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PROCEEDINGS INDONESIAN PETROLEUM ASSOCIATION


Twentieth Annual Convention, October, 1991

THE GEOLOGY AND PROSPECTIVITY OF BUTON ISLAND, S.E. SULAWESI,


INDONESIA

J.W. Davidson*

ABSTRACT response to the oblique collision of the Tukang-Besi


and Buton microcontinents.
Buton Island is located in Eastern Indonesia, off the
southeast coast of Sulawesi. The island's stratigraphy The hydrocarbon prospectivity of Buton is considered
and structural style are distinctly different from S.E. favorable. Abundant asphalt occurrences, coupled with
Sulawesi and Muna Island. However, broad similarities numerous gas and "live" oil seeps, confirm that hydro-
are recognized between Buton and adjacent islands in carbons have been generated. Triassic bituminous
the Banda Arc, specifically Timor, Seram, and Buru. shales and limestones are the primary source rocks.
Upper Cretaceous, Early to Middle Miocene, and
Sedimentation on .Buton was controlled by four Pliocene clastics and carbonates are potential
tectonic events; a Permian to Late Triassic "Pre-rift" reservoirs. Primary traps include Miocene thrust and /
event, a Late Triassic to Oligocene "Rift-Drift'' event. or Pliocene wrench-related anticlines. Faults are the
an Early Miocene to Pliocene "Syn- and Post- principal conduits for hydrocarbon migration.
Orogenic" event, and a Recent "Orogenic" event.
LOCATION AND GEOMORPHOLOGY
"Pre-Rift" sedimentation includes Permian(?)
metasediments unconformably overlain by Early
Buton Island (Butung or Boeton) is on the western
Triassic turbidites derived from the Australia-
margin of the Banda Sea in the Province of South
New Guinea continent. Deposition was on the
East Sulawesi, Indonesia (Figure 1). The island is
continental shelf, possibly in rift-grabens. "Rift-Drift"
approximately 155 kilometers long and between 15 and
sedimentation was in response to Late Triassic rifting.
60 kilometers wide (Figure 2).
Middle Jurassic breakup, and Late Jurassic to
Oligocene northwestward drift of the Buton niicro-
Buton is divided into three geomorphic provinces,
continent from the Australia-New Guinea continent.
south, central, and north. The southern province
Stratigraphy consists of Late Triassic turbidites, and
consists of northeast-trending valleys and ridges, raised
Jurassic to Oligocene, deep marine calcilutites. "Syn-
reef terraces, and "haystack" karst topography. The
and Post-Orogenic" sediments include Early to Middle
central province is dominated by a broad, north-
Miocene coarse clastics, Late Miocene fine clastics, and
trending mountain range, and along the west coast,
Pliocene mads / claystones. The coarse clastics were
northeast-trending, low relief, structurally controlled
deposited within intra-thrust basins, generated by the
peninsulas. The northern province is dominated by a
Early to Middle Miocene collision of the Buton
horseshoe-shaped ring of coastal mountains that drain
microcontinent with Muna / S.E. Sulawesi. Pliocene
southward into mangrove swamps in the Lambele
sedimentation coincided with regional subsidence ot
Basin. General trend of the mountains-is northwest-
Buton following accretion of the island to Sulawesi, and
southeast. Low relief, raised coral reefs also exist in the
an easterly shift of the subduction zone. Quaternary to
northern province.
Recent sedimentation consists of reefal limestones
deposited during regional uplift, wrench faulting, and
Remote sensing data indicate that Buton Island is
northerly tilting of the island. Deformation was in
currently undergoing northerly tilting. This is
evidenced by raised coral reefs in the south, and
drowned estuaries and subsiding atolls in the north
Conoco Indonesia Inc. (Smith, 1989).
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PREVIOUS WORK Conoco’s evaluation of the acreage includes the


acquisition of 541 kilometers of marine seismic
Initial geological investigations of Buton were data, 302 kilometers of land seismic data, 863
conducted in the 1920’s by the Nederlands Indies kilometers of surface geological data, and collection of
Geological Survey (NIGS), van Haeften (1924) and 850 outcrop samples for analysis. In August, 1990,
Zwierzycki (1925). Hetzel (1936) published detailed Pertamina BPPKA redesignated the block as a Frontier
geological descriptions and reserve estimates for Exploration Area. Twenty-five percent of the original
nineteen asphalt ”fields” evaluated by the NIGS. acreage was relinquished on December 1 , 1990. The
Van Bemmelen (1949) described the complex regional retained block encompasses 14,135 square kilometers
geology of the Buton area and attempted to determine (Figure 2). Conoco’s Buton Block exploration activities
the origin of the asphalt deposits. are summarized in Table 2.

Additional geological and geophysical studies of Buton


In June, 1969, Pertamina and the Southeast Asia Oil and the surrounding area were completed in the late
and Gas Company signed a Production Sharing 1980’s. These include a 66-well asphalt delineation
Contract for the Offshore South Sulawesi Area. The drilling program by P.T. Sarana Karya in 1988 / 1989, a
block encompassed approximately 100,000 square discussion of Late Cenozoic sedimentation and
kilometers and included most of the present PSC area. tectonics by Fortuin et al. (1990), and numerous
Indonesia Gulf Oil Company acquired operatorship in unpublished proprietary reports completed by, or for
May, 1970. Gulf‘s evaluation of the block included the Conoco between 1987 and 1990.
acquisition of 10,990 kilometers of aeromagnetic data,
1,406 kilometers of marine seismic data, 314 kilometers
of land seismic data, approximately 440 kilometers of TECTONICS
surface geological data, and the completion of 3 wells,
Bale-lS, Bulu-lS, and Sampolakosa-1s. Although a 43 The Buton Contract Area was previously believed to
meter column of biodegraded oil (100 API) was include two separate and distinct micro-continental
encountered in the Sampolakosa-1S well, and oil shows fragments; one encompassing eastern Buton Island and
were noted in the Bulu-1S well, all three wells were Tukang Besi, and the second covering western Buton
plugged and abandoned as dry holes. The Offshore Island and Muna Island (Hamilton, 1979). Recent
South Sulawesi acreage was relinquished in June, 1977. geological and geophysical data now suggest that three
Gulf‘s exploration activities are summarized in Table 1. distinct microcontinental fragments are juxtaposed
within the Buton region, Buton Island, Muna / S.E.
Sulawesi, and Tukang Besi. The stratigraphy of
Numerous geological studies of Buton Island were these islands indicate that each occupied separate
completed between 1975 and 1984. Wiryosujono and paleogeographical positions during the Mesozoic and
Hainim (1975) used plate tectonic concepts to further Paleogene (De Smet, 1991). Initial collision of these
explain the geology of the Island. Regional tectonic microcontinental fragments occurred in the Oligocene
relationships were detailed by Hamilton in 1979. to Early Miocene.
The first attempt to integrate and apply modern
sedimentologic and tectonic concepts to Buton was by Like many other Banda Arc Islands, Buton is
R.B. Smith (1983). A geologic map of the Buton considered a rifted fragment of the Australia-New
and Muna Quadrangles was published in 1984 by Guinea continent. This correlation is primarily based
Sikumbang and Sanyoto of the Geological Research on similarities in Mesozoic fossil content , pre-rift
and Development Centre (GRDC). The stratigraphy stratigraphy, and rift timing. Broad similarities in
and tectonics of the area were briefly studied during the tectonic history and stratigraphy support a similar
1984 Snellius I1 Research Expedition. origin for Buru, Seram, Banggai-Sula, and Timor
(Audley-Charles et al., 1972; Price, 1976; Hamilton,
On December 1,1987, the Buton Block was awarded to 1979; Pilgram and Panggabean, 1984; Garrard et al.,
Conoco and Shell, under the terms of a standard 1988; Katili, 1989; De Smet et al., 1991).
PSC. The original block encompassed 18,903 square
kilometers in the onshore and offshore area of Buton The tectonic and stratigraphic history of many Banda
Island. In January, 1990, Enterprise Oil Company Arc islands is characterized by several distinct events.
acquired a 25% interest in the acreage. Current These include a pre-rift event with deposition of
interests are held by Conoco Buton Limited (45%), continental sediments in half-grabens, a rift event
Ruton Shell B.V. (30%), and Enterprise Oil Buton characterized by uplift, erosion, and localized
Ltd. (25%). Conoco is operator. volcanism, a drift event characterized by subsidence
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and deposition Of open marine sediments, and a deposited in an outer neritic to upper bathyal
Neogene collision event. Principal difference between environment.
each island is the timing and duration of individual
tectonic and/or sedimentary events. The stratigraphy Maximum regional compression, thrusting, and uplift
and tectonic events for Buton Island are compared with on Buton occurred in the Middle Miocene, as
selected Eastern Indonesia islands, and northwest evidenced by a regional unconformity representing a
Australia in Figure 3. hiatus of approximately 3 million years (N11 - N13)
(Figure 5). The dominance of mafic to ultramafic
Transition from the pre-rift event to the rift event on detritus above this unconformity in the Upper Middle
Buton occured in the Middle to Late Triassic, and and Late Miocene sediments indicate obduction of
predates the same event on other Banda Arc Islands ophiolites at this time (13 Mya). Recent gravity data
(Figure 3). The Buton pre-rift Triassic stratigraphy has failed to detect a "root zone" west of the ophiolite
consists of continental-derived clastic sediments surface exposures. Consequently, the ophiolites
deposited unconformably on Permian(?) metasedimen- are interpreted as allochthonous detached klippen,
tary rocks in a deep marine, partially restricted transported from their root zone by easterly thrusting
environment. Basic igneous dikes intrude the Late (Milson, 1991).
Triassic strata and constrain timing of initial rifting,
development of extensional faulting, and regional Balanced cross sections indicate that total thrust-
subsidence. The overall decrease in clastic sedimenta- related shortening attributed to the Middle Miocene
tion with increase in deep water pelagic carbonates collision, are similar for both north and south Buton
indicate continued subsidence and possible migration Island. Minimum bulk shortening is estimated at 61%
away from a continental source area in the Late or 25 kilometers (Chamberlain et al.. 1990)
Triassic/Early Jurassic. Transition to a fully open
marine environment with passive margin sedimentation
commenced in the Middle to Late Jurassic, Elsewhere Contemporaneous deposition of Early Miocene deep
in the Banda Arc, the transition to an open marine marine carbonates in north Buton and coarse clastic
environment occurred between Late Jurassic and Early sediments in south Buton is perplexing considering the
Cretaceous. proximity of these two areas. These differences could
be explained by oblique collision of Buton and Muna /
Deep marine sedimentation associated with northerly S.E. Sulawesi in the Early Miocene, or post-Middle
drift of Buton continued from the Middle Jurassic to Miocene strike-slip movement on a major fault
the Oligocene. Dominant lithologies are pelagic system (Kioko) which juxtaposed sediments from two
carbonates. Intraformational slump and debris flows in drastically different depositional environments (Figure
the Late Cretaceous and Oligocene strata mark the 6). A combination of these two theories is currently
onset of regional instability, possibly due to the considered the most likely explanation.
interaction of the Buton and the Muna/S.E. Sulawesi
microplates . Compression from the Buton - Muna / S.E. Sulawesi
collision continued into the Late Miocene but was
Effects of a Buton Island - Muna6.E. Sulawesi less intense. Compression was accommodated by
collision are first recorded in south Buton in the Early reactivation and minor movement on steep thrust
Miocene (N3) where a sequence of "thin-skinned" faults. the formation of low amplitude folds, and the
thrusts and folds developed (Figures 4 and 5). Syn- deposition of fine grained clastics in Neogene basins
orogenic clastics were deposited within localized (Figure 5 ) . Environments of deposition ranged
Neogene basins as a result of the eastward directed from outer neritic to upper bathyal. Minimum bulk
thrusting and erosion of uplifted Triassic to Oligocene shortening in the Upper Middle Miocene to Late
strata. Triassic shales were the primary detachment Miocene strata was greatest in south Buton. Estimates
horizon. Subduction, compression and deformation are S% or 2.5 kilometers for north Buton and 11% or
continued into the Middle Miocene (N11) in the south. 3 kilometers for south Buton (Chamberlain et al.,
'This resulted in localized uplift, erosion of the Early 1930).
Miocene syn-orogenic clastics, and development of
regional unconformities. A significant change in structural style and deformation
occurred approximately five million years ago. This
The Buton - Muna1S.E. Sulawesi collision did not affect change is attributed to choking of the original
north Buton until the Middle Miocene (N12). Prior to subduction zone, accretion of Buton to Muna / S.E.
this time, passive margin-style sedimentation Sulawesi, and an easterly shift of the subduction
dominated the stratigraphy. Massive limestones were zone to between Buton Island and Tukang Besi. The
2 12

stratigraphy indicates that Buton, now located west of STRATIGRAPHY


the subuction zone, experienced regional subsidence
to bathyal depths. Mechanism for the subsidence is Resolving the stratigraphy of Buton proven difficult,
currently unresolved but possibly attributed to the primarily due to limited outcrop, extensive reworking,
oblique collision of the two plates and westward tilting and the overprinting of Pleistocene to Recent strike-
of the Buton micro-continent. slip and dip-slip tectonics on Early to Middle Miocene
thrust tectonics. The stratigraphy ranges in age from
Initial effects of the Buton - Tukang Besi microcontinent Permian(?) to Recent and is dominated by marine
collision are recorded in the Late Pliocene strata. carbonates deposited in an outer neritic to upper
Oblique collision of the two micro-continents resulted bathyal environment (Figure 7).
in strike-slip and dip-slip movement on steep faults with
localized uplift and subsidence (Chamberlain et al., Permian(?) age low grade, regionally metamorphosed
1990; Fortuin, et al., 1990). Late Pliocene reefs sediments of the Doole / Lakansai Formation
developed on uplifted blocks while deep marine are considered basement on Buton. These are
foraminifera1 packstones and mark were deposited in unconformably!?) overlain by the Triassic Winto
the lows. Oblique compression and associated strike- Formation, a heterogeneous assemblage of inter-
slip faulting have continued to the present day. bedded mudstones, bituminous shales, micritic
Geomorphology and distribution of Pleistocene reefs limestones, sandstones, and conglomerates. The Winto
suggests that south Buton is currently being uplifted is overlain by shales, massive limestones and mark of
while North Buton is subsiding. Maximum differential the Early(?) Jurassic Ogena Formation. These are
uplift between adjacent fault blocks' is approximately unconformably overlain by fossiliferous, calcilutites
700 meters. Regional Quaternary uplift in south Buton and calcareous mudstones of the Upper 'Jurassic /
is estimated at 2,500 meters (De Smet et al., 1989). Lower Cretaceous Rum& Formation. Deep marine
sedimentation continued from the Cretaceous to the
Differential Quaternary deformation and uplift Paleocene with the deposition of porcellaneous,
between north and south Buton is related to the foraminifera and railiolaria-bearing calcilutites of the
orientation of the pre-Pleistocene fanlt systems relative Tobelo Formation. Clastic sedimentation commenced
to the inferred Pleistocene principal stress 'directions in the. Early Miocene and extended to the Early
(Chamberlain et al., 1990). In south Buton, the Pliocene. Tondo Formation sediments include lime-
predominant movement was dip-slip and strike-slip stones, coarse clastics, and fine clastics. Contact with
along pre-existing Miocene age northeast-southwest the ' overlying Pliocene Sampolakosa Formation is
oriented thrusts. Both transpressioiial and small scale transitional and conformable. Sa'mpolakosa lithologies
transtensional pull-apart basins developed in 'response include skeletal wackstones and packstones in south
to the oblique collision. In north .Buton, most Buton, and packstones, siltstones and claystones in
deformation was accommodated by sinistral strike-slip central and north Buton. Coral limestones of
movement along the Kioko fault system (Figure 6). the Quaternary Wapulaka Formation unconformably
overlie the Sampolakosa.
Style and orientation of Recent structures suggest that
the entire Buton microcontinent is currently within a Major stratigraphic units are summarized below.
transpressive strilie-slip. zone. .,Relative.to the Tukang Stratigraphy is grouped into four tectonic / sedimen-
Besi and Muna / Sulawesi microplates, the Buton. plate tologic events, "Pre-rift" sedimentation, "Rift-
is moving to the north. En echelon northeast oriented Drift" sedimentation, "Syn- and Post Orogenic"
wrench-related anticlines in the Buton Straits' suggest sedimentation, and "Recent Orogenic" sedimentation.
.that the paleo suture' zone is reactivated. Movement is This paper utilizes most of the lithostratigraphic
primarily sinistral strike-slip. nomenclature adopted from the 1984, GRDC map of
Buton Island.
Regional gravity .trends and the northeast-southwest
'

orientation of the Early Miocene thrust faults in "Pre-Rift" Sedimentation


south Buton suggest that relative to north Buton, the
southern island also underwent approximately 45" of "Pre-Rift" sediments include the Early Triassic Doole /
clockwise rotation. Timing of this rotation is currently Lakansai metamorphic rocks, the Middle Triassic
unresolved but was a likely result of the Middle Winto Formation, and the Lower(?) Jurassic Ogena
Miocene compression from the Buton - Muna / S.E. Formation. Deposition was on the Australia New -
Sulawesi collision. Pivot point for the rotation is Guinea continental shelf in a relatively stable, upper
offshore e a s t e r d u t o n in the Kulisusu Bay (Figure 6). slope to outer neritic environment. The reduction in
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detrital material with time support gradual subsidence Stratigraphy of the Winto varies regionally from
prior to breakup. south to north. In south Buton, the formation is
approximately 80%0 clastics and 20% fine grained
micrites. In north Buton the ratio is reversed (Figure
DooleLakansai Metamorphic Rocks 7). This observed variation could be attributed to a
regional facies change, or present-day level of erosion.
The Doole Lakansai metamorphic rocks are confined Biostratigraphic data, regional mapping, and
to a 10 km. by 4 km. fault-bounded block in northeast geochemistry of Winto-typed oils and asphalts across
Buton. Dominant lithologies include micaceous Buton support a regional facies change.
sandstones, siltstones, and phyllitic slates. All rocks are
sheared and metamorphosed to greenschist facies. All analyses indicate the Winto sediments are Middle
Minimum stratigraphic thickness is estimated at 500 t o Late Triassic age (Hetzel, 1936; Smith, 1983; and De
meters. Smet, 1991). At present, the formation has not been
definitively correlated to other areas in Indonesia.
Based on stratigraphic position, the Doole I Lakansai Similarities in lithology and geochemistry are noted
rocks are considered economic basement and believed between the Winto and the Kanikeh Formation and
to be Permian to Early Triassic in age. Petrographic Saman-Saman limestone member of the Manusela
analyses indicate they were derived from erosion of Formation of Seram, and the Aitutu Formation of
granitic and metamorphic rocks. Deposition was in a Timor .
lower shelf, upper slope environment.
Ogena Formation
The Doole / Lakansai sequence has been correlated to
the pre-Triassic basement of the Sula platform (Smith, Ogena Formation sediments are distinguished from the
1983), the metamorposed Mesozoic rocks of S.E. underlying Winto sediments by the abundance of
Sulawesi (Bothe, 1927), and the Winto Formation of recrystallized calcispheres and virtual absence of
Buton Island (Hetzel, 1936). disseminated organic material. Field relationships
indicate it conformably overlies the Winto. The Ogena
Winto Formation is comprised of rhythmically bedded limestones,
argillaceous limestones, and shales at the base; and well
bedded calcilutites with minor chert intercalations at
The Winto Formation is an extremely tectonized,
I

heterogeneous assemblage of mudstones, bituminous the top. Deposition was in a marginally oxygenated,
shales, lithic sandstones, conglomerates, and finely outer neritic, open marine environment. The general
crystalline micritic limestones. Total stratigraphic lack of sedimentary structures, and the scarcity of
thickness is estimated to exceed 200 meters. Confirma- fossils in the uppermost Ogena carbonates suggest
tion of this estimate is difficult as the Winto is the deposition from suspension in a quiet. d>ep water
primary detachment surface for Miocene thrusts. environment. Minimum stratigraphic thickness of the
Tectonized measured sections from south Buton formation is estimated at 500 meters.
indicate that structural thickness exceeds 1000 meters.
Biostratigraphic analyses of Ogena samples consis-
tently yield Lower Jurassic ages (Bothe, 1928; Hetzel,
Basal Winto Formation conglomerates and lithic 1936; Gulf Oil Company, 1972; and Nolan et al., 1989).
sandstones were derived from a granitic and metamor-
phic source similar to that proposed for the Doole / ”Rift-Drift” Sedimentation
Lakansai Formation. Deposition was from turbidity
currents in a stable, middle to outer neritic open marine ”Rift - Drift” sediments include the Late Jurassic
environment. Dysaerobic to anaerobic conditions Rumu Formation, the Cretaceous to Oligocene Tobelo
existed during deposition. A Seram Island-type model Formation, and the basal limestones of the Miocene
invoking deposition in rifted half-grabens is considered Tondo Formation. Deep marine carbonates dominate
unlikely, primarily due to intermixing of both proximal the sequence. Deposition post-dates break-up and
and distal facies at outcrop scale. separation of the Buton micro-plate from the Australia
a
- New Guinea continent.
Most Winto lithologies contain abundant organic
material. The carbonate facies typically contains Rumu Formation
disseminated inertinite. Argillaceous units contain
disseminated kerogen and typically ”bleed” oil in Due to very limited exposures, and inteqse tectonism,
outcrop. the age, stratigraphy, depositional environments,
214

and distribution of the Rumu Formation is poorly used by Smith (1983) to define five microfacies. These
understood. Field evidence indicates that the formation include micropeloid limestones, radiolarian limestones,
is restricted to south Buton where it unconformably calcisphere inoceramid prism limestones, radiolarian-
overlies the Ogena Formation. Maximum thickness is planktic foraminifera limestones, and planktic
estimated at 450 meters. foraminifera lime mudstones. Stratigraphic relation-
ships between these rock types are currently un-
The Rumu is comprised of three distinct facies; pink resolved.
calcilutites containing red cherts, pale gray to brick red,
manganese-bearing siliceous mudstones containing De Smet et al., 1991 subdivided the Tobelo into two
.belemnites, and skeletal/pelletal wackstones. Smith members, a poorly bedded, fully pelagic Cretaceous
(1983) proposed two alternative depositional models to member, and a well laminated Eocene to Oligocene
explain the intermixing of shallow marine and deep calcilutite member with locaIly, abundant clastic
marine lithologies. One model assumes the intermixing detritus.
is structurally contrblled, rather than stratigraphic.
The second assumes the sediments are partially The Cretaceous lithologies of the Tobelo are typically
allochthonous and intermixed through transportation massive. In the Late Cretaceous to Oligocene section,
of shallow water sediments as submarine debris flows. intraformational slump folds and debris flows are
Conoco’s current data are not adequate to support or common and attributed to either local instability
refute either theory. resulting from a high rate of pelagic sedimentation or
regional tectonic instability associated with the initial
Micro- and macrofauna from the Rumu Formation impact of Buton and Muna / S.E. Sulawesi.
consistently yield Late Jurassic, Kimmeridgian ages
(Hetzel, 1936; Smith, 1983, Nolan et al., 1989). -
Tondo Formation Limestone Facies
Palynological analysis of one sample, however, yielded
a Lower Cretaceous, Berriasian age (Nolan et al., The Tondo formation is subdivided into three broad
1989). Additional analyses are required to more facies, a basal limestone facies, a coarse clastic facies,
precisely establish the age of the formation. and an upper fine grained clastic facies. The basal
limestone facies consists of massive micritic limestones
deposited in an outer neritic environment. Intra-
Tobelo Formation formation conglomerates and debris flows are common
but restricted to the uppermost beds. An Early
The Tobelo Formation is characterized as a chert- Miocene (N3-N4) to Middle Miocene age was obtained
bearing micritic limestone deposited in a neritic to from nannofossils in one south Buton sample. The
bathyal environment. Overall formation thickness north Buton samples consistently yield Middle Miocene
exceeds 1,000 meters\ Base of the formation is defined ages.
by a low angle unconformity.
Field mapping indicates the limestones are absent
Predominant lithologies are massive to thin-bedded, or very limited in south Buton. Maximum observed
white to pale orange, recrystallized porcellaneous lime structural thickness ranges from 200 meters in the south
mudstones and wackestones containing abundant to over 800 meters in the north. Contact between the
planktonic and locally benthonic foraminifera and Tondo limestone facies and the underlying Tobelo
radiolaria. Dark grey to black cherts constitute a high Formation is interpreted to be an unconformity. The
percentage of the lithologies and occur as beds, fracture two limestones are distinguished on the basis of
fillings, and / or nodules. Origin of the cherts is environments of deposition and absence / presence of
attributed to dissolution of diatoms, radiolarians, and chert. Contact between the Tondo limestone and
sponge spicules. the overlying coarse clastic facies is an angular
unconformity .
The Tobelo limestones were deposited in an open
marine, oxygen-rich, outer neritic to upper bathyal ”Syn- and Post Orogenic” Sedimentation
setting. Age of the formation ranges from Earl)
Cretaceous (Berriasian) to Oligocene. Possible Syn- and post orogenic sediments include the
unconformities occur in the Early Cretaceous coarse and fine clastic facies of the Miocene Tondo
(Barremian, Aptian, and Lower Albian), the Late Formation, and carbonates of the Early to Late
Cretaceous (Cenomanian and Turonian) and the Late Pliocene Sampolakosa Formation. Tondo clastics were
Cretaceous (Maastrichtian) to Paleocene. Microfossil derived from erosion of upthrusted pre-Miocene strata
content of the strata are extremely varied and werc during the Early to Middle Miocene collision of Buton
2 15

and Muna S.E. Sulawesi. Deposition was as turbidite Planktonic foraminifera1 assemblages within inter-
fans in intra-thrust, syn-tectonic deep marine basins. bedded mudstones support a deep marine, outer neritic
These clastics are the thickest, most heterogeneous, environment of deposition in south Buton. The clastics
and aerially extensive unit on Buton Island. Basal units are interpreted as channel deposits within turbidite
are comprised of carbonate detritus. Middle to Upper fans. In North Buton however, field observations
Tondo clastics are dominated by ophiolite detritus. indicate localized deposition in a shallow marine, high
penecontemporaneous reworking and intermixing of energy environment (De Smet et al., 1991).
shallow water benthonic foraminifera with deeper
water sediments is a characteristic of the formation. Tondo Formation - Fine Clastic Facies
Obtaining reliable dates proved extremely difficult.
The fine clastic facies are interpreted as distal turbidites
Marls, calcarenites, and reefal limestones of the that are transitional with, and conformably overlie the
overlying Sampolakosa Formation were deposited in coarse clastic facies. Dominant lithologies include
response to regional subsidence of Buton Island in the mudstones, claystones, siltstones, and sandstones. All
Pliocene. Deposition was in an outer neritic to bathyal sediments are thinly laminated, friable, and contain
environment with little to no terrigenous input. Contact thin carbonaceous laminae and plant debris.
between the Tondo and Sampolakosa Formations Sandstones are fine grained, and well cemented with
occurs within a transitional marl sequence and is calcite or dolomite. Sedimentary structures include
therefore extremely difficult to discern. Field evidence graded bedding, cross laminations, flame structures,
suggests it is diachronous. liquefaction structures, and slumps. Conglomerates
also occur within this facies. They are typically
restricted to the base of the unit, and never constitute
Tondo Formation - Coarse Clastic Facies more than 25% of the total rock volume. Direction of
sediment transport is thought to be west to east.
The Tondo coarse clastic facies unconformably
overlies the limestone facies and primarily consists Planktonic foraminifera are very abundant and indicate
of conglomerates and medium to coarse grained a gradual deepening during deposition from outer
lithic sandstones. Mudstones are common but never neritic for the basal strata to upper bathyal for the
exceed 25% of the total section. Clasts within the uppermost strata. All samples are Late Miocene in age
conglomerates are granule to boulder size and sub- (N 16-18).
angular to rounded. Individual beds range from matrix
to pebble supported. Rock matrix consists of medium- Sampolakosa Formation
size quartz and / o r carbonate sand cemented by calcite
or dolomite. Common sedimentary structures include The Sampolakosa Formation is a Late Miocene to Late
fining upward sequences, graded bedding, cross Pliocene (N17/18-21) sequence of marls, calcarenites,
bedding, and liquefaction structures. Predominant and pinnacle reefs. Contact with the underlying Tondo
direction of transport was west to east. Formation is diachronous and ranges from transitional
to an angular unconformity. All lithologies are rich in
Thickness of individual beds is extremely variable and foraminifera, and locally contain mollusc and coral
ranges from several centimeters to over 100 meters. fragments. Total formation thickness is variable,
Individual units have limited lateral extent since ranging from 30 meters to over 1,000 meters.
correlations between river traverses proved difficult.
Water depth during Sampolakosa deposition was
Lithic fragments comprise greater than 60% of the extremely variable. Basal pinnacle reefs are overlain by
sandstones and conglomerates. Limestone and chert mark containing deep water benthonic foraminifera,
are the most common detritus in the basal clastics. which are in turn overlain by calcarenites containing
Ophiolitic and pre-Middle Miocene sedimentary shallow water shelf species.
detritus dominate the Middle to Late Miocene coarse
clastics. "Recent Orogtnic" Sedimentation

Paleontologic dating of this facies proved extremely Wapulaka Formation


difficult due to reworking and scarcity of benthonic and
planktonic foraminifera. In south Buton, the sequence The Wapulaka Formation unconformably overlies the
ranges from Early Miocene (N3/4) to early Late Sampolakosa Formation and consists of Late Pliocene
Miocene (N15/16). In North Buton, the range is from to Pleistocene (N21-22/23), poorly cemented, intensely
Middle Miocene (N14) to early Late Miocene (NW16). karstified, bioclastic limestones. Microfauna indicate
216

a shallow water, inner neritic, reef or near reef delineated four previously unrecognized exploration
depositional environment. Deposition was as platform fairways in the onshore and offshore Contract Area
carbonates on block faults, created during the Buton - (Figure 8). Each fairway is distinguished on the basis of
Tukang Besi collision. Incremental uplift of the blocks structural style, traps, likely source rocks, reservoirs,
produced spectacular raised terraces, now exposed at and seals (Table 3). Three play-types and three
surface in south Buton. Total formation thickness is prospects are currently recognized within these fair-
dependant on degree of block uplift and ranges from 20 ways. Reservoir objectives are relatively shallow and
meters in north Buton to a maximum of 700 meters in included Pliocene reefs, Miocene clastics, Miocene
south Buton. carbonates, and Cretaceous carbonates. Traps include
stratigraphic, overthrust anticlines, and wrench-related
Igneous Rocks anticlines. Thrust faults are the primary conduits for
hydrocarbon migration.
Kapantoreh Ophiolites
Source Rocks
Ophiolites occur in northwest and southwest Buton as
discreet fault-bounded blocks. The best exposures are Primary source rocks are the bituminous marine shales,
in south Buton along the west flank of the Kapantoreh and limestones of the Triassic Winto Formation.
mountains. Maximum stratigraphic thickness is Geochemical analysis of approximately twenty outcrop
estimated at several hundred meters. Maximum samples indicate these rocks have good to excellent oil
structural thickness is approximately 4,000 meters. generating potential. Total .organic carbon (TOC)
ranges from less than 1% to over 16%. Pyrolysis yields
Only the basai portion of a typical ophiolite complex average 35 ppm but on selected samples have exceed
are present on Buton. Outcrops, as well as clasts 94,000 ppm. The oil generating potential of the Winto
within the Tondo Formation are limited to highly shales is estimated at three to five times that of the
serpentinized peridotite, gabbro, and minor diorite. limestones. Expulsion efficiencies of source rocks with
Gravity data across the ophiolites failed to detect a comparable pyrolysis yields are estimated at 60% to
"root zone" west of the surface exposures. Milson 90% (Corelabs - personal communication).
(1991) concludes that the Buton ophiolites are
allochthonous detached klippen, that were transported Most samples of the Winto Formation contain high
away from their root zone by thrusting. Alternatively, concentrations of oil-prone, sulfur-rich, Type I1
steeply dipping ophiolites would produce a similar amorphous kerogen. Secondary amounts of cutinite,
gravity profile. resinite, and vitrinite are also present. All samples
contain the biomarkers Bisnorhopane, and varying
Radiometric age dates from the east Sulawesi concentrations of Gammacerane.
ophiolites range from 32.20 k 7.88 Mya to 93.36 k 2.27
Mya. Conoco obtained an Early Cretaceous age (113 In outcrop, Winto source rocks are immature to
k11Mya) on a fresh gabbro sample from south Buton. marginally mature. Spore Colouration Index and
The reliability of Conoco's date is questionable as the K Vitrinite Reflectance (Yo Ro) values average 3.5 and
/ Ar method was used to data a sample with an 0.4, respectively. At thermal maturity these rocks will
extremely low potassium content. generate a high sulfur, low wax, paraffinic crude oil.
Burial history and maturation modeling suggest that
Several small outcrops of amphibolite schists occur the unthrusted Winto sediments at depth, entered the
along the western limits of the Buton ophiolites. Rocks oil window (0.5% Ro) in the Late Miocene. The onset
of similar composition and stratigraphic position are of oil generation was coincident with thrusting and
reported on Sulawesi (De Roever, 1956; Silver et al., imbrication, development of the overthrust anticlinal
1983) and Timor (Sopaheluwakan et al., 1989). On structures, and deposition of the Tondo Formation
Buton, the stratigraphic position, deformation, coarse clastic facies. The numerous live oil seeps from
and metamorphic grade of these rocks suggest they the Winto Formation indicate that these rocks are
represent the sole of the ophiolitic material and a+e a locally still within the oil window.
mixture of ultrabasic and metasedimentary rocks,
metamorposed and tectonized during obduction. Carbon isotope, pyrolysis-GC, GC, and GC-MS
biomarker data for all asphalt samples and most live
HYDROCARBON PROSPECTIVITY oils indicate derivation from the calcareous shales and
bituminous limestones of the Winto Formation.
Buton is considered a high risk area with high Delineation wells in the Buton asphalt mines,
recoverable hydrocarbon reserve potential. Conoco has indicate that these sediments have already expelled
217

approximately 18 million tons of bitumen, or 87 million the Piiocene / Pleistocene Wapulaka Formation, and
barrels of 30° API oil equivalent. paleokarst development at the top of the T o n d o and /
or Tobelo limestones. Reservoir quality of the
Tondo Formation shales and mudstones are a Sampolakosa Formation platform carbonates and
secondary source rock. Assessment of their potential is Tobelo Formation paleokarst was assessed in Gulf's
difficult, primarily due to asphalt contamination and Sampolakosa-lS and Bale-IS wells. The Bale-IS well,
the inclusion of reworked Triassic material. T o n d o penetrated 427 meters (net) of Sampolakosa Formation
shales are generally gas-prone with fair to poor platform carbonates with an average porosity of 31%.
potential, contain both terrestrial and algal kerogen, In the Sampolakosa-lS well, approximately 113 meters
and the biomarker Oleanane. T O C ranges from (net) of karstic Tobelo limestones were penetrated with
less than 1% to over 10%. Oils from the Nunu seep, an average porosity of 23%.
northwest Buton, were typed to the T o n d o sediments
(Figure 9). Seal Rocks

Reservoir Rocks Calcareous mudstones and claystones of the Late


Miocene T o n d o Formation, and marls and mudstones
Primary reservoirs are the coarse clastic facies of the of the Early Pliocene Sampolakosa Formations are the
Tondo Formation. This facies is comprised of stacked principal seals. The sealing potential is greatest in north
sands and conglomerates deposited as deltaic to deep Buton where tip to 120 meters of interbedded
marine turbidite fans. Total thickness of individual mudstones and siltstones are observed. In south
reservoirs range from 5 meters to over 100 meters. Buton, over 50 meters of Sampolakosa Formation
Field estimates, petrographic and whole core analysis mudstones and siltstones with good sealing potential
of outcrop samples, and analysis of electric logs were penetrated by the Bale-IS well. Comparable
indicate that reservoir potential varies from poor thicknesses of stacked Tondo Formation claystones
to good. Porosities range from 8% to over 25% were encountered in the Sampolakosa-IS and Bulu-IS
and average 19%. Maximum measured vertical wells.
and horizontal permeability is 172 mD. Detailed
petrographic analyses indicate that primary porosity Traps
was high, due to the grain supported nature of the rocks
and very low interstitial clay matrix. Calcite and As a result of Conoco's work, several large, three and
dolomite cementation resulting from diagenesis has four-way dip structures, and stratigraphic traps have
significantly reduced primary porosity. been delineated. Primary traps in the onshore areas are
thrust-related anticlines with four-way dip closure. In
Lateral continuity of individual reservoirs is generally the offshore area, primary traps are wrench-related
limited. An exception is the Lambele sub-basin of the anticlines. Stratigraphic traps, including reefs and
East Buton Basin which was totally encircled by clastic fans are also re.cognized in several offshore
paleohighs during deposition of the Middle Miocene areas.
Tondo reservoirs (Figure 8). Within this basin.
individual clastic beds are thicker and more widespread The onshore thrust-related anticlines are Late Miocene
than other areas of the island. age and developed as a result of the collision of Buton
and Muna / S.E. Sulawesi. Onset of doming coincided
All evidence suggest that early migration of hydro- with deposition of the Tondo limestones and /o
carbons into the reservoirs is critical in inhibiting or the basal coarse elastics facies in the Early to
diagenesis and retaining primary porosity. Plug-type Middle Miocene. Many of the structures were
core analyses were performed on nine boulder-sized further tectonized during the Late Pliocene to
samples of asphalt impregnated sandstones and Pleistocene collision of Buton Island with Tukang Besi.
conglomerates. Helium porosities and nitrogen Deformation involved reactivation of yotmg faults and
permeabilities in these samples averaged 22.5% and 41 recompression of the older structures. In all thrusted
roD., respectively. Comparable porosity vahtes were structures, tectonic deformation increases with depth.
obtained from electric logs over intervals of similar consequently principal reservoir objectives arc
rocks penetrated in the Bulu-lS and Sampolakosa-lS confined to the overthrust sheet. Tondo coarse elastics
wells. are the primary reservoir objective.

Additional potential reservoirs include interbedded Wrench-related anticlines are confined to the Buton
pinnacle reefs and platform carbonates of the P!ioccnc St:~:it> ztr,:,: and wos~ern-most o:~.shore Bu~on Is!and
Sampolakosa Formation, sedimentary fit;: deposits in (Figure o;. Slruetures are typically tightly folded.
2 18

asymmetric, northeast-trending, and aligned en are geochemically similar. All eight are medium gravity
echelon to a major wrench fault which parallels the (22" to 28"), high sulfur oils. Carbon isotopes
west coast of Buton. Trap development was during the biomarkers support derivation from Winto source
Late Pliocene / Early Pleistocene oblique collision of rocks. Saturated hydrocarbon content suggests
Buton Island and Tukang Besi. Doming of the sea generation at early to middle maturity levels. Original,
bed indicates that compression and tightening of pre-biodegradation gravity is estimated at between 30"
these structures is still occurring. Primary reservoir and 35".
objectives are Sampolakosa Formation platform
carbonates and interbedded pinnacle reefs. Geochemical data from the Nunu seep, northwest
Buton, are very different from all other oil samples,
Stratigraphic traps include Pliocene / Pleistocene reefal (Figure 9) This seep is a severely biodegraded, medium
buildups and Pliocene fan deposits. These are confined gravity (30"), low sulfur, naphthenic oil. The origin of
to the offshore areas between Buton Island, Muna this sample is currently unresolved, primarily due to the
Island and Sulawesi. Additional seismic data is degree of biodegradation. Based on. carbon isotopes
required to assess the potential of these plays. and the Tertiary biomarker Oleanane the oil is
tentatively typed to the Miocene Tondo Formation.
HYDROCARBONOCCURRENCES Additional analyses are required to confirm this
correlation. An abnormally high saturated hydrocarbon
Oil seeps, gas seeps and asphalts are abundant on content (70% - 86%) suggests the oil was generation at a
Buton Island (Figure 9). Approximately 50 samples high maturity level with an original, pre-biodegradation
were submitted for geochemical analyses. A detailed gravity of approximately 45".
discussion of the results is beyond the scope of this
paper. Consequently only the general characteristics of Gas Seeps
the hydrocarbons are summarized below.
Gas seeps are also common in north Buton. They are
Regional maturity levels were difficult to determine typically associated with hot springs adjacent to
due to the effects of biodegradation. Cursory estimates Pliocene / Pleistocene wrench faults. Eight seeps were
were derived utilizing TmKs values and percent analyzed, six from Buton island, one from Wowoni
aromatisation. On a regional scale the hydrocarbons island, and one from S.E. Sulawesi (Figure 9). Gas
range from low to high maturity. Low maturity compositions are very similar. All are relatively dry
hydrocarbons occur in southeast Buton, intermediate gasses with methane content ranging from 95.38
maturity hydrocarbons are confined to north and volume percent to 100 volume percent. Trace amounts
northeast Buton, and high maturity hydrocarbons of ethane and propane were detected in one seep from
occur along the west coast of the Island (Figure 9). north Buton.
These trends are primarily attributed to -different
geothermal gradients (1.4"F / 100 feet in south Buton to Carbon isotope data from the methane fraction indicate
2.25"F / 100 feet in west Buton). that the Buton gases are thermogenic in origin with
generation at the base of the oil window.
Oil Seeps
Dry gas seeps from Wowoni Island and S.E. Sulawesi
Oil seeps are common on south Buton Island, primarily are also associated with hot springs and strike-slip
along fractures in outcrops of the Triassic Winto faults. Methane constitutes greater than 99 volume
Formation. Two additional seeps were detected by percent of these samples. C1 carbon isotope data
Conoco in northwest and west central Buton Island. indicate they are inorganic in origin with a possible
These are associated with north to northeast-trending volcanic source.
Pliocene / Pleistocene wrench faults (Figure 9).
Asphalts
Nine oil samples were analyzed. All samples are
severely biodegraded. Sulfur content is extremely Asphalts on Buton occur as impregnations of porous
variable and ranges from less than 1 weight percent in beds, coatings on fractures, and / or late stage cross-
western and northwestern Buton Island, to greater than cutting veins or "bitumen dikes". All occurrences are
2.5 weight percent in the south and east (Figure 9). This structurally controlled and located adjacent to, Or
variability is attributed to either oil maturity or facies within, reactivated Miocene thrust faults or Pliocene 1
changes within the Winto source rocks. Pleistocene strike-slip faults. Primary host rocks are
foraminifera1 packstones of the Pliocene Sampolakosa
GC, pyrolysis-GC, carbon isotope, and GC-MS Formation, and sandstones and conglomerates of the
biomarker data indicate that eight of the nine samples underlying Miocene Tondo Formation.
219

The largest asphalt deposits are confined to the during the Pliocene / Pleistocene. Reservoirs were
southern end of the island in a 50 kilometer by 10 fractured. and weakly to moderately degraded
kilometer belt between Lawele and Sampolawa (Figure hydrocarbons were released along fractures and faults.
9). These deposits were discovered in the early Continued regional uplift resulted in sufficient over
1920's and intermittently mined until August of 1987. pressure to created and maintain large open fractures.
pjineteen asphalt "fields" were exploited, the largest These Lvere subsequently filled with asphalt. In the
being the Kabungka, Lawele, and Mana pits (Hetzel. Kabungka pits, hairline width to over one meter wide
1936). Approximately 3.5 million tons of asphalt was asphalt-filled fractures are common. Fresh water influx
nlined from the Kabungka quarries (Hetzel. 1936). and Lvater washing may have been the primary
mechanism for hydrocarbon degradation at this time.
In 1988, P.T. Sarana Karya, in conjunction with the
Alberta Research Council, conducted an extensive Cross-cutting relationships indicate a recent period of
,=valuation of the south Buton asphalt deposits for the hydrocarbon migration. High viscosity asphalt dikes
1BRD Highway Maintenance Betterment Project. A were forcibly injected into the country rocks by
sixty-six hole, shallow drilling program delineated hydraulic fracturing. Fracturing and injection were in
Significant asphalt accumulations in over twenty areas. response to continued regional uplift and severe
Using a cutoff of 15% bitumen saturation. total overpressure. The dikes are comprised of asphalt
reserves are estimated at 100 million tons. clasts. and well-rounded Tondo and Sampolakosa clasts
within a flow banded matrix of asphalt and rock flour.
Thirty-six asphalt, or asphalt impregnated rock samples Internal textures, specifically the well rounded clasts,
Lvere analyzed by solvent extraction, fractionation, the sheeted character of the vein walls, and flow
gas chromatography (GC), gas chromatography-mass structures within the dike matrix are analogous to
spectrometry (GC-MS), and carbon isotope. textures obscrved in igneous intrusion breccia.
Biomarker and carbon isotope data are identical and
are similar to most of the analyzed Buton oils. All Thickness of the dikes ranges from less than one
ueochemical data indicate the asphalt is biodegraded
3 centimeter to several meters. Biodegradation and
crude oil derived from a marine, type I1 kerogen. Good water Lvashing are believed responsible for the current
to excellent correlations were obtained between the breakdoivn of the hydrocarbons.
asphalts and the Triassic Winto Formation calcareou\
shales and bituminous limestones. All samples contain CONCLUSIONS
the biomarkers Bisnorhopane and in varying concentra-
tions, Gammacernne. The very high Gnrnmacerntie Buton Island is a small Australia-New Guinea derived
content in several samples is attributed to biodegrada- microcontinent currently experiencing localized
tion and secondary enrichment / concentration. compression from interaction of the Tukang Besi and
Asphalt and oils from Seram and Timor reportedly Muna / Sulawesi microplates. A comparison of the
contain similar biornarkers (Price, 1987; P.T.Corelabs - island's stratigraphy and tectonic history to adjacent
personal communication). islands in the Banda Arc reveal broad similarities to
Timor, Seram, and possibly Buru.
Liquid chromatography indicate the Buton asphalts are
primarily composed of asphaltines, NSO compounds. For oil exploration, Buton is considered a medium to
and aromatics. Biodegradation has significantly high risk area with good potential for hydrocarbon
reduced the saturated hydrocarbon content which accumulation. Principal strengths include the
ranges from 4% to 23%. Sulfur content is generally Lvidespread distribution of very prolific Triassic source
high and varies from 2.53 to 9.36 tveight percent. rock$. lite oil and gas seeps, and well-defined Miocene
to Pleistocene structures. Primary weaknesses are
I-icld evidence indicate that at least three stages of oil rescnoir quality and lateral continuity, reduced sealing
cxpulsion. migration and biodegradation have occurred potential ciuc to recent tectonism, and the possibility
on Buton. Initial hydrocarbons were probably low for se\ ere hydrocarbon biodegradation.
L,iscosity oils (28" in south Ruton) that filled porous
i-c>ervoirswithin the Sampolakosa and Tondo Forma- ACKNO\VLEDGMENTS
tions. Primary migration paths were thrust faults.
Onset of biodegradation probably occurred after the Thc author expresses his sincere appreciation to the
hydrocarbons were within the reservoirs. managemr'nt of Pertamina/BPPKA, Conoco, Shell,
and Enterprise for their permission to publish
The second stage of hydrocarbon migration and the paper. Many of the concepts presented were
biodegradation coincided with deformation and uplitt assimilated from interpretations and discussions with
220

individuals in P.T. Geoservices, Earth Resources Area. Proc. of Snellius-I1 Symp. Theme: Geology and
Institute, University of London, P.T. Corelabs, and Geophysics of the Banda Arc and Adjacent Areas, part
P.T. Robertson Research. Their assistance is also I . Neth. J. Sea Research. Vol. 24 (2/3), p. 263-275.
, appreciated. Inspiration and motivation for compiling
the paper was provided by Carol Davidson and PauI De Smet, M.E.M., and B. Hermanto, 1991, The Pre-
Ebdale. Appreciation is also expressed to Joe de Weogene of Northern Buton and Southeast Sulawesi,
Mehoe, Micheal Gage, Peter van den Heuvel, Gayatri, University of London (Unpublished), 145p.
K . Hendardjo and Achmad Dochri for assistance in
preparing and reviewing the manuscript. Fortuin, A.R., De Smet, M.E.M., Hadiwasastra,
S . , Van Marle, L.J., Troelstra, S.R., and S.
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4
h)
N
N

TABLE 1
CONTRACTUALHISTORY AND EXPLORATIONACTIVITIES
OFFSHORE SOUTH SULAWESI BLOCK

DATE COMPANY ACTIVITY REMARKS

06/69 SE Asia Oil and Gas Signed PSC 100,OOO sq.kms.

05/70 Indonesia Gulf Oil Company Acquired Operatorship

07/70 Indonesia Gulf Oil Company Marine Seismic Acquisition 543 kms.

iino Indonesia Gulf Oil Company Marine Seismic Acquisition 342 kms.

01/72 Gulf Research Marine Seismic Acquisition 421 kms.

04/72 Indonesia Gulf Oil Company Land Seismic Acquisition

05ff 2 Indonesia Gulf Oil Company Aeromagnetic Survey 153kms.

ion4 Indonesia Gulf Oil Company Land Seismic Acquisition 10,990 kms.

1w14 Indonesia Gulf Oil Company Marine Seismic Acquisition 161kms.

1975 Indonesia Gulf Oil Company Geological Field Work 100 kms.

03/76 Indonesia Gulf Oil Company Drilled Bale-1S Well 440 kms.

04/76 Indonesia Gulf Oil Company Drilled Sampolakosa-1SWell P & A at 6,664'

07/76 Indonesia Gulf Oil Company Drilled Bulu-1S Well P & A at 7,265'

06/77 Indonesia Gulf Oil Company Relinquished Area P & A at 7,976'


TABLE 2
CONTRACTUAL HISTORY AND EXPLORATION ACTIVITIES
HUTON CONTRACT AREA, S.E. SULAWESI

~ ~

DATE COMPANY ACTMTY REMARKS

12/87 Conoco (70%), Shell (30%) Signed PSC 18,903 sq.kms

01/88 Conoco Buton Ltd. Acquired SLARILandsat

04/88 Conoco Research Services Remote Sensing Study

08/88 Conoco Buton Ltd. Translocation Suvey

08/88 Conoco Buton Ltd. Geol. Field Work and Analysis 365 kmsl44.6 samples

10188 Conoco / Shell Signed JOA

02/89 Conoco Buton Ltd. Marine Seismic Acquisition

06/89 Conoco Buton Ltd. SPOT Acquisition 8 panchromatic scenes

10189 Conoco Buton Ltd. Geol. Field Work and Analysis 498 kms/ 400 samples

11/89 Conoco Buton Ltd. Land Seismic Acquisition 302 kms

01/90 Enterprise Oil Company Farm-in from Conoco 25% interest

04/90 Conoco Buton Ltd. Translocation Survey

05/90 Conoco Buton Ltd. Marine Seismic Acquisition 359 kms

08/90 Perlamina BPPKA Block Redesignation Frontier-Incentive Terms

09/90 RMBNCIGRDC Regional Gravity Survey

12/90 Conoco Buton Lid. Environmental Baseline Study North Buton Nature Reserve

I 03/91 (:onoco R u t o n i ,I ti. Site Survey Jambu-1 Well Location N


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w
TABLE 3

BUTON EXPLORATION FAIRWAYS

~ ~ ~~

PRIMARY BASIN PRIMARY SOURCE PRIMARY RESERVOIR PRIMARY SEAL

EAST BUTON (EBB) Compressional Overthrust Triassic Winto


Anticlines Middle Miocene Miocene Tondo
LAMBELE SUB-BASIN (Lb) Tondo Clastics

BULU SUB BASIN (Bb) Lower Miocene


Tondo Clastics Miocene Tondo
BUBU SUB-BASIN (Bub)
Lower Miocene
Tondo Clastics Pliocene
Sampolakosa

BUTON (BSB) Wrench-with Wrenclfliapir- Miocene mocene Pliocene


possible related anti- Tondo Sampolakosa Sampolakosa
diapirism clines Carbonates

KOLONO (KB) Extensional Stratigraphic Triassic Miocene Pliocene


Winto (?) Tondo Clastics Sampolakosa

TIWORO (TB) Extensional Stratigraphic Miocene Pliocene Pliocene


Tondo (?) Pinnacle reefs Sampolakosa
225

BANDA SEA

SCALE

FIGURE 1 - Regional Location Map, Buton Island.


226

12230’ E 123WE

0430’s

05°00’S

05’30’s

I
I
Kilometers
Block boundary

FIGURE 2 - Buton Island and cur,rentContract Area.


227

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Sea Level EOCENE - OLIGOCENE

/ BUTON MICRO C 0 " T


-
SULAWESI
CONTINENTAL CRUST

iNJ" x u m m n
SrlwTs OPlilOLnE MIOCENE
BUI I BASIN
\
&+ +
+ +At++_IF + + +/v + + +L--

TL'KANG B E 1 MICRO CONTINENT


-
BUTON ACTIVE
FOLD & THRUST BELT

PLIOCENE / PLEISTOCENE

l"C BESI
ACTIVE FOLD & THRUST BELT

FIGURE 4 - A Plate Tectonic Model For the Tertiary Deformational History of Buton
Island, Tukang Besi, and Muna / S.E. Sulawesi ( after Nolan, et al., 1989 ).
230

122"30' E 123"00' E

04"30' S

Miocene Thrust F e l t s

'Ocko Fault Zone

xT
Pivot Point for Island Rotation

l~$':.:':.:'~:.:':<.~-
...:.:~ ~:',.'.-:'::::.~:.~
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f
Antlthetio Strke-Silp FauR 05"00' S
Buton.Muna / S.E. Sulawesi Suture Zone

En Echelon Anticlines

8 1 ....

Mkx:ene Thrust Faults

05030. S
Pliooene l P l e b ~ n e Blodt FaulllnO
and Raised R~ef Terrace=

0 N

0 10 20
I I I
Kilometers
B/ock bounda~ I

FIGURE 6 - Generalized Structural.Features Map.


AGE
'LEISTOCENI

PLIOCENE N"

(POROSITY: 19 %)

MIOCENE 'ONDO

OLIGOCENE
EOCENE
PALEQCENE
TOBELO
SETACEOU! Sf CONDARY
RESERVOIR
(POROSITY: 23%)

JURASSIC

- ~-
I l l .1 .1 . 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I l l 1 1 1 I I l l l l l l

SOURCE
TRIASSIC

FIGURIS 7 - Gcneralizcd Stratigraphic Column, I3iiton Island.


232

122"" E 123"OO' E

- 04'30'5

* 05"OO'S

- 05"30'S

I Block boundary I Exploration Fairways

FIGURE 8 - Exploration Fairways.


233

123'00' E

04'30 04'30's

0
G

05'00 05'00's

05'30' 05"30'S

+
N

10
Kilometers
20

123O00'E

FIGURE 9 - Buton Island Hydrocarbon Occurrences.