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Study of Electrical Power Transmission and

Distribution system
A Thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Award of
Degree of
Bachelor of Science in Electrical and Electronic Engineering

Submitted by
Md. Abdus Salam (141-33-1818)
Md. Tajmul Huda Taju (141-33-1819)

Supervised by
DR. ENGR. A K M Alamgir
Associate Professor
Department Of EEE
Faculty of Engineering



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This is to certify that this thesis entitled “Study of Electrical Power Transmission and
Distribution system” is done by the following students under my direct supervision and this
work has been carried out by the laboratories of the Department of Electrical and Electronic
Engineering under the Faculty of Engineering of Daffodil International University in partial
fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Bachelor of Science in Electrical and Electronic
Engineering. The presentation of the work was held on -2017.

Signature of the candidates

Name: Md. Abdus Salam
ID #: 141-33-1818
Department of EEE
Daffodil International University

Name: Md. Tajmul Huda Taju
ID #: 141-33-1819
Department of EEE
Daffodil International University


Dr. ENGR.A K M Alamgir
Associate Professor
Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering
Faculty of Engineering
Daffodil International University.

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The thesis titled Report on “Power Transmission and Distribution system” submitted by Md.
Abdus Salam, Id No: 141-33-1818 and Md. Tajmul Huda Taju, Id No: 141-33-1819, Session:
Spring-2014 has been accepted as satisfactory in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the
degree of Bachelor of Science in Electrical and Electronic Engineering on 2018.


Dr. Engr. Chairman
Department of EEE, DIU

Dr. Engr. Internal Member
Department of EEE, DIU

Dr. Engr. Internal Member
Department of EEE, DIU

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Dedicated to

Our Parents

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List of Tables viii

List of Figures ix

List of Abbreviations xii

List of Symbols xiii

Acknowledgment xv

Abstract xvi

Chapter 1: Introduction

1.1 Introduction
1.2 Overview
1.3 Current Status

Chapter 02

1. Electrical Power System

1.1. Introduction

1.2. Electrical Power System in Bangladesh

Chapter 03

2. Transmission and Distribution

3.1 Transmission system

3.1.1 Primary Transmission

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3.1.2 Secondary Transmission

3.2 Classification of Transmission Line

3.2.1 Classification of overhead transmission line

3.3 Advantages and disadvantages of high voltage Dc transmission

3.4 Distribution System

3.4.1 Radial Electrical Power Distribution System

3.4.2 Structure of Power Sector Distribution

Chapter 04

3. Mechanical Design

Chapter 05

4. Electrical Design

Chapter 06

5. Performance Analysis
Chapter -07

6. Fault and protection in Transmission and Distribution Lines

1. Construction of Transformer

7.1.1 Action of Transformer

7.1.2 Types of Transformer

7.1.3 Step-Up Transformer

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7.1.4 Step-down transformer

7.2 Three phase transformer

7.3 On Load Tap Changer

7.4 Circuit Breaker

7.4.1 Different types of Circuit Breaker

7.4.2 Operation of Circuit Breaker

7.5 Fuse

7.5.1 Type of Fuses

7.6 Classification of Relay

7.6.1 Induction Type over Current Relay

7.6.2 Induction Type over Voltage Relay

7.6.3 Differential Relay

7.6.4 Operation of Relay

7.6.5 Operation of Buchholz Relay

7.7 Bus Bar

7.7.1 Bus-Bar Calculation

7.7.2 Single Bus bar arrangement

7.7.3 Advantages of single bus system

7.7.4 Disadvantages of single bus system

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7.7.5 Double Bus bar arrangement

7.7.6 Advantages of Double Bus System

7.7.7 Disadvantages of Double Bus System

7.8 Isolator
7.8.1 Types of Isolators

Single Break Isolator

7.8.2 Double Break Isolators

7.9 Neutral Grounding Resistance (NGR)

7.10 Earthing Switches

7.11 Protection against Lightning

Earth Screen

Overhead Ground Wires

Lightning Arrester

The Fire Protection

Chapter -08

7. Power factor improvement

8.1 Introduction


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8 Power riangle
8.2.1 Disadvantages of Low Power factor
8.2.2 Causes of Low Power Factor

8.3 Method of Power Factor Improvement

8.4 Static Capacitor

8.4.1 Static capacitors

8.4.2 Advantage of static capacitor


8.5 Synchronous condenser

8.6 Phase advancers

8.7 Power Factor Improvement Analysis.

Chapter 09

8. Conclusion

Chapter 10

9. Recommendation

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All praises go to Allah, the Almighty, for the successful completion of this Thesis and
fulfillment of our dream into reality. However, thanks and gratitude are also due to the following
persons for their continuous support in completing this thesis and in preparing this report.

First of all, we would like to express our sincere appreciation, heartfelt gratitude and cordial
thanks to our thesis supervisor, Dr. Engr A K M Alamgir, Associate Professor, Department of
EEE Faculty of Engineering (FE), Daffodil International University, Bangladesh for his
invaluable instructions, continuous guidance, constructive criticisms and thoughtful advice during
pursuing this thesis and preparation of this report.

Special thanks are extended to our fellow classmates of the Department of Electrical and
Electronic Engineering, Daffodil International University, Bangladesh for their helping hand,
continuous support and cooperation during this thesis.

Finally, we proudly acknowledges the great sacrifices, good wishes, moral support, fruitful
advice, inspirations and encouragements from our family members, relatives and friends which
help us to finish the thesis successfully.

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Electricity plays a vital role in the socio-economic development and poverty alleviation. It is
considered as the driving force of all development activities. To alleviate poverty in the face of
resource limitations and high population density, Bangladesh requires an economic growth rate of
about 10% p.a. to provide employment to its rapidly growing labor force that cannot be absorbed
by agriculture. In order to achieve this growth rate, availability of a reasonably priced and reliable
source of electricity is a prerequisite.

The power sector in Bangladesh faced numerous problems characterized by lack of supply
capacity, frequent power cuts, unacceptable quality of supply, and poor financial and operational
performance of the sector entities. The customer service is not praiseworthy. There have been a
number of reforms in the power sector in Bangladesh since her independence, but most of these
reforms failed to bring desired improvements in the power sector. The most pressing problem in
the power sector has been with the distribution system, which is characterized by heavy system loss
and poor collection performance; however, the distribution system seldom got the priority in
reform initiatives.

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1.1 Introduction

Bangladesh's energy infrastructure is quite small, insufficient and poorly managed. The per capita
energy consumption in Bangladesh is considered low by global standards. Noncommercial energy
sources, such as wood fuel, animal waste and crop residues, are estimated to account for over half
of the country's energy consumption. Bangladesh has small reserves of oil and coal, but very large
natural gas resources. Commercial energy consumption is mostly natural gas (around 66%),
followed by oil, hydropower and coal.

Electricity is the major source of power for most of the country's economic activities. Bangladesh's
total installed electricity generation capacity (including captive power) was 15,351 MW as of
January 2017. As of 2014, only 62% of the population had access to electricity with a per capita
availability of 321 kWh per annum. Problems in the Bangladesh's electric power sector include
corruption in administration, high system losses, delays in completion of new plants, low plant
efficiency, erratic power supply, electricity theft, blackouts, and shortages of funds for power plant
maintenance. Overall, the country's generation plants have been unable to meet system demand
over the past decade.

On 2 November 2014, electricity was restored after a day-long nationwide blackout. A

transmission line from India had failed, which "led to a cascade of failures throughout the national
power grid," and criticism of "old grid infrastructure and poor management." However, in a recent
root-cause analysis report the investing team has clarified that fault was actually due to Lack in
electricity management & poor Transmission & Distribution health infrastructure that caused the

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1.2 Overview

Bangladesh Power Development Board (BPDB) was assigned to manage power transmission
system, power generation and power distribution throughout Bangladesh. Today there are 70
operating rural electric cooperatives called Palli Bidyuit Samity (PBS), which bring service to
approximately 93,99,134 new connection being made and more than 2,42,116 kms of line has
been constructed.

Since its inception in 1980, Dhaka Palli Biddyut Samity-1 is playing a vital role in Agricultural,
Industrial and Socio-Economic Development of Dhaka District. The Rural Electrification
Program conducted by Dhaka Palli Biddyut Samity-1 has acted a leap- forward in the
development of socio-economic structure of rural areas in Dhaka District as well as entire
Bangladesh. It has significant and sustained impact on agricultural growth, industrialization and
business & commercial activities in the rural areas. It is a consumer owned entity organized on
the basic principles of Co-operative for distribution of electric power to its members and
operates on No Loss - No Profit basis for the mutual benefits of all its Members.

1.3 Current status

Bangladesh Power Development Board (BPDB) is a statutory body created in May 1, 1972, by
presidential Order No. 59 after bifurcation of erstwhile Bangladesh Water and Power
Development Authority. BPDB started its operation with Installed Generation capacity of only
200 MW. Installed Generation capacity (April' 2016) has increased to 12,339 MW.

As part of reform and restructuring a number of Generation and Distribution companies have
been created. The subsidiaries of BPDB are:

- Ashuganj Power Station Company Ltd. (APSCL)

- Electricity Generation Company of Bangladesh (EGCB)

- North West Power Generation Company Ltd. (NWPGCL)

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- West Zone Power Distribution Company Ltd. (WZPDCL)

The BPDB is responsible for major portion of generation and distribution of electricity mainly in
urban areas except Dhaka and West Zone of the country. The Board is under the Power Division
of the Ministry of power, Energy and Mineral Resources, Government of Bangladesh.

In Bangladesh, natural Gas is used as primary energy in most of the existing power plants. 88
per cent of total electricity is produced from gas-based power plants. Besides gas, a small
amount of electricity is produced using diesel, furnace oil and coal. In addition, almost 3 percent
of total electricity is produced from Karnafuly Hydro Power Plant. Due to the increase of
multiple use of gas in fertilizer, industries, factories and other sectors it is not possible to supply
adequate quantity gas (extracted from the existing gas fields) to meet the demand of the power
plants. Due to insufficiency of gas supply at present approximately 500MW less electricity is
produced from existing power plants.

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Figure 1: Energy Generation by Fuel (%).


Electrical Power System in BD

2.1 Introduction
Demand for electricity in Bangladesh is projected to reach 34,000 megawatts (MW) by 2030 and
the Government of Bangladesh has plans to increase power generation beyond expected demand to
help propel growth in the export-oriented economy and to meet the demands of a growing middle
class. Total investment in the sector over the next 15 years is estimated at $70.5 billion. While
installed generation capacity is 13,179 MW as of February 2017, shortfalls exist due to poor
distribution infrastructure and a mismatch between the types of energy plants and fuel mix
available. Private power production units are approaching half of total installed capacity.

Only two-thirds of Bangladesh’s population is currently connected to the electricity grid. This
indicates an untapped potential market of up to 60 million people connecting to the national grid in
coming years as Bangladesh continues its growth trajectory.

The fuel mix of Bangladesh’s power plants is heavily based on natural gas. The Government of
Bangladesh plans to reduce dependence on natural gas and move towards coal with plans to
generate 50 percent of total electricity using coal-based power plants by 2030. Other solutions
include importing electricity from neighboring countries, importing liquefied natural gas (LNG),
and expanding use of renewable resources, including solar and wind.

U.S. companies play a strong role in the power and energy industry in Bangladesh. U.S.
companies produce over 55 percent of Bangladesh’s domestic natural gas supply and are among
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the largest investors in power projects. U.S.-origin power turbines currently provide 80 percent of
Bangladesh’s installed gas-fired power generation capacity.

2.2 Electrical Power System in Bangladesh

The utility electricity sector in Bangladesh has one National Grid with an installed capacity of
15,379 MW as on February' 2017. Bangladesh's energy sector is booming .Recently Bangladesh
started construction of 2.4 GW Rooppur Nuclear Power Plant expected to go into operation in
2023[1] . But still the per capita energy consumption in Bangladesh is considered low . Bangladesh
has small reserves of oil and coal, but very large natural gas resources. Commercial energy
consumption is mostly natural gas (around 66%), followed by oil, hydropower and coal.

Electricity is the major source of power for most of the country's economic activities.. Bangladesh's
total installed electricity generation capacity (including captive power) was 15,351 MW as of
January 2017.[2] As 2015 92% urban population and 67% rural population have the access to the
electricity for their source of light . Average 77.9% population have the access to the electricity in
Bangladesh [3]. Problems in the Bangladesh's electric power sector include , high system losses,
delays in completion of new plants, low plant efficiency, erratic power supply, electricity theft,
blackouts, and shortages of funds for power plant maintenance. Overall, the country's generation
plants have been unable to meet system demand over the past decade .

 In Bangladesh total installed Capacity 15,379 MW.

 In Bangladesh total Generation Capacity 15,351 MW (including captive
 In Bangladesh maximum generation 9507.00 MW. (Update 18/10/2017)

2.2.1 Vision
To be an enabler of economic development and social progress by providing safe, reliable,
sustainable electricity and to deliver uninterrupted quality power to all.

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2.2.2 Mission
To secure continuous growth of electricity for sustainable development and ensure customer

2.2.3 Structure of Power Sector

Power Division is responsible for formulating policy relating to power and supervise, control and
monitor the developmental activities in the power sector of the country. To implement its mandate
the Power Division is supported by a number of organizations, related with generation,
transmission and distribution. The organizational linkage is as follows

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Figure 2.1: Power Sector Structure

2.2.4 Power grid of Bangladesh Zonal Map

Bangladesh has small reserves of oil and coal, but potentially very large natural gas resources.
Commercial energy consumption is around 71% natural gas, with the remainder almost entirely oil
(plus limited amounts of hydropower and coal). Only around 18% of the population (25% in urban

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areas and 10% in rural areas) has access to electricity, and per capita commercial energy
consumption is among the lowest in the world.

Figure 2.2: Power grid of Bangladesh Zonal Map

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Chapter 3
Transmission and Distribution

3.1 Transmission system

The system by which the electrical power transmitted from generating station to distribution
system is known as transmission system. The transmission line divided in two parts:

1. Primary Transmission

2. Secondary Transmission

3.1.1 Primary Transmission

For economy in transmission of power, the generating voltage is stepped up to 132kv or more at
the generating station with the help of 3-phase step-up Transformers. The electric power at 132kv
is transmitted by 3-phase 3-wire overhead system. This forms the primary transmission

3.1.2 Secondary Transmission

The primary transmission line terminates at the receiving station (RS) . At the receiving station,
the voltage is reduced 132kv to 33kv by step-down transformers. From this station electric power
is transmitted at 33kv by 3-phase 3-wire overhead system. This forms the secondary transmission.

3.2. Classification of Transmission Line

There are two types of electric power transmission-

1. Overhead Transmission
2. Underground Transmission

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Fig: 3.1: Overhead Transmission line Fig: 3.2: Underground Transmission line

3.2.1 Classification of overhead transmission line

The overhead transmission lines are classified as

a) Short Transmission Line

b) Medium Transmission Line

c) Long Transmission Line

a) Short Transmission Line : When the length of an overhead transmission line is up to 50km

and the line voltage is comparatively high (<20KV), it is usually considered as a Short

transmission line. R L C consideration.

b) Medium transmission line : when the length of an overhead transmission line is up to 50-

150km and the line voltage is comparatively high (>20KV <100KV), it is usually considered as

a medium transmission line. R L C consideration

c) Long transmission line: When the length of an overhead transmission line is more than
150Km and the line voltage is comparatively high (>100KV), it is usually considered as a Long
transmission line. R L C consideration

 It requires only two conductors as compared to three for ac transmission.

 There is no inductance, capacitance, phase displacement and surge problem in dc
 A dc transmission. Line has better voltage regulation as compared to the line for same load
and sending voltage.
 There is no skin effect in dc system.


 Electric power cannot be generated at high voltage dc due to commutation problems.

 The dc voltage cannot be stepped up for transmission of power at high voltages and
 The dc switches and circuit breaker have their own limitations.

3.4 Distribution System

The main function of an electrical power distribution system is to provide power to individual
consumer premises. Distribution of electric power to different consumers is done with much
low voltage level.
Distribution of electric power is done by distribution networks. Distribution networks consist of
following main parts

1. Distribution substation,

2. Primary distribution feeder,

3. Distribution Transformer,

4. Distributors,

5. Service mains.

The transmitted electric power is stepped down in substations, for primary distribution purpose.
Now these stepped down electric power is fed to the distribution transformer through primary
distribution feeders. Overhead primary distribution feeders are supported by mainly supporting iron
pole (preferably rail pole). The conductors are strand aluminum conductors and they are mounted
on the arms of the pole by means of pin insulators. Some times in congested places, underground
cables may also be used for primary distribution purposes.

Distribution transformers are mainly 3 phase pole mounted type. The secondary of the transformer
is connected to distributors. Different consumers are fed electric power by means of the service
mains. These service mains are tapped from different points of distributors. The distributors can
also be re-categorized by distributors and sub distributors. Distributors are directly connected to the
secondary of distribution transformers whereas sub distributors are tapped from distributors.
Service mains of the consumers may be either connected to the distributors or sub distributors
depending upon the position and agreement of consumers. In this discussion of electrical power
distribution system, we have already mentioned about both feeders and distributors. Both feeder
and distributor carry the electrical load, but they have one basic difference. Feeder feeds power
from one point to another without being tapped from any intermediate point. As because there is no
tapping point in between, the current at sending end is equal to that of receiving end of the
conductor. The distributors are tapped at different points for feeding different consumers; and
hence the current varies along their entire length.

3.4.1 Radial Electrical Power Distribution System

In early days of electrical power distribution system, different feeders radially came out from the
substation and connected to the primary of distribution transformer.
But radial electrical power distribution system has one major drawback that in case of any feeder
failure, the associated consumers would not get any power as there was no alternative path to feed
the transformer. In case of transformer failure also, the power supply is interrupted. In other words
the consumer in the radial electrical distribution system would be in darkness until the feeder or
transformer was rectified.
3.4.2 Structure of Power Sector Distribution
Power Division is responsible for formulating policy relating to power and supervise, control and
monitor the developmental activities in the power sector of the country. To implement its mandate
the Power Division is supported by a number of organizations, related with generation,
transmission and distribution. The organizational linkage is as follows

In this way, supply to the consumers connected to the healthy zone of the ring, can easily be
maintained even when one section of the ring is under shutdown. The number of feeders connected
to the ring main electrical power distribution system depends upon the following factors.

1. Maximum Demand of the System: If it is more, then more numbers of feeders feed
the ring.

2. Total Length of the Ring Main Distributors: It length is more, to compensate the voltage drop in
the line, more feeders to be connected to the ring system.

3. Required Voltage Regulation: The number of feeders connected to the ring also depends upon
the permissible allowable, voltage drop of the line.

The sub distributors and service mains are taken off may be via distribution transformer at
different suitable points on the ring depending upon the location of the consumers. Sometimes,
instead of connecting service main directly to the ring, sub distributors are also used to feed a
group of service mains where direct access of ring distributor is not possible.
Chapter -07
Fault and protection in
Transmission & Distribution Lines.

7.1 Construction of Transformer

A transformer consists of two coils of insulated wire wound on a core. The primary
winding is usually wound onto a form, then wrapped with an insulating material such as
paper or cloth. The secondary winding is then wound on top of the primary and both
windings are wrapped with insulating material. The windings are then fitted onto the core of
the transformer. Cores come in various shapes and materials. The most common materials are
air, soft iron, and laminated steel. The most common types of transformers are the shell-core
and the hollow-core types. The type and shape of the core is dependent on the intended use
of the transformer and the voltage applied to the current in the primary winding.

7.1.1 Action of Transformer

The primary winding is connected to a 50 hertz ac voltage source. The magnetic field
(flux) builds up (expands) and collapses (contracts) about the primary winding. The
expanding and contracting magnetic field around the primary winding cuts the secondary
winding and induces an alternating voltage into the winding. This voltage causes
alternating current to flow through the load. The voltage may be stepped up or down
depending on the design of the primary and secondary windings.

. Fig 7.1: Transformer Construction

7.1.2 Types of Transformer

1. Step-up Transformer
2. Step-down Transformer

7.1.3 Step-Up Transformer

Step-Up Transformers are one of the really common and vital electrical tools used
in power transmission and modification. They are usually the first major transformer in a
transmission system and are often used in various forms throughout the system. Step- Up
Transformers are based on the same formulas that other transformers are, but the key
element is that they convert voltages to higher volumes while reducing amperage and
effects of resistance. This makes Step-Up Transformers ideal in long-distance power
transmission use. By stepping up voltage and reducing amperage little energy is lost to

A transformer is made from two coils, one on each side of a soft iron core. Step- up
transformer increases the voltage

Fig 7.2: Step-Up Transformer

7.1.4 Step-down transformer

A Step-down transformer is one whose secondary voltage is less than its primary
voltage. The step down transformer is designed to reduce the voltage from the primary
winding to the secondary winding. They often range in voltage sizes from 0.5kva to

In electronic equipment, transformers with capacities in the order of 1kw are

largely used ahead of a rectifier, which in turn supplies direct current (DC) to the
equipment. Transformers in the 1-to100-W power level are used principally as step-
down transformers to couple electronic circuits to loudspeakers in radios, television sets,
and high-fidelity equipment. Known as audio transformers, these devices use only a
small fraction of their power rating to deliver program material in the audible ranges,

with minimum distortion. The transformers are judged on their ability to reproduce
sound-wave frequencies (from 20 Hz to 25 kHz) with minimal distortion over the full
sound power level.

Fig 7.3: Step-Down Transformer

7.2 Three Phase Transformer

Three phase transformers were designed because three phase electricity is used

for power distribution systems to step up or step down voltage. A single phase

transformer's configurations could be used in these applications. However, three phase

transformers are able to perform better with less material requirements, less size, and less

weight than the single phase transformers.

A three phase transformer is constructed by placing three single phase

transformers on a single core. They are then put in an enclosure, which is filled with
dielectric oil. This oil is a nonconductor of electricity, and it provides electrical insulation
between the windings and the case. It also provides cooling and prevents moisture from
forming, which can deteriorate the winding insulation.

Fig 7.4: Three Phase Transformer Core

Those sets of primary and secondary windings will be connected in either Δ or Y

configurations to form a complete unit.
7.3 On Load Tap Changer

A tap changer is a connection point selection mechanism along a power transformer

winding that allows a variable number of turns to be selected in discrete steps. A
transformer with a variable turn ratio is produced, enabling stepped voltage regulation of
the output. The tap selection may be made via an automatic or manual tap changer
mechanism. The generation voltage is 11KV and it cannot be changed, When the
secondary of power transformer increase or decrease.

7.4 Circuit Breaker

A circuit breaker is an electrical device which can open or close a circuit

under all conditions. The Circuit Breakers are automatic Switches which can interrupt fault
currents. Use different types of circuit breaker in our substation

7.4.1 Different types of Circuit Breaker

Type Medium Voltage, Breaking Capacity
1. Air break Circuit Air at atmospheric (430 – 600) V– (5-15)MVA
Breaker pressure
(3.6-12) KV - 500 MVA
2. Miniature CB. Air at atmospheric (430-600 ) V
3. Minimum Oil CB. Dielectric oil (3.6 - 145 )KV
4. Air Blast CB. Compressed Air 245 KV, 35000 MVA

(20 – 40 ) bar up to 1100 KV, 50000 MVA

5. SF6 CB. SF6 12 KV, 1000 MVA

36 KV , 2000 MVA

145 KV, 7500 MVA

245 KV , 10000 MVA

6 . Vacuum CB. Vacuum 36 KV, 750 MVA
7. H.V.DC CB. Vacuum , SF6 Gas 500 KV DC

Table 7.1: Different types of circuit breaker

7.4.2 Operation of Circuit Breaker

Circuit breaker consists of fixed and moving contact. C.T Trip coil and relay are
connected with moving contacts. Under normal condition these contact remain close.
When fault occurs on any part of the system, the secondary current of C.T will increase
and the trip coil of the circuit breaker get energized and the moving contact is pulled
apart by relay mechanism, thus opening the circuit.

Fig 7.5 : Circuit Breaker Operation

7.5 Fuse
In electronics and electrical engineering a fuse (from the Latin "fusus" meaning to

melt) is a type of sacrificial over current protection device. It’s essential component is a

metal wire or strip that melts when too much current flows, which interrupts the circuit

in which it is connected. Short circuit, overload or device failure is often the reason for

excessive current.

A fuse interrupts excessive current (blows) so that further damage by overheating
or fire is prevented. Over current protection devices are essential in electrical systems
to limit threats to human life and property damage. Fuses are selected to allow passage
of normal current and of excessive current only for short periods.

Fig 7.6: Fuse

7.5.1 Type of Fuses

A fuse unit essentially consists of a metal fuse element or link, a set of contacts
between which it is fixed and a body to support and isolate them. Many types of fuses
also have some means for extinguishing the arc which appears when the fuse element
melts. In general, there are two categories of fuses-

 Low voltage fuses.

 High voltage fuses

7.6 Classification of Relay

The following important types of relays are generally used in electrical
distribution & transmission line:

1. Induction type over current relay. 5. Instantaneous relay.
2. Induction type over voltage relay. 6. Differential Relay
3. Earth Fault relay. 7. Distance relay
4. Numerical relay. 8. Lock out relay.
7.6.1 Induction Type over Current Relay

This type of relay operates on the principle of electromagnetic induction

initiates corrective measures when current in the circuit exceeds a predetermined
value. The actuating source is a current in the circuit supplied to the relay by a
current transformer. These relays are used on AC circuits only and can operate for
fault flow in either direction under normal condition the resulting torque is greater
than the driving torque produced by the relay coil current. Hence the Aluminum disc
remains stationary, by during fault current in the protective circuit exceeds the preset

7.6.2 Induction Type over Voltage Relay

This type of relay operates on the principle of electromagnetic induction
& initiates corrective measures when current in the circuit exceeds a predetermined
value. Under normal condition the aluminum disc remains stationary. However if
the voltage increases at any cost the disc starts to rotate, hence moving contact
bridges to the fixed contact when the disc rotates through a preset angle. Trip circuit
operates the circuit breaker, which isolates the faulty section. The voltage relays are
usually very similar to over current relays. They are induction disc units that close
contacts on overvoltage, under voltage, or both.

7.6.3 Differential Relay

It compensates the phase difference between the power transformer’s
primary & secondary. The C.T.s on the two sides are connected by pilot wires at
both ends are same & no current flows through the relays. If a ground or phase-to-
phase fault occurs, the currents in the C.T.s no longer will be the same & the

differential current flowing through the relay circuit will clear the breaker on both
sides of transformers. The protected zone is limited to the C.T.s on the low voltage
side & C.T.s on the high voltage side of the transformer. This scheme also provides
protection for short circuits between turns of the same phase winding. During a short
circuit, the turn ratio of power transformer is altered & cause unbalance in the
system which cause there lay to operate. However, such sorts are better taken care
by Buchholz relay. The differential protection used for transformers is based on the
principle of current circulation. This type of protection is mostly used for
transformers as this responds not only to inter turn fault but also provides protection
against phase to phase fault.

Fig 7.7 Differential Relay

7.6.4 Operation of Relay

A relay is a automatic protective device which detects the fault and initiates the
operation of the circuit breaker. Primary winding of C.T is connected in series with the
line to be protected. Secondary winding of C.T is connected with relay coil. Trip coil
and relay coil is connected with supply. If fault occur any point of the transmission
line. The current flowing in the line increase. So the heavy Current flow through the
relay coil. Causing the relay operate by closing its contact.

 Over current (inverse type) relay
 Current setting 2.5 -10 A
 Frequency 50Hz
 Plug setting multiplier 1-20.0-2.2 sec

7.6.5 Operation of Buchholz Relay

Buchholz relay having two elements mounted in a small chamber.
It is located in the pipe connection between the conservator and the transformer tank.
Heat is produced due to leakage current for any minor fault and some of the oil in the
transformer tank evaporates. Some vapors comes to the top of the chamber while
passing through to the conservator. The oil level falls due to accumulation of vapors,
and the mercury tape attached to the float is tilted closing the alarm circuit to ring the
bell. A release cock is attached to the top of the chamber to release the pressure of the
chamber after operation and gas is emitted. It allows refilling of oil in the chamber once
again. During severe fault, a large volume of gas is evolved, which tilts the lower
element containing a mercury switch mounted on a hinged-type flap and the trip coil
is energized. A test cock is provided at the bottom of the chamber, which allows air to
be pumped into the chamber for test purposes.

Fig 7.8: Operation of Buchholz Relay

7.7 Bus Bar

In electrical power distribution, a bus bar is a thick strip of copper or
aluminum that conducts electricity within a switchboard, distribution board, substation
or other electrical apparatus. Bus bars are used to carry very large currents, or to
distribute current to multiple devices within switchgear or equipment. In switchyard we
use two types of bus bar arrangement.

 Single Bus bar System

 Double Bus bar System

The main criteria’s to be considered during selection of one particular Bus-Bar

Arrangement Scheme among others-

 Simplicity of system
 Easy maintenance of different equipment.
 Minimizing the outage during maintenance.
 Future provision of extension with growth of demand

7.7.1 Bus-Bar Calculation

Fig 7.9: Bus-bar calculation

Every bus-bur can’t bear same ampere. This ampere measurement by the following –


Where, I=Ampere
p=copper resistivity

= 2720A bus-bar

7.7.2 Single Bus bar arrangement

It consist of a single bus-bar and all the incoming and outgoing lines are
connected to it .The chief advantages of this type of arrangement are low initial cost,
less maintenance and simple operation. However the principle disadvantage of single

bus bar system is that if repair is to be done on the bus-bar or a fault occurs on the bus,
there is a complete interruption of the supply. This arrangement is not used for voltages
exceeding 33kv. The indoor 11kv substation often uses single bus-bar arrangement.

Fig 7.10: Single bus-bar arrangements

7.7.3 Advantages of single bus system

 This is very simple in design

 This is very cost effective scheme
 This is very convenient to operate

7.7.4 Disadvantages of single bus system

One but major difficulty of these type of arrangement is that, maintenance of

equipment of any bay cannot be possible without interrupting the feeder or transformer
connected to that bay. The indoor 11KV switchboards have quite often single bus bar

7.7.5 Double Bus bar arrangement

This system consists of two bus bars, a main bus bar and an auxiliary bus
bar. Each bus bar has the capacity to take up the entire substation load. The incoming
and outgoing lines can be connected to either bus bar with the help of a bus bar coupler
which consists of a circuit breaker and isolators. Ordinary, the incoming and outgoing
lines remain connected to the main bus bar. However, in case of repair of main bus bar
or fault occurring on it, the continuity of supply to the circuit can be maintained by
transferring it to the auxiliary bus bar. For voltages exceeding 33kv, duplicate bus bar
system is frequently used.

Fig 7.11: Double Bus System

7.7.6 Advantages of Double Bus System

Double Bus Bar Arrangement increases the flexibility of system.

7.7.7 Disadvantages of Double Bus System

The arrangement does not permit breaker maintenance without interruption

7.8 Isolator

Circuit breaker always trip the circuit but open contacts of breaker cannot
be visible physically from outside of the breaker and that is why it is recommended not
to touch any electrical circuit just by switching off the circuit breaker. Isolator is a
mechanical switch which isolates a part of circuit from system as when required.
Electrical isolators separate a part of the system from rest for safe maintenance works.
So definition of isolator can be rewritten as Isolator is a manually operated mechanical
switch which separates a part of the electrical power system normally at off load

Fig 7.12: Isolator

7.8.1 Types of Isolators

 Double Break Isolator

 Single Break Isolator
 Pantograph type Isolator

Depending upon the position in power system, the isolators can be

categorized as-
 Bus side isolator – the isolator is directly connected with main bus
 Line side isolator – the isolator is situated at line side of any feeder
 Transfer bus side isolator – the isolator is directly connected with transfer

7.8.2 Single Break Isolator

The contact arm is divided into two parts one carries male contact and other female
contact. The contact arm moves due to rotation of the post insulator upon which the
contact arms are fitted. Rotation of the both post insulators stacks in opposite to each other
causes to close the isolator by closing the contact arm. Counter rotation of both post
insulators stacks open the contact arm and isolator becomes in off condition. It is normally
a knife switch designed to open a circuit under no load. The main purpose of using
isolator is to isolate one portion of a circuit from the other. It should never be opened until
the circuit breaker in the same circuit has been opened and should always be closed
before the circuit breaker is closed. Isolators are usually placed on either side of the circuit
breaker for safety during maintenance and troubleshooting

Fig 7.13: Single Break Isolator

7.8.3 Double Break Isolators

These have three stacks of post insulators as shown in the figure. The central
post insulator carries a tubular or flat male contact which can be rotated horizontally
with rotation of central post insulator. This rod type contact is also called moving
contact. The female type contacts are fixed on the top of the other post insulators which
fitted at both side of the central post insulator. The female contacts are generally in the
form of spring loaded figure contacts. The rotational movement of male contact causes
to come itself into female contacts and isolators becomes closed. The rotation of male
contact in opposite direction make to it out from female contacts and isolators becomes
open. Rotation of the central post insulator is done by a driving lever mechanism at the

base of the post insulator and it connected to operating handle (in case of hand
operation) or motor (in case of motorized operation) of the isolator through a
mechanical tie rod.

Fig 7.14: Double Break Isolator

7.9 Neutral Grounding Resistance (NGR)

Neutral grounding resistance (NGR) are used to restrict the earth fault
current during fault condition below a certain value. This is done for high voltage side
because due to high voltage & low winding resistance fault current is very high and the
windings are not designed to carry such a large current so it is the place where NGR
comes to play. NGR used in 11KV generating station is to limit the fault current within
the specified limit. Generator is connected with grid (Synchronized Condition) heavy
fault current may occurred in line, that fault current may damage winding insulation
that is why NGR is used to protect the generator from heavy fault current.

7.10 Earthing Switches

Earthing switches are mounted on the base of mainly line side isolator.
Earthling switches are normally vertically break switches. Earthing arms (contact arm
of earthing switch) are normally aligned horizontally at off condition. During switching

on operation, these earthing arms rotate and move to vertical position and make contact
with earth female contacts fitted at the top of the post insulator stack of isolator at its
outgoing side. The erarthing arms are so interlocked with main isolator moving
contacts that it can be closed only when the main contacts of isolator are in open
position. Similarly the main isolator contacts can be closed only when the earthing
arms are in open position.

7.11 Protection against Lightning

Transients or Surges on the power system may originate from switching or

other causes, but the most important & dangerous surges are those which caused by
lightning. The lightning surges may cause serious damage to the expensive
equipment’s or strokes on transmission lines that reach the equipment’s travelling as
a wave. Thus it is necessary to provide a protection against lightning surges, they

 Earth Screen.

 Overhead Ground Wire.

 Lightning Arrestor.

 The Fire Protection.

7.12 Earth Screen

The power stations & the substations are generally having much expensive
equipment’s. These stations can be protected from direct lightning strikes by
providing earthing screens. It consists of a network of Copper conductors mounted
all over the electrical equipment’s in the substation or Power station. The screen is

properly connected to earth on at least two points through low impedance. On the
occurrence of direct stroke on the station the screen provides a low resistance path
by which lightning surges are connected to the ground. In this way station
equipment’s are protected against lightning.

7.13 Overhead Ground Wires

The most effective method of providing protection against direct lightningstrokes

is by the use of overhead ground wires. The ground wires are placed over line
conductors at such position that practically all lightning strokes are intercepted by them.
The ground wire is ground at each tower or pole through as low resistance as possible.
When the direct lightning strokes occur on the transmission line will be taken by the
ground wire. The heavy current flows to the ground through the ground wire, so it
protects the line from harmful effects of lightning.

7.14 Lightning Arrester

Lightning arresters are protective devices for limiting surge voltages due to
lightning strikes. A lightning arrester is a device used on electrical power systems to
protect the insulation and conductors of the system from the damaging effects of
lightning. The typical lightning arrester has a high-voltage terminal and a ground
terminal. When a lightning surge (or switching surge, which is very similar) travels
along the power line to the arrester, the current from the surge is diverted through
the arrestor, in most cases to the ground.

Fig 7.15: Lightning arrester

7.15 The Fire Protection

The fire protection device should be kept in store yard for safety of
equipment’s during storage. It can be useful in the time of danger. This includes fire
extinguishers, constant supply of water etc.

Chapter -08
Power factor improvement
8.1 Introduction

The electrical energy is almost exclusively generated, transmitted and

distributed in the form of alternating current. The low power factor is highly
undesirable as it causes an increase in current, resulting in additional losses of
active power in all the elements of power system from power station generator
down to the utilisation devices. In order to ensure most favourable conditions
for a supply system from engineering and economical standpoint, it is important
to have power factor as close to unity as possible.

8.2 Power Factor

The cosine of angle between voltage and current in an a.c. circuit
is known as power factor.
In an a.c. circuit, there is generally a phase difference  between voltage and current.
The term cos  is called the power factor of the circuit. If the circuit is inductive, the
current lags behind the voltage and the power factor is referred to as lagging. However, in
a capacitive circuit, current leads the volt-age and power factor is said to be leading.

Fig .8.1: The phasor diagram of Current & Voltage

Consider an inductive circuit taking a lagging current I from sup- ply voltage V; the angle
of lag being . The circuit Current I can be resolved into two perpendicular
components, namely:
(a) I cos in phase with V
(b) I sin  90o out of phase with V
The component I cosis known as active component. Whereas component I sinis
called the reactive or watt less component. The reactive component is a measure of the
power factor. If the reactive component is small, the phase angle  is small and hence

power factor coswill be high. Therefore, a circuit having small reactive current will
have high power factor and vice-versa.

8.2.1 Power Triangle

Fig.8.2: Power triangle

OA = VI cos and represents the active power in watts or KW
AB = VI sin and represents the reactive power in VAR or KVAR
OB = VI and represents the apparent power in VA or KVA
The following points may be noted form the power triangle:
1. The apparent power in an a.c. circuit has two components, active and
reactive power at right angles to each other.
OB2 = OA2 + AB2
Or (apparent power)2 = (active power)2 + (reactive power)2

active power 𝐾𝑊
2. Power factor, cos   
apparent power 𝐾𝑉𝐴

Thus the power factor of a circuit may also be defined as the ratio of active power to
the apparent power.
3. The power factor of a circuit can be defined in one of the following three
a. Power factor = cos  = cosine of angle between V and I

R 𝑅𝑒𝑠𝑖𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑐𝑒
b. Power factor, Z 𝐼𝑚𝑝𝑒𝑑𝑎𝑛𝑐𝑒
VIcosФ active power
c. Power factor,  apparent power

8.2.1 Disadvantages of Low Power factor

 Large kVA rating of equipment.

 Greater conductor size
 Large copper losses.
 Poor voltage regulation
 Reduced handling capacity of system.

8.2.2 Causes of Low Power Factor

Low power factor is undesirable from economic point of view. Normally , the
power factor of the whole load on the supply system in lower than 0·8. The following
are the causes of low power factor:

1) Most of the a.c. motors are of induction type which

have low lagging power factor. These motors work at
a power factor which is extremely small on light
load (0·2 to 0·3) and rises to 0·8 or 0·9 at full load.

2) Arc lamps, electric discharge lamps and industrial

heating furnaces operate at low lagging power factor.

3) The load on the power system is varying being high

during morning and evening and low at other times.
During low load period, supply voltage is increased
which increases the magnetization current. This
results in the decreased power factor.

8.3 Method of Power Factor Improvement

Normally, the power factor of the whole load on a large generating station is in the
region of 0·8 to 0·9. However, sometimes it is lower and in such cases it is generally
desirable to take special steps to improve the power factor. This can be achieved by three

Method. These are given below :-

 Static capacitors
 Synchronous condenser
 Phase advancers

8.3.1 Static Capacitor

The power factor can be improved by connecting capacitors in parallel with the
equipment operating at lagging power factor. The capacitor (generally known as static
capacitor) draws a leading current and partly or completely neutralises the lagging
reactive component of load current. This raises the power factor of the load. For three-
phase loads,the capacitors can be connected in delta or star. As Static capacitors are
invariably used for power factor improvement in factories

Fig. 8.3: Delta and star Connected Capacitor Bank

8.4.1 Advantage of static capacitor

 They have low losses.

 They require little maintenance as there are no rotating parts.
 They can be easily installed as they are light and require no foundation.
 They can work under ordinary atmospheric conditions.

8.4.2 Disadvantage of static capacitor

 They have short service life ranging from 8 to 10 years.

 They are easily damaged if the voltage exceeds the rated value.
 Once the capacitors are damaged, their repair is uneconomical

8.5 Synchronous condenser

A synchronous motor takes a leading current when over-excited and, therefore,

behaves as a capacitor. An over-excited synchronous motor running on no load is
known as synchronous condenser. When such a machine is connected in parallel with
the supply, it takes a leading current which partly neutralize the lagging reactive
component of the load. Thus the power factor is improved.

Fig.8.4: power factor improvement by synchronous condenser method

The 3 load takes current IL at low lagging power factor cos L. The synchronous
condenser takes a current Im which leads the voltage by an angle m. The resultant
current I is the phasor sum of Im and IL and lags behind the voltage by an angle . It is
clear that  is less than L so that cos  is greater than cos L. Thus the power factor is
increased from cos L to cos . Synchronous condensers are generally used at major bulk
supply substations for power factor improvement.

8.6 Phase Advancers

. Phase advancers are used to improve the power factor of induction motors. The low
power factor of an induction motor is due to the fact that its stator winding draws
exciting current which lags be- hind the supply voltage by 90o. If the exciting ampere
turns can be provided from some other a.c. source, then the stator winding will be relieved
of exciting current and the power factor of the motor can be improved.
The phase advancer is mounted on the same shaft as the main motor and is connected in
the rotor circuit of the motor. It provides exciting ampere turns to the rotor circuit at

lip frequency. By providing more ampere turns than required, the induction motor can
be made to operate on leading power factor like an over-excited synchronous motor.

Phase advancers have two principal advantages. Firstly, as the exciting ampere turns are
supplied at slip frequency, therefore, lagging kVAR drawn by the motor are considerably
reduced. Secondly, phase advancer can be conveniently used where the use of synchronous
motors is unadmissible.

8.7 Power Factor Improvement Analysis

An inductive load taking a lagging current I at a power factor cos φ1. In order to
improve the power factor of this circuit, the way is to connect such an equipment in parallel with
the load which takes a leading reactive component and partly cancels the lagging reactive
component of the load.

Suppose, a 3-phase, 50 Hz, 400 V motor develops 100 KW . the power factor being vary
0·70 to 0.90 lagging and efficiency 95%. A bank of capacitors is connected in delta across
the supply terminals and power factor is rise to 0·95 lagging. We determine how much the
total capacitance should add.

Initial Fina Eff. motor Motor Φ1 tanφ1 Φ2 tanφ2 KVAR KVAR Total
P.F l output Input (deg) (deg) (deg (deg) taken Taken By Capacitance
(lag) P.F (KW) (KW) ) by each of 3 (μF)
(lag Capacit- set
) or bank

0.70 0.95 95% 100 105.2 45.5 1.02 18.2 0.33 72.7915 24.263 482.9589
6 7

0.75 0.95 95% 100 105.2 41.4 0.88 18.2 0.33 58.2350 19.411 386.3790
6 1

0.80 0.95 95% 100 105.2 36.8 0.75 18.2 0.33 44.3490 14.783 294.2478
6 7

0.85 0.95 95% 100 105.2 31.7 0.62 18.2 0.33 30.6379 10.212 203.27706
6 9

0.90 0.95 95% 100 105.2 25.8 0.48 18.2 0.33 16.3829 5.460 108.6978
6 4

Table.8.1: A Power Factor Improvement Analysis

Total Capacitance(μF) Vs Pf Improving


Total capacitance (μF)


Total Capacitance(μF)



0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
P.F (lagging)

Fig.8.5: P.f vs Total Capacitance changes