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KOMPONEN

STRUKTUR TARIK
SNI-1729;2002 (Halaman 70 s.d 74)
10. KOMPONEN STRUKTUR YANG MENGALAMI GAYA TARIK
AKSIAL

SNI-1729;2015 (Halaman 28 s.d 32)


D. DESAIN KOMPONEN STRUKTUR UNTUK TARIK
PERBEDAAN PERHITUNGAN ELEMEN TARIK
Rumus SNI-1729;2002 SNI-1729;2015
Batas  < 240 (elemen utama) • Tidak dibatasi
kelangsingan  < 300 (elemen sekunder) • Saran  < 300

Penampang U = faktor shear lag


Ae= U An
Efektif (lihat tabel D.3.1)

0,9 Ag Fy (leleh tarik)


Kekuatan
Pn 0,75 Ae Fu (runtuh tarik)
tarik Min (0,9AgFy ; 0,75 AeFu)
KONSTRUKSI JEMBATAN
PELENGKUNG
; HANGER, WIND-BRACING

KONSTRUKSI
JEMBATAN KABEL
; MAIN-CABLE, HANGER-CABLE
RANGKA BAJA
JEMBATAN
; BOTTOM-CHORD, DIAGONAL

SISTEM KONSTRUKSI
ATAP STADION
; RANGKA KUDA2, PENAHAN
KABEL
BANGUNAN PORTAL BAJA ; PENGAKU PORTAL
BRACING PADA ATAP DAN DINDING
PERBEDAAN PERHITUNGAN ELEMEN TARIK
Rumus SNI-1729;2002 SNI-1729;2015
Batas  < 240 (elemen utama) • Tidak dibatasi
kelangsingan  < 300 (elemen sekunder) • Saran  < 300

Penampang U = faktor shear lag


Ae= U An
Efektif (lihat tabel D.3.1)

0,9 Ag Fy (leleh tarik)


Kekuatan
Pn 0,75 Ae Fu (runtuh tarik)
tarik Min (0,9AgFy ; 0,75 AeFu)
Kuat Tarik Rencana

Pu Pu

Pu ≤ min (0.9 Ag Fy atau 0.75 Ae Fu )


Leleh pada Fraktur pada
penampang penampang
bruto efektif

Batas kelangsingan maksimum = 300 (AISC ‘05)


Fracture on Effective Net Area Ae

Tension Theory 15
Fracture on Effective Net Area

Pn=FuAe Equation D2-2

t=0.75 (c=2.00)

Ae= Effective Net Area


Accounts for any holes or openings,
potential failure planes not perpendicular
to the tensile stresses, and effects of shear
lag
Tension
Spec 13th
Ed
16
Fracture on Effective Net Area

If holes are included in the cross section


less area resists the tension force

Bolt holes are larger than the bolt


diameter

In addition processes of punching or


drilling holes can damage the steel
around the perimeter

Tension Theory 17
Fracture on Effective Net Area

Holes or openings

Section D3.2
Account for 1/16” greater than bolt hole size
shown in Table J3.3
Accounts for potential damage in fabrication

Tension
Spec 13th
Ed
18
Fracture on Effective Net Area

An= Net Area


Modify gross area (Ag) to account for the following:

Holes or openings

Potential failure planes not


perpendicular to the tensile stresses

Tension
Spec 13th
Ed
19
Fracture on Effective Net Area

Design typically uses average stress values

This assumption relies on the inherent ductility of steel

Initial stresses will typically include Highest strain locations yield,


stress concentrations due to higher then elongate along plastic
strains at these locations plateau while adjacent stresses
increase with additional strain
Pu

Eventually at very high strains


the ductility of steel results in
Therefore average stresses are full yielding of the cross
typically used in design section

Tension Theory 20
Fracture on Effective Net Area
Similarly, bolts and surrounding material will yield prior
to fracture due to the inherent ductility of steel
Therefore assume each bolt transfers equal force

Pu

Tension Theory 21
Fracture on Effective Net Area
The plate will fail in the line with the highest force
(for similar number of bolts in each line)
Each bolt line shown transfers 1/3 of the total force
Pu/6 PPuu/6 PPuuu/6
/6 P /6
/6
PPuPP
1/3Pu 2/3P Puuu/6
Puu/6 PP PPuuu/6
/6 P /6
/6
u uu
0

Pu Net area
reduced by
hole area
Bolt line 3 2 1 Cross Section
Tension Theory 22
Fracture on Effective Net Area
The plate will fail in the line with the highest force
(for similar number of bolts in each line)
Each bolt line shown transfers 1/3 of the total force

Bolt line 1 resists Pu in the plate


Bolt line 2 resists 2/3Pu in the plate
Bolt line 3 resists 1/3Pu in the plate
Force in plate

Pu Net area
0 1/3 2/3 Pu reduced by
Pu Pu hole area
Bolt line 3 2 1 Cross Section
Tension Theory 23
Fracture on Effective Net Area

For a plate with a typical bolt pattern the fracture plane is shown
Yield on Ag would occur along the length of the member
Both failure modes depend on cross-sectional areas
Fracture failure across
section at lead bolts

Pu

Yield failure (elongation)


occurs along the length of
the member

Tension Theory 24
Luas Penampang Efektif

Luas Netto Efektif, Ae = UAn

U = min (1 − x dan 0.9) (menurut SNI)


l
x
U=1− (menurut AISC '05)
l
dimana An = luas neto
U = shear lag factor

• Jika seluruh elemen penampang disambung, maka luas


neto efektif = luas neto (artinya U =1). Jika tidak, gunakan
rumus U di atas.
Fracture on Effective Net Area

Ae=Effective Net Area


An=Net Area
Ae≠An Due to Shear Lag
Boundary of force transfer
into the plate from each bolt

Pu

As the force is transferred from each bolt it spreads through the


tension member. This is sometimes called the “flow of forces”
Note that the forces from the left 4 bolts act on the full cross
section at the failure plane (bolt line nearest load application)

Tension Theory 26
Fracture on Effective Net Area

Portion of member Now consider a


carrying no tension
Fracture Plane much wider plate
Pu Effective length of
fracture plane

At the fracture plane (right bolts) forces have not engaged the
entire plate.

Tension Theory 27
Fracture on Effective Net Area

This concept
describes the
30o Whitmore Section
Pu lw= width of
Whitmore Section
30o

Tension Theory 28
Fracture on Effective Net Area

Section Carrying
Tension Forces Pu
Distribution of
Forces Through
Section

Fracture
Plane

l= Length of Connection

Tension Theory 29
Fracture on Effective Net Area

Pu
Area not
Effective in
Tension Due to
Shear Lag

Shear lag less


influential when l is
long, or if outstanding
Effective Net leg has minimal area
Area in Tension
or eccentricity
Tension Theory 30
Fracture on Effective Net Area

What if holes are not in a line perpendicular to the load?

Need to include
additional length/Area Pu
of failure plane due to g
non-perpendicular path
s

Additional strength depends on:


Geometric length increase
Combination of tension and shear stresses
Combined effect makes a direct calculation difficult
Tension Theory 35
Fracture on Effective Net Area

Diagonal hole pattern


Additional length of failure plane equal to s2/4g
Section B3.13 and D3.2

s= longitudinal center-to-center spacing of holes (pitch)


g= transverse center-to-center spacing between fastener lines (gage)

Pu
g

s
Tension
Spec 13th
Ed
36
Block Shear Angle Bolted to Plate
Shear plane on Angle

Pu

Tension plane on Angle

Pu

Shear plane on Plate


Tension plane on Plate
(Shorter Dimension Controls)
Tension Theory 38
Block Shear Angle Bolted to Plate

Pu

Block Failure from Angle

Pu

Block Failure From Plate


Tension Theory 39
Flange of W-Shape
Block Shear
Bolted to Plate

Shear planes on W-Shape


Pu

Tension planes on W-Shape

First look at the W-Shape, then the plate

Tension Theory 40
Flange of W-Shape
Block Shear
Bolted to Plate

Pu

Block Failure in W-Shape

First look at the W-Shape, then the plate

Tension Theory 41
Flange of W-Shape
Block Shear
Bolted to Plate

Pu

Shear planes on Plate


Tension planes on Plate

Pu

Shear planes on Plate


Tension plane on Plate
Tension Theory 42
Flange of W-Shape
Block Shear
Bolted to Plate

Pu

Block Failure in Plate

Pu

Block Failure in Plate


Tension Theory 43
Block Shear Angle or Plate Welded to Plate

Pu

Weld around the perimeter

Two Block Shear Failures to Check

Tension Theory 44
Block Shear Angle or Plate Welded to Plate

Pu
Shear plane on Plate

Tension plane on Plate


(Shorter Dimension Controls)

Pu
Shear planes on Plate

Tension plane on Plate


Tension Theory 45
Block Shear Angle or Plate Welded to Plate

Pu

Block Failure From Plate

Pu

Tension Theory 46
Block Shear

Block Shear Rupture Strength (Equation J4-5)


Rn  0.6 Fu Anv  U bs Fu Ant  0.6 Fy Agv  U bs Fu Ant

Smaller of two
t=0.75 (c=2.00) values will control

Agv= Gross area subject to shear


Anv= Net area subject to shear
Ant= Net area subject to tension
Ubs= 1 or 0.5 (1 for most tension members, see Figure C-J4.2)
Tension
Spec 13th
Ed
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KOMPONEN
STRUKTUR TEKAN
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