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DISTANCE OF CLOSEST APPROACH An α -particle directed towards the centre of the nucleus will move close up to a distance r0, where its kinetic energy will appear as the electrostatic potential energy. The distance r0 is called the distance of closest approach. Let ‘m’ be the mass and ‘u’ be the velocity of the α -particle directed towards the centre of the nucleus. Then, kinetic energy of the α -particle,

Ek =

1 mu 2 2

The charge on the α -particle is 2e and that on the nucleus is Ze. The electrostatic potential energy of the α -particle, when at a distance r0 from the centre of the nucleus is given by-

Ep =

1 2e ⋅ Ze ⋅ 4π ε0 r0

As on reaching the distance of closest approach r0, the kinetic energy of α -particle appears as the electrostatic potential energy, we have-

E p = Ek

Or,

1 4π ε0 r0 =

⋅

2e ⋅ Ze 1 = mu 2 r0 2 ⋅ 4 Ze 2 mu 2

Or,

1 4π ε0

The above distance may be used to calculate the distance of closest approach, which is approximately equal to the radius of the nucleus of the atom.

BOHR’S ATOM MODEL

In 1913, Neils Bohr proposed a model of an atom based on the Planck's quantum theory of radiation. The basic postulates of Bohr's theory are: ♦ ♦ ♦ An atom consists of a small, heavily positively charged nucleus which is responsible for almost the entire mass of the atom. The electrons revolve around the nucleus in definite circular paths called orbits. The permitted orbits are those in which the angular momentum of the electron is a whole number multiple of

h 2π

, where h is Planck’s constant.

i.e.

L=n

h 2π

, where ‘n’ is an integer and is called the principal quantum number.

If ‘m’ and ‘v’ are the mass and velocity of the electron in a permitted orbit of radius ‘r’, then-

mvr = n

♦ ♦

h 2π

----------------------- (1)

Above equation is called the Bohr’s quantization condition. When the electrons revolve in permitted orbits (stationary orbits), they do not radiate energy. The energy is radiated, when an electron jumps from higher to lower energy orbit and energy is absorbed, when it jumps from lower to higher energy orbit. If of

Ef

and

**E i are the energies associated with the orbits of principal quantum numbers n f
**

hν = E i − E f

and

n i respectively ( n f

> n i ), the frequency

radiation emitted is given by-

The above equation is called the Bohr’s frequency condition. BOHR’S THEORY OF HYDROGEN ATOM Hydrogen atom consists of nucleus having one unit positive charge and an electron having one unit charge revolving around it in a circular orbit as shown. If +e and –e are the charges on the nucleus and the electron respectively and ‘r’ is the radius of the circular orbit, then the electrostatic force of attraction between the nucleus and the electron is given by

F=

1 e2 ⋅ 2 4π ε0 r

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------SRHSS/2010/Atoms and Nuclei Page 1 of 6 Sandhya.K

Class XII/Physics

If ‘m’ and ‘v’ are the mass and velocity of the electron in the orbit, the centripetal force required by the electron to move in circular orbit is provided by the electrostatic force of attraction between the nucleus and the electron. Therefore, for the circular motion of the electron,

mv 2 1 e2 = ⋅ 2 r 4π ε0 r

Or,

mv 2 =

1 e2 ⋅ ----------------------- (2) 4π ε0 r

According to Bohr’s quantization condition,

mvr = n v=

h 2π

-------------- (3)

Or,

nh 2πmr

Putting the value of ‘v’ in equation (2), we have-

1 e2 nh m ⋅ = 4π ε0 r 2πmr

Or,

2

r = 4π ε0⋅

n2h2 4π 2 me 2

------------------ (4)

BOHR’S RADIUS: The radius of the innermost orbit in hydrogen atom is called the Bohr’s radius and is denoted by a 0 Therefore,

.

a 0 = 4π ε ⋅ 0

12 h 2 4π 2 me 2

Setting,

**h = 6.62 ×10 −34 Js , m = 9.1 × 10 −31 kg , e = 1.6 ×10 −19 and 4π ε = 0
**

a 0 = 5.29 ×10 −11 m

----------------- (5)

1 C 2 m −2 N −1 , we have9 9 × 10

Speed of electron: Setting the value of ‘r’ given by equation (4) in equation (3), we get-

v=

nh 2πm ⋅ 4π ε ⋅ 0 n h 4π 2 me 2

2 2

=

nh 1 4π 2 me 2 ⋅ 2πm 4π ε n2h2 0

1 2πe 2 v= ⋅ 4π ε nh 0

Energy of electron: Let equation (4). Then,

------------------ (6)

Ek

and

Ep

be the kinetic and potential energy respectively of the electron in the nth orbit whose radius is ‘r’ given by

Ek =

1 mv 2 2 Ek = 1 e2 ⋅ 4π ε 2r 0

Using equation (2), above equation becomes,

Electric potential energy of the electron is given by-

Ep =

( − e) ⋅ e = − 1 ⋅ e 2 1 ⋅ 4π ε0 r 4π ε r 0

1 e2 1 e2

The total energy of the electron in an orbit whose radius is ‘r’ is given by-

E = E p + Ek = − 4π ε ⋅ r + 4π ε ⋅ 2r 0 0

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------SRHSS/2010/Atoms and Nuclei Page 2 of 6 Sandhya.K

Class XII/Physics

Or,

1 e2 E =− ⋅ 4π ε0 2r

----------------------- (7)

Substituting the value of ‘r’ from equation (4), the energy of the electron in nth orbit is given by-

En = −

1 e 2 1 4π 2 me 2 ⋅ ⋅ 2 2 4π ε 2 4π ε n h 0 0

Or,

1 2π 2m 4 e En −= ⋅ ⋅ 2 2 4π 0 n h

2

------------------ (8)

ε

As the principal quantum number n can have values 1, 2, 3, 4 ……… the electron can have only some discrete values of energy. It is called energy quantization. Transition of electron: The negative sign in equation (8) tells us that the electron and the nucleus form a bound system. If the electron has to be removed, energy must be supplied. The energy state corresponding to n=1 is called the GROUND STATE. States corresponding to n=2, 3, 4 ….are the excited states. If

E i and E f

, then-

are the energies of the electron in the initial orbit of principal quantum number

ni

and the final orbit of principal quantum number

nf

1 2π 2m 4 e Ei −= ⋅ ⋅ 2 2 4π 0 ni h

And

2

ε

ε

ni

to orbit n f , ( n i > n f ), the difference in energy associated with these orbits is emitted as a photon of

1 2π 2m 4 e Ef −= ⋅ ⋅ 2 2 4π 0 nf h

ν , given byhν = E i − E f

2

When the electron jumps from the orbit frequency

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------SRHSS/2010/Atoms and Nuclei Page 3 of 6 Sandhya.K

Class XII/Physics

Or,

** 1 e2π 2m 4 e 1 2π m hν = − ⋅ ⋅ 2 2 −− ⋅ ⋅ 2 2 4 π 0 i hn 4π 0 f hn
**

2 24 2

1 2π 2m 4 1e 1 hν = ⋅ ⋅ 2 2 − 2 4π 0 h n f ni

2

Or,

ε

------------- (9)

1 2π 2m 4 e1 1 ν = ⋅ ⋅ 3 2 − 2 4π 0 h n f ni ε

2

c =ν λ Or ν =

c

The above equation gives the frequency of radiation emitted. If λ is wavelength of the radiation emitted, then-

λ

Therefore, from equation (9), we have-

c 1 2π 2m 4 1e 1 = ⋅ ⋅ 3 2 − 2 λ 4π 0 h n f ni

2

Or,

ε

----------------- (10)

1 1 2π m 1e 1 = ⋅ ⋅ 3 2 − 2 λ 4π 0 c h n f ni

2 2 4

ε

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------SRHSS/2010/Atoms and Nuclei Page 4 of 6 Sandhya.K

Class XII/Physics

Equation (10) gives the value of wavelength of the radiation emitted.

1

λ

is called the wave number.

The factor

1 2π 2m 4 e ⋅ ⋅ 3 4π 0 c h

1

2

is denoted by

RH

and is called Rydberg’s constant for hydrogen atom. Its value is 1.09678

ε

×10 7 m −1 .

Therefore, equation (10) may be written as-

1 1 = RH 2 − 2 n λ ni f

SPECTRAL SERIES OF HYDROGEN ATOM

---------------- (11)

When electron in a hydrogen atom jumps from higher energy level to lower energy level, the difference of energies of the two levels is emitted as a radiation of particular wavelength. It is called spectral line.

1.

LYMAN SERIES: It is the series in which the spectral lines correspond to the transition of electron from some higher energy state to the lower energy state corresponding to n f

=1 . Therefore, for Lyman series, n f =1 and n i = 2,3,4...

The wavelength of the spectral lines constituting Lyman series are given by-

**1 1 1 = R H 2 − 2 , where ni = 2,3,4... . They are found 1 λ ni
**

to lie in the ultra-violet region.

2.

BALMER SERIES: It is the series in which the spectral lines correspond to the transition of electron from some higher energy state to the lower energy state corresponding to n f Balmer series,

= 2 . Therefore, for

n f = 2 and ni = 3,4,5...

The wavelength of the spectral lines constituting Balmer series are given by-

** 1 1 1 = R H 2 − 2 , where ni = 3,4,5... . They are found 2 λ ni
**

to lie in the visible region.

3.

PASCHEN SERIES: It is the series in which the spectral lines correspond to the transition of electron from some higher energy state to the lower energy state corresponding to n f

= 3 . Therefore, for Paschen series, n f = 3 and ni = 4,5,6,7...

The wavelength of the spectral lines constituting Balmer series are given by-

1 1 1 = R H 2 − 2 , where ni = 4,5,6,7... . They are found to lie in the infra-red region. 3 λ ni

4.

BRACKETT SERIES: It is the series in which the spectral lines correspond to the transition of electron from some higher energy state to the lower energy state corresponding to n f

= 4 . Therefore, for Brackett series, n f = 4 and ni = 5,6,7,8...

The wavelength of the spectral lines constituting Balmer series are given by---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------SRHSS/2010/Atoms and Nuclei Page 5 of 6 Sandhya.K

Class XII/Physics

1 1 1 = R H 2 − 2 , where ni = 5,6,7,8... . They are found to lie in the infra-red region. 4 λ ni

5.

PFUND SERIES: It is the series in which the spectral lines correspond to the transition of electron from some higher energy state to the lower energy state corresponding to n f

= 5 . Therefore, for Brackett series, n f = 5 and ni = 6,7,8...

The wavelength of the spectral lines constituting Balmer series are given by-

1 1 1 = R H 2 − 2 , where ni = 6,7,8... . They are found to lie in the infra-red region. 5 λ ni

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------SRHSS/2010/Atoms and Nuclei Page 6 of 6 Sandhya.K

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