP lease offer and IP lease acknowledgement messages are sent via unicast. and must complete before the client can initiate IP-based communication with other hosts. they will communicate via UDP broadcasts. domain name.com that message will be filed to a folder reserved for your mail. Where a DHCP client and server are on the same subnet. As your ISP's mail server receives email from the internet it will look at each message and if it finds one addressed to look@example.

Peek at a few lines of a message to see whether it is worth retrieving. nobody will be able to send you any email before you haven't cleaned up. but it also means the Post Office Protocol provides only basic functionality. every machine (such as an intermediate router) that forwards an IP datagram has to decrement the time to live (TTL) field of the IP header by one. the second probably sounds the most dangerous. Now. with some notable exceptions being the ping tool and traceroute. Things that can be done via the POP include: • • • • Retrieve mail from an ISP and delete it on the server. the Post Office Protocol is what allows you to retrieve mail from your ISP. usually from a normal IP datagram that has generated an ICMP response. This is also about all the Post Office Protocol is good for. Remember. ICMPv6. Retrieve mail from an ISP but not delete it on the server. POP. that a requested service is not available or that a host or router could not be reached. For example. it will pile up there and eventually lead to a full mailbox. This makes it easy to implement. if the TTL reaches 0. When your mailbox is full. WHAT POP ALLOWS US TO DO Like it seems everything on the internet. ICMP messages are constructed at the IP layer. It is usually not used directly by user network applications. Deleting something is always frightening. Ask whether new mail has arrived but not retrieve it. The Post Office Protocol defines how your email client should talk to the POP server. It differs in purpose from transport protocols such as TCP and UDP in that it is typically not used to send and receive data between end systems. for instance. If you leave all your mail on the server.  INTERNET CONTROL MESSAGE PROTOCOL(ICMP) The Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) is one of the core protocols of the Internet Protocol Suite. ICMP messages are typically generated in response to errors in IP datagrams or for diagnostic or routing purposes. an ICMP Time to live exceeded in transit message is sent to the source of the datagram. ICMP relies on IP to perform its tasks. has earned the Post Office Protocol widespread adoption and makes it very robust. It is chiefly used by the operating systems of networked computers to send error messages—indicating. IP encapsulates the appropriate ICMP message with a new IP header (to get the ICMP message back to the original sending host) and transmits the resulting datagram in the usual manner. though. and it is an integral part of IP. that you retrieve your mail before you delete it and thus have a copy. Of these. ICMP for Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4) is also known as ICMPv4. IPv6 has a similar protocol. The POP is a very simple protocol. mail retrieval is a client-server application. 92 .in.

Each ICMP message is encapsulated directly within a single IP datagram, and thus, like UDP, ICMP is unreliable. Although ICMP messages are contained within standard IP datagrams, ICMP messages are usually processed as a special case, distinguished from normal IP processing, rather than processed as a normal sub-protocol of IP. In many cases, it is necessary to inspect the contents of the ICMP message and deliver the appropriate error message to the application that generated the original IP packet, the one that prompted the sending of the ICMP message.

Bi ts 0 32
• • •

0-7 Typ e

815 Cod e ID



Checksum Sequence

• •

Type - ICMP type as specified below. Code - further specification of the ICMP type; e.g. : an ICMP Destination Unreachable might have this field set to 1 through 15 each bearing different meaning. Checksum - This field contains error checking data calculated from the ICMP header+data, with value 0 for this field. The algorithm is the same as the header checksum for IPv4. ID - This field contains an ID value, should be returned in case of ECHO REPLY. Sequence - This field contains a sequence value, should be returned in case of ECHO REPLY.


The Internet Message Access Protocol (IMAP) is one of the two most prevalent Internet standard protocols for e-mail retrieval, the other being the Post Office Protocol (POP). The Internet Message Access Protocol (commonly known as IMAP, and previously called Internet Mail Access Protocol, Interactive Mail Access Protocol, and Interim Mail Access Protocol is an Application Layer Internet protocol that allows an e-mail client to access email on a remote mail server. Incoming e-mail messages are sent to an e-mail server that stores messages in the recipient's email box. The user retrieves the messages with an e-mail client that uses one of a number of e-mail retrieval protocols.

When using POP, clients typically connect to the e-mail server briefly, only as long as it takes to download new messages. When using IMAP4, clients often stay connected as long as the user interface is active and download message content on demand. For users with many or large messages, this IMAP4 usage pattern can result in faster response times.

The POP protocol requires the currently connected client to be the only client connected to the mailbox. In contrast, the IMAP protocol specifically allows simultaneous access by multiple clients and provides mechanisms for clients to detect changes made to the mailbox by other, concurrently connected, clients.

Usually all Internet e-mail is transmitted in MIME format, allowing messages to have a tree structure where the leaf nodes are any of a variety of single part content types and the nonleaf nodes are any of a variety of multipart types. The IMAP4 protocol allows clients to separately retrieve any of the individual MIME parts and also to retrieve portions of either individual parts or the entire message. These mechanisms allow clients to retrieve the text portion of a message without retrieving attached files or to stream content as it is being fetched.

Through the use of flags defined in the IMAP4 protocol, clients can keep track of message state; for example, whether or not the message has been read, replied to, or deleted. These flags are stored on the server, so different clients accessing the same mailbox at different times can detect state changes made by other clients.

IMAP4 clients can create, rename, and/or delete mailboxes (usually presented to the user as folders) on the server, and move messages between mailboxes. Multiple mailbox support also allows servers to provide access to shared and public folders.

IMAP4 provides a mechanism for a client to ask the server to search for messages meeting a variety of criteria. This mechanism avoids requiring clients to download every message in the mailbox in order to perform these searches.

While IMAP remedies many of the shortcomings of POP, this inherently introduces additional complexity. Unless the mail store and searching algorithms on the server are carefully implemented, a client can potentially consume large amounts of server resources when searching massive mailboxes.IMAP4 clients need to maintain a TCP/IP connection to the IMAP server in order to be notified of the arrival of new mail.. Unlike some proprietary protocols which combine sending and retrieval operations, sending a message and saving a copy in a server-side folder with a base-level IMAP client requires transmitting the message content twice, once to SMTP for delivery and a second time to IMAP to store in a sent mail folder.



In networking, the Point-to-Point Protocol, or PPP, is a data link protocol commonly used to establish a direct connection between two networking nodes. It can provide connection authentication, transmission encryption privacy, and compression. PPP is used over many types of physical networks including serial cable, phone line, trunk line, cellular telephone, specialized radio links, and fiber optic links such as SONET. Most Internet service providers (ISPs) use PPP for customer dial-up access to the Internet. The standard that defines PPP immediately starts describing protocols that comprise it, which is why it is considered a protocol suite. At the highest level, the functions of PPP can be broken down into several components. Each of these encompasses a general class of PPP functionality, and is represented by either one protocol in the suite or a set of protocols.

• PPP Encapsulation Method: The primary job of PPP is to take higher-layer messages such as IP datagrams and encapsulate them for transmission over the underlying physical layer link. To this end, PPP defines a special frame format for encapsulating data for transmission, based on the framing used in the HDLC protocol. The PPP frame has been specially designed to be small in size and contain only simple fields, to maximize bandwidth efficiency and speed in processing. Figure 13-1 Six Fields Make Up the PPP Frame

o o o



Flag—A single byte that indicates the beginning or end of a frame. The flag field consists of the binary sequence 01111110. Address—A single byte that contains the binary sequence 11111111, the standard broadcast address. PPP does not assign individual station addresses. Control—A single byte that contains the binary sequence 00000011, which calls for transmission of user data in an unsequenced frame. A connectionless link service similar to that of Logical Link Control (LLC) Type 1 is provided. (For more information about LLC types and frame types, refer to Chapter 16.) Protocol—Two bytes that identify the protocol encapsulated in the information field of the frame. The most up-to-date values of the protocol field are specified in the most recent Assigned Numbers Request For Comments (RFC). Data—Zero or more bytes that contain the datagram for the protocol specified in the protocol field. The end of the information field is found by locating the closing flag sequence and allowing 2 bytes for the FCS field. The default maximum length of the information field is 1,500 bytes. By prior agreement, consenting PPP implementations can use other values for the maximum information field length.

Other NCPs are defined for supporting the IPX protocol. consenting PPP implementations can use a 32-bit (4-byte) FCS for improved error detection. After the general link setup is completed with LCP. • • Link Control Protocol (LCP): The PPP Link Control Protocol (LCP) is responsible for setting up. and so forth. maintaining and terminating the link between devices. control is passed to the PPP Network Control Protocol (NCP) specific to the layer three protocol being carried on the PPP link. Some of these require additional setup before the link can be activated.o Frame check sequence (FCS)—Normally 16 bits (2 bytes). Network Control Protocols (NCPs): PPP supports the encapsulation of many different layer three datagram types. extensible protocol that allows many configuration parameters to be exchanged to ensure that both devices agree on how the link will be used. For example. It is a flexible. the NetBIOS Frames (NBF) protocol. when IP is carried over PPP the NCP used is the PPP Internet Protocol Control Protocol (IPCP). By prior agreement. 96 .

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