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SPWLA FIFTEENTH ANNUAL LOGGING SYMPOSIUM, JUNE 2-5, 1974

EXAMPLESOF DUAL SPACING THERMAL NEUTRON DECAY TIME LOGS


IN TEXAS COAST OIL Ui GAS RESERVOIRS

B.F.McG bee , J.A.McGuire , and H.L.Vacca

Schlumberger Well Services ,Houston ,fex~s

ABSTRACT INTBODUCTION

The Dual Spacing Thermal Neutron, Decay Time log provides measurements The Dual Spacing Thermal Neutron Decay Time loglprotides Sigma (E) and
useful for cased-hole formation evaluation. This paper preser,ts the Tau (T) measurements,* as did earlier TDT” tools.* With the addition of
fcllowing examples cf its application in Texas Ccast wells:

1. Location of gas-oil and oil-water contacts (Example I-A).

2. Selection of a zone fcr recompletion from a series of productive


sands (Example I-B).

3. Detection of gas accumulaticn in tubing-casing annulus and casing-


formation annulus (Examples II-A and II-B).

1. Detection of gas channeling behind casing (Example II-C).

5. Gas identification in shallow formations where formation water Is


fresh (Example III-A)

6. Gas identi fication in shaly sands (Example III-B).

7. Gas identification in low-resistivity sands (Example III-C).

6. Pesponses in gas sands versus those in low-porosity sands (Example


IV-A).

9. Matrix effect of carbonates (Example IV-B).

10. Fesponse !n gravity-drainage reservoirs (Example V-A).

11. hlonitoring of gas-oil contact in a pressure-maintenance proSect


(Example V-B 1.

12. Correlation measurements inside stuck drill pipe (Example V-C).

l?. Detection of gas-oil contacts in reservoirs where oil has migrated


ir.to the gas cap (Example VI-A).

1L. Detection of oil and gas which has migrated into a water sand
( Example VI-B ).

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SPWLA FIFTEENTH ANNUAL LOGGING SYMPOSIUM, JUNE 2-5, 1974

BACKGROUND NEUTRON CAPTURE CROSS SECTION


F3 CPS 2 - cOpture units (cuS1Oscm 7 cm3)
)
. ---- --,-_ 1(20
_____ 60 4J3 2Q Q
SPONTANEOUS RATIO SS7
--—- ~_* —--- .
POTENTIAL
NI cpe I

-1201 +

.——,

c 1

i
GAS -- #
-&- — ~ q-
0
0
0

——.

A .

8
0

FIG .1-A, TYPICAL DUAL SPACING TDT EXAMPLE TO ILLUSTRATE GAS-OIL &

OIL-WATER CONTACTS

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SPWLA FIFTEENTH ANNUAL LOGGING SYMPOSIUM, JUNE 2-5, 1974

EXAMPLE I-A LOCATION OF GAS-OIL & OIL-WATER CONTACTS


Fig. I-A is a text-book example of Dual Spacing TDT responses to gas, oil,
and water when logging conditions are ideal. The formation is a clean, thick
sandstone reservoir which has high porosity ad permeability. Formation-
water salinity is in excess of 100,000 ppm NaC1.

The three Dual Spacing TDT measurements which respond to fluid type and
saturation changes, when porosity, water salinity , ad lithology are-constant,
are Sigma, Ratio, and the IJ1-F1Display. 7jpical responses for various con-
ditions of fluid saturation are illustrated in Fig. I-A and listed in Table 1.

TABLE 1

I Porosity**

I
I Sigma
Value
from Ratio
and Sigma
I N1-F1 Display

ZONE A High, High, N1=F1


28 to 32 Cu. 28 to 32 P.U.
WATER No separation
between N1 and
F1

ZONE B Intermediate, High, Nl~ F1


OIL 18 to 26 C.U. 28 to 32 P.U. Small separa-
tion (less than
1 log division*)

ZONE C Low, Low, F1>>N1


10 to 20 p.u. Large separa-

L_cl
I
tion (1 to 3

1 log divisions)

Changes in lithology, shale content, porosity, and formation-water


salinity cause variations from the tabulated values. Examples will be
showm which illustrate how these variations in response are identified
on the Dual Spacing TDT log.

* On the basis of 10 log division per track


** porosity from Dual Spacing TDT logs is derived using Ratio and X in an
appropriatecross plot. I

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SPWLA FIFTEENTH ANNUAL LOGGING SYMPOSIUM, JUNE 2-5, 1974

DUAL SPACING TDT

E
BACKGROUND
FAR CQS E- capture units (cu * 103 cm*/cm’)
------ ------ 100 .

TRACEDSP
G

FIG. I-B. USING DUAL SPACING TDT TO CHOOSE A GAS OR OIL RECOMPLETION
FROM A SERIES OF PRODUCTIVE SANDS.

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SPWLA FIFTEENTH ANNUAL LOGGING SYMPOSIUM, JUNE 2-5, 1974

EXAMPLE I-B SELECTION OF AN OIL OR GAS RECOMPLETION

Selection of a zone for recompletion can be an expensive problem, es-


pecially in fields which have multiple pays. Many times sn operator who
has an unsuccessful production test is faced with snother decision.
“Should I squeeze and try again, or is this a representative test?”

The Dual Spacing TIYTis particularly valuable to an operator in this


situation, because, it provides a log of what is in the formation at the
time the cased-hole logs are run. Such a log run at the time of recomple-
tion can help the operator to greatly reduce the nuniberof unsuccessful
recompletion attempts. Additionally, current information from log data
obtained in one well can influence recompletion decisions in offset wells.

Theexample of Fig. I-B is a typical multiple-pay field in the Texas


Coast. The original completion was made in a zone below the section shown.
After producing the original completion to water, the operator was looking
for a gas recompletion.

The two zones marked “A” on the example are indicated to be gas by N1-F1
separation and low Sigma values. Log interpretation indicated the two zones
marked “B” on the example are oil. Zone “C” is water,

Zone A at 6332 to 6338 ft. was perforated and tested. The test results
were 805 Mcf/D gas, 4.7 BOPD with 58.20 API gravityj and no water. Gas/oi1
ratio was 172,000/1. This test confirmed the log analysis, and the operator
made a successful recompletion.

Another sand below the section of log shown in Fig. I-B was thought by
the operator to have 16 feet of pay in this section of the field. The Dual
Spacing TDT showed the sand to be depleted to water. This information in-
fluenced the operator’s planning on several wells.

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SPWLA FIFTEENTH ANNUAL LOGGING SYMPOSIUM, JUNE 2-5, 1974

BACKGROUND NEuTRON CAPTURE GRos ~:~:::?~


FAR CPS Z - copture units ( cu s I#
)-------------- 100 50 3f2 c

GAMMA RAY THERMAL NEUTRON DECAY 11ME


API Units Tp. sec
) la 30 2ap 48C

TUBINC

✜ ?
T
.. ??
. :.’!
: .“ ,.-.,
!.
!. ,.!
POCKET !.

:;
.. .
,,. .. .
J . . . .

FIG.11-A. DUAL SPACING TDT DETECTS GAS ACCUMULATION IN TUBING-CASING


AN NULU5 BENEATH A PRODUCTION PACKER,

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SPWLA FIFTEENTH ANNUAL LOGGING SYMPOSIUM, JUNE 2-5, 1974

BACKGROUND NEuTRON CAPTURE GRO ~ ~~~;;~?~


FAR CPS Z - capture units (CU = I8
)
,--------- FL .-.ma ;0 3p (

GAMMA RAY THERMAL NEUTRON DECAY TIM E


API Units T p sec
) 10(2 10 20g) 48(

;----:::------’%+=

0=33 ;<1

%tJ’loo

FIG.11-E. DUAL SPACING TDT IDENTIFIES GAS ACCUMULATION IN THE


CASING FORMATION ANNULUS,

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SPWLA FIFTEENTH ANNUAL LOGGING SYMPOSIUM, JUNE 2-5, 1974

EXAMPLE II-B DETECTION OF GAS ACCUMULATION


IN CASING-FORMATION IN ANNUL(JS “

As in Example II-A, the Nl, Fl, and Sigma readings are interpreted to
detect gas and to determine whether it is in the formation or in the bore-
hole.

Zone A on Example II-B displays a gas response on N1-F1. Ratio is


decreased. However, Sigma shows no indication of gas in the formation.
Since there is no packer or other obstruction in the casing to prevent
vertical migration of gas, the deduction is that the gas is in the
casing-formation annulus.

The operator elected to perforate Zone A for a test. The zone pro-
duced a blow of gas and a large volume of salt water. It was squeezed,
re-perforated, and tested again. This test produced 100 percent salt
water with no show of gas.

Interpretation of the zone using a Sigma-Porosity crossplot indicated


a water saturation of 100 percent.

The response of Dual Spacing TDT to gas in the casing-formation


annul.usis:

1. Large count-rate increase on F1.


2. Moderate count-rate increase on N1.
3. Wgas indication on Sigma.

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SPWLA FIFTEENTH ANNUAL LOGGING SYMPOSIUM, JUNE 2-5, 1974

BACKGROUND NEUTRON CAPTURE CROSS SECTION


VELL
F3 CPS capture units (cu = 16*cm2/cm3!
ETCt
F, cps
I 100 I 40 20 0 !7
.—. —- ——— —-. .—— ——— ——— -

---’’T’-----’-
GAMMA RAY N , cps
API UNITS MO
) 7

/
2“

7,’

.
n

1
.

m
z
<“
.;

: ...... :
A -

FIG, II-C. DUAL SPACING TDT DETECTS GAS CHANNELING BEHIND CASING
IN A PRODUCING WELL.

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SPWLA FIFTEENTH ANNUAL LOGGING SYMPOSIUM, JUNE 2-5, 1974

EXAMPLE II-C DETECTION OF GAS CHANNELING BEHIND

CASING IN A ‘PRODUCING WELL

The Dual Spacing TM’ log of Fig. II-C was run to determine the gas-oil
and oil-water contacts in the reservoir at 6,880 to 7,080 ft. At the time
of logging, this well was producing gas and oil with a high water cut
through a screen set in open hole below the 7-in. casing. A well sketch
is shown at the left edge of Fig. II-C.

The first logging run was made with the well shut in. A positive in-
dication of the gas-oil contact is shown at 6,958 ft. by the N1-l?loverlay.
A further indication of gas in the formation is a reduction in Sigma and
Ratio above 6,958 ft.

After the shut-in log had been recorded, the well was put back on
production. After the well was produced for two hours an overlap log
was run with the well still flowing.

Between shut-in and flowing logs there is virtually no change in


Sigma or N1. However, on the flowing log the F1 measurement shows a
marked increase in count rate in the interval from 6,900 ft. down to
the top of the screen. This count-rate increase is caused by gas in
the casing-formation annulus, indicating that, when the well is flowing,
gas is channeling from the upper sand member to the screen. As in the
two previous examples, the location of gas relative to the borehole csn
be determined by interpretation of the responses of Nl, Fl, and Si@a.

Typical responses for gas channeling in the casing-formation snnulus


are:

1. An increase in F1 count-rate on flowing log as compared with F1


count-rate on shut-in log.

2. No chenge in Sigma or N1 on flowing log as compared with shut-in


log.

3. A small decrease in Ratio may occur on flowing log,

It is also noted on the log of Fig. II-C that F3 shows a marked in-
crease on the flowing log. The cause of this F3 response is not fully
understood; it is believed to be a function of geomet~ and size of the
channel. As additional experience is gained, this F3 response should
become more meaningful.

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SPWLA FIFTEENTH ANNUAL LOGGING SYMPOSIUM, JUNE 2-5, 1974

#-
,?
NEUTRON CAPTIRE CROSS SECTION
C - copturo units (cu . 16scm*/cm*)
)------ ------ -- IQQ $5 3,0 I I Q
TR&ED SP RATIO isT FI- CJS
----- ——.
~loo~ :------ .-- —___ . ~ N, CP8 (

“.
,

2
‘t
: RATIO ‘~
,’ TRACED
\;” SIGMA
: --’- .*
‘, L,*
:
<
/<“
h 0$

?4213, -~
.
,
,:
!

:
‘.
1
i
‘s
#’
,’
\
}
,
i
:,
#
.‘,
‘..
:
,
,

t
;
$.
,’
)
:

1’
‘.

‘1
:

I
:
~
.
j
,
;
~.
);
:
1
,
:
:
‘.
.!
‘1

FIG.111-A. DUAL SPACING TOT IDENTIFIES GAS IN SHALLOW LOW SALINITY FORMATIONS,

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SPWLA FIFTEENTH ANNUAL LOGGING SYMPOSIUM, JUNE 2-5, 1974

EXAMPLE III-A IDENTIFICATION OF GAS IN SHALLOW,

LOW-SALINITY FORMATIONS

Detection of hydrocarbons in brackish or fresh-water formations has


always been a problem for log analysts. In these cases, the values
measured with most logging devices are not much different, whether the
formation is water-bearing or hydrocarbon-bearing, This same problem
exists for the Dual Spacing TDT, because the capture cross sections of
oil and low-salinity water are almost the same. However, the N1-F1
Display is still sensitive to gas in this case. Experience has shown
that N1-F1 will qualitatively identify gas in Texas Coast sands even
when the formation water is fresh.

When gas has been detected by the N1-F1 Display, an estimate of


water saturation is desirable. In gas reservoirs with pressures of
2,000 psi or less a good estimate of water saturation can be made by
comparing apparent porosity from Ratio in the gas interval [(@K)gas]
to that in a near-by clean water sand [(@K)water]. This is the
porosity-index-ratiomethod as described by Alger, et al.j This
method was used to calculate water saturation in Zones A and C of
Fig. III-A.

The upper portion of Zone A exhibits the capability of the N1-F1


Display to detect gas in low-salinity water. The large N1-F1 sep-
aration (F1>>N1) is the typical gas response. The decrease in Sigma
indicates gas in the formation. A comparison of Ratio porosity values
in the upper part of the zone to those in the lower part indicates a
water saturation of 13.5 percent. This interval has been confirmed to
be a gas producer by subsequent recompletion in three offset wells.

The upper section of Zone B, in Fig. III-A, shows an N1-F1 sep-


aration (F1>N1), indicating gas. However, there is no gas indication
on Sigma. As in Example II-B, this is deduced to be a gas accumulation
in the casing-formation annulus.

In the upper part of Zone C the N1-F1 Display again shows gas sep-
aration (F1>N1). A calculation of water saturation by the porosity-
index-ratio method yields ~= 78 percent. This interval was not tested
because of the high water cut predicted.

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SPWLA FIFTEENTH ANNUAL LOGGING SYMPOSIUM, JUNE 2-5, 1974
IEPTI
EPT}
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SPWLA FIFTEENTH ANNUAL LOGGING SYMPOSIUM, JUNE 2-5, 1974

EXAMPLE III-B GAS IDENTIFICATION IN SHALY SANDS

Sands of the Texas Coast Miocene and Oligocene Series are frequently shaly.
As with other logging devices the effect of shaliness on the readings of the
Dual Spacing TIYTis in proportion to the amount of shale present. The shale
responses of the various measurements can be summarized for Texas Coast for-
mations as follows:

Sigma--The higher Sigma values occur in shales. Sands have lower Sigma
values which depend on fluid type and salinity.

Ratio--Shales are indicated by the higher Ratio values. Sands are in-
— dicatedby lower values depending mainly on porosity.

N,-F1 Display--Shales generally show negative separation (i.e., N1>F1).


The large positive separation that would be shown in a clean gas
reservoir will be reduced by the effect of shaliness.

Gamma Ray Log--Shales generally show the higher Gamma Ray readings, and
sands the lower.

Fig. III-B is representative of Texas Coast shaly sands. Note that the
SP on the Electric Log (right) indicates a number of sands. The maximum
resistivity noted is 2 ohm-m in Zone D. The minimum resistivity is 1 ohm-m
in Zone C. The Gamma Ray log shown on the Dual Spacing TDT (left) exhibits
very little contrast between shales and sands,

In Zones A, C, and D, Sigma reads the same, as also does Ratio. However,
in Zone B Sigma measures three C.U. more than in the other zones. Calculated
values of water saturation, shown on the log, indicate Zone B to be water
filled. Calculations in Zones A, C, end D indicate potentially productive
shaly sands.

Interpretation of the Dual Spacing TDT predicted the following:

Zone A - 3 ft. of sand, bearing gas, or oil with a high gas-oil ratio
Zone B - Wet
Zone C - 9 ft. of sand, bearing gas, or oil with a high gas-oil ratio
Zone D - 15 ft. of sand, bearing gas

To determine producibility the operator took a wireline Cased-Hole


Formation Test in Zone A, at 8,071 ft. The result of that test was 14 cu.
ft. gas snd no water, with 950 psi flowing pressure and 950 psi shut-in
pressure.

Zone A was perforated from 8,070 to 8,074 ft. Initially this interval
produced 400 Mcf/D gas with no water. The production rate rapidly declined
to 50 Mcf/D, so the zone was abandoned. Subsequently, Zone Dwas perforated I
at 7,938-48 ft. Production from these perforations was 400 Mcf/D gas with
650 psi flowing tubing pressure. Production has continued at this rate
since April, 1973.

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SPWLA FIFTEENTH ANNUAL LOGGING SYMPOSIUM, JUNE 2-5, 1974

INDUCTION ELECTRIC U DUAL SPACING TDT


woNmaus-PoTENnm RESISTIVITY BAtX~FKp~ND
millivolts ohms -me/m
o la
Z-coptura
units (CI4. Ids cm?cm=)
. . . ..-. -----------
} AMP SN GAMW RAY
-!%+ ) SNORT NDRM. 2 API UNIIS
1:
30
)
INDUCTION
%===5=
%
t -.
.s

T
)F
SP RATlO-+;’
k-s
,:
\ 6657
)
i
A~ 6661 ~;~
;
i $
:
\ <
-;
. ~.
: ----
; - .-:,

:
,:

:,
2

>
;
) . 8725 ‘:<
< 1.15 MMcf/D
; d 8729

. -,
: ;>
1 .- .s
:
‘3
---- ---
#.-
:. ---
---.,
: -.
) I .~-
! -----
! .--,
: ●.,..’
I
PRODUCTIONTES
~
\
;
r
\ ,
e-:---”
,. ~,
-.:,

[ ‘:;=

FIG.111-c. DUAL SPACING TD1 lNDlcATES GAS IN LOW RESISTIVITY SANDS.

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SPWLA FIFTEENTH ANNUAL LOGGING SYMPOSIUM, JUNE 2-5, 1974

EXAMPLE III-C IDENTIFICATION OF GAS

IN LOW RESISTIVITY SANDS

Fig. III-C illustrates the Dual Spacing TDT’s ability to qualitatively in-
dicate gas in low-resistivi.tysands. Note the N1-F1 Display in Zones A, B,
and C. Each zone shows a separation indicating gas. Qualitatively, Zones A
and B have larger gas separations than Zone C.

The maximum Induction resistivity in Zones A, B, and C is 2.5 ohm-m at


8,654 ft. The minimum Induction resistivity is 0.6 ohm-m at 8,810 ft. This
is a resistivity contrast of 1.9 ohm-m, between a potentially productive gas
zone and a water zone. This low resistivity contrast results from the com-
bined effects of small grain size, high water salinity, and shaliness. Sands
with shaliness and small grain size normally have high irreducible water
saturations.

Some of these sands can produce water-free hydrocarbons even though the
values of water saturation calculated from the logs appear abnormally high.
The magnitude of gas separation on the N1-F1 Display serves to direct the
log analyst’s attention to potentially productive zones.

Calculated water-saturations for each of these zones are shown on Fig.


III-Co They indicate these zones to have hydrocarbon accumulation. The
operator tested these three zones.

Zone C, perforated from 8,791 to 8,795 ft. tested 75 B/D of gas-cut


salt water. The zone was abandoned.

Zone B, perforated from 8,725 to 8,729 ft. tested 1.15 MMcf/D gas,
no water.

Zone A, perforated from 8,657 to 8,661 ft. tested 1.4 MMcf/D gas,
no water.

Completion was made as a dual gas well in Zones A and B. These zones
had not been considered as candidates for recompletion prior to logging
with Dual Spacing TIYT,

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SPWLA FIFTEENTH ANNUAL LOGGING SYMPOSIUM, JUNE 2-5, 1974

DUAL SPACING TDT INDUCTION ELEC. MI CROLOG


NEUTRU4 CAPTURE CAOSSSECTION RESISTIVITY RESISTIVITY ohms m~/m
ohms m~/m

IWoRT M3RMAL )Mii~hr

<-
,.
I------------.
WCTION
-
) Mcro NlxmOl
------------- Y -__----___.--

E
,< SN
%...->

,>-
~_____

-,=
.,
.-
,-. ..

:>
‘.,
INDUCTION

Um Pa?OsllY f .J “.. .

:t
‘ “e.- .P
: L—.._——
.3
>.
----
.. ---3 ‘:
:
,’
K

F.-:.,
,.>
-----
.
.?
..
)
,--4
L
. . .-.=
%

{
:: ‘
i,
,1..

,.. ,

s“
$.,
. . . .<
,..
---- . . . . . .. .
*- . . . . . t.
z=--
-==-
. . .--.:.. ..._.
-.
---- .-. .
5
.-

,2
*

FIG. IV-A. DLJAL SPACING TDT EXHIBITS DIFFERENT RESPONSE FOR GAS SANDS
vERSUS LOW FOROSITY SANDS.

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SPWLA FIFTEENTH ANNUAL LOGGING SYMPOSIUM, JUNE 2-5, 1974

EXAMPLE W-A DIFFERENTIATION OF GAS SANDS

FROM LOW-POROSITY SANDS


For many years conventional Neutron logs have been used for gas detection
in cased holes. One accepted gas-detection technique uses Neutron-log data
and Neutron departure curves to establish a porosity index, which approx-
imates the formation porosity. When a formation being evaluated has a very
low porosity index the zone can be interpreted as gas productive. There is
a serious limitation to this technique. A low porosity-index is also found
for zones of truly low porosity. Conventional Neutron-log interpretation
techniques cannot differentiate between low-porosity sands and gas-productive
sands.

The Ratio end Sigma measurements recorded with Dual Spacing TDT are used
in an appropriate crossplot to determine a Ratio porosity. This Ratio
porosity is similar to the porosity index of a conventional Neutron log;
because, each is a measure of the formation Hydrogen Index. Therefore,
Ratio porosity has the same limitation as conventional Neutron porosity
index. However, with Dual Spacing TDT this limitation is overcome by using
N1-F1 Display to differentiate low-porosity sands from gas sands. In gas
sands N1-F1 displays a typical gas signature. In low-porosity water sands
N1 and FI count rates are both reduced. Fig, IV-A illustrates this res-
ponse. Zone A has a gas signature consisting of low Sigma, low Ratio, and
positive separation on N1-F1 display. The M?crolog* indicates this zone
to have good porosity.

In Zone B, Sigma and Ratio decrease to approximately the same values as


in Zone A. But here both N1 and F1 count rates are reduced. The Microlog
indicates this zone has low porosity,

Note that the Microlog also indicates low porosity in several other
zones which have a low-porosity signature on the Dual Spacing TDT.

The typical responses for low porosity sands are:

10 Low Sigma value


2. Low Ratio value
3. Both N1 and F1 count rates are reduced.

* Trademark of Schlumberger.

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SPWLA FIFTEENTH ANNUAL LOGGING SYMPOSIUM, JUNE 2-5, 1974

EACKGROWD
F,
WA
.— ___ -. Kx in
w
) NORMAL IO ~
MICROLOG

=!
GAw#A:N~Y ) I LATERAL 5 5“ I

,.,
RATIO

Qi’--------- L _JNJ2gcIW----

[
,-----------
Cco NI ). - —________ NORMAL ----
______
I 4

3 \ !
‘.,.
....
,.

$--
....~
.------ ”-
,>
*
RATIO j
.
u L


.- .

--
.--—
‘:: /’ SIZE ;
..-
,
B \
,
~
) ..

----=
..=---
‘%-

.----
.:.

w
,,-

,.‘“>
t.
>
% ...
.,
,’

ii :
‘.:
-, .. -“
{->
<,
.___ —————
I >
.
A ‘::3 .-* 1

.. a
‘:., *.>
,,‘.

L-
:
‘. ,’
,,

>

g
8
FIG. IV-B. THE MATRIX EFFECT OF CARBONATES ON DUAL SPACING TDT RESPONSE.

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SPWLA FIFTEENTH ANNUAL LOGGING SYMPOSIUM, JUNE 2-5, 1974

EXAMPLE IV-B MATRIX EFFECTS OF CARBONATES

ON THE DUAL SPACING TDT

Relatively thin carbonate streaks frequently occur in the Miocene and


Oligocene series of the Texas Coast. They are commonly referred to as either
“lime” or “limy”. They seldom contain producible hydrocarbons.

These “limy” streaks cause a response on Dual Spacing TDT similar to that
of a gas sand, To differentiate lime sections from gas sands the log analyst
must refer to a Gamma Ray-SP comparison, the porosity from an open-hole
logging device, or a core description,

Zone A of Fig. IV-B is a carbonate section, The electric log and Micro-
log exhibit the typically high resistivities measured in carbonates. The
Gamma Ray in Zone A has the low radiation levels normally seen in carbonates.
A comparison of the Gamma Ray in Zone A with that in the high-porosity sand
of Zone B shows the differing radiation levels, normally seen between sands
and carbonates,in Texas Coast.

Carbonate streaks sometimes occur within or just above massive water


sands. They can be easily identified by a Gamma Ray-SP comparison. At the
carbonate stresl the SP will deflect toward the shale baseline, and the
Gamma Ray will deflect to decreased radiation. (Point C on Fig.IV-B.)
Carbonate streals which occur at the top of a massive sand exhibit the same
response. (See Point D. )

Most logs in South Texas wells include an SP curve. Comparison of the


SP with the Gamma Ray recorded on Dual Spacing TDT will allow the log
analyst to differentiate carbonate streaks from gas sands.

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SPWLA FIFTEENTH ANNUAL LOGGING SYMPOSIUM, JUNE 2-5, 1974

INDUCTION ELECTRIC MICROLOG


BACKGROUND NEuTRCN CAPTURE CROsS SECTICW RESISTIWTY CONDUCTIVITY
Z -capture udts [cu. IU3 cm’/ cmS) ohms me/m mnhm / m
F~
.) -- —------- la
. ~
~ y-4=l$lY NDWTON
lNOICrlCN
) K -_ —_______J
— . —________ K
+

)3 m 8 ;
--- ‘--- --
= ‘------
=... __
CONDWTIVITY
TRACED
s?
‘)-’‘,
,!
18” NORMAL
b~R& ~ ..

?!!?

<

__-__-_--—

k PRmuTm

Mu
TW
WIw
CN VAWUM.
*ANDONEO

FIG. V-A. DUAL SPACING TDT RESPONSE IN GRAVITY DRAINAGE RESERVOIRS


>

-22-
SPWLA FIFTEENTH ANNUAL LOGGING SYMPOSIUM, JUNE 2-5, 1974

EXAMPLE V-A GRAVITY DRAINAGE RESERVOIRS

Some Texas Coast reservoirs produce by gravity drainage. The operator


uses artificial-lift techniques to lower the hydrostatic pressure at the
perforations. This reduced pressure allows oil to flow into the casing.
Since the perforations in each well are positioned low in the sand, the
produced oil drains from upstructure.

Gravity drainage is used in depletion-drive reservoirs. Reservoir


pressures are low and decrease as oil is produced. As the oil drains
down-structure, it is replaced by gas. For these reasons a depleted
gravity-drainage reservoir contains low-pressure gas.

This low-pressure gas causes a unique response on the Dual Spacing


TDT, as illustratedby Zone A of Fig. V-A. The Sigma and Ratio values
are very low. The N1-F1 Display shows excessively large separation.

The operator tested the interval 4,411 to 4,421 ft. When this inter-
val was perforated the well “went on vacuum”. The operator estimated the
formation pressure to be 200 psi. Zone A was abandoned.

The Dual Spacing TDT shows the bottom 35 ft. of Zone B to be oil, with
the gas/oil contact at 4,236 ft. The operator perforated from 4,264 to
4,270 ft.

This interval has been pumping 22 BOPD with no water and no measurable
gas since October, 1972.

-23-
BACKGROUND NEUTRON CAPTURE CROSS SECTION INDUCTION ELECTRICLOG MI CROLOG
r
>
FAR cps X- apture units (c.=ltiacm ‘\cm’ ) ohm - m*/m duns - ins/m n

n
).—— - ____ ____ Iooc- w +0 ~ -1
Q
m
I 16” NORMAL I ) MICRO INVERSE 1‘Xl “
!!
SPONTANEOUS POTENTIAL RAT10 F, C.P5 -1
i.— P —--- -——- —.— 1 AMPLIFIED 16” NORMAL :
-——— MICRO
I NORMAL
—____ 2“____
_ ___ ___ ___
N1
DQ2 L ___l~Ojq_____]

,# r

‘1
,
.

N
I&
H- ,
:
,.
,
:
:

:
I
L
c
z

,.’ ‘1
b

;
;
I

{
-------- ---
;
,
;
!
,
;
.,’ <
,“
,
,,;
:
.’
, .-:
I
..-:

,
‘t +-
:
{ -5
‘1
..
*.
:

FIG.V-B. THE USE OF DUAL SPACING TDT TO MONITOR GAS-OIL CONTACT


IN A PRESSURE MAINTENANCE PROJECT.
SPWLA FIFTEENTH ANNUAL LOGGING SYMPOSIUM, JUNE 2-5, 1974

EXAMPLE V-B MONITORING GAS-OIL CONTACT IN A


PRESSURE MAINTENANCE PROJECT
In Fig. V-B the ability of Dual Spacing TDT to identify fluids by type is
used to monitor changes which occur during depletion of a reservoir. The
Induction-ElectricalLog and Microlog on this well are also shown. This well
is part of a 300-acre sandstone reservoir which has a gas cap and water drive.
The original gas-oil contact in this reservoir was at 6,625 ft., six feet
above the top of the sand in Fig. V-B.

After ten years of oil production the reservoir pressure had declined about
800 psi. About the same time, the gas-oil ratio of structurally higher wells
began to increase. From this the operator deduced that the reservoir had only
a limited water-drive which was not enough to keep up with the oil-production
rate, and, as a result, the gas cap was expanding. This prompted the operator
to initiate water injection into structurally low wells for pressure main-
tenance.

After six years of water injection, the pressure decline had stopped and a
50-psi increase in reservoir pressure was achieved. At this time the operator
ran a Dual Spacing TDT to determine the gas-oil contact,

The Dual Spacing TIM’in Fig. V-B shows the gas-oil contact at 6,646 ft.
Subsequent Dual Spacing TDT logs will be run on the well to monitor stabiliz-
ation of the contact and also to detect the oil-water contact as it moves
into this area of the reservoir. Greatly improved oil recovery should be
assured by such an injection and monitoring process.

-25-
SPWLA FIFTEENTH ANNUAL LOGGING SYMPOSIUM, JUNE 2-5, 1974

INDUCTION ELECTRIC LOG


RESISTMTY 4
I

m )
------ Induction
----- ---- q

‘p\
ii
OFFSET
% w

.-J

l-----k
l————%T—

&==--l
=i-

FIG, v-C, THE USE OF DUAL SPACING TDT INSIDE STUCK DRILL PIPE AS A CORRELATION LOG

-26-
SPWLA FIFTEENTH ANNUAL LOGGING SYMPOSIUM, JUNE 2-5, 1974

EXAMPLE V-C THE USE OF THE DUAL SPACING TDT

INSIDE STUCK DRILL PIPE AS A CORRELATION LOG

It is usual to consider the prime application of Dual Spacing TDT to be


in older production wells. However, situations sometimes arise in new wells
where it is difficult to run conventional open-hole logs. One case is that
of stuck drill pipe, where a correlation log is needed to determine the
structural position of the well with respect to the offset wells. The Dual
Spacing TDT fills such needs by recording a log of formation Sigma end Tau
which can be correlated with SP and resistivity.

Fig. V-C shows a section of a Dual Spacing TDT log which was run through
drill pipe and the Induction Electric log in an offset well. The mud in
this well was heavily gas-cut, and the well was trying to blow out.

For clarity of presentation, not all of the curves normally recorded are
shown in Fig. V-C, just those useful to illustrate the correlation. The
SP end Tau curves have been shaded in several areas to indicate correlative
zones. Through this correlation the operator was able to determine the
relative structural position of the well.

-27-
SPWLA FIFTEENTH ANNUAL LOGGING SYMPOSIUM, JUNE 2-5, 1974

DUAL SPACING TDT


BACKGROUND NEUTRON CAPTURE CROSS SECTION
Z - co~turc units (cu. 63 cmf / ems)
F3 ,a
)
------ ______ $5 30 15 o“
gm~lTyY RATIO a ------ FI -----
I Ic ----- ----- ----
NI

-9
%

)(
AS-OIL CONTMT ‘? I
..— — 74
E 6-72
i
,,-

<,
c
,7
.0
,. >
5“>

{
n
PRODUCTION
433 BOPD
204 BWPD
1799 GoR
\
e.
-.

. ..-”.

FIG. VI -A, DETECTION OF GAS-OIL CONTACTS IN RESERVOIRS WHERE OIL HAS MIGRATED
INTO THE GAS CAP.

-28-
SPWLA FIFTEENTH ANNUAL LOGGING SYMPOSIUM, JUNE 2-5, 1974

EXAMPLE VI-A DETECTION OF GAS-OIL CONTACTS

IN RESERVOIRS WHERE OIL HAS MIGRATED


INTO THE GAS-CAP
In several of the older producing reservoirs of the Texas Coast there is
substantial evidence to indicate that the gas caps are shrinking. When this
occurs in a reservoir which has an active water drive, oil will migrate up-
dip into the gas cap. This migraticn can result in a sizeable reduction in
the amount of recoverable oil.

In an ideal system, pressure maintenance could be initiated to control


oil migration. However, very few of the older fields are unitized or
managed to the extent that problems of this nature can be handled to the
satisfaction of all parties. Detection of such oil migration and production
at an optimum rate is the usual compromise solution.

Fig. VI-A shows a Dual Spacing TDT which was run through several reser-
voirs where gas-cap shrinkage and updip oil migration are known to exist.
Zones A, B, C, and Dwere known to be gas-filled as late as 1971.

Prior to a routine workover, a Dual Spacing TDT was run to evaluate


reserves in Zone E and to define the gas-oil contact.

The gas-oil contact is clearly shown at 4,926 ft. by NI-F1 Display.


Note that Sigma changes less than 2 C.U. across the gas-oil contact. This
atypical Sigma response has been noted several times in reservoirs where
oil is migrating into the gas cap. Positive identification of the gas-oil
contact would not be possible without N1-F1 Display.

The operator perforated Zones D and E at the intervals indicated in


Fig. VI-A. The well produced 433 BOPD and 204 BWPD, with a gas-oil ratio
of 1,799:1. Subsequent completions in offset wells have been made in the
lower portion of Zone C, They have all produced oil at an acceptable
gas-oil ratio.

-29-
AM? SHORT NORMAL 0
BACK6RCUND m NEUTRON CAPTURE CROSS SECTION
SPONTANEOUS POTENTIAL 4 F5 Cps T E-cooture units (cu=lfJ3cmZ/cm3) -n
+ —
millivolts z
16’’NORMAL ~~ -------------- Icm 60 30 0 -n
•1
0+ RATIO m
64’’NORMAL G~WA RAY m
+ v- .—— ———------- API Umts la) —--— ———————
z
-1
) I

\
GAMMA RAY >
.._- z
+ ~_—— RATIO z
SP c
J
9
;. r
‘. . r
----:.

1 ,,
-.
> , .*
1 v! :
$? 1 2 .. ..
8 0 --,
:

>

?<
.--- ..>
.— / —-

A I A ‘i-;:;”
-----
c
z
m

I .-.
1

!!!

t
I I <“--~
-;-- I /

FIG. VI-B. DUAL SPACING TDT FINDS GAS 8 OIL WHlc H HAS MIGRATEo
INTO A WATER SAND
SPWLA FIFTEENTH ANNUAL LOGGING SYMPOSIUM, JUNE 2-5, 1974

EXAMPLE VI-B DETECTION OF GAS AND OIL

WHICH HAS MIGRATED INTO A WATER SAND

Some of the more common ways that formation fluids can migrate from one
reservoir to another are:

1. Fluid channeling in the casing-formation snnulus from high-pressure


zones to low-pressure zones.

2. Gas charging of shallow formations as a result of an open-hole blow-


out.

3. Casing leaks which allow fluid flow into low-pressure zones.

4. Communication of two or more reservoirs across a fault plane.

The Dual Spacing TDT has located and identified fluids in formations
where they were neither known nor suspected to be present.

The Induction Log, of Fig. VI-B, was run in 1955. It shows Zone A to
be a water sand. The Dual Spacing TDT, run in 1972, shows that gas and
oil have migrated into Zone A and that it now has a gas-oil contact at
5,751 ft.

To verify this information, the interval, 5,751 to 5,755 ft., was


perforated and tested. The results of this test were:

8 hrs. 16 hrs. 24 hrs. 32 hrs. 40 hrs.


Tubing Pressure (psi) 1,100 mm- W
Choke Size (in.) 10/64 10/64 12/64 12/64 12/64
Oil (B/D) 73 54 94 71 72
Water (B/D) o 0 0 0 0
GOR 4,974:1 8,309:1 9,230:1 12,707:1 12,983:1

The increase in the gas/oil ratio during this test indicates that gas was
probably coning into the perforations, Even though the oil zone in this
well was too thin to produce, knowledge of this migration was useful in other
parts of the field.

-31-
SPWLA FIFTEENTH ANNUAL LOGGING SYMPOSIUM, JUNE 2-5, 1974

CONCLUSION

This paper presents some of the experience gained during two years of
field operation with the Dual Spacing TDT. The addition of a second
detector to the Thermal Neutron Decay Time tool has greatly improved its
usefulness and versatility.

Examples have been presented which illustrate the responses of the


various measurements made by this tool to gas) oil) and water. It was
shown how gas could be identified inside the casing and in the annulus.
Responses to matrix changes were discussed. Responses in the special
applications of gravity-drainage reservoirs, monitor wells, stuck drill
pipe, and oil and gas migration were shown. These are but a few examples
from the many wells logged.

The major use of Dual Spacing TDT in the Texas Coast has been to find
oil. In this paper most of the discussion has been directed to gas
identification. The implication is that in most cases identification of
the gas zones facilitates the production of oil.

ACKNOWLEDGMEhJT

The authors wish to thank the several oil companies who graciously
contributed the examples and production data for this paper. A publication
of this type would be impossible without the cooperation of oil company
personnel.

REFERENCES

1. Dewan, J.T., Johnstone, C.W., Jacobson, L.A., Wall, W.B., and


Alger, R.P.: “Thermal Neutron Decay Time Logging Using Dual
Detection”, Trans. SPWLA 14th. Annual Logging Symposium
(May 6-9, 19~~

2* Wahl, J.S., Nelligan, W,B., Frentrop, A.H., Johnstone, C.W. and


Schwartz, R.J.: “The Thermal Neutron Decay Time Log”, Soc.Pet.
Eng. J. (December, 1970).

3* Clavier, C., Hoyle, W.R., and Meu.nier,D.: “Quantitative


Interpretation of Thermal Neutron Decay Time Logs”, J.Pet.Tech.
(June 1971).

-32-