1656

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ANTENNAS AND PROPAGATION, VOL. 56, NO. 6, JUNE 2008

A Novel Compact Spiral Electromagnetic Band-Gap (EBG) Structure
Qiu-Rong Zheng, Yun-Qi Fu, and Nai-Chang Yuan
Abstract—A novel compact electromagnetic band-gap (EBG) structure in a spiral shape is presented and investigated. This structure significantly enlarges the capacitance between neighboring elements. The simulations and experimental results have proved that the size of the spiral structure is only 30.9% of the conventional EBG structure. Two applications have been shown, including patch antenna with the spiral EBG structure and a double-element microstrip antenna array with low mutual coupling. The measured results show that a gain improvement over 3 dB and a significant reduction of cross polarization in H-plane are obtained. A 6 dB reduction of mutual coupling is achieved in a double-element EBG microstrip antenna array. Index Terms—Cross-polarization, electromagnetic band-gap (EBG), patch antenna, radiation pattern, surface wave.

I. INTRODUCTION

patch is more complicated than other EBGs although it is more compact in size. The spiral structure significantly enlarges the capacitance between the neighboring elements. To describe the performance of this new structure, we compare it to Sievenpiper’s single-layered EBG structure. There are other overlapping patch geometries that have achieved more capacitance per square unit than the spiral structure, but these overlapping constructs require another printed circuit board layer, resulting in greater fabrication cost and complexity. As an example a patch antenna with the spiral EBG is described and results presented. The measured results reveal that the spiral EBG structure can significantly improve the patch antenna’s performance. The antenna gain is increased, the cross polarization of H-plane pattern is reduced significantly and the pattern becomes smooth. The mutual coupling between antenna elements is reduced also. II. SPIRAL-LIKE EBG STRUCTURE The conventional EBG structure has a wide band-gap and compact nature [10], [11]. The inductor results from the current flowing through the connecting via. The gap between the conductor edges of two adjacent cells introduces equivalent capacitance . Thus a two dimensional periodic LC network is realized which results in the frequency band-gap and the center frequency of the band-gap is determined by the formula

I

N RECENT years, there has been significant interest in investigating electromagnetic band-gap (EBG) structures, and varieties of EBG structure have been proposed for application in electromagnetic and antenna community [1]–[9]. As early EBG lattice periods were half-wavelength at the center band-gap frequency, practical applications of EBG structures had difficulties in accommodating their physical sizes. So, realizing compact EBG structures become an important requirement. Recently, the high impedance ground plane (HIGP) was proposed by Sievenpiper et al. [3]. Compared with other EBG structures, such as with rods and holes, this structure has the important feature of compactness [10]. However, in some practical applications, such as in antenna array, the spacing of neighboring antenna element has to be less than a half wavelength of operating frequency, the Sievenpiper’s EBG structure is still too large to be used in an antenna. Here, we propose a novel EBG structure, which can be considered an extension of Sievenpiper’s EBG structure, and report its application in the antenna field. We refer to this structure as the spiral EBG. The spiral EBG structure consists of four parts, which are: 1) spiral-like metal patch; 2) a ground plane; 3) a dielectric substrate; and 4) connecting via. The structure of spiral-like metal

(1) From (1), it can be seen that in order to achieve an even more compact EBG structure, the equivalent capacitance and inductance should be increased. But in the EBG design procedure, if the dielectric material and its thickness have been chosen, the inductance cannot be altered. Therefore, only the capacitance can be enlarged. For the conventional EBG structure shown in Fig. 1, the lateral length of the patch element verges on adjacent cells allowing the equivalent capacitance to increase, whereas the area of the patch has not been utilized. The novel spiral EBG structure shown in Fig. 2 makes better use of the patch area to increase the capacitance. The dark color parts in this figure represent the metallic periodic structure, which is etched on a dielectric substrate. It can be considered as a distorted conventional EBG structure. The length of adjacent edges increased in a spiral manner as shown in Fig. 2(b). The unit cell is bounded by a dash line. There are only four microstrip lines in the structure, such that the space in the center area of the patch has been utilized efficiently. Increasing the length of microstrip will increase the capacitance. This compact EBG structure will work also at a lower frequency than Sievenpiper’s EBG structure which usually is a larger size.

Manuscript received September 12, 2006; revised January 20, 2007. This work was supported in part by the Natural Science Foundation of China under Contract 60401011. Q.-R. Zheng was with College of Electronic Science and Engineering, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073, China. He is now with the Air Force Engineering University, Xi’an 710038, China (e-mail: zqr1620@sina.com). Y.-Q. Fu is with the College of Electronic Science and Engineering, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073, China. N.-C. Yuan is with Department of Electronic Science and Technology, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073, China. Color versions of one or more of the figures in this paper are available online at http://ieeexplore.ieee.org. Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/TAP.2008.923305

0018-926X/$25.00 © 2008 IEEE

08 to 3. 5.3 GHz. . By adjusting the length of the strip.47 GHz for spiral EBG structure and the conventional structure is from 3. For the spiral permittivity EBG structure. the length of microstrip line is mm. 3(a). To further investigate the properties of new spiral EBG structure. The transis presented for comparison.06 to 3.: A NOVEL COMPACT SPIRAL EBG STRUCTURE 1657 Fig. The radius of via is also chosen as mm. To verify the properties of the proposed spiral EBG structure. The radius of the via is mm. 2. 3(b). the central frequency of band-gap can be varied over a wide frequency range. the band-gap is a little wider and spans the frequency range 2. mission coefficient band-gaps are evident for both cases. We fabricated two spiral EBG structures with microstrip lengths 9. Various spiral EBG cases with different microstrip length are fabricated and measured to investigate the effect of the microstrip length. In Fig.61 GHz. For the spiral EBG structure shown in Fig. the width of microstrip line is mm.7 mm and 20. 1.55 GHz. substrate permittivity and thickness were kept the same as in the previous case. III. The cell size of spiral EBG structure is only 30. the gap between neighboring elements is is mm. Conventional EBG structure (a) top view and (b) side view.9% of the conventional one. For the shorter 9.58 GHz. 4. We observe a complete frequency band-gap between the first and second mode in both cases.7 mm long and the strip width is narrowed to 0. Dispersion diagram of EBG structure (a) spiral (b) conventional. The dispersion diagrams of the two EBG structure are shown in Fig.ZHENG et al. the gap between neighboring elements is mm.7 mm. while for the conventional EBG structure shown in Fig. Fig. 3. Patch Antenna Performance Improvement Surface waves can be excited on a patch antenna and they deteriorate the antenna’s performance. This tunable feature should make the spiral EBG structure useful in practical applications. The measured results are shown in Fig. extends from 3. The measured results are shown in Fig. a 6 6 spiral array and a conventional EBG structure array have been fabricated and measured. APPLICATION TO PATCH ANTENNAS A. The gap width. When the strip is 20. One EBG structure can be used in a series of band-gaps without changing the periodic length.87 to 3. the central frequency is 2. These periodic cells are printed on a dielectric slab with and thickness mm. The simulation is conducted using HFSS.7 mm long strip.23 mm. the element parameters are chosen as follows: the periodic spacing is mm. 3. which is dB lower than the maximum of transmission coefficient in TM polarization surface wave.25 GHz and spans the frequencies from 3. 4. For the conventional EBG structure. they radiate from these places due to the discontinuity of the medium. Novel spiral-like EBG structure (a) top view and (b) structure of capacitance. The band-gap of spiral structure is narrower than that of the conventional structure. The frequency range of . The monopole method [2] is applied to measure the band-gap characteristics of the two EBG structures.01 to 3. When the surface waves meet the edges and corners of the finite ground plane. The reason is that the capacitance of spiral structure is much larger than that of the conventional structure. the element parameters are as follows: the periodic spacing mm. a novel EBG structure and a conventional EBG structure that operate at the same center frequency are designed for comparison. the central frequency is at 3. Fig.44 GHz. the band-gap is centered at 3.

For the conventional patch antenna. VOL. The H-plane pattern [Fig. In order to demonstrate the usefulness of the new spiral EBG. It indicates that in the latter case surface waves are suppressed. where the large ripple has been removed [Fig. a maximum ripple of approximately dB at the direction of occurs in the E-plane. NO. 5. 6. the H-plane cross-polarization decrease is very obvious.25 GHz on a 2-mm-thick substrate with the relative permittivity of 2. Measured results of transmission coefficient of the EBG structure (a) spiral and (b) conventional.5 dB. the cross polar level has been decreased by 20 dB. a space (6. between the angles of and . the radiation level decreases 8 dB at least. in the direction of level decrease is 7. three columns of spiral-like EBG structure are inserted between two coupled patch antennas to reduce the mutual coupling. The combined radiation of the radiating patch and the ground plane edges interferes to form a series of multipath lobes and nulls at various angles. In addition. 6.65. In . 7(b)] also becomes smoother. producing a more pronounced pattern. The conventional EBG structure is too large to include with the patch antenna. B. The patch dimensions are 15. Finally. 8 are extremely high. Mutual Coupling Reduction The surface wave plays a dominant role in the mutual coupling between the antenna array elements. Since the EBG structure has the ability to suppress surface waves. which is produced by the discontinuity of the shorting pins and is common for the shorted patch antenna [12].1658 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ANTENNAS AND PROPAGATION. as . 7(a)]. and diffractions at the boundaries of the finite size ground plane are reduced. an improvement of 7 dB.7 mm. for patch antenna with spiral EBG the ripple at the same angle drops to approximately 0. the cross polarization the worst case. and the back lobe is reduced slightly.5 dB. With the spiral EBG structure. As shown in Fig.7 mm and (b) 20. 56.3 15 mm and the antenna is designed to operate at 3. 4.5 mm) was provided between the patch and the EBG element in order to lower the coupling between them. The surface wave improvement is most evident in the E-plane pattern. JUNE 2008 Fig. At the same time. The H-plane cross polarization levels for the ordinary shorted patch antenna shown in Fig. 7. we fabricate two shorted patch antennas as shown in Fig. Also at the peak cross-polar level of the normal patch. the gain of the main lobe shows a 4 dB improvement. Fig. One shorted patch antenna has been manufactured with a spiral EBG surrounding it while the other has no spiral structure. while the patch antenna with spiral EBG has a much smoother radiation pattern and the pattern becomes symmetrical and narrow. Measured results of transmission coefficient of two spiral EBG structures with different strip length (a) 9. the conventional patch antenna has some ripples in the E-plane pattern.

8. Measured cross-polarization of H-plane. and 10. Fig. Without the EBG structure a strong dB occurs between the antennas. The improvements shown in Figs. IV.25 GHz. Comparison of mutual coupling using different patch antenna structures: with and without spiral. a novel compact EBG structure in a spiral shape is investigated. 6(b). 7(a). Photograph of (a) conventional shorted patch antenna and (b) proposed spiral EBG shorted patch antenna. only one element can be inserted between the two coupled antennas because of its large size. 10. If the conventional EBG structure is employed. 8. Measured radiation pattern (a) E-plane and (b) H-plane. are very significant in lowering the mutual coupling between antenna elements and improving the directivity of the antenna array. Fig. The dimensions of the antenna element and EBG cell are the same as those in Fig. 7. 9. Fig. This comparison demonstrates the capability of the spiral-like EBG structure to reduce mutual coupling.like EBG.ZHENG et al. The simulations and experimental results have . a 6 dB mutual coupling reduction is achieved at 3. mutual coupling of When the EBG is employed.: A NOVEL COMPACT SPIRAL EBG STRUCTURE 1659 Fig. The measured results are shown in Fig. shown in Fig. Photograph of two patch antenna structures: with and without spiral EBG. 9. 10. The distance between the centers of the two antennas is 44. 7(b). CONCLUSION In this paper.8 mm less than half the operating wavelength. 6. Fig.

Kokotoff. no. Targonski. China. H. pp. Amer. China.. Soc. “Micro-strip patch antenna using novel photonic band-gap structures.. 10. 1998. Previously. no. JUNE 2008 shown that the structure leads to compact antennas.S. 283–295. Lett. vol. 1509–1514. he was with the Department of Electronic Technology. The improvements demonstrated with the new spiral EBG structure should provide a strong foundation for designing future EBG phased antenna arrays. Broas. Itoh. 1973. Compared to a conventional patch antenna of the same size. D. McKinzie.” Microw. degree in microwave theory and techniques from the University of Electronic Science and Technology of China (UESTC). no. 2004. and T. “Microstrip antennas integrated with electromagnetic band-gap structures: A low mutual coupling design for array applications. Symp. 2005. Ma. 537–539. China. China in 1965. CA: Wadsworth. and G. 561–564. F. Antenna Technology and Applied Electromagnetics (ANTEM). vol. 12th In. electromagnetic scattering and electromagnetic bandgap materials . Qian. vol. Changsha. [13] W. Belmont. M.” in Proc. Chengdu. Antenna Propag. respectively.” IEEE Trans. and Ph. degrees from National University of Defense Technology. the measured results show that the spiral EBG structure can significantly improve the patch antenna’s radiation pattern and lower mutual coupling. “Design and performance of small printed antennas. These were a patch antenna with the spiral EBG structure and a double-element microstrip antenna array. His research interests are in microwave circuits and antennas. no.. 2002. vol. Lett. Changsha.” IEEE Trans. 6.” IEEE Antennas Wireless Propag. [8] F. [2] D. Yun-Qi Fu was born in Tianjin. [5] F. He is currently a Professor and the Head of the Department of Electronic Science and Technology. no. “High-impedance electromagnetic surfaces in a forbidden frequency band. 11.S. China. [10] F. no. Phys. J. 1. X. J. Qian. Mendolia. and E. IEEE Antennas and Propagation Society Int. Opt. S. B. Shan and B. in 2003 and 2007. J. “A novel TEM waveguide using uniplanar compact photonic-bandgap (UC-PBG) structure.” in Proc. [11] M. “Effects of a smaller Unit cell planar EBG structure on the mutual coupling of a printed dipole array. Jul. vol.. Rogers. Rahmat-Samii. “Photonic band-gap structure. 56. no. R. and Ph. Theory Tech. Alexopolous. vol.D. vol. 4.-K. 6. Nai-Chang Yuan was born in Anhui. pp.” J. computational electromagnetics. 2. Microw. 16–19. pp. His research interests include electromagnetic band-gap materials. Montreal. “Novel spiral EBG structure. Ma. pp. 47.” Microw. micro-strip antenna. Coccioli. 1999. A 6 dB reduction of mutual coupling was achieved in a double-element EBG microstrip antenna array. D. Yang and Y. Optical Technol. V. 51. 3. and D. Antennas Propag. Elect. He received the M. no. 274–276. pt. Esselle. degree and the Ph. His research interests include computational electromagnetic and EBG structure. 11. pp. K. pp. 22–27. no.” IEEE Trans. Oct. [7] O. 42. Canada. Sievenpiper. Inst. Waterhouse. G. L. Yang. He received the M.1660 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ANTENNAS AND PROPAGATION. Qiu-Rong Zheng was born in Fujian.06 at the desired band-gap frequency.. vol. and T.” IEEE Trans. Yablonovitch. “Circularly polarized patch antenna with periodic structure. He is also interested in the analysis of frequency selective surfaces. pp. in 1975. Xi’an. Y. “A uniplanar compact photonic bandgap (UC-PBG) substrate and its applications for microwave circuits. 66–67. REFERENCES [1] E. E. Yang. The antenna gain is increased. in 1991 and 1994. respectively. vol. 11. vol. 46. the cross polarization of H-plane is reduced significantly and the pattern becomes smooth. Theory Tech. Abedin and M. Radisic. Ge. K. Eng. He is now working at the Air Force Engineering University. pp. 2936–2946. R. Ali. Y. and slot antenna array. Changsha. on November 10. Chen. Qian. N. Microw. Opt. and T. [9] S. 1999. [12] R.. 2092–2097. [6] M. 47. W.” IEEE Trans. pp. Itoh.S. 10.. [3] Y. China. Yablonovitch. Jul.D. 2003. F.. 149. NO.. Symp. 1999. B. Two examples were presented and showed the advantages of the new structure. pp. 2003. Microw. 1993. degrees from the National University of Defense Technology. IsiK. Rahman and M. 11. VOL. [4] F. Linear Networks and Systems. pp.. in 2000 and 2004. 47. Q. A. respectively. Gao. and micro-strip antenna. “AMCs comprised of interdigital capacitor FSS layers enable lower cost applications. National University of Defense Technology.D. Sievenpiper. 1629–1633. China. “Novel compact photonic bandgap structures using rectangular increasing distance spiral slots. 1999.” Proc. Y. 2059–2074. Itoh. ultrawide band technology. 43. Yablonovitch. 123–135. and K.. 2006. 1993. Theory Tech. pp. Zhang. He received the M. Stuchly. The period size of the spiral structure is only 0.

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