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Electrolyte Analyzer

MEASURING PRINCIPLES
1. ISE THEORY

The analyzer utilizes Ion Selective Electrode (ISE) technology. Ion Selective
Electrode is a type of electrochemical sensor. It converts the ion activity to the
electric potential of the electrode. The relation conforms to the NERNST equation,
that the Logarithm of the ion activity has a linear relation with the electrode potential.
In addition, different electrode is sensitive to different ions, for example, sodium
electrode is only sensitive to Na ions, and potassium electrode is only sensitive to K
ions. If potassium electrode, sodium electrode, and chloride electrode are being
combined together, then K ions, Na ions, and Chloride ions in the sample can be
measured at the same time.

The key part of the electrode is the sensitive membrane. ON one side, it is in
contact with the sample, responds to the change of the concentration of certain ions
in the sample. On the other side, it is in contact with the internal filling solution, and
converts the ionic conduction to the electronic conduction through a silver thread i.e.
internal electrode. In addition, there is a reference electrode providing thread i.e
internal electrode. In addition there ia reference electrode providing reference
potential and forming a complete measuring circuit. Inside the reference electrode
there is also an internal electrode. Its potential remains constant when the
concentration of the solution changes, so it provides a reference point to measure
the potential differences.

2. MEASURING PRINCIPLE

The Instrument measures the electrode potentials, and the data is processed by the
microprocessor to obtain the concentration of a given ion. The measure method is
called “ standard comparison ” It uses two kind of standard solutions, one for the
calibration of the base point, and the other for the calibration of the slope. The result
is obtained from the potentials of the sample and two standard solutions.
Following are the equations:

C x =C A * EXP [(E X-E A) / S] (1)

S = EB – E A
Log ( CB / Ca ) (2)

Note :

CX, EX: the concentration and potential of the sample


CA,EA: the concentration and potential standard A
CB, EB: the concentration and potential standard B
S: the slope of electrode
In order to improve the precision, the contents of the standard solution should be
similar with the blood samples as much as possible..

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3. MANOMETRIC ME;THOD (FOR HCO3 )

Add certain quantity of blood serum and regent (Lactic acid) into the sealed reaction
chamber, the HCO3 ions in the serum will participate into the reaction and release
CO2 as a result; the gas pressure inside the reaction chamber will be increased
accordingly. The pressure sensor detects the changes and sends the signals to the
microprocessor to determine the amount of HCO3 ion of serum and then the amount
could be displayed and printed. The instrument uses AB (Actual bicarbonate) stand
for HCO3 ion.
1.1 System introduction

1.1.1 Front panel

1. Reagent ( Std A, Std B and waste container, and Std R)

2. Liquid Distribution Assembly


3. Pressure sensor and tube

4. Mixing chamber assembly

Aspiration pump assembly (Pump head, Pump Tube, Pump Tube


Bracket, Pump Tube Connector

5. Lactic acid Pump assembly ((Pump head, Pump Tube,


Pump Tube Bracket, Pump Tube Connector)

6. liquid outlet valve and waste tube

7. Air outlet valve and tubing

8. Sample probe assembly (Including Auto lifting


mechanism)

9. wash block

10. Localizer

11. Amplifier board

12. Electrode assembly

13. Touch screen

14. Printer
1.1.2 Rear panel

1. Power switch

2. Power socket (including fuse holder)

3. RS-232 serial port

4. Grounding pole

5. Machine label

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1.2 Environment requirements

1. The instrument should be installed on a stable and solid platform that is free of mechanical vibration

and away from vibration source.

2. The environment should be as free as possible from dust, corrosive gas, loud noises and electrical

interference.

3. Avoid placing the instrument in direct sunlight or in front of a source of heat or vent.

4. Ambient temperature: 10~35℃, relative humidity:20%-85%.


5. The power supply should be AC220/110V±10%, 50/60 Hz

6. Power supply and grounding should be connected correctly.

7. No strong electric field and magnetic field interference.

1.3 External Connections

1. Power cable: should be connected to the power socket firmly and reliably without loose or poor
connection.

2. Grounding: the grounding pole should be connected to ground properly. The grounding wire should
be as short as possible and the grounding resistance must be less than 10Ω

3. If the power supply to the instrument is not stable, or there are high-power equipments on the same

line, then a power stabilizer (output ≥100W) is strongly suggested.

4. Avoid operating the instrument under high humidity environment for long time, otherwise the

instrument performance may be affected. Use desiccant or air conditioner in case of necessary. Do

not place the instrument near a water pool.

1.4 Internal Connections

Press the front door to open it. The tubing and electrodes have been installed at the factory, the

operator still need to check them before using.

1. Pump tube installation: put the aspirating pump tube and the lactic pump tube on the pump head

according the illustration figure of front panel, fix the tube connectors to the bracket, adjust the tube

to the middle of the pump head.

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2. Check the electrode assembly: take out the electrode assembly from the accessory kit. Check if the

setting screws are tightened, inlet and outlet port are clean, the filling solution of each electrode is

sufficient. If there are bubbles on the electrode probe, tap the electrode slightly to let the bubbles

disappear.

3. Installation of the electrode assembly: insert the whole assembly to the mounting base, connect the
lead wire of each electrode (K、Na、Ca、PH、CL、Ref) to the plug of amplifier board correctly.
Connect the tube to the inlet and outlet port of the assembly.

4. Check the liquid positioner: replug the positioner and make sure it is well connected.

5. Check the tubing: make sure all the tubings are connected tightly and there is no leaking.
6. Connect to the reagent pack: connect the Std A tube to port A of the reagent pack. Connect the Std B

tube to port B. Connect Std R tube to port R Connect the waste tube to port W.

7. Installation of printing paper: open the printer cover, insert the printing paper into the guide slot (the

thermal side face down), feed the paper out from the slot on the printer cover.

Note:

z Make sure all tubings are connected firmly and there is no leakage.

z Make sure the positioner is connected firmly.

z Make sure all the lead wires of the electrodes are connected firmly.

z Make sure there is no bubble on the electrode probes.

z The printing paper is using out when you see two red lines on it. Change the printing paper

in time.

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Power-on check
2.1 Self-test and adjustment

When switch on the power to the instrument, system self-test will be performed automatically. The

installation personnel or operator may be required to do some adjustments to ensure the instrument under

good conditions.

Operation Function properly Possible problems


Switch on the power, the - External power supply, power - External power supply, power
LCD light on. switch, internal power supply switch connections or fuse is
works properly not good

- LCD and cables works properly - Internal power supply doesn’t


work properly
Detect the positioner, - The positioner works properly - The positioner loose.
printer and auto sampler - The printer works properly - The printer cables or internal
(if have)
- Auto sampler works properly power supply is not good
- The system will not give
alarm or stop even if errors
found on the positioner or
printer. The operator should
turn off the instrument
manually and solve the
problems.
Feed paper and print-out - The power supply and paper - Internal power supply is not
the system version feeding of the printer is good good
- Data transmission of the printer is - The printing paper is not
good installed correctly.
- The printer cables are loose
or not good.
Sample probe moves up - The lifting motor, limit switch and - The lifting mechanism is not
until it touches the cables work properly. good
position limit switch, Check if the sample probe is - Adjust or replace the sample
then moves down to the bended or out of position during probe if necessary
wash block the movement.

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Calibrating … - The liquid distribution valve and - The system gives alarm and
optical coupler, lifting stops if errors found on
mechanism, switches and liquid distribution valve,
software work properly lifting mechanism or
switches

The instrument aspirates - Pump motor works properly - Pump motor is malfunction
Std B and Std A in turn - The tubing system is good if Std - The liquid can not reach
for test and display the B and Std A can be aspirated into correct position, showing the
voltages the distribution valve correctly tubing system is leaking
- Details of voltage display and - The inlet tubes for Std A and
print please refer to the operation B are connected to the
manual wrong ports
- The operator can turn off the - Std A or B can not be
function of voltage display or aspirated
print by extended program
Screen display after - All electrodes, Std A, Std B, - If slope is not stable, then it
calibration: tubing connections, pump, valve, shows “shift”
Slope signal detection and data - If slope is abnormal, then it
K: 54.5 OK
Na: 52.3 OK processing work normally shows “X”
Cl: 51.6 OK - Refer to trouble-shooting for
Ca: 25.5 OK
the reason of unstable or
pH: 55.6 OK
abnormal slope.
The system enters into Main Menu
main menu after self-test Sample Cal. W. List
STD Service Results

If there is no operation - the internal clock works normally - The internal clock is
for more than 2 minutes, malfunction if the system
the system will enters can not enter into standby
into standby mode to mode
maintain the electrodes.
Note:

z Try the other side of the printing paper or change the whole paper roll if there is no printing

on the paper. Adjust the position of the paper if it is misalignment.

z If the sample probe is found distortion, misaligned or bended, the operator should adjust or

change the probe and make sure it can move into the wash block correctly.

z If the aspiration is abnormal, the operator should check the tubing connections, reagent

connections and electrode connections and make sure there is no blockage or leakage.

z Activate the electrode for 10-30 minutes before using if the electrode has been stored or not

used for long time. Run calibration when the electrode is stable.
2.2 Prompts during self-test and calibration

2.2.1 Display Prompts

Code Error message

1# The optical coupler of liquid distribution valve failed

2# Elevator switch failed

2.2.2 Print Prompts

Code Error message

Error 0# Liquid positioning failed

Error 1# Liquid detecting failed

Warn 2# Bubbles detected

Error 3# Too much or less sample aspirated

Error 4# Slope abnormal

Error 5# Slope unstable

Error 6# AB Slope abnormal

Error 7# AB Slope unstable

For the solutions please refer to “Trouble-shooting”

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Function description and operation

3.1 Flow chart of the operation

Please refer to the operation manual.

3.2 System functions

Please refer to the operation manual.

3.3 Extended programs:

Press Service in the main menu, press Time and enter “983”, press Exit, then the system will enter into

extended program menu, the screen displays:

Pr. Vol Pr. PH Pr. TCa

Aj. PH Standby Valve

Show mv Range Pr. clea

Exit

(Attention: the extended programs are not open for the end-users to avoid wrong setting)

3.3.1 Print voltage

Press Pr. Vol , the button turns white. The voltages of the liquid positioner and all electrodes

will be printed out during calibration or sample measurement.

Press Pr. Vol again, white color disappear from the button. The voltages will not be printed out

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during calibration or sample measurement. This is the default setting.

3.3.2 Print PH value

Press Pr. PH , the button turns white. The pH value will be printed out when the sample

measurement finish.

Press Pr. PH again, the button turns dark. The pH value will not be printed out when the sample

measurement finish. This is the default setting.

3.3.3 Print TCa

TCa is a calculated parameter.

Press Pr. TCa , the button turns white. The value of iCa and TCa will be printed out when the

sample measurement finish.

Press Pr. TCa again, the button turns white. Only the value of iCa will be printed out when the

sample measurement finish. This is the default setting.

3.3.4 Adjust pH

This function has been fixed at factory, no need to adjust it again.

3.3.5 Standby mode setting

The instrument will enter into Standby mode if there is no operation in 2 minutes. In standby mode,

the operator should press Wake Up to activate the instrument to the working mode. If the instrument

stays in standby mode for 4 hours, it will maintain the electrodes automatically. When wake up the

instrument, it will carry out a calibration before returning to the working mode.

The operator can change the waiting time for entering into standby mode. The suggested waiting time

is 2-60 minutes.

To change the waiting time, press Standby ,input the value, then press Yes to confirm.

3.3.6 Test Valve

The liquid distribution valve may be blocked or leaking after using for a long time. The measuring

results could be affected. Therefore it is necessary to check the valve periodically.

Touch Valve, the system will aspirate Std A and Std B automatically. Observe the aspiration volume,
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flow speed, the switch of Std A / Std B in the valve and the bubbles to determine if the valve is

working properly or not. (Details please refer to trouble-shooting)

3.3.7 Show voltage

Press Show mv, the button turns white. The voltages of the liquid positioner and all electrodes will

be displayed on the screen during calibration or sample measurement.

Press Show mv again, the button turns white. The voltages of the liquid positioner and all

electrodes will not be displayed on the screen during calibration or sample measurement.

3.3.8 Setup the reference range

Touch Range, the screen displays:

K 1 xxx 2 xxx
Na 3 xxx 4 xxx
Cl 5 xxx 6 xxx
ica 7 xxx 8 xxx
Tca 9 xxx 10 xxx
PH
Set Exit

Press Set , input all the reference values in turn, then press Exit to quit.

3.3.9 Record of de-protein operation

Press Pr. Clea to print out the last date that the de-protein program been performed.

3.4 Routine operation

3.4.1 Safety precautions


1. The electric voltage inside the instrument may be harmful to human body. Do not open the

instrument before disconnect it from the power supply.

2. Because the samples may have pathogenesis bacterium or viruses, all replaced tubes, electrodes

and waste containers should be discarded according to the safe laboratory procedures and

government regulations.

3. The reagents are irritating to eyes, skin and diaphragm. Wear proper personal protective equipment
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(e.g. gloves, lab coat, etc.) and follow safe laboratory procedures when handling them in the

laboratory.

4. The reagents are harmful to human body. If the reagents accidentally spill on your skin, wash them

off with plenty of water and if necessary, go to see a doctor.

5. If the reagents accidentally spill into your eyes, wash them off with plenty of water and

immediately go to see a doctor

3.4.2 Sample Collection and handling


Sample collection and handling must be carried out by the professionals. Always avoid the

Hematolysis. In addition, the following points should be noted:

1. The serum or plasma can be stored in the refrigerator, but they must be warmed up to the room

temperature before test.

2. When preparing the blood serum samples, do not add any materials like the surface active agent

that may interfere in the measurement or even damage the sensor.

3. Hemolysis can affect K result significantly as well as other parameters. Special remark should be

made for hemolysis sample, and the results are for reference to the lab only.

4. If the serum does not been separated completely, the fibrins in the sample may affect the aspiration,

and the proteins may deposit inside the tubing thus cause contamination or blockage. In such case,

the results will be affected, so the operator should clean the tubing in time.

5. The sample should be tested within 2 hours, otherwise the result may be not accurate.

3.4.3 Operation precautions

1. The analyzer is designed to work continuously for 24 hours a day. No need to shut down the

machine everyday.

2. Do not use the standard solutions for flame luminosity. They include strong acid and other

supplements that may damage the electrodes.

3. Not all commercial controls are suitable for ISE measurement. Some of them contain too much

chemical additives that may interfere in the measurement.

4. The bubbles cannot be aspirated during the sample aspiration, otherwise the results will be

unreliable.

5. When the sample reaches the checking point, make sure there are no bubbles inside, otherwise

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the sample should be measured again.

6. Never aspirate the sample directly from the blood separating tube, because it is very easy to block

the tubing system. Always move the serum to a small and clean tube or cup with a pipette

before testing on the instrument.

7. If the ambient temperature fluctuates for more than 10℃, the instrument should be calibrated
again.

8. The pH value of the standard solutions and the samples should be within 6-9, otherwise it will

interfere in the measurement of sodium ions.

9. Discard the reagent if mildew or deposition found.

10. Perform the routine maintenance according to the manual.


11. Every electrode has a serial number. Keep it on the electrode. The warranty to the electrode will

become invalid if the number can not be recognized.

12. When remove the sample tube after aspiration, be careful not to hit the sample probe, otherwise

the probe will bend or misaligned and can not move into the wash block properly.

13. Do not open the front door during calibration or sample measurement, otherwise the result will be

affected.

14. Check and make sure the grounding is good if static interference is found.

3.4.4 Daily operation

Please refer to the operation manual.

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Routine maintenance

4.1 Daily maintenance

Keep the instrument clean, especially the sampling unit.

4.2 Weekly maintenance

1. Check the electrodes and make sure the filling solutions are sufficient. Add filling solution if the

volume is less than 2/3.

2. Check if there is salty crystal on the internal electrode, if so, clean it with wet tampon.

3. Check and clean the rubber in the wash block. Clean the sample probe.

4. Run deprotein program in service menu. (If less than 5 samples per day, then just run deprotein

program every 2 weeks) Check and clean the tubing system.

5. Run “Na adjust” program if the slope of Na electrode is less than 50.

4.3 Monthly maintenance

1. Check the tubing system and make sure there is no blockage or leakage.

2. Check the internal electrode and make sure it doesn’t blanch or its coating doesn’t flake off. Change
the internal electrode if necessary. Check the filling solution, change it if it become feculent.

3. Observe the voltage of the electrode. If the voltage of K 、 Na 、 Cl are all less than 20 mV, then
change the reference filling solution first. If it doesn’t improve, change the reference membrane.

4. Run calibration if the slopes are low.

4.4 Check tubing system

Check the tubing system if the aspiration volume or flow speed is abnormal, or bubbles found. Observe

the flow speed, liquid position and bubble status during sample test or calibration.

1. Blockage will cause insufficient aspiration volume for sample, Std A and Std B, or no aspiration at

all if the blockage is very bad.

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2. Leakage will cause bubbles or no aspiration.

3. A segment of air will appear in the tube when the liquid distribution valve switches between Std

A and Std B. When aspirating Std A, if small bubbles found at the outlet of distribution valve,

then the flow path inside the distribution valve for Std A is leaking. If bubbles always stay at the

inlet of Std A and can not be excluded, then the flow path for Std A is blocked slightly. Check

flow path for Std B by the same way.

4. The blockage in the distribution valve is usually caused by floccule in Std A or Std B. It is

important to keep the reagents under proper temperature.

5. The bubbles will appear near the connector if it is leaking. Tighten the tube or connect it again.

Cut a small piece of tube if necessary.

6. If leakage found between the electrodes, then the O ring between the electrodes may miss or out

of position, or the setting screws are not tightened.

7. If the pump tube conglutinated, distortion, leaking or aged, it will cause no aspiration,

insufficient aspiration volume or incorrect liquid position. Change the pump tube if necessary.

8. Wash the tubing system regularly to prevent the blockage caused by protein deposition. Clean

the external of the sample probe. Clean the wash block.

When the instrument can not aspirate, check the tubing system with Valve program in “Service”

menu.

Pull out the liquid outlet tube from the mixing chamber and put it into a waste container

temporarily. Check if there is blockage and leakage at the segment in front of mixing chamber.

(1) Take off the pump tube, check if it is conglutinated, distortion, leaking or aged. Check if the

tubing connector is blocked. Check the connection between pump tube and waste tube. Put the

waste tube into water, disconnect the connecting tube from the outlet of electrode assembly, and

rotate the pump head clockwise by hand. If the water can be aspirated normally, then the pump

is working well. Otherwise check and change the pump if necessary.

(2) Put the waste tube and connecting tube back. Disconnect the aspirating tube from the sample

probe and put it into water. Rotate the pump head clockwise by hand. If the water can be

aspirated normally, then the electrode assembly is working well. Otherwise disassemble the

electrode assembly for checking.

(3) Put the aspirating tube back. Take off the tube from the outlet of the distribution valve and put it

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into water. Rotate the pump head clockwise by hand. If the water can be aspirated normally,

then the sample probe is working well. Otherwise check the sample probe.

(4) If the results of the above checking are good, then most likely the distribution valve is

malfunction. Change the valve if necessary.

(5) If the segment in front of mixing chamber is normal, then the blockage and leakage should be

happened in the mixing chamber.

Blockage is usually in the outlet at the bottom of mixing chamber or the stainless steel tube for

sample injection.

Leakage is usually caused by

- waste tube of mixing chamber broken

- liquid outlet valve closed unfirmly

- press tube of outlet valve distortion or broken

- Four stainless steel tubes on the cover of mixing chamber not stuck well and leakage

- Air outlet valve broken

- The tube connected to four stainless steel tubes on the cover of mixing chamber broken.

(7) Cleaning the mixing chamber

Check all the tubes every 1-3 months. Replace the tube which is broken. The breakage is usually

caused by the aged tube or incorrect cleaning and repairing.

Blockage is usually caused by the serum protein deposit. Regular cleaning is necessary.

Clean the mixing chamber by the following steps.

a. Pull out the white tube connected to reagent R, which is in the middle of the mixing chamber, then

inject 3ml sodium hypochlorous solution into the chamber, wait for 5 minutes, put the tube back

b. Pull out four tubes on the mixing chamber cover straightly upward, loose the three setting nuts, take

out three bolts and three nuts. Pull out mixing chamber cover, clean the chamber and all the protein

deposit on the outlet. Clean the protein deposit under the cover, clean all four stainless steel tubes,

cleaning mixer. Put the mixer back with small side downward, insert the mixing chamber cover (pay

attention to the direction of four stainless steel tubes), tighten three nuts. Connect the Std R tube to the

inlet in the middle of the reaction chamber, then connect the liquid outlet tube (smallest tube), sensor

connection tube, and air outlet tube. Do not damage the tube.

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Warning:

z Pay attention to the biological pollution by the sample when connect to the external waste bottle

temporarily. Dispose the waste instantly . Or add antiseptic into waste bottle in advance.

z Wear the protection glove when clean the mixing chamber. Do not touch serum protein deposit.

Wash and disinfect your hand after cleaning the chamber.

1. liquid Storage Chamber 7. Liquid outlet tube

2. Pressure Sensor 8. Gas outlet tube

3. Pressure Sensor connection tube 9. Lactic Acid inlet of mixing chamber

4. Sample inlet tube 10. Liquid exhaust valve

5. Mixing Chamber cover 11. Gas exhaust valve

6. Mixing Chamber 12. Gas outlet

[ Illustration figure of Mixing chamber assembly]

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4.5 Check the sample probe

1. Adjust the sample probe if it is distortion, misaligned or bended. Make sure the sample probe

can move into the wash block smoothly and correctly.

2. If the sample probe is blocked, move it up to top position, take the probe out, and use a thin

needle to remove the blockage from the probe.

3. If the wash block is blocked, lift up the sample probe, remove the cover of the wash block, take

out the rubber and clean it.

4.6 Electrode maintenance and replacement

4.6.1 Structure of the electrode

4.6.2 Replacement of internal electrode and filling solution

Follow the steps below to replace the internal electrode or filling solution:
1. Pull out all electrode wires from the plugs. Remove the tubes from the inlet and outlet of the

electrode assembly.

2. Loose the fixing nuts of the electrode assembly.

3. Disassemble the whole electrode assembly.

4. Discard the electrode to be replaced.

5. Take a new electrode and add the filling solution.

6. Assemble the electrodes in correct order. Make sure that the rubber gaskets are in right position.

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7. Tighten the fixing nuts of the electrode assembly.

8. Connect the tubing to inlet and outlet. Insert the electrode wires back to the plugs.

9. Run calibration again.

If the internal electrode blanches or its coating flakes off, then remove the old filling solution, add fresh
filling solution and install a new internal electrode.

Change the filling solution if it is insufficient or the slope of the electrode is too low. Take out the internal
electrode (do not touch any metal materials), remove the old filling solution, add fresh solution to 85% of
total volume, then put the internal electrode back and tighten it.

K filling solution is for K electrode only, Ca filling solution is for Ca electrode only, and reference filling
solution is for reference electrode only. Na/Cl filling solution is for Na, Cl and pH electrodes.

4.6.3 Replace the reference membrane


Follow the steps below to replace the reference membrane:
1. Pull out all electrode wires from the plugs. Remove the tubes from the inlet and outlet of the
electrode assembly.
2. Loose the fixing nuts of the electrode assembly.
3. Take out the reference electrode.
4. Loose the screw cap, take out the internal electrode, remove the filling solution, O-ring and old
reference membrane (see the following figure).
5. Soak the new reference membrane in distilled water, then place it evenly on the internal interface
and put on the O-ring.
6. Refill the reference filling solution and tighten the screw cap
7. Clean and dry the electrode.
8. Assemble the electrodes in correct order. Make sure that the rubber gaskets are in right position.
9. Connect the tubing to inlet and outlet. Insert the electrode wires back to the plugs.
10. Run calibration again.
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4.7 Maintenance of pump, valve and lifting unit

4.7.1 Maintenance of aspirating pump and Lactic acid pump

After long time of using, the pump tube will get aged and may cause insufficient aspiration volume,

therefore the accuracy of the results will become poor. If so, it is necessary to change the pump tube.

If there is big noise when the pump head rotating, disconnect the pump tube, pull out the pump head,

loose three setting screws, take out the plate, add a little lubrication oil to the ball bearing, then assemble

the pump head back. If the pump head is damaged, then change it with a new one.

4.7.2 Maintenance of distribution valve

The function of the distribution valve is to switch the flow path to Std A or Std B according to the control

program. The valve status is detected by an optical coupler. The performance of the optical coupler can be

affected by dust or foreign objects, and may cause incorrect switch between Std A and B. In such

case,“1#” 、 ” 2#” or “3#” error message will show on the screen and be printed out. Clean the optical

coupler periodically.

Disassemble the valve:

Loose four setting screws on the valve plate, pull the whole valve out a little, loose four nuts, take out the

valve plate and four copper standings, loose the setting screws for the optical coupler. Take out the optical

coupler. Turn the valve head with a tweezers and take it out. Loose two screws on the valve cap and take

the cap out. Clean five O rings on the valve cap. Clean the valve body and rotor.

Assemble the valve:

Install the rotor and cap to the valve body, tighten two screws. Pay attention to the five O rings on the cap.

Install the optical coupler to center position. Put on the valve head, tighten the screws on the valve motor

axis. Put the copper standings back, tighten the valve body to the plate. Tighten the valve plate to

instrument.

Note:

z Pay attention to the position of the O-rings, copper standings, optical coupler and connectors to

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Std A and B.

Maintain the valve once every year. Keep the optical coupler clean and check it periodically.

4.7.3 Lifting unit

The maintenance of the lifting unit is to remove the dust, foreign objects and oil dirt from it. Remove the

cover of the sample probe, remove the sample probe, clean the axis and add a little grease. Let the sample

probe move up and down for several times, make sure it moves smoothly and low noise.

Note:

z The electrode should be sealed and stored under dry environment. Do not add filling solution

to it.

z The tubing and O-rings should be sealed and stored under dry environment.

z The internal electrode should be sealed and stored under dry environment. Do not store with

metal materials.

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. Hardware

5.1 Connector and Cable list

Connector Cable Connector Cable


J101 Optical coupler cable J203 Positioner cable
J102 Elevator switch cable J204 Signal cable
J103 Auto sampler home position J205 RS232 cable
optical coupler
cable
J104 Auto sampler counter optical J206 Pressure sensor cable
coupler cable
J107 Transformer output cable J207(PRT) Printer data cable
J108 Printer power cable J207(Key) Touch screen cable
J109 Air outlet valve connection
cable J208 LCD cable

J110 Liquid outlet valve connection


cable NBQ LCD inverter power cable

J111 Mixing motor power supply


cable

J112 Auto sampler motor cable

J114 Lifting motor cable


J115 Valve motor cable
J116 Aspirating Pump motor cable

J117 Lactic acid pump motor cable

5.2 PCB errors

1. Because of vibration or dust cumulating, the connectors or IC chips may have cold connections.

Disconnect the power cable, open the rear cover, and check the cables and IC chips.

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2. When switch on the power, the LCD doesn’t light on, the lifting unit doesn’t work, the pump motor
doesn’t work: check 9-pin DC power cable and transformer output cable J107.

3. When switch on the power, the LCD doesn’t light on, but the lifting unit work normally: Check
U102 (LM7812)、9-pin DC power cable, NBQ connector and 12V voltage. The LCD inverter may
be damaged.

4. The lifting unit can not move, the valve doesn’t work: Check U103 (LM7812) 、 9-pin DC power
cable、U106、U107

5. The pump motor doesn’t work: Check U110、LM7812、9-pin DC power cable、U108、U109


6. The signals of calibration or measurement are confused or all zero: check cable J204.

7. If the program works incorrect, clean the dust cumulating around U301 IC chip and check. It is
recommended to clean with PCB washing solution (pure alcohol) and blow to dry

(8)Auto sampler doesn’t move, check U104, 74HC373,U105, ULN2803A.


(9)No AB test result, check J206 connector and U209, LM324.

(10)No print. Check J108, J207(PRT) connectors and the connectors between printer head and
print control board. Replace the printer head if it is broken.

Note:
Only authorized personals are allowed to repair the PCB.

5.3 Description of RS-232 interface

The analyzer can send or receive command/data via RS-232 interface.

5.3.1 Features

Electric feature: comply with EIA RS-232C

Transmission mode: asynchronism

Stop bit:1 digit

Data bit:8 digit

Parity bit:none

Transmission speed: 19200 baud

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5.3.2 Pin description

Pin no. Signal Function Note

1 NC none

2 RXD Receive data Input

3 TXD Transmit data Output

4 NC none

5 GND signal ground

6 NC none

7 NC none

8 NC none

9 NC none

5.3.3 Data format

The instrument communicates with external PC through RS-232 serial port. After each test finish, the data

will be automatically sent out during the time of printing. The content of the transmitting data is almost

same as the printing data. The operator can also send out the data manually by “Send” program in

“Service” menu.

Example:

001 111111 063 5.23 151.2 111.4 1.44 7.62 12.0

004 112224 063 5.25 151.6 110.8 1.40 7.59 42.0

Data format:

Sample number + 2 blank + ID + 2 blank + symbol byte + blank + k result + blank + Na result + blank +

Cl result + blank + Ca result + blank + PH result + blank + AB result + newline

Note:

Symbol byte: this byte has 8 digits h g f e d c b a

a =1: K electrode calibration failed, a =0: K electrode calibration OK

b =1: Na electrode calibration failed, b =0: Na electrode calibration OK


c =1: Cl electrode calibration failed, c =0: Cl electrode calibration OK
- 23 -
d =1: Ca electrode calibration failed, d =0: Ca electrode calibration OK

e =1: pH electrode calibration failed, e =0: pH electrode calibration OK

f =1: AB calibration failed, f =0: AB calibration OK

h =1: warning information of this result (e.g. aspiration abnormal, bubbles detected, etc.)

Trouble-shooting

6.1 Error prompts

Display prompts

Code Error Solution


1# Optical coupler error Check J101, clean optical coupler, adjust the position of
optical coupler
2# Elevator switch error Check J102, J114, elevator switch, U103(LM7812)、
U107(ULN2803)、U106(74HC373) 、9-pin DC power
cable

Printing prompts

Code Error Solution

Error 0# Liquid positioning Connect the positioner again

failed

Error 1# Liquid detecting failed Check the optical coupler and tubing connection of the

distribution valve

Error 2# Bubbles detected Check the positioner, optical coupler, distribution valve,

check if there is any leakage in the tubing sstem

Error 3# Too much or less Check the distribution valve and positioner

sample aspirated

Error 4# Slope abnormal Refer to “6.5 Slope abnormal”

Error 5# Slope unstable Refer to “6.4 Slope unstable”

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6.2 Possible causes of errors

(1) Power supply not good

May cause:the instrument works abnormally; the slopes become abnormal during calibration; the
testing result not stable

(2) Grounding not good

May cause:result not stable during testing or calibration, especially for Na.

(3) Interfere by electromagnetism

May cause:the instrument can not work normally; result not stable during testing or calibration

(4) Interfere by static and dry

May cause: instrument works unstable, the deviation of Na, Cl is too big

(5) interfere by moisture

May cause: instrument works unstable, the deviation of Na is too big

(6) interfere by tempreture

May cause: instrument works unstable.

(7) Positioner not good

May cause:liquid position not accurate, prompt “bubbles” frequently, slope abnormal or
unstable, testing result unstable

(8) Flow path in the electrode assembly contaminated


May cause:slope abnormal or too low

(9) Aspirating tube contaminated

May cause:slope abnormal, especially for K electrode


(10) Std A or B contaminated

May cause:slope not stable or too low


(11) Reference electrode not good

May cause:slope not stable, testing result not


stable (12)Flow channel not good

Check segment by segment.

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6.3 Trouble-shooting of positioner and electrode

Positioner:

First, make sure the connection of the positioner is good. Then check the positioner’s voltage with

“Voltage” program in “Service” menu. Rotate the pump manually and let the liquid pass through the

positioner. The positioner’s voltage should become small when there is liquid or big when there is no

liquid. The difference should be more than 500.

Electrode:

Check the voltage of the electrode by “Voltage” program in “Service” menu. If the voltage is low, then

the electrode should be replaced as soon as possible.

(3) If aspiration alarm appeared or no aspiration at all, replace a new reagent pack (Std A, Std B, Std

R). Restart the instrument and run self-test.

6.4. Slope unstable

Cause Solution
Unreliable grounding Check the connection of the
grounding wire

No standard A or standard B Check and replace Standard A or B;


aspirated Check the tubing connection
Incorrect positioning Adjust positioning again
The reference filling solution or reference Replace when necessary
membrane not working
The internal electrode turns gray Replace when necessary
Poor connection of the electrode wire Check and connect again
Electrode membrane leaks Replace when necessary
Power supply voltage fluctuates Use UPS or power stabilizer
Humidity too high Lower the humidity or move the instrument to a dry place
Bubbles inside the tubing Check the tubing system
Liquid leakage inside the valve Replace gasket or valve when necessary
The electrode is not activated or the Activate the electrode first
activating time is insufficient

Mixing Chamber Blocked .Clean Mixing Chamber

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6.5 Slope abnormal

Cause Solution
Too many organic deposits on the Wash it with de-protein
electrode membrane Solution
Reagent contaminated Replace the reagent
Insufficient filling solution Refill the filling solution
Electrode does not work Replace the failed electrode
Dust or moisture around the electrode or plug Clean and dry the electrode and plug
tubing loose reconnected
Pump tube stuck recover the tube
Pump tube broken replace the tube
Tubing blockage clean the tubing
Gasket between the electrodes wrong Re assemble it
placed or missing
Leakage between the electrode Reinstalled firmly
Optical coupler too dirty or broken Clean or replace it
Mixing Chamber Blocked Clean Mixing Chamber

6.6 AB slope and result abnormal

Cause Solution
Mixing Chamber Blocked Clean Mixing Chamber
Mixing chamber leakage Check tubing connection and chamber cover
condenser condensing Liquid outlet blocked
AB slope is zero No Std R, pressure sensor cable loose or damaged.
Mixer don’t move Reconnect J111 , replace mixing motor
Liquid outlet valve don’t work Reconnect J111 , replace liquid outlet valve
Air outlet don’t work, leakage, AB slope is low Reconnect J109, replace air outlet valve
AB slope abnormal Std R invalid, leaked or blocked

6.7 Auto sampler trouble shooting.

Cause Solution

Auto Sampler can not be detected Check J112 connector and cable,
replace Auto sampler motor
The initial position of auto sampler is not on Check J103 connectors, clean the dust on the optical
the clean position coupler for auto sampler home position, replace the
optical coupler

- 27 -
Auto sampler on incorrect position Check J104 connector and cable, clean the dust on
the counting optical coupler,
replace the optical coupler

6.8 Aspiration abnormal

Cause Solution
Aspirating tube loose or broken Connect again or replace it
Pump tube sticks Restore the tube
Pump tube broken Replace the tube
Pump tube blocked Clear the blockage
The gasket between the electrodes does Place the gasket properly
not placed properly or missing
The electrode assembly leaks Tighten the assembly again
Dust in the positioner, or Clean or replace the positioner
positioner damaged
BLOOD GAS ANALYSER

The Blood Gas Analyzer have the following essential components.

Essential Components
1. Electrodes

The system should be able to measure accurately the following parameters.


• pH
• pCO2
• pO2
• Haematocrit and Hemoglobin
• Electrolytes, Sodium, Potassium and Chloride
• Lactate
• Calcium
• magnesium

The equipment should possess electrodes with long life of at


least 2 years

Facility for regular quality assessment of the instrument should be provided by the
company.

2. Analyzer controller with soft ware.

The Instrument should provide the following calculated parameters.


• Bicarbonate (HCO3)
• Standard HCO3 (standard HCO3)
• Base Excess of Blood (BE)
• Base Excess of Extra cellular fluid (BE-Ecf)
• Oxygen Content (O2Ct)
• Oxygen Saturation (SO2%)
• Total carbon dioxide (TCO2)
• Alveolar to Arterial oxygen tension gradient (AaDO2)
• Arterial Alveolar oxygen tension Ratio (a/A)
• Oxygen carrying capacity (O2 Cap)
• PO2/FIO2 Ratio
• P 5O
• Respiratory index
• Anion Gap
• Plasma Osmolatity
• pH/pCO2/pO2 Corrected to patient temperature

All results should be available within 3 min.

Reagents remaining status should be available on the main screen for easy monitoring and
replacement.

The instrument should have facilities like monitor screen, external keyboard, mouse, and barcode
reader

All results should be microprocessor controlled and of latest technology version

The instrument should have the capability to interface a computer and a computer

should be supplied for data acquisition and patient record with recommended

software. The system should have RS232 serial port.

3. Recording Devices:

High end colour inkjet printer. Refilling of cartridges should be


possible compatible with ABG machine.

4. Sampler

The sample volume for measuring all parameters should exceed 200 ul

The instrument should accept heparinized whole blood, serum or plasma, arterial, mixed venous
and capillary sample

It should also provide the facility to measure the above parameters in gases, cerebrospinal fluid,
dialysate, pleural fluid and urine.

5. Reagents

The instrument should use liquid calibration for calibration of all measure parameters without use
of any gas cylinders or humidifiers

The company should supply reagents with the analyzer to run the machine

satisfactorily for two years. 25 samples / day.


The equipment should be incorporated to perform regular calibration satisfactorily

The instrument should have a standby mode(economy mode) with auto wake up facility to
optimize the reagent utilization
.

6. Waste bag

The Waste container should be sealed to prevent operator biohazard

7. Back up power supply: 1 KV UPS systems for blood gas analyzer for a minimum one hour back
up.

8. Power requirements: 220-240 V, 50/60 Hz

B. Optional accessories:

P.C.Computer with facility of data transfer for mass storage of data to interface with the
ABG analyzer

a) P.C. Monitor 15” Flat


b) Processor: Intel Pentium 4, 2.8 GHz with HT
c) Mother board: Intel 915 Express Chipset mother board or higher (Compatible
with the processor)
d) Memory: 512 MB DDR SD RAM or better
e) 80 GB Hard Disk
f) 144 MB FDD
g) DVD &CD Reader & writer for having back up data
h) 2 USB, One Parallel & Serial port
i) Latest configuration available
j) Optical mouse
k) Multi media key board

Software: a) Windows XP operating system


b) compatible software to transfer and analyse data from the ABG machine
1. All spares parts and consumables should be available with the supplier or principals
for the period of 10 years.