You are on page 1of 34

Slabs are constructed to provide flat surfaces, usually horizontal, in

building floors, roofs, bridges, and other types of structures. The slab
may be supported by walls, by reinforced concrete beams usually cast
monolithically with the slab, by structural steel beams, by columns, or
by the ground Slabs.@@@@ Economics and development of methods
of construction, the suitability of particular sets of requirements, and
advance in the method of analysis of slabs have all joined to shape the
current practice, and these factors will just as surely continue to change
the types of slabs that are built. Slab may be divided into two general
categories: beam less slab and slabs supported on beams located on all
sides of each panel. (Reinforced concrete slabs)(Robert bark). Actual
floor systems in buildings come in all sizes, shapes, and forms. There are
so many variables to any floor system such as different spans, offset
spans, cantilevers, and the extent of continuity, the effects of beams,
columns and walls on the slab system, etc. that it is difficult to cover all
situations in a limited series of charts. With the range of sophisticated
computer packages now available for concrete floor design, it is strongly
recommended that once a floor system and initial sizes are chosen then a
series of trial runs be carried out to determine the appropriate
thicknesses and details as part of the preliminary design process (guide
to long span concrete floors).

1. Flat slab:-
A flat slab is a one-way or two-way system with thickenings in the slab
at the columns and loadbearing walls called 'drop panels' figure1. Drop
panels act as T-beams over the supports. They increase the shear
capacity and the stiffness of the floor system under vertical loads, thus
increasing the economical span range. This form of construction has
become less popular in recent years because of the limit on economical
spans of about 9.5m for reinforced slabs and about 12 m for pre-stressed
slabs.

1
The plan dimensions of the drop panels are a minimum of 1/3 of the
span in the direction under consideration, usually rounded to the
nearest 100 mm. The overall depth of the drop panel is typically taken
as 1.75 to 2 times the depth of the slab, again rounded to suit timber
sizes or the nearest 25 mm.
The principal features of a flat slab floor are a flat soffit, simple
formwork and easy construction. The economical span 'L'
of a reinforced concrete flat slab is approximately D x 28 for simply
supported, D x 32 for an end span and D x 36 for an interior span, Pre-
stressing the slab increases the economical span to D x 35, D x 40 and D
x 45 respectively, where D is the depth of the slab excluding the drop
panel. (Guide to long span concrete floors). Where added strength over a
support is required, thickened slabs around columns are used to increase
the local shear capacity. A drop cap, also referred to as a column capital,
is defined by the ACI 318–05/08 as a thickening, which does not extend
into the span beyond one-sixth of the span length. A drop panel, on the
other hand, extends into the span one-sixth of the span length or beyond.
It is permitted by the ACI to increase the negative moment capacity of
the slab by using the increased thickness of the slab in drop panel
regions.
Traditionally, drop caps and panels around columns are used for two
principal reasons:

1. Column capitals, or drop caps, are used to improve the punching shear
capacity of the column/slab joint only.
2. Drop panels are used to increase the bending moment capacity of the
joint, reduce deflection, and increase the punching shear capacity.
(Reinforced concrete design of tall buildings).

2
Figure1: Flat slab floor system.

It can be used where :


1. To provide plain ceiling surface giving better diffusion of light
2. Easy constructability with economy in the formwork
3. Larger head room or shorter storey height & pleasing
appearance.
4. This kind of slabs are provided in parking
5. Flat slabs are generally used in parking decks, commercial
buildings, hotels or places where beam projections are not
desired.
Advantages:
1. It minimizes floor-to-floor heights when there is no requirement
for a deep false ceiling. Building height can be reduced
2. Auto sprinkler is easier.
3. Less construction time.
4. It increase shear strength of slab
5. Reduce the moment in the slab by reducing the clear or effective
span.@@@@
6- Simple formwork
7- No beams—simplifying under-floor services outside the drops.

3
8- Minimum structural depth.
9- Usually does not require shear reinforcement at the columns.

Disadvantages:
1-Medium spans.
2- Generally not suitable for supporting brittle (masonry) partitions.
3-Drop panels may interfere with larger mechanical ducting.
4-Vertical penetrations need to avoid area around columns.
5-For reinforced flat slabs, deflection at the middle strip may be critical.
(guide to long span floors).

There are four different types of flat slabs:-


1. Slab with drop and column without column head.
2. Slab without drop and column with column head.
3. Slab with drop and column with column head.@@@@@

2-Flat Plate:

A flat plate is a one- or two-way system usually supported directly on


columns or loadbearing walls. It is one of the most common forms of
construction of floors in buildings. The principal feature of the flat plate
floor is a uniform or near-uniform thickness with a flat soffit which
requires only simple formwork and is easy to construct. The floor allows
great flexibility for locating horizontal services above a suspended
ceiling or in a bulkhead. The economical span of a flat plate for low to
medium loads is usually limited by the need to control long-term
deflection and may need to be sensibly pre-cambered (not overdone) or
pre-stressed. An economical span for a reinforced flat plate is of the
order of 6 to 8 m and for pre-stressed flat plates is in the range of 8 to
12m. The span 'L' of a reinforced concrete flat-plate is approximately
4
D x 28 for simply supported, D x 30 for an end span of a continuous
system, to D x 32 for internal continuous spans. The economical span of
a flat plate can be extended by pre-stressing to approximately D x 30, D
x 37 and D x 40 respectively, where D is the depth of slab.

Figure2: Flat plate floor system.

Advantages:
1- Simple formwork and suitable for direct fix or sprayed ceiling.
2- No beams—simplifying under-floor services.
3- Minimum structural depth and reduced floor-to floor height.

5
Disadvantages:
1- Medium spans.
2- Limited lateral load capacity as part of a moment frame.
3- May need shear heads or shear reinforcement at the columns or larger
columns for shear.
4- Long-term deflection may be controlling factor.
5- May not be suitable for supporting brittle ( masonry) partitions.
6- May not be suitable for heavy loads. (guide to long span floors)

3. Conventional slab (beam and slab):-


The slab which is supported with Beams and columns is called
conventional slab. In this kind of slab the thickness of slab is small
whereas depth of beam is large and load is transferred to beams and
from beams to columns. It requires more formwork when compared with
the flat slab. and there is no need of providing column caps in
conventional slab. The thickness of conventional slab is 4″ or 10cm. 5″
to 6″ inches is recommended if the concrete will receive occasional
heavy loads, such as motor homes or garbage trucks.@@@@@
It is a very traditional system .The relatively deep beams provide a stiff
floor capable of long spans, and able to resist lateral loads. However, the
complications of beam formwork, co-ordination of services, and overall
depth of floor have led to a decrease in the popularity of this type of
floor. The traditional reinforced concrete beam-and-slab floor has an
economical span 'L' of D x 15 for a single span and D x 20 for a multi-
span, where D is the depth of the slab plus beam. The depth of slab
between the beams can be initially sized using the span-to-depth ratios
for a flat plate. Pre-stressing is not normally used with this system.
( guide to long span floors) Reinforcement is provided in conventional
slab and the bars which are set in horizontal are called Main
Reinforcement Bars and bars which are set in vertical are called
Distribution bars. These types of slabs are used in constructing floors of
multi-stored building.@@@@@@

6
Advantages:
1. Traditional effective solution.
2. Long spans.

Disadvantages:
1. Penetrations through beams for large ducts difficult to handle.
2. Depth of floor.
3. Greater floor-to-floor height. (guide to long span floors).

4-Band Beam and Slab:


This system consists of a series of parallel, wide, shallow beams (known
as band beams or thickened slab bands) with the floor slab spanning
transversely between the bands. (guide to long span floors). When the
support arrangement of a uniform floor slab is such that the spans in one
direction are substantially longer than in the perpendicular direction, the
length of the longer spans typically governs the slab thickness. The
unfavorable effects of longer spans can be reduced if a band beam, also
called slab band, is used in the long span direction.(reinforced concrete
design of tall buildings). The floor slab is designed as a continuous slab,
with the shallow band beams carrying all loads from the slab. Band
beams or thickened slab bands are a two-way slab system
designed in accordance with Clause 7.5 of AS 3600 and are not treated
as beams, except for shear under Clause 8.2 of AS 3600. Sometimes,
composite concrete/metal decking is used for the slabs, provided the slab
spans are not too large. In a single-span floor, the spacing of the band
beams may coincide with the columns, or the bands may be more closely
spaced to reduce the thickness of the slab spanning between walls or
beams. For single span reinforced concrete floors the economical span
'L' of the band beam is D x 20 to D x 22 depending on the width and
spacing of the band beam, where D is the depth of the slab plus band
beam. Pre-stressing the band beam gives economical band-beam spans
in the range of D x 24 to D x 28. For internal spans the slab thickness is
based on the clear span between band beams, and for an external bay is
from the edge of band to the column line of the external band. The

7
depth of the band is typically 1.5 to 2 times the depth of the slab and the
minimum economical span for a band beam is about 7–8 m. In multiple
spans using reinforced concrete, the economical slab of the band beam
'L' is approximately D x 22 for 1200-mm-wide band beams and D x 26
for a 2400-mm-wide beams at 8400-mm centres. Pre-stressing increases
the economical span 'L' to D x 24 to D x 28 for similar beam widths. D
is the depth of slab plus band beam in each case. The maximum span for
reinforced concrete bands should not normally exceed 12 m. Above this
span, bands should be pre-stressed. The slab band width should be
between band-spacing/3 to band-spacing/4 and, where possible, should
be based on a module of a standard sheet of ply of 2.4 m x 1.2 m.

Figure3: Band beam and composite/metal decking slab.

Advantages:
1-Relatively simple formwork
2- Shallow beams to allow services to run under the floor.
3- Minimum structural depth and reduced floor-to floor height.
4- Long spans.
5- Good cost/time solution.
6- Allows the use of flying forms.

Disadvantages:
1- Long-term deflection may be controlling factor and post-tensioning
may be required.
8
2- May need service penetrations through beams which are difficult to
handle. (guide to long span floors).

5-Hollow core ribbed slab:-


Hollow core ribbed slabs derive their name from the voids or
cores which run through the units. The cores can function as
service ducts and significantly reduce the self-weight of the slabs,
maximizing structural efficiency. The cores also have a benefit in
sustainability terms in reducing the volume of material used.
Units are generally available in standard 1200 mm widths and in
depths from 110mm to 400 mm. There is total freedom in length
of units. This kind of slab is used where the construction has to be
done fast. These kind of slabs are Pre cast slabs which are
readymade. The hollow core ribbed slabs have between four and
six longitudinal cores running through them, the primary purpose
of the cores being to decrease the weight, and material within the
floor, yet maintain maximal strength. To further increase the
strength, the slabs are reinforced with 12mm diameter steel
strand, running longitudinally.
By using tower cranes Hollow slabs are inserted between the
beams. The gaps between the slab is filled with screed .Screed is a
concrete material generally we use 20mm aggregate in concrete
whereas in screed we use baby chips (small broken stones) as
aggregates.
Hollow core ribbed slabs have excellent span capabilities,
achieving a capacity of 2.5 kN/m over a 16m span. The long-span
capability is ideal for offices, retail or car park developments.
Units are installed with or without a structural screed, depending
on requirements. Slabs arrive on-site with a smooth pre-finished
soffit. In car parks and other open structures, pre-finished soffits
offer a maintenance free solution.

9
Advantages:
1. Using hollow core ribbed slab not only reduces building
costs it also reduce the overall weight of the structure.
2. Excellent fire resistance and sound insulation is the
another attributes of hollow core slab due to its thickness.
3. It eliminates the need to drill in slabs for electrical and
plumbing units.
4. Easy to install and requires less labor.
5. Fast in construction.
6. No additional formwork or any special construction
machinery is required for reinforcing the hollow block
masonry.
Disadvantages:
1. If not properly handled, the hollow core ribbed slab units
may be damaged during transport.
2. It becomes difficult to produce satisfactory connections
between the precast members.
3. It is necessary to arrange for special equipment for lifting.
and moving of the precast units.
4. Not economic for small spans.
5. Difficult to repair and strength.

6- Hardy slab:-
These kind of slabs are generally seen in Dubai and China. This slab is
constructed by hardy Bricks. Hardy bricks are hollow bricks and made
up of concrete Hollow blocks are used to fill portions of the slab
thickness it saves the amount of concrete and hence the own weight of
the slab is reduced. This kind of slab has a more thickness when
compared with the conventional one. The thickness of hardy slab is
0.27m. The method of installing Hardy slab is different from

10
normal and it is clearly explained below: This is a one of the types of
concrete slabs.

The dimensions of Hardy brick is 40cm x 20cm x 20cm

The process of execution is as follows:


Step 1: Formwork is arranged and then shutters are fixed on the
formwork.
Step 2: Hardy blocks are placed on the shutter with one brick gap on the
entire Shutter.
Step 3: The gaps between the bricks are called as rib. Reinforcement is
provided in a form of beam within the gap.
Step 4: After placing the rib, the plane steel mesh is placed on entire slab
area resting on ribs.
Step 5: Now pouring of concrete is done on slab.

11
Where to use?
Hardy slab is used where temperatures are very high. To resist the
temperature from top the slab thickness is increased. Heat coming from
walls are resisted by using special bricks which has thermacol in it.
Thermacol is a best insualtor of sunlight.

Advantages:
1. Reducing slab weight by reducing amount of concrete below neutral
axis.
2. Ease of construction, especially when all beams are hidden beams.
3. Economic for spans > 5m with moderate live load: hospitals, office
and residential buildings.
4. Improved insulation for sound and heat.

12
Disadvantages:
1. If not properly handled, the hollow core ribbed brick units may be
damaged during transport.
2. Not economic for small spans.
3. Difficult to repair and strengthen

7- Ribbed (Waffle) slab:-


Ribbed floors consisting of equally spaced ribs are usually supported
directly by columns. They are either one-way spanning systems known
as ribbed slab or a two-way ribbed system known as a waffle slab. This
form of construction is not very common because of the formwork costs
and the low fire rating. A 120-mm-thick slab with a minimum rib
thickness of 125 mm for continuous ribs is required to achieve a 2-hour
fire rating. Slab depths typically vary from 75 to 125 mm and rib widths
from 125 to 200 mm. Rib spacing of 600 to 1500 mm can be used. The
overall depth of the floor typically varies from 300 to 600 mm with
overall spans of up to 15 m if reinforced, longer if post-tensioned. The
use of ribs to the soffit of the slab reduces the quantity of concrete and
reinforcement and also the weight of the floor. The saving of materials
will be offset by the complication in formwork and placing of
reinforcement. However, formwork complication is
minimised by use of standard, modular, reusable formwork, usually
made from polypropylene or fiberglass and with tapered sides to allow
stripping. For ribs at 1200-mm centres (to suit standard forms) the
economical reinforced concrete floor span 'L' is approximately D x 15
for a single span and D x 22 for a multi-span, where D is the overall
floor depth. The one-way ribs are typically designed as T-beams, often
spanning in the long direction. A solid drop panel is required at the
columns and loadbearing walls for shear and moment resistance. (guide
to long span floors). This kind of slab is majorly used at entrance of
hotels, Malls, Restaurants for good pictorial view and to install artificial
lighting. This atype of slab where we find hollow hole in the slab when
the formwork is removed. Firstly PVC trays (pods) are placed on

13
shuttering then reinforcement is provided between the pods and steel
mesh is provided at top of the pods and then concrete is filled. After
concrete sets the formwork is removed and PVC pods are not removed.
This forms hollow hole in it in which hole is closed at one end. The
concrete waffle slab is often used for industrial and commercial
buildings while wood and metal waffle slabs are used in many other
construction sites. This is a one of the types of concrete slabs.

Where to use?
A waffle slab is a type of slab with holes underneath, giving an
appearance of waffles. It is usually used where large spans are required
(e.g auditorium, cinema halls) to avoid many columns interfering the
space. Hence thick slabs spanning between wide beams (to avoid the
beams protruding below for aesthetic reasons) are required .The main
purpose of employing this technology is for its strong foundation
characteristics of crack and sagging resistance. Waffle slab also holds a
greater amount of load compared with conventional concrete slabs.

Types of Waffle slabs:


Based on the shape of Pods (PVC Trays) They are classified into
different types some of them are:
14
1. Triangular pod system
2. Square pod system
Advantages:

1. Waffle slabs are able to carry heavier loads and span longer
distances than flat slabs as these systems are light in weight
2. Waffle slab can be used as both ceiling and floor slab.
3. Suitable for spans of 7m – 16m ; longer spans may be possible with
posttensioning.
4. These systems are light in weight and hence considerable saving is
ensured in the framework as light framework is required.@@@@
Disadvantages:
1- Depth of slab between the ribs may control the
fire rating
2-Requires special or proprietary formwork
3- Greater floor-to-floor height
4- Large vertical penetrations are more difficult to
handle. (guide to long span floors).

8- Dome Slab:-
These kind of slab is generally constructed in temples, Mosques, palaces
etc. And Dome slab is built on conventional slab. Thickness of Dome
slab is 0.15m. Domes are in semi-circle and shuttering is done on
conventional slab in dome shape and concrete is filled in shuttering
forming dome shapes. This is a one of the types of concrete slabs.

15
Current openings for freshers civil engineers package 4.5 lac to 8 lac
per year apply here and submit your resume here

9- Pitch roof slab:


Pitch roof is an inclined slab, generally constructed on resorts for a
natural look. Compared to traditional roofing materials Tile-sheets used
in pitch roof slab are extremely lightweight. This weight saving reduces
the timber or steel structural requirements resulting in significant cost
savings .Tile-sheets are tailor made for each project offering labor cost
savings and reduced site wastage. And the thickness of slab is depends
on the tiles we using it may be 2″-8″. This is a one of the types of
concrete slabs.

16
Advantages:
1.It sheds off rain water better.
2. It gives you internal storage or room space.
3. It is less likely to leak.
4. Roof coverings are cheaper.
5. If it is a standard pitch, building materials are more cost-effective

Disadvantages:
1. This type of slabs are not suggested for long spans.
2. Repairs in slabs ike plumbing repair or electric wiring on slabs is
difficult.

10- Slab with arches:


This is a type of slabs which is generally adopted in construction of
bridges. Bridges are subjected to two loads moving load from the
vehicles and Wind load. These slabs are adopted at a place where there
is a need of redirecting wind load and if there is a long curve in direction
of slab these slabs are adopted. It resists the fall of bridge due to heavy
wind load.

They were originally built of stone or brick but these days are built of
reinforced concrete or steel. The introduction of these new materials

17
allow arch bridges to be longer with lower spans. This is a one of the
types of concrete slabs.

11.Post tension slab:


The slab which is tensioned after constructing slab is called Post tension
slab. Reinforcement is provided to resist the compression. In Post
tension slab the reinforcement is replaced with cables/ steel tendons.

Post-tensioning provides a means to overcome the natural weakness of


concrete in tension and to make better use of its strength in compression.
The principle is easily observed when holding together several books by
pressing them laterally. Linder such pressure the whole row gains
enough stiffness and strength to ensure its integrity. In concrete
structures, this is achieved by placing high-tensile steel tendons/cables in
the element before casting When the concrete reaches the desired
strength the tendons are pulled by special hydraulic jacks and held in
tension using specially designed anchorages fixed at each end of the
tendon This provides compression at the edge of the structural member
that increases the strength of the concrete for resisting tension stresses. If
tendons are appropriately curved to a certain profile, they will exert, in
addition to compression at the perimeter, a beneficial upward set of
forces (load balancing forces) that will counteract applied loads,
relieving the structure from a portion of gravity effects. This is a one of
the types of concrete slabs.
18
Current openings for freshers civil engineers package 4.5 lac to 8 lac
per year apply here and submit your resume here

In this type of slab cables are tied instead of reinforcement. In Steel


reinforcement the spacing between bars is 4inch to 6inch where as in
Post tension slab the spacing is more than 2m. This is a one of the types
of concrete slabs.

Advantages:
1. It allows slabs and other structural members to be thinner
2. It allows us to build slabs on expansive or soft soils
3. Cracks that do form are held tightly together
4. Post tension slabs are excellent ways to construct stronger structures
at an affordable price.
5. It reduces or eliminates shrinkage cracking-therefore no joints, or
fewer joints, are needed
6. It lets us design longer spans in elevated members, like floors or
beams
Disadvantages:
1. The post tension slab can be made only by skillful professionals.

19
2. The main problem with using post tension slab is that if care is not
taken while making it, it can lead to future mishaps. Many a times,
ignorant workers do not fill the gaps of the tendons and wiring
completely. These gaps cause corrosion of the wires which may
break untimely, leading to some failures unexpectedly.

12. Pre tension slab :


The slab which is tensioned before placing the slab is called Pre tension
slab. The slab has same features of Post tensioning.

13. Cable suspension slab:


If the span of the slab is very long, then we go for cable suspension slab
which is supported on cable such as London bridge, Howrah bridge etc.
Generally in construction of houses for every 4m we provide a column
wheras in cable suspension slab for every 500m we provide a column.
This kind of slab is provided where length of span is more and difficulty
in building columns. The slabs are tied with cables and these cables are
joined to columns.

14. Low roof slab:


The slab which provided above the door for storage purpose is called.
Low roof slab. Slab is closed at all ends and open at one end. This slab

20
lies below the actual slab and above the door sill level. These types of
concrete slabs are used in houses.

15. Projected slab:


The slab which has one side fixed and the other side is free is called as
Projected Slab. These type of slabs are generally constructed in hotels,
Universities, function halls, etc. to use that area for dropping or picking
up zone and for loading and unloading area. This is a one of the types of
concrete slabs.

16. Grads Slab/ Slab on grade:


The slab which is casted on surface of the wearth is called a Ground
slab. This type opf slab is used in Basement floor.

There are two types of Grade slabs:

1. Usually after casting Plinth beams. Sand is filled at an height of


0.15m and then Sand level is rammed. Then PCC is poured on sand

21
upto a height of Plinth beams. Its an economic way of constructing
ground slab which use majorly in India.

2. In high rise buildings after constructing Plinth beam the termite


control is done in between the beams and then polythene sheet is
laid to avoid termites inside the slab and then steel mesh is provided
and concrete is filled. This costs more when compared with the
previous one and requires more concrete than first one.

17. Sunken slab :


Slab which is provided below the washrooms to hide the sewage pipes
or sewerage pipes is called Sunken slab. Since the pipes that carry water
are concealed below the floor, care has to be taken to avoid leakage
problems. After casting sewage pipes in the slab the slab is filled with
coal or broken pieces of bricks. There are two types of sunken slab.

22
1. The slab which is provided below the normal floor level at a depth of
200mm to 300 mm and filled with broken pieces of bricks is called
Sunken slab

2. The Slab which is provided above the normal floor level at a height of
200mm to 300mm and filled with coal or broken pieces of bricks called
sunken slab.

18. Miscellaneous slab:

1. chajja family:
a) chajja :Small projection outside the door & windows. Purpose
is protection from sun light & rains. Normal width of chajjah is
between 2′ to 2’6″.
Sometimes a box window is built which creates a box just
outside the window. This also serves as a protection against
sun & rains. In such case the upper slab acts as a sun shed.
Box window allows occupants to maintain greenery by keeping
plants in earthen pots.
b) Porch:
This is a projection outside the main door and the width could

23
be from 5′ to 6′. This can be done with either a cantilever slab
or with cantilever inverted beams with sunk slab. Main Purpose
is protection from sun light & rains. Porch also acts as a central
element in the front elevation.
Porch can also be used as a small sit out and for this access is
given from the first floor.

c) Portico:
Portico is a longer porch. Main difference between porch &
portico is that the portico usually has a simply supported slab
testing on simply supported beams (porch has cantilever
beams).
Portico are more ornamental in nature and have a
provision that car can be parked below till passengers board or
alight. Porticos are generally provided for monumental buildings
college’s institutions public buildings or a posh spacious
bungalow.

24
d) Loft:
Loft is a cantilever slab of 2′ to 2’6″ projecting out from kitchen
or bedroom wall at a height of 7′.Used for storage.
e) Mezzanine:
It is the intermediate floor between ground floor and the first
floor.
Details:
In the shops the roof height is kept at about 16′.In half unit . A
slab is given usually at 7′ height in half of this unit.
This is known as the mezzanine floor. It can be used as the
office or studio or private space etc. A stair case takes the
people from the ground floor.

f) Stilts and stilts floor:


Although these terns appear similar, there is a slight difference
between these two terms

25
On ground floor if there are only columns but no peripheral walls,
it is called “stilts “.This floor is usually kept slightly above the
formation level of the plot .(Formation level is the level of plot after
it has been properly leveled and developed. This shall be slightly
above the natural ground level).
There are many uses but most common use of stilts is parking of
vehicles. That’s why it is normally called as Parking.

Stilts floor is that floor which is just above the stilts. There seems
to be some variation in the usage of this term.
Some people call this floor as first floor whereas others designate
the floor above stilts floor as first floor

(https://constructionqueries.wordpress.com/2014/11/21/family-of-chajjah-porch-portico/)

2. Lintels:
 Lintels are provided Inside building above the doors and windows
to re direct the top load. There are two types of lintels
 Pre cast Lintels: Lintels which are manufactured in factories is
called Pre cast Lintels
26
 Cast in situ: Lintels are casted at site itself is called Cast in situ
lintels.
The length of lintel is more than door length and has a width of
wall, thickness of lintel is 0.1m

3. Sun shade slab:


 Sun Shade is provided outside building above the Doors and
windows are called Sun shade slab. The slab stops rain to come
inside the building and direct sunlight. This is a one of the types
of concrete slabs.

Reference @@@@@ https://www.quora.com/What-are-the-16-


different-types-of-slabs-in-construction.

27
19. Slab and Joist
This system consists of a slab spanning between
beams (which span between columns) and usually an
intermediate joist in one direction.
Frequently, the slab thickness between the joists is
controlled by requirements for fire-resistance. For
example, a 2-hour fire resistance rating requires a
120-mm slab thickness, which is capable of spanning
approximately 4 m. For this widely spaced rib or joist
floor the economical span 'L' is D x 18 for a single
span and D x 22 for a multi-span. Prestressing the
joists permits the span to be increased to D x 24 and
D x 28 respectively, where D is the depth of floor
including the slab and joist.

Advantages:
1. Thin slab panels possible
2. Suits industrial structures
3. Long spans
4. Vertical penetrations between beams easily
accommodated.

Disadvantages:
1. More formwork
2. Joists and beams intrude on services
3. Depth of floor
4. Greater floor-to-floor height. (guide to long span floors).

Based on length and breadth of Conventional Slab is classified into


two types:
1. One way slab:
28
One way slab is a slab which is supported by beams on the two opposite
sides to carry the load along one direction. The ratio of longer span (l) to
shorter span (b) is equal or greater than 2, considered as One way slab
because this slab will bend in one direction i.e in the direction along its
shorter span. However minimum reinforcement known as distribution
steel is provided along the longer span above the main reinforcement to
distribute the load uniformly and to resist temperature and dhrinkage
stresses.

In general length of slab is 4m. But in one way slab one side length is
4m and other side length is more than 4m. So it satisfies the above
equation. In one way slab main reinforcement is provided in shorter span
and distribution reinforcement is provided in longer span. Distribution
bars are cranked to resist the formation of stresses.
Example: Generally all the Cantilever slabs are one Way slab. Chajjas
and verandahs are an practical example of one way slab.

2. TWO WAY SLAB:


Two way slab is a slab supported by beams on all the four sides and the
loads are carried by the supports along both directions, it is known as
two way slab.

In two way slab, the ratio of longer span (l) to shorter span (b) is less
than 2.The slabs are likely to bend along the two spans in this load is
transferred in both the directions to the four supporting edges and hence
distribution reinforcement is provided in both the directions.

29
In this kind of slab the length and breadth of slab is more than 4m. So
distribution bars are provided at both the ends in two way slab. To resist
the formation of stresses.
These types of slabs are used in constructing floors of multi storeyed
building.
Learn More about Two Way Slab

CHOICE OF TYPE OF SLAB FLOOR The choice of type of slab for a


particular floor depends on many factors. Economy of construction is
obviously an important consideration, but this is a qualitative argument
until specific cases are discussed, and is a geographical variable. The
design loads, required spans, serviceability requirements, and strength
requirements are all important. For beamless slabs, the choice between a
flat slab and a flat plate is usually a matter of loading and span. Flat
plate strength is often governed by shear strength at the columns, and for
service live loads greater than perhaps 100 lb/ft2 (4.8 kN/m2 ) and spans
greater than about 20 to 24 ft (7 to 8 m) the flat slab is often the better
choice. If architectural or other requirements rule out capitals or drop
panels, the shear strength can be improved by using metal shear heads or
some other form of shear reinforcement, but the costs may be high.
Serviceability requirements must be considered, and deflections are
sometimes difficult to control in reinforced concrete beamless slabs.
Large live loads and small limits on permissible deflections may force
the use of large column capitals. Negative-moment cracking around
columns is sometimes a problem with flat plates, and again a column
capital may be useful in its control. Deflections and shear stresses may
30
also be controlled by adding beams instead of column capitals. If severe
deflection limits are imposed, the two-way slab will be most suitable, as
the introduction of even moderately stiff beams will reduce deflections
more than the largest reasonable column capital is able to. Beams are
also easily reinforced for shear forces. The choice between two-way and
beamless slabs for more normal situations is complex. In terms of
economy of material, especially of steel, the two-way slab is often best
because of the large effective depths of the beams. However, in terms of
labor in building the floor, the flat plate is much cheaper because of the
very simple formwork and less complex arrangement of steel. The flat
slab is somewhat more expensive in labor than is the flat plate, but the
forms for the column capitals are often available as prefabricated units,
which can help limit costs. The real cost parameter is the ratio of costs of
labor relative to material. Few two-way slabs are built in areas of high
labor costs unless there are definite structural reasons, and many are
built where steel is the most costly item. Hollow-tile slabs are still built
in some places, but only where the cost of both steel and cement is very
high relative to labor. Local customs among builders, designers, and
users should not be overlooked when selecting the slab type. There is a
natural human tendency to want to repeat what one has previously done
successfully, and resistance to change can affect costs. However, old
habits should not be allowed to dominate sound engineering decisions. If
a flat plate or flat slab is otherwise suitable for a particular structure, it
will be found that there is the additional benefit of minimizing the story
height. In areas of absolute height restrictions, this may enable one to
have an additional floor for approximately each 10 floors, as compared
with a two-way slab with the same clearstory heights. The savings in
height lead to other economies for a given number of floors, since
mechanical features such as elevator shafts and 3 piping are shorter.
There is less outside wall area, so wind loadings may be less severe and

31
the building weighs less, which may bring cost reductions in foundations
and other structural components. There are other cost savings when the
ceiling finishes can be applied directly to the lower surfaces of the slabs.
Beamless slabs will be at a disadvantage if they are used in structures
that must resist large horizontal loads by frame action rather than by
shear walls or other lateral bracing. The transfer of moments between
columns and a slab sets up high local moments, shears, and twisting
moments that may be hard to reinforce for. In this situation, the two-way
slab is the more capable structure because of the relative ease with
which its beams may be reinforced for these forces. In addition, it will
provide greater lateral stiffness because of both the presence of the
beams and the greater efficiency of the beam-column connections. The
possible choice of a precast one-way floor system, consisting of
prestressed concrete members placed side-by-side and spanning between
the beams, girders, or walls and generally covered by a cast-in-place
concrete topping slab, should not be overlooked.(2.
file:///C:/Users/RUM.RUM-PC/Downloads/Documents/F_slabs.pdf)

Airdeck reinforced concrete decking can be used to make two-way


lightened slabs with spans up to 14 x 14 m, or up to 17 x 17 m with post-
tensioning. The decking planks incorporate the lower reinforcing, a
32
reinforcing grid and a 300 x 300 mm grid of recycled polypropylene
coffers that lighten the slab. The coffers are available in four sizes for
slab thicknesses of 280 to 450 mm. The planks are lifted into place with
a crane, using the sheer reinforcing grid for anchoring, and they are
supported by a network of props that are generally spaced every 1.8 m.
The rest of the reinforcing is set into place and the concrete is poured.
The system can be adapted for irregular floor layouts. Its use
significantly reduces construction costs and increases the speed of
construction in buildings with repeated floors. Airdeck can incorporate a
radiant slab climate-control system, in which the mass of the concrete
slab is cooled or heated by water.
(3. http://www.tectonica-
online.com/products/1715/span_slabs_large_decking_concrete_airdeck/
#)
Beeplate® is a system for building two-way large-span slabs using
hollow coffers in a staggered layout. Spans of 10 to 16 m can be made
with slab thicknesses of 34 to 60 cm. Beeplate fixed coffers are laid out
over two layers of Bamtec rolled reinforcing using clip-on spacers to
form a honeycomb pattern. Edge reinforcing and additional reinforcing
as required are then laid out. Once the two upper layers of rolled
reinforcing and the sheer reinforcing are laid out over the coffers, the
slab is ready for the pour. Concrete is poured in two stages, the second a
wet over wet pour. The honeycomb structure creates a very compact
hollow slab with a reduced thickness, lowering the amount of concrete
required as well as the weight of the slab, as well as the weight of
reinforcing and foundations. Two types of coffers are available: 20 cm
deep with a diameter of 70 cm, or 31 cm deep and ø 66 cm. The two can
be laid over one another in thick slabs.(4. http://www.tectonica-

33
online.com/products/1712/slab_honeycomb_lightened_bamtec_beeplate/
)

34