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# 1.

## Define source and sink flow

2. What is vortex flow?
3. State magnus effect
4. State kutta conditions
5. Write any two assumptions made while deriving thin airfoil theory
6. What are jukowski airfoils
7. What is induced drag
8. State Helmholtz theorems
9. Define boundary layer thickness
10. Define local coefficient of drag.
11. Draw stream lines pattern for flow over (a) circular cylinder (b) cone
12. Distinguish between rotational flow and irrotational flow
13. State D Alembert paradox
14. Define magnus effect. Provide an example utilizing the concept.
15. What is conformal transformation? Provide examples to highlight its usefulness.
16. Draw neat diagrams of airfoils providing zero and non-zero lifts at zero angle of attack.
17. Distinguish between streamlines and vortex lines
18. How is the flow past a wing modelled in potential flow analysis?
19. How is the flow over a circular cylinder different from flow over a flat plate if the fluid is viscous?
20. Distinguish between laminar and turbulent flow characteristics.
21. Differentiate finite control volume approach and infinitesimal fluid element approach
22. State the importance of stream function
23. What is meant by stokes flow
24. State kutta condition
25. Differentiate leading edge stall and trailing edge stall.
26. Give Cauchy – Riemann relations
27. State the physical significance of Prandlt lifting line theory.
28. What is drag due to lift?
29. How the Prandtl number does affect the velocity and thermal boundary layer.
30. What is the contribution of viscosity on drag?
31. Write down the Euler equation for steady inviscid flows.
32. Define convective derivative
33. Sketch variation in Cp distribution when the real and ideal fluids flow over a circular cylinder.
34. State Kelvin circulation theorem.
35. Give Cauchy Riemann relations
36. Write down the important theoretical results for a symmetric airfoil from thin airfoil theory.
37. State Helmholtz vortex theorem
38. Differentiate aerodynamic twist and geometric twist.
39. What is meant by adverse pressure gradient? Sketch the adverse pressure gradient in a flow
field.
40. Define boundary layer.
1. Show that the source sink pair with uniform flow will generate a symmetrical oval by the dividing
stream line.

2. A guard for supporting strut of a wind tunnel is designed by the combination of a source at origin with
a free stream of uniform velocity U. show the pressure distribution on the surface of the guard is

## Where p is the pressure on the surface and Po at free stream.

3. A Circular cylinder of 2m diameter and 12m length is rotate at 300 rpm about its axis when it is kept in
air stream of 40m/s velocity, with its axis perpendicular to the flow. Determine

## (iii) Position of stagnation points

(iv) Actual drag, lift and resultant force on the cylinder. Take Cd = 0.52, Cl = 1.0 and p = 1.208 kg/m3.

## 4. State and prove kutta joukowski theorem.

5. Obtain an expression for the thickness to chord ratio of a symmetrical airfoil section transformed
form a circle of radius b by using the joukowski transformation w = z+a2/z.

6. Consider an NACA 23012 airfoil. The mean camber line for this airfoil is given by

## 7. Derive fundamental equation of prandtl lifting line theory.

8. Derive the expression for induced velocity induced by an infinite long vortex filament at any arbitrary
point located at a distance r from the vortex filament.

9. Some engineers wish to obtain a god estimate of the drag and boundary layer thickness at the trailing
edge of a miniature wing. The chord and span of the wing are 6mm and 30mm respectively. A typical
flight speed is 5m/s in air. They decide to make a super scale model with chord span of 150mm and
750mm respectively. Measurements on the model in a water channel flowing at 0.5m/s. gave a drag of
0.19 N and boundary layer thickness of 3mm. Estimate the corresponding values for the prototype.

10. Find the displacement thickness, momentum thickness and energy thickness for the velocity
distribution in the boundary layer given by u/U= 2 (y/d) – (y/d)2.
11. Derive the basic equations to completely represent a gas flow. Write a short note on isothermal
flows and barotropic flows.

12. Show that the streamlines and equi potential lines are orthogonal to each other. (i) State the green
theorem, stokes theorem and kelvin theorem. (ii) write in general about the elementary planar flows.

13. Draw the variation of drag coefficient for (i) circular cylinder 9ii) sphere in gas dynamic problems
with a suitable parameter. (i) How does the flow over a smooth and rough circular cylinders and spheres
differ in their flow patterns? (ii) Why do we give too much importance to tall chimney problems in our
atmosphere?

14. Using elementary planar flows, find out the pressure and velocity distribution over a circular
cylinder.

15. State and prove Kutta joukowski theorem (i) what is kutta condition for flow past an airfoil.

16. What are the basic assumptions made in thin airfoil theory. (i) An airfoil camber line is defined by

Using thin airfoil theory calculate (a) angle of attack at zero lift of camber (b) local coefficient of lift at
3.7 degrees. (c) Calculate the pitching moment coefficient about leading edge.

17. Explain the following terms: (a) vortex vector (b) circulation (c) vorticity (d) vortex line € starting
vortex (f) bound vortex (g) horse shoe vortex (h) Tip vortex

18. using lifting line theory establish the characteristics of wings. What are the limitations of simple
lifting line theory?

19. From the Navier stokes equation establish the two dimensional boundary layer equations.

20. Write short note on the following (i) boundary layer thickness (ii) displacement thickness (iii)
momentum thickness (iv) energy thickness of boundary layer (v) what are the hypothesis put forward by
ludwig prandtl for solving viscous flow past body shapes. What is Blausius experimental solution for flow
past a flat plate and the solutions of theoretical analysis for various assumed values of boundary layer
velocity profiles?
21. The velocity field in a fluid is given by V = 3xy2i + 2xyj + (2zy +3t)k. find the magnitude and directions
of (i) translational velocity (ii) rotational velocity (iii) the vorticity of a fluid elements at (1,2,1) and at
time t=3. Under what condition does the streamlines, path lines and steaklines are exists and difference
in a flow field? Explain.

22. Derive and state the necessary assumption made to obtain the Euler’s equation form momentum
equation. Consider the velocity field given by u = y/ (x2+y2) and v= -x/(x2+y2).Calculate the circulation
around a cylinder path of radius of 5m. Assume that the u and v are given in m/s.

23. Consider the non-lifting flow over a circular cylinder of given radius. where the velocity is 20m/s. if
velocity is doubled as 40m/s. does the shape of the streamline change? Explain. State and prove Kelvin’s
circulation theorem.

24. Flow past a rotating cylinder can be simulated by superposition of a doublet and uniform flow and a
vortex. The peripheral velocity of the rotating cylinder alone is given by Vat r=R. Use the expression for
the combined velocity potential for the superimposed uniform flow, double and vortex and show that
the resultant velocity at any point on the cylinder is given by -2Usinθ the angle is the angular position of
the point of interest. A Cylinder rotates at 360 rpm around its own axis which is perpendicular to the
uniform air stream having velocity of 25m/s. the cylinder is 2m in diameter. Determine (i) circulation (ii)
lift per unit length (iii) position of stagnation points.

25. Using the transformation functions. Trace the symmetric airfoil from a circle of radius where a = b+
be. The value of b = 25mm and eccentricity e = 0.143. Determine the chord length, maximum thickness
and thickness to chord ratio. Trace the airfoil shape using the graph sheet in answer sheet.

26. Show that the center of pressure is at the quarter chord point for a symmetric airfoil.

27. The variation of circulation over a wing having elliptic plan form with span b is given below.

Determine (i) downwash (ii) induced angle of attack (iii) induced drag

28. Prove that the geometric angle of attack is equal to the sum of the effective angle of attack plus the
induced angle of attack.

29. Using order analysis, reduce the Navier stokes equations into a boundary layer equations for flow
over a flat plate.

30. for the given velocity profile as u/U =2n – n2 where n =y/d. Determine the displacement thickness,
momentum thickness, energy and shape factor, where d is the boundary layer thickness.

31. Find the resultant velocity vector induced at point A in figure due to the combination of uniform
stream, line source, line sink and line vortex.
32. A thin airfoil has a camber line defined by the relation y=kx (x-1)(x-2) where x and y are its
coordinates expressed in terms of unit chord and tits origin is at the leading edge. If the maximum
camber is 2% of the chord, determine the low speed two dimensional pitching moment coefficient at 3
incidence.

33. Consider the boundary layer velocity profile is given as u/V = (y/d)0.25. Is the flow rotational or
irrotational.

34. A rankine half body is formed a shown in figure. For the conditions given compute

(a) the source strength, m in m2/s. (b) the distance a (c) the distance h and (d) the total velocity at point
A. Consider the two dimensional velocity distribution u = -By , v = +Bx, where B is a constant. If the flow
possess a stream function, find its form. If it has a velocity potential, find it. Compute the angular
velocity of the flow , if any and describe what the flow might represent.

35. Determine the drag and lift coefficient using velocity components of a lifting flow over a circular
cylinder and state and prove kutta joukowski theorem.

36. Show that the local jump is tangential velocity across the vortex sheet is equal to the local sheet
strength. Consider the lifting flow over a circular cylinder, the lift coefficient is 5. Calculate the peak
negative pressure coefficient. And find the location of stagnation points.

37. Transform the straight lines, parallel to the x axis in the physical plane with the transformation
function e= 1/z.

38. Consider a thin plate at 5 degree angle of attack. Calculate (a) lift coefficient 9b) moment coefficient
about the leading edge (c) moment coefficient about the quarter chord point (d) moment coefficients
about the trailing edge.

39. Using biot savart law. Obtain the expression for the geometric angle of attack of a finite wing.
40. A wing with elliptical loading with span 15m, planform area 45m2. Is in level flight at 750 Km/h at an
altitude where density is 0.66 kg/m3. If the induced drag on the wing is 3222N. Determine (a) lift
coefficient (b) downwash velocity (c) wing loading

41. For the give velocity profile as u/U =2n-n2 where n=y/d. Determine the displacement thickness,
momentum thickness and energy thickness where d is the boundary layer thickness

42. Consider a flat plate at zero angle of attack in a airfoil at standard sea level conditions. The chord
length of the plate for the leading edge to trailing edge is 3m. The rectangular planform of a span of 12m
at standard atmospheric conditions u =1.7894x 10-5 kg/ms. Assume wall temperature is adiabatic wall
temperature. Calculate the friction drag on the plate when the free stream velocity is 200m/s. Sketch
the variation of thermal and velocity boundat layer based on the variation of prandtl number.

43. Using the transformation function d= z+b2/X. Trace the symmetric airfoil form a circle of radius a
where a = b+be. The value of b=25mm and eccentricity e=0.2. Determine the chord length, maximum
thickness and thickness to chord ratio. Trace the airfoil shape using graph sheet.

44. Using order analysis reduce the Navier stokes equations into boundary layer equations for flow over
a flat plate.