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# Teaching program

## New Century Maths Advanced 10+10A Stages

5.2/5.3 for the Australian Curriculum
(Syllabus extracts © Board of Studies NSW 2012)
<MAT10XXTR10002, use same format as MAT09XXTR10002>
Year 10 topics
Week
SEMESTER 1 Week
SEMESTER 2
§
Term 1 1. Surds Term 3 8. Graphs (continued)
1 (Number and Algebra) 1
2 2 9. Trigonometry§
(Measurement and Geometry)
3 2. Interest and depreciation 3
(Number and Algebra)
4 4

5 3. Coordinate geometry§ 5
(Number and Algebra)
6 6 10. Simultaneous equations
(Number and Algebra)
and the parabola§
8 4. Surface area and volume 8 (Number and Algebra)
(Measurement and Geometry)
9 9

## 10 5. Products and factors§ 10 12. Probability

(Number and Algebra) (Statistics and Probability)
Term 2 Term 4
1 1
2 2 13. Geometry§
(Measurement and Geometry)
3 6. Investigating data 3
(Statistics and Probability)
4 4 OPTION TOPICS
(recommended for Stage 6
5 5 Mathematics Extension 1)

## 6 7. Equations§ and 6 14. Polynomials#

logarithms# 15. Circle geometry#
7 (Number and Algebra) 7 16. Functions#

8 8

## 9 8. Graphs§ 9 Lost time

(Number and Algebra)
10 10

## § = Stage 5.3 content recommended for students progressing to Stage 6 Mathematics

# = Stage 5.3 content recommended for students progressing to Stage 6 Mathematics Extension 1

CURRICULUM STRANDS
Number and Algebra Measurement and Geometry Statistics and Probability

New Century Maths Advanced 10+10A Stages 5.2/5.3 teaching program (p. 1)
Year 9 topics

Week
SEMESTER 1 Week
SEMESTER 2
Term 1 1. Pythagoras’ theorem Term 3 7. Equations
1 and surds 1 (Number and Algebra)
2 (Measurement and Geometry) 2

3 3

## 4 2. Working with numbers 4 8. Earning money

(Number and Algebra) (Number and Algebra)
5 5

## 6 3. Products and factors 6 9. Investigating data

(Number and Algebra) (Statistics and Probability)
7 7

8 8

9 9 Lost time

## 10 Lost time 10 10. Surface area

and volume
Term 2 4. Trigonometry Term 4 (Measurement and Geometry)
1 (Measurement and Geometry) 1
2 2

## 3 3 11. Coordinate geometry

and graphs
4 5. Indices 4 (Number and Algebra)
(Number and Algebra)
5 5

6 6 12. Probability
(Statistics and Probability)
7 6. Geometry 7
(Measurement and Geometry)
8 8 13. Congruent and
similar figures
9 9 (Measurement and Geometry)
Lost time
10 10

CURRICULUM STRANDS
Number and Algebra Measurement and Geometry Statistics and Probability

New Century Maths Advanced 10+10A Stages 5.2/5.3 teaching program (p. 2)
1. SURDS§
§
Recommended for Stage 5.2 students intending to study the Stage 6 Mathematics course
Time: 2 weeks (Term 1, Week 1)
Text: New Century Maths Advanced 10+10A Stages 5.2/5.3, Chapter 1, p.1.
NSW and Australian Curriculum references: Number and Algebra
Surds and indices / Real numbers
• Define rational and irrational numbers and perform operations with surds and fractional indices (10ANA264)
NSW Stage 5 outcomes
A student:
• MA5.3-1 WM uses and interprets formal definitions and generalisations when explaining solutions and/or conjectures
• MA5.3-2 WM generalises mathematical ideas and techniques to analyse and solve problems efficiently
• MA5.3 NA performs operations with surds and indices

INTRODUCTION
This Stage 5.3 topic covers operations with surds, including binomial products and rationalising the denominator. Students have
already met surds when solving problems involving Pythagoras’ theorem, lengths on the number plane and simple quadratic
equations. Binomial expansions involving surds build upon skills from the Year 9 topic Products and factors. This is quite a
technical topic, so make sure students spend considerable time developing their knowledge and practising their manipulation
skills.

CONTENT
1 Stage 5.3: Surds and irrational numbers§ 10ANA264 U F R C
• define rational and irrational numbers
2 Stage 5.3: Simplifying surds§ 10ANA264 U F R
• perform operations with surds
3 Stage 5.3: Adding and subtracting surds§ 10ANA264 U F R
4 Stage 5.3: Multiplying and dividing surds§ 10ANA264 U F R
5 Stage 5.3: Binomial products involving surds§ 10ANA264 U F R C
(
• expand expressions involving surds, for example, 2 − 3 2 + 3 )( )
§
6 Stage 5.3: Rationalising the denominator 10ANA264 U F C
a b
• rationalise the denominators of surds of the form
c d
7 Revision and mixed problems

RELATED TOPICS
Year 9: Pythagoras’ theorem and surds, Products and factors
Year 10: Coordinate geometry, Products and factors, Trigonometry, Quadratic equations and the parabola

## PROFICIENCY STRANDS / WORKING MATHEMATICALLY

• U = Understanding (knowing and relating maths): Knowing what a surd is and how to perform operations on them
• F = Fluency (applying maths): Using the correct strategy to simplify expressions involving surds, including rationalising
the denominator
• R = Reasoning (generalising and proving with maths): Use the properties of surds to simplify expressions, including
rationalising the denominator
• C = Communicating (describing and representing maths): Understanding the concepts of surds and irrational numbers

EXTENSION IDEAS
• The real number system and classifying types of numbers
• Newton’s method for calculating square roots. The cube root formula.
2
• Rationalising binomial denominators such as .
3− 7
• The golden section.

New Century Maths Advanced 10+10A Stages 5.2/5.3 teaching program (p. 3)
• The graph of y = x (top half of a sideways parabola).

## TEACHING NOTES AND IDEAS

• When simplifying surds, encourage students to find a factor that is a square number. List the first 10 square numbers on the
board for easy reference: 1, 4, 9, 16, 25, 36, 49, 64, 81, 100.
• Demonstrate how surd arithmetic follows the rules of algebra (as it should), for example, collecting like terms.
• Demonstrate that the length 2 can be constructed using a right-angled isosceles triangle.
• By construction, graph surds on the number line. See Worksheet Surds on the number line.
• Ancient Greek mathematicians believed that all numbers were rational and the world could be explained by rational
numbers. Pythagoras proved this was false when calculating the diagonal of a square with sides 1 unit long.
• Investigate how square roots were found before calculators were invented: Newton’s method.
• For the A series of paper sizes, investigate the ratio of length to width ( 2 : 1) or the lengths of the diagonals.

ASSESSMENT IDEAS
• Research assignment on Pythagoras and the discovery of surds, or the golden section.

TECHNOLOGY
Spreadsheets can be used to approximate surds using the =SQRT formula or evaluate a square root using Newton’s formula.
Use the Internet to research the history of Pythagoras and surds. Use CAS (computer algebra system) software to manipulate
surds.

LANGUAGE
a
• A rational number is a number than can be expressed in the ratio where a and b are integers and b ≠ 0. An irrational
b
number cannot be expressed in this form. As decimals, they do not terminate, but they are not recurring either.
• A surd is a root of a number that is not a square or any other power. All surds are irrational, but not all irrational numbers
are surds. For example, π is irrational but is not a surd.
• The Latin word surdus means ‘muffled’ or ‘indistinct’.
• Note that a 2 = a if and only if a is positive. More generally, a2 = a .
• What is meant by ‘rationalising the denominator?’

New Century Maths Advanced 10+10A Stages 5.2/5.3 teaching program (p. 4)
2. INTEREST AND DEPRECIATION
Time: 2 weeks (Term 1, Week 3)
Text: New Century Maths Advanced 10+10A Stages 5.2/5.3, Chapter 2, p.???
NSW and Australian Curriculum references: Number and Algebra
Financial mathematics / Money and financial mathematics
• Solve problems involving earning money (NSW Stage 5.1)
• Solve problems involving simple interest (9NA211)
• Connect the compound interest formula to repeated applications of simple interest using appropriate digital technologies
(10NA229)
NSW Stage 5 outcomes
A student:
• MA5.1-4 NA solves financial problems involving earning, spending and investing money
• MA5.2-1 WM selects appropriate notations and conventions to communicate mathematical ideas and solutions
• MA5.2-2 WM interprets mathematical or real-life situations, systematically applying appropriate strategies to solve
problems
• MA5.2-4 NA solves financial problems involving compound interest

INTRODUCTION
In this short Financial Mathematics topic, students revise the mathematics of earning an income and paying income tax from
Year 9 before being introduced to the concept of compound interest, the compound interest formula and depreciation. Half of
this topic is actually unique to the NSW syllabus and does not appear in the national Australian curriculum, but it has been
retained so that Stage 5 students can be more financially literate with the mathematics of earning, saving and borrowing.
Classroom examples should be as realistic as possible, with current rates being found on the Internet.

CONTENT
1 Earning an income NSW U F PS C
• solve problems involving earning money
• calculate weekly, fortnightly, monthly and yearly earnings
• calculate earnings from wages, overtime, commission and piecework
2 Income tax NSW U F C
• determine annual taxable income using current tax rates
• use published tables or online calculators to determine the weekly, fortnightly or monthly tax to be deducted from a
worker’s pay under the Australian ‘pay-as-you-go’ (PAYG) taxation system
3 Simple interest 9NA211 U F PS C
• apply the simple interest formula I = PRN to solve problems related to investing money at simple interest rates
• solve problems involving simple interest
4 Compound interest 10NA229 U F PS C
• calculate compound interest for two or three years using repetition of the formula for simple interest
5 Compound interest formula 10NA229 U F PS R C
• establish and use the formula A = P(1 + R)n to find compound interest
• solve problems involving compound interest
6 Term payments NSW U F PS C
• calculate the cost of buying expensive items by paying an initial deposit and making regular repayments that include
simple interest
7 Depreciation NSW U F PS R C
• use the compound interest formula to calculate depreciation
8 Revision and mixed problems

RELATED TOPICS
Year 9: Earning money

New Century Maths Advanced 10+10A Stages 5.2/5.3 teaching program (p. 5)
PROFICIENCY STRANDS / WORKING MATHEMATICALLY
• U = Understanding (knowing and relating maths): Learning about the different ways of calculating income, income tax,
interest, term payments and depreciation
• F = Fluency (applying maths): Having the financial literacy to make appropriate calculations for income, income tax,
simple and compound interest
• PS = Problem solving (modelling and investigating with maths): Finding unknown amounts in problems involving
earning an income, simple interest, compound interest and depreciation
• R = Reasoning (generalising and proving with maths): Understanding the logic and reasoning behind the compound
interest formula and depreciation
• C = Communicating (describing and representing maths): Using the terminology of financial mathematics appropriately

EXTENSION IDEAS
• Back-to-front problems, for example, given the final pay after annual leave loading or overtime pay was added, find the
original pay
• Calculating tax refunds or debts
• Compound interest tables and graphs, the exponential graph
• Credit card calculations and charges, debit cards, hidden costs
• Term payments charges, deferred payments

## TEACHING NOTES AND IDEAS

• Resources: job advertisements and interest rates from newspapers and websites, tax tables, payslips, savings and loans
brochures from banks and credit unions, depreciation tables from tax guides, spreadsheets.
• Use employment sections of newspapers to compare current wages and salaries of occupations.
• Liaise with the HSIE faculty or the school’s careers adviser for resources.
• Investigate the compound interest formula from first principles by examining repeated percentage increase, for example,
increasing by 8% = × 108% = × 1.08.
• Students should learn the skill of expressing the interest rate, R, as a decimal. They should not round the value of R when
calculating interest compounded monthly.
• From the NSW syllabus, Stage 5.2: ‘Calculate and compare investments for different compounding periods’.
• Discuss whether it makes sense to round up or down to the nearest cent when calculating interest.
• Compare simple interest with compound interest. Which one earns more?
• Examine the different types of savings and investment accounts available.
• With depreciation, will the value of the item ever be zero?
• Make problems as realistic as possible. Some students may be starting part-time jobs now and earning incomes.
• Collect examples of term payments and interest rates from store catalogues such as Harvey Norman and The Good Guys.
Compare total paid with cash price.

ASSESSMENT IDEAS
• Practical or problem-solving test/assignment
• Collage/poster/case study on the different ways of earning money.
• Compound interest assignment comparing different interest rates, principals or compounding periods.
• Spreadsheet or graphics calculator test.

TECHNOLOGY
Use spreadsheets or graphics calculators to calculate incomes, tax, interest and depreciation. Graph the progress of an
investment under compound interest. From the NSW syllabus, Stage 5.2: ‘Internet sites may be used to find commercial rates
for home loans and to find “home loan calculators”.’

LANGUAGE
• Some students have difficulty differentiating between interest and interest rate when answering questions.
• Note that ‘flat interest’ = ‘simple interest’.

New Century Maths Advanced 10+10A Stages 5.2/5.3 teaching program (p. 6)
3. COORDINATE GEOMETRY§
§
Recommended for Stage 5.2 students intending to study the Stage 6 Mathematics course
Time: 3 weeks (Term 1, Week 5)
Text: New Century Maths Advanced 10+10A Stages 5.2/5.3, Chapter 3, p.???
NSW and Australian Curriculum references: Number and Algebra
Linear relationships / Linear and non-linear relationships
• Find the distance between two points located on the Cartesian plane using a range of strategies, including graphing
software (9NA214)
• Find the midpoint and gradient of a line segment (interval) on the Cartesian plane using a range of strategies, including
graphing software (9NA294)
• Sketch linear graphs using the coordinates of two points (9NA215)
• Interpret and graph linear relationships using the gradient-intercept form of the equation of a straight line (NSW Stage
5.2)
• Solve problems using various standard forms of the equation of a straight line (NSW Stage 5.3)
• Solve problems involving parallel and perpendicular lines (10NA238)
NSW Stage 5 outcomes
A student:
• MA5.1-6 NA determines the midpoint, gradient and length of an interval, and graphs linear relationships
• MA5.2-1 WM selects appropriate notations and conventions to communicate mathematical ideas and solutions
• MA5.2-3 WM constructs arguments to prove and justify results
• MA5.2-9 NA uses the gradient-intercept form to interpret and graph linear relationships
• MA5.3-1 WM uses and interprets formal definitions and generalisations when explaining solutions and/or conjectures
• MA5.3-2 WM generalises mathematical ideas and techniques to analyse and solve problems efficiently
• MA5.3-3 WM uses deductive reasoning in presenting arguments and formal proofs
• MA5.3-8 NA uses formulas to find midpoint, gradient and distance on the Cartesian plane, and applies standard forms
of the equation of a straight line

INTRODUCTION
This algebra topic revises and extends coordinate geometry concepts and skills introduced in the Year 9 topic, Coordinate
geometry and graphs. It examines intervals and lines on the number plane as well as various forms of the equation of a straight
line. The general form of a linear equation and the point-gradient form are met for the first time, as well as the equations of
parallel and perpendicular lines. There is much scope for using graphing software such as GeoGebra in this topic. Note that the
formulas for the length, midpoint and gradient of an interval are now Stage 5.3 concepts only, and students will meet non-linear
graphs in the Graphs topic.

CONTENT
1 Length, midpoint and gradient of an interval 9NA214, 9NA294 U F R C
• find the distance between two points located on the Cartesian plane using a range of strategies, including graphing
software
• find the midpoint and gradient of a line segment (interval) on the Cartesian plane using a range of strategies, including
graphing software
• (STAGE 5.3) use the formulas to find the length, midpoint and gradient of the interval joining two points on the
§
Cartesian plane
§
• (STAGE 5.3) find the angle of inclination θ of a line with gradient m using m = tan θ
2 Parallel and perpendicular lines 10NA238 U F R C
• determine that parallel lines have equal gradients
• determine that straight lines are perpendicular if the product of their gradients is -1
3 Graphing linear equations 9NA215 U F R C
• sketch linear graphs using the coordinates of two points
§
• (STAGE 5.3) sketch the graph of a line by using its equation to find the x- and y-intercepts
• determine whether a point lies on a line by substitution
4 The gradient-intercept equation y = mx + b NSW U F R C
• interpret and graph linear relationships using the gradient-intercept form of the equation of a straight line
5 The general form of a linear equation ax + by + c = 0 NSW U F R C
• rearrange an equation of a straight line in the form ax + by + c = 0 ('general form') to gradient-intercept form to
determine the gradient and the y-intercept of the line

New Century Maths Advanced 10+10A Stages 5.2/5.3 teaching program (p. 7)
6 Stage 5.3: The point-gradient form of a linear equation§ NSW U F R C
• find the equation of a line passing through a point (x1, y1) with a given gradient m using the point-gradient form y – y1 =
m(x – x1) and gradient-intercept form y = mx + b
• find the equation of a line passing through two points
7 Finding the equation of a line NSW U F R C
• find the gradient and y-intercept of a straight line from its graph and use these to determine the equation of the line
8 Equations of parallel and perpendicular lines 10NA238 U F R C
• find the equation of a straight line parallel or perpendicular to another given line
9 Stage 5.3: Coordinate geometry problems§ NSW F PS R C
• solve a variety of problems by applying coordinate geometry formulas
10 Revision and mixed problems

RELATED TOPICS
Year 9: Pythagoras’ theorem and surds, Products and factors, Equations, Coordinate geometry and graphs
Year 10: Products and factors, Graphs, Simultaneous equations

## PROFICIENCY STRANDS / WORKING MATHEMATICALLY

• U = Understanding (knowing and relating maths): Relating linear equations and their different forms to their graphs
• F = Fluency (applying maths): Using appropriate techniques to graph equations and to find the equation of a line
• PS = Problem solving (modelling and investigating with maths): Proving geometrical properties of triangles and
• R = Reasoning (generalising and proving with maths): Using the properties of parallel and perpendicular lines to find
their equations algebraically
• C = Communicating (describing and representing maths): Writing the equation of a line in different ways and
describing its properties using correct terminology

EXTENSION IDEAS
• Back-to-front problems involving distance, midpoint and gradient of an interval
y − y1 y2 − y1 x y
• The two-point and intercept forms of the linear equation: = and + =1.
x − x1 x2 − x1 a b
• Open-ended problems: (a) Find two points that are 2 units apart; (b) If the midpoint of an interval is (1, 4), what could
the endpoints of the interval be?
• 3D coordinate geometry, polar coordinates, latitude and longitude.

## TEACHING NOTES AND IDEAS

• Resources: number plane grid paper, graphics calculator, graphing software.
• Develop the idea of the midpoint as an average. Remind students that the midpoint is a point and so the answer should be a
pair of coordinates.
• Describing gradient as the ratio of ‘difference in y over difference in x’ will lead smoothly to the meaning of derivative in
the Stage 6 Mathematics (calculus) course.
• When graphing linear equations, remind students to label the axes and graph, and to show the scale on both axes.
• Identify the x- and y-intercepts of a line.
• All points that lie on the line have coordinates that satisfy the linear equation. Points that don’t lie on the line do not satisfy
the equation.
• Explain why the x-axis has equation y = 0. Explain why the y-axis has equation x = 0.
• There are many forms of the linear equation. However, y = mx + b can be used to solve most problems involving finding
the equation of a line.
• Students need practice in converting between y = mx + b and ax + by + c = 0.
a
• A handy formula: The gradient of the line ax + by + c = 0 is − .
b
• Use coordinate geometry formulas to determine or prove the properties of triangles and quadrilaterals.

ASSESSMENT IDEAS
• Practical graphing test using pen-and-paper or technology.

New Century Maths Advanced 10+10A Stages 5.2/5.3 teaching program (p. 8)
• Graphing test or graphics calculator test.
• Test/assignment on proving geometrical properties using coordinate geometry methods.

TECHNOLOGY
Use a graphics calculator, graphing software or spreadsheets to complete tables of values and graph linear equations.

LANGUAGE
• The Cartesian (number) plane is named after 17th century French philosopher and mathematician René Descartes
(pronounced ‘day-cart’), who was one of the first to develop analytical geometry on the number plane.
• Why do the gradient-intercept and point-gradient forms of a linear equation have those names?
• The y-intercept is a value, b, not a point (0, b). So y = 2x – 6 has a y-intercept of -6, not (0, -6).

New Century Maths Advanced 10+10A Stages 5.2/5.3 teaching program (p. 9)
4. SURFACE AREA AND VOLUME
Time: 2 weeks (Term 1, Week 8)
Text: New Century Maths Advanced 10+10A Stages 5.2/5.3, Chapter 4, p.???
NSW and Australian Curriculum references: Measurement and Geometry
Area and surface area, Volume / Using units of measurement
• Calculate the surface area and volume of cylinders and solve related problems (9MG217)
• Solve problems involving the surface area and volume of right prisms (9MG218)
• Solve problems involving surface area and volume for a range of prisms, cylinders and composite solids (10MG242)
• Solve problems involving surface area and volume of right pyramids, right cones, spheres and related composite solids
(10AMG271)
Properties of Geometrical Figures / Geometric reasoning
• Solve problems using ratio and scale factors in similar figures (9MG221)

## NSW Stage 5 outcomes

A student:
• MA5.1-8 MG calculate the areas of composite shapes, and the surface areas of rectangular and triangular prisms
• MA5.2-1 WM selects appropriate notations and conventions to communicate mathematical ideas and solutions
• MA5.2-2 WM interpret mathematical or real-life situations, systematically applying appropriate strategies to solve
problems
• MA5.2-11 MG calculates the surface areas of right prisms, cylinders and related composite solids
• MA5.2-12 MG applies formulas to calculate the volumes of composite solids composed of right prisms and cylinders
• MA5.3-1 WM uses and interprets formal definitions and generalisations when explaining solutions and/or conjectures
• MA5.3-2 WM generalises mathematical ideas and techniques to analyse and solve problems efficiently
• MA5.3-3 WM uses deductive reasoning in presenting arguments and formal proofs
• MA5.3-13 MG applies formulas to find the surface areas of right pyramids, right cones, spheres and related composite
solids
• MA5.3-14 MG applies formulas to find the volumes of right pyramids, right cones, spheres and related composite
solids

INTRODUCTION
This topic extends surface area and volume concepts to more advanced solid shapes. Students will examine the processes and
formulas involved in calculating the surface areas and volumes of pyramids, cones and spheres, sometimes using Pythagoras’
theorem first. They also examine the area and volume relationships between pairs of similar 2D and 3D figures. As this is a
Measurement topic, there are opportunities for investigation, practical work and open-ended problem-solving. Practice in
estimating, the correct setting-out of solutions and the rounding of answers should feature prominently in the teaching of this
topic.

CONTENT
1 Surface area of a prism 9MG218, 10MG242 U F PS R C
• solve problems involving the surface areas of right prisms
2 Surface area of a cylinder 9MG217, 10MG242 U F PS R
• calculate the surface areas of cylinders and solve related problems
3 Stage 5.3: Surface area of a pyramid 10AMG271 U F PS R C
• apply Pythagoras’ theorem to find the slant heights, base lengths and perpendicular heights of right pyramids and cones
• find the surface area of right pyramids
4 Stage 5.3: Surface areas of cones and spheres 10AMG271 U F PS R C
• find the surface areas of right cones and spheres
5 Surface areas of composite solids 10MG242, 10AMG271 U F PS R C
• solve a variety of practical problems related to surface areas of prisms, cylinders and related composite solids
• (STAGE 5.3) solve a variety of practical problems related to surface areas of pyramids, cones, spheres and related
composite solids
6 Volumes of prisms and cylinders 10MG242 U F PS R C

New Century Maths Advanced 10+10A Stages 5.2/5.3 teaching program (p. 10)
• solve problems involving volume and capacity of right prisms and cylinders
• find the volumes of solids that have uniform cross-sections that are sectors, including semi-circles and quadrants
7 Stage 5.3: Volumes of pyramids, cones and spheres 10AMG271 U F PS R
• solve problems involving the volumes of right pyramids, right cones and spheres
8 Stage 5.3: Volumes of composite solids 10AMG271 U F PS R
• find the volumes of composite solids that include right pyramids, right cones and hemispheres
9 Stage 5.3: Areas of similar figures 9MG221 U F PS R C
• establish and apply for two similar figures with similarity ratio 1 : k that matching areas are in the ratio 1 : k2
10 Stage 5.3: Surface areas and volumes of similar solids NSW U F PS R C
• establish and apply for two similar solids with similarity ratio 1 : k that matching surface areas are in the ratio 1 : k2
and matching volumes are in the ratio 1 : k3
11 Revision and mixed problems

RELATED TOPICS
Year 9: Pythagoras’ theorem and surds, Surface area and volume, Congruent and similar figures.

## PROFICIENCY STRANDS / WORKING MATHEMATICALLY

• U = Understanding (knowing and relating maths): Knowing the concepts of surface area and volume, and their formulas
• F = Fluency (applying maths): Selecting correct strategies to calculate surface areas and volumes
• PS = Problem solving (modelling and investigating with maths): Solving problems involving surface area and volume
• R = Reasoning (generalising and proving with maths): Understanding the reasoning behind the formula for the surface
area and volume of a cylinder
• C = Communicating (describing and representing maths): Identifying the parts of a pyramid, cone and sphere when
calculating their surface areas and volumes

EXTENSION IDEAS
• Proofs of the formulas for the volumes of pyramids and cones (see syllabus for ideas).
• Right vs oblique pyramids and cones.
• Proofs of the formulas for the surface area and volume of a sphere (see syllabus for ideas).
• Link to Health and PE: why do babies dehydrate so quickly and why do mice eat so much?
• Find the surface area of the ‘best’ can. Design a carton to hold a litre of milk, considering ease of packing, storage, stacking,
minimum surface area, convenience of use, attractive design.

## TEACHING NOTES AND IDEAS

• Resources: chart of surface area and volume formulas, nets or models of solid shapes, paper, scissors, measuring containers
for capacity.
• Demonstrate that the formulas for surface area have two dimensions while the formulas for volume have three dimensions.
• The formulas for the volumes of right prisms, cylinders, pyramids and cones also work for oblique prisms, cylinders,
pyramids and cones, provided that the perpendicular height is used.
• Use sand and cardboard models to demonstrate the 1 : 3 relationship between the volumes of pyramids and prisms (and
cones and cylinders).
• From the NSW syllabus, Stage 5.3: ‘A more systematic development of the volume formulas for pyramids, cones and
1
spheres can be given after integration is developed in Stage 6 (where the factor emerges essentially because the primitive
3
1 3 4
of x2 is x ).’ Note that for the sphere, SA = 4πr2 is the derivative of V = πr 3 .
3 3
• What is the formula for the surface area of a hemisphere?
• Include problems where extra information is given, or composite solids are involved.
• For problems involving surface area and/or composite solids, encourage students to leave partial answers unrounded
otherwise the final result will be inaccurate.
• Include back-to-front problems where the surface area or volume is given.
• Find applications of surface area and volume in building and construction, e.g. backyard pool, packing material.
• Link to algebra: show that the formula for the surface area of a cylinder SA = 2πr2 + 2πrh may be factorised to SA = 2πr(r +
h) for easier calculation. Similarly with the formula for the surface area of a cone SA = πrl + πr2.

New Century Maths Advanced 10+10A Stages 5.2/5.3 teaching program (p. 11)
• Investigate the A series of paper sizes. See Worksheet Investigating paper sizes. Why is a scale factor of 71% and 141%
used on photocopiers to respectively halve or double the area of a sheet?

ASSESSMENT IDEAS
• Practical activity/assignment/test on surface area and volume.
• Open-ended and back-to-front questions: ‘The volume of a triangular prism is 540 cm3. What might its dimensions be?’
• Research project.

TECHNOLOGY
Drawing and animation software may be used to demonstrate area and volumes of geometrical figures. Also search for
animations and applets from the Internet.

LANGUAGE
• From the NSW syllabus: ‘Students are expected to be able to determine whether the prisms and cylinders referred to in
practical problems are closed or open (one end only or both ends), depending on the context’.
• From the NSW syllabus, Stage 5.3: ‘The difference between the “perpendicular heights” and the “slant heights” of pyramids
and cones should be made explicit to students’.
• A right prism has side faces that are rectangular and perpendicular to its cross-section. An oblique prism has side faces that
are parallelograms and that are not perpendicular to its cross-section. Similarly, a right cylinder has its axis (of rotation)
perpendicular to its cross-section. An oblique cylinder’s axis is not perpendicular to its cross-section. The definitions are
similar for right and oblique pyramids and cones.
• A pyramid or cone with its top sliced off is called a frustum.

New Century Maths Advanced 10+10A Stages 5.2/5.3 teaching program (p. 12)
5. PRODUCTS AND FACTORS§
§
Recommended for Stage 5.2 students intending to study the Stage 6 Mathematics course
Time: 3 weeks (Term 1, Week 10)
Text: New Century Maths Advanced 10+10A Stages 5.2/5.3, Chapter 5, p.???
NSW and Australian Curriculum references: Number and Algebra
Indices / Real numbers
• Apply index laws to numerical expressions with integer indices (9NA209)
• Apply index laws to algebraic expressions involving integer indices (NSW Stage 5.2)
• Define rational and irrational numbers and perform operations with surds and fractional indices (10ANA264)
Indices / Patterns and algebra
• Simplify algebraic products and quotients using index laws (10NA231)
Algebraic Techniques / Patterns and algebra
• Apply the distributive law to the expansion of algebraic expressions, including binomials, and collect like terms where
appropriate (9NA213)
• Factorise algebraic expressions by taking out a common algebraic factor (10NA230)
• Apply the four operations to simple algebraic fractions with numerical denominators (10NA232)
• Apply the four operations to algebraic fractions with pronumerals in the denominator (NSW Stage 5.2)
• Add and subtract algebraic fractions with numerical denominators, including those with binomial numerators (NSW
Stage 5.3)
• Expand binomial products and factorise monic quadratic expressions using a variety of strategies (10NA233)
Algebraic Techniques / Linear and non-linear relationships
• Expand binomial products and factorise algebraic expressions using a variety of techniques (10ANA269)
NSW Stage 5 outcomes
A student:
• MA5.1-5 NA operates with algebraic expressions involving positive-integer and zero indices, and establishes the
meaning of negative indices for numerical bases
• MA5.2-1 WM selects appropriate notations and conventions to communicate mathematical ideas and solutions
• MA5.2-3 WM constructs arguments to prove and justify results
• MA5.2-6 NA simplifies algebraic fractions, and expands and factorises quadratic expressions
• MA5.2-7 NA applies index laws to operate with algebraic expressions involving integer indices
• MA5.3-1 WM uses and interprets formal definitions and generalisations when explaining solutions and/or conjectures
• MA5.3-5 NA selects and applies appropriate algebraic techniques to operate with algebraic expressions

INTRODUCTION
This revision topic reinforces algebra skills from the Year 9 topics Products and factors and Indices, especially the index laws,
expanding binomial products and factorising quadratic expressions. This topic is fairly technical and abstract so each skill
should be revised with care and precision appropriate to the level of the class. Spend considerable time in class examining the
patterns found in expansions and practising the abstract algebraic manipulations. The aim is to develop a systematic approach
to expansion and factorisation.

CONTENT
1 The index laws 9NA209, 10NA231 U F R C
• simplify algebraic products and quotients using index laws
2 Stage 5.3: Fractional indices§ 10ANA264 U F R C
• apply index laws to demonstrate the appropriateness of the definitions for fractional indices
3 Adding and subtracting algebraic fractions 10NA232 U F R C
• apply the four operations to simple algebraic fractions
§
• (STAGE 5.3) add and subtract algebraic fractions with binomial numerators
4 Multiplying and dividing algebraic fractions 10NA232 U F R C
5 Expanding and factorising expressions 9NA213, 10NA230 U F R C
• apply the distributive law to the expansion of algebraic expressions and collect like terms where appropriate
• factorise algebraic expressions by taking out a common algebraic factor
6 Expanding binomial products 9NA213, 10NA233 U F R C

New Century Maths Advanced 10+10A Stages 5.2/5.3 teaching program (p. 13)
• apply the distributive law to the expansion of binomials
7 Stage 5.3: Factorising special binomial products§ 10ANA269 U F R C
• factorise algebraic expressions involving grouping in pairs and a difference of two squares
8 Factorising quadratic expressions 10NA233 U F R C
• factorise monic quadratic expressions x2 + bx + c using a variety of strategies
9 Stage 5.3: Factorising quadratic expressions of the form ax2 + bx + c§ 10ANA269 U F R C
• factorise non-monic quadratic expressions ax2 + bx + c using a variety of strategies
10 Stage 5.3: Mixed factorisations§ 10ANA269 F R C
11 Stage 5.3: Factorising algebraic fractions§ NSW U F R C
• factorise and simplify complex algebraic expressions involving algebraic fractions
12 Revision and mixed problems

RELATED TOPICS
Year 9: Products and factors, Indices
Year 10: Surds, Equations and logarithms, Quadratic equations and the parabola, Polynomials (option topic)

## PROFICIENCY STRANDS / WORKING MATHEMATICALLY

• U = Understanding (knowing and relating maths): Relating the index laws, and zero, negative and fractional indices
• F = Fluency (applying maths): Interpreting and writing ‘algebra’ fluently and selecting the right strategy to simplify,
expand and factorise expressions
• R = Reasoning (generalising and proving with maths): Using algebra to represent and generalise the index laws and
special products
• C = Communicating (describing and representing maths): Using the language of expanding and factorising correctly

EXTENSION IDEAS
• More challenging problems involving the index laws and negative and fractional indices
• More challenging problems involving expanding and factorising

## TEACHING NOTES AND IDEAS

• Open-ended question: find two terms that can be divided to give 27.
1
• Common student errors: 5x0 = 1, 9x5 ÷ 3x5 = 3x, 2c-4 = , 2a2 = 4a2, (3b)2 = 3b2.
2c 4
• Demonstrate the equivalence of expansions and factorisations, for example (x + 2)(x – 2) = x2 – 4 by substituting a value for
x in both sides of the identity. Use a spreadsheet or graphics calculator.
• Evaluate 982 by expanding (100 – 92)2. Evaluate 19 × 21 by expanding (20 – 1)(20 + 1). Investigate the mental calculation
trick for squaring a 2-digit number ending in 5, found in Mental Skills 2A in Chapter 2 of New Century Maths 9
• Include open-ended questions such as (x …)(x …) = x2 … 5x ... or what two terms could be multiplied to give 4a2 + 8a?
• Students will need these factorising strategies when they solve the quadratic equations in the topic Quadratic equations and
the parabola. The quadratic formula will also be introduced then.
• Factorising ax2 + bx + c by grouping in pairs is a powerful method because it can be applied to problems where a is
negative.
• With the many types of factorisation, students need to use a systematic approach to decide which method to use. Have them
design a poster on this.
• Encourage students to check that an expression is fully factorised. Include quadratic trinomials where a simple numerical
factor can be taken out first, eg 2x2 – 10x + 12 = 2(x2 – 5x + 6).

ASSESSMENT IDEAS
• Writing activity on the use of variables and simplifying algebraic expressions, or on the processes of expanding and
factorising and the patterns found in the special products.
• Research assignment or poster on the algebraic rules or the history/meaning of algebra
• Vocabulary test

New Century Maths Advanced 10+10A Stages 5.2/5.3 teaching program (p. 14)
TECHNOLOGY
CAS (Computer Algebra Systems) and websites such as Wolfram Alpha can be used to simplify, expand or evaluate algebraic
expressions. Use spreadsheets to evaluate and verify equivalent expressions.

LANGUAGE
• For 24, 2 is called the base and 4 is called the power, index or exponent.
• From the NSW syllabus: ‘Teachers should use fuller expressions before shortening them, for example, 24 should be
expressed as “2 raised to the power of 4”, before “2 to the power of 4” and finally “2 to the 4”.
• An algebraic term consists of a number and/or a variable, for example, 4p2. An algebraic expression is a ‘phrase’ containing
terms and one or more arithmetic operation, for example, 5x + 6. An equation is a ‘sentence’ containing an expression, an
‘=’ sign and an ‘answer,’ for example, 5x + 6 = 26.
• Reinforce the difference between expand and factorise, as students will often do the opposite of what is requested.
• From the NSW syllabus, Stage 5.3: ‘When factorising (or expanding) algebraic expressions, students should be encouraged
to describe the given expression (or expansion) using the appropriate terminology (for example, “difference of two
squares”, “monic quadratic trinomial”) to assist them in learning the concepts and identifying the appropriate process’.
• binomial = algebraic expression with two terms, for example 2ab – b2 or x + 5, from the Latin bi nomen, ‘two names’.
• trinomial = algebraic expression with three terms, for example x2 – x + 4.
• monomial = algebraic expression with one term, for example 5b3.
• quadratic = algebraic expression in which the highest power of x is 2, for example 5x2 – 3x + 4.

New Century Maths Advanced 10+10A Stages 5.2/5.3 teaching program (p. 15)
6. INVESTIGATING DATA
Time: 3 weeks (Term 2, Week 3)
Text: New Century Maths Advanced 10+10A Stages 5.2/5.3, Chapter 6, p.???
NSW and Australian Curriculum references: Statistics and Probability
Single Variable Data Analysis / Data representation and interpretation
• Construct back-to-back stem-and-leaf plots and histograms and describe data, using terms including ‘skewed’,
‘symmetric’ and ‘bi-modal’ (9SP282)
• Determine quartiles and interquartile range (10SP248)
• Construct and interpret box plots and use them to compare data sets (10SP249)
• Compare shapes of box plots to corresponding histograms and dot plots (10SP250)
• Evaluate statistical reports in the media and other places by linking claims to displays, statistics and representative data
(10SP253)
• Investigate reports of studies in digital media and elsewhere for information on their planning and implementation
(10ASP277)
• Calculate and interpret the mean and standard deviation of data and use these to compare data sets (10ASP278)
Bivariate Data Analysis / Data representation and interpretation
• Use scatter plots to investigate and comment on relationships between two numerical variables (10SP251)
• Investigate and describe bivariate numerical data where the independent variable is time (10SP252)
• Use information technologies to investigate bivariate numerical data sets. Where appropriate use a straight line to
describe the relationship allowing for variation (10ASP279)
NSW Stage 5 outcomes
A student:
• MA5.1-12 SP uses statistical displays to compare sets of data, and evaluates statistical claims made in the media
• MA5.2-1 WM selects appropriate notations and conventions to communicate mathematical ideas and solutions
• MA5.2-3 WM constructs arguments to prove and justify results
• MA5.2-15 SP uses quartiles and box plots to compare sets of data, and evaluates sources of data
• MA5.2-16 SP investigates relationships between two statistical variables, including their relationship over time
• MA5.3-1 WM uses and interprets formal definitions and generalisations when explaining solutions and/or conjectures
• MA5.3-2 WM generalises mathematical ideas and techniques to analyse and solve problems efficiently
• MA5.3-3 WM uses deductive reasoning in presenting arguments and formal proofs
• MA5.3-18 SP uses standard deviation to analyse data
• MA5.3-19 SP investigates the relationship between numerical variables using lines of best fit, and explores how data is
used to inform decision-making processes

INTRODUCTION
In this Statistics topic, students consolidate their statistical skills by meeting interquartile range, standard deviation, box plots,
bivariate data, scatter plots and lines of best fit. The shape of a frequency distribution is revised first, but the rest of the topic
will be new to students. The objective of this topic is to compare statistical measures for different sets of data. Aim to include
analysis of data from class surveys and students’ own experiences. Because this is an interpretation and investigation topic,
there is much scope for writing and literacy activities.

CONTENT
1 The shape of a frequency distribution 9SP282 U F PS R C
• describe data using terms, including ‘skewed’, ‘symmetric’ and ‘bi-modal’
2 Quartiles and interquartile range 10SP248 U F PS R C
• determine quartiles and interquartile range
3 Stage 5.3: Standard deviation 10ASP278 U F PS C
• investigate the meaning and calculation of standard deviation using a small set of data
• find the standard deviation of a set of data using digital technologies
• compare the relative merits of the range, interquartile range and standard deviation as measures of spread
4 Stage 5.3: Comparing means and standard deviations 10ASP278 F PS R C
• use the mean and standard deviation to compare two sets of data
5 Box plots 10SP249 U F PS R C
• construct and interpret box plots
6 Parallel box plots 10SP249 U F PS R C
• compare two or more sets of data using parallel box plots drawn on the same scale

New Century Maths Advanced 10+10A Stages 5.2/5.3 teaching program (p. 16)
7 Comparing data sets 10SP250 F PS R C
• compare shapes of box plots to corresponding histograms and dot plots
8 Scatter plots 10SP251 U F R C
• describe, informally, the strength and direction of the relationship between two variables displayed in a scatter plot, for
example, strong positive relationship, weak negative relationship, no association
9 Stage 5.3: Line of best fit 10ASP279 U F PS R C
• use digital technologies, such as a spreadsheet, to construct a line of best fit for bivariate numerical data
• use lines of best fit to determine what might happen between known data values (interpolation) and what might happen
beyond known data values (extrapolation)
10 Bivariate data involving time 10SP252 U F R C
• recognise the difference between an independent variable and its dependent variable
• investigate and describe bivariate numerical data where the independent variable is time
11 Statistics in the media 10SP253 U F PS R C
• evaluate statistical reports in the media and other places by linking claims to displays, statistics and representative data
12 Stage 5.3: Investigating statistical studies 10ASP277 PS R C
• investigate reports of studies in digital media and elsewhere for information on their planning and implementation
13 Revision and mixed problems

RELATED TOPICS
Year 9: Investigating data

## PROFICIENCY STRANDS / WORKING MATHEMATICALLY

• U = Understanding (knowing and relating maths): Knowing the concepts of quartiles, interquartile range, standard
deviation, box plots, bivariate data, scatter plots and lines of best fit
• F = Fluency (applying maths): Constructing a five-number summary and box-and-whisker plot from a set of data
• PS = Problem solving (modelling and investigating with maths): Analysing data presented in different forms to solve
problems and draw conclusions
• R = Reasoning (generalising and proving with maths): Drawing conclusions about a set of data from box plots and
scatter plots
• C = Communicating (describing and representing maths): Classifying, representing and interpreting data in different
forms and using correct statistical terminology

EXTENSION IDEAS
• Grouped data, class intervals, median class, cumulative frequency graphs (no longer part of syllabus)
• Replicate or implement a major statistical investigation.
• Calculating standard deviation the long way.
• The normal curve and the 68%, 95%, 99% confidence intervals, z-scores.
• Investigate what happens to the range, mean and standard deviation of a data set if a constant is added to each scores or if
the values are multiplied by a constant. Use a spreadsheet where appropriate.

## TEACHING NOTES AND IDEAS

• Resources: Graphics calculator, statistical and graphing software, spreadsheets, databases, newspapers and magazines,
Australian Bureau of Statistics (www.abs.gov.au), Bureau of Meteorology (www.bom.gov.au).
• This topic lends itself to investigation projects. The class may be surveyed on a number of characteristics and the data
analysed: height, arm span, shoe size, heartbeat rate, reaction time, health and PE data, number of children in family,
number of people living at home, hours slept last night, number of letters in first name, number of vehicles/TV sets/mobile
phones owned at home.
• Students should be able to calculate quartiles, interquartile range and standard deviation from data displayed in different
forms: list of scores, frequency table, dot plot, stem-and-leaf plot.
• Examine the statistics from the sports page of a newspaper or website.
• The standard deviation is an average of the deviations of the scores from the mean of a data set.
• Students are not expected to calculate standard deviation the long way using a formula, only interpret its value (population
standard deviation only σn or xσn) using the calculator’s statistics mode.
• Students are not expected to analyse the relative positions of the mean, mode and median in skewed distributions.
• Why is the interquartile range a better measure of spread than the range sometimes? Why is the standard deviation often the

New Century Maths Advanced 10+10A Stages 5.2/5.3 teaching program (p. 17)
• From the NSW syllabus, Stage 5.2: ‘Bivariate data analysis explores relationships between variables, including through the
use of scatter plots and lines of best fit, and is generally used for explanatory purposes. A researcher investigating the
proportion of eligible voters who actually vote in an election might consider a single variable, such as age. If wanting to use
a bivariate approach, the researcher might compare age and gender, or age and income, or age and education, etc’.
• Find newspaper articles in which statistics have been misinterpreted. Students could analyse the statistics used in media
claims or use statistics to justify an argument themselves.

ASSESSMENT IDEAS
• Plan, implement and report on a statistical investigation.
• Statistical survey.
• Vocabulary test, Statistical graphs and displays test.
• Investigate the use and abuse of statistics and statistical graphs in the media.
• Research the role of the Australian Bureau of Statistics or the Australian Census.

TECHNOLOGY
From the NSW syllabus, Stage 5.2: ‘Graphics calculators and other statistical software will display box plots for entered data,
but students should be aware that results may not always be the same. This is because the technologies use varying methods for
creating the plots, eg some software packages use the mean and standard deviation by default to create a box plot’.
Explore the statistical and graphing features of a spreadsheet, GeoGebra, Fx-Stat, graphics/CAS calculators or software. Use a
spreadsheet to examine the effects of altering data, such adding outliers or doubling every score. Visit the CensusAtSchool
website www.abs.gov.au/censusatschool.

LANGUAGE
• This topic contains much statistical jargon, so a student-created glossary may be useful.
• Strictly speaking, the term bi-modal does not mean ‘two modes’. A bi-modal distribution actually has two ‘peaks’, with the
higher one being the mode. However, in this context, ‘mode’ has the same meaning as ‘peak’.
• Reinforce the terminology measures of location and measures of spread.
• Name the five measures found in a five-number summary.

New Century Maths Advanced 10+10A Stages 5.2/5.3 teaching program (p. 18)
7. EQUATIONS§ AND LOGARITHMS#
§
Recommended for Stage 5.2 students intending to study the Stage 6 Mathematics course
#
Recommended for students intending to study the Stage 6 Mathematics Extension 1 course
Time: 3 weeks (Term 2, Week 6)
Text: New Century Maths Advanced 10+10A Stages 5.2/5.3, Chapter 7, p.???
NSW and Australian Curriculum references: Number and Algebra
Equations / Linear and non-linear relationships
• Substitute values into formulas to determine an unknown (10NA234)
• Solve problems involving linear equations, including those derived from formulas (10NA235)
• Solve linear inequalities and graph their solutions on a number line (10NA236)
• Solve linear equations involving simple algebraic fractions (10NA240)
• Solve complex linear equations involving algebraic fractions (NSW Stage 5.3)
• Solve simple quadratic equations using a range of strategies (10NA241)
• Solve simple cubic equations (NSW Stage 5.3)
• Rearrange literal equations (NSW Stage 5.3)
Logarithms / Real numbers
• Use the definition of a logarithm to establish and apply the laws of logarithms (10ANA265)
• Solve simple exponential equations (10ANA270)
NSW Stage 5 outcomes
A student:
• MA5.2-1 WM selects appropriate notations and conventions to communicate mathematical ideas and solutions
• MA5.2-2 WM interprets mathematical or real-life situations, systematically applying appropriate strategies to solve
problems
• MA5.2-3 WM constructs arguments to prove and justify results
• MA5.2-8 NA solves linear and simple quadratic equations, linear inequalities and linear simultaneous equations, using
analytical and graphical techniques
• MA5.3-1 WM uses and interprets formal definitions and generalisations when explaining solutions and/or conjectures
• MA5.3-2 WM generalises mathematical ideas and techniques to analyse and solve problems efficiently
• MA5.3-3 WM uses deductive reasoning in presenting arguments and formal proofs
• MA5.3-7 NA solves complex linear, quadratic, simple cubic and simultaneous equations, and rearranges literal
equations
• MA5.3-11 NA uses the definition of a logarithm to establish and apply the laws of logarithms

INTRODUCTION
This topic revises equation-solving skills from the Year 9 topic, Equations before introducing students to (monic) quadratic
equations of the form x2 + bx + c = 0, linear inequalities, logarithms and exponential and logarithmic equations. According to
the NSW syllabus, the logarithms content of this topic is recommended for students who intend to study the Stage 6
Mathematics Extension 1 course next year. Simultaneous equations will be covered in a separate topic, while harder quadratic
equations will be met in the topic Quadratic equations and the parabola. The processes behind solving equations and
inequalities and manipulating logarithmic expressions are detailed and technical, requiring careful and precise understanding
and practice, so don’t rush through this topic.

CONTENT
1 Equations with algebraic fractions 10NA240 U F R
• solve linear equations involving simple algebraic fractions
§
• (NSW STAGE 5.3) solve complex linear equations involving algebraic fractions
2
2 Quadratic equations x + bx + c = 0 10NA241 U F R C
• solve simple quadratic equations of the form ax2 = c, leaving answers in exact form and as decimal approximations
• solve quadratic equations of the form x2 + bx + c = 0, by factorisation
3 Stage 5.3: Simple cubic equations ax3 = c§ NSW U F R C
• solve simple cubic equations of the form ax3 = c
4 Equation problems 10NA235 U F PS R C
• solve real-life problems by using pronumerals to represent unknowns

New Century Maths Advanced 10+10A Stages 5.2/5.3 teaching program (p. 19)
5 Equations and formulas 10NA234, 10NA235 U F PS R C
• substitute values into formulas to determine an unknown
• solve problems involving linear equations, including those derived from formulas
6 Stage 5.3: Changing the subject of a formula§ NSW U F R C
• rearrange literal equations (change the subject of formulas)
7 Graphing inequalities on a number line 10NA236 U F C
• represent simple inequalities on the number line
8 Solving inequalities 10NA236 U F R
• solve linear inequalities and graph their solutions on a number line
9 Stage 5.3: Logarithms# 10ANA265 U F R C
• define logarithms and convert between statements written in logarithmic and index form
10 Stage 5.3: Logarithm laws# 10ANA265 U F R C
• deduce and apply logarithm laws and properties
11 Stage 5.3: Exponential and logarithmic equations# 10ANA270 U F R C
• solve simple equations involving exponents and logarithms
12 Revision and mixed problems

RELATED TOPICS
Year 9: Products and factors, Equations
Year 10: Coordinate geometry, Products and factors, Graphs, Simultaneous equations, Quadratic equations and the parabola,
Functions (option topic)

## PROFICIENCY STRANDS / WORKING MATHEMATICALLY

• U = Understanding (knowing and relating maths): Knowing the different types of equations and inequalities
• F = Fluency (applying maths): Using the definition and properties of logarithms to evaluate and simplify expressions and
solve exponential and logarithmic equations
• PS = Problem solving (modelling and investigating with maths): Solving real-life problems using equations and
formulas
• R = Reasoning (generalising and proving with maths): Understanding the logic behind the steps in solving equations and
inequalities
• C = Communicating (describing and representing maths): Writing and simplifying expressions written in logarithmic
form

EXTENSION IDEAS
• Harder formulas and word problems, constructing formulas
• Equations with the unknown in the denominator, equations involving powers and roots
• Logarithms were invented by the Scottish mathematician John Napier. He also devised a calculation system for multiplying
and dividing called Napier’s rods.
• The history and applications of logarithms. From the NSW syllabus, Stage 5.3: ‘Relate logarithms to practical scales, eg
Richter, decibel and pH scales’.
• Evaluate logarithms on the calculator using the change of base law
• Investigate how logarithm tables were used in calculations before calculators.

## TEACHING NOTES AND IDEAS

• Encourage students to check solutions to equations and inequalities by substituting back.
• With equations involving fractions, denominators should be numerical (no variables).
• When solving a word problem, identify the unknown quantity and call it x, say. After solving, check that its solution sounds
reasonable.
• Examples of formulas: perimeter and area, circle formulas, speed, metric conversions (for example, Celsisus to Fahrenheit),
Pythagoras’ theorem, angle sum of a polygon, E = mc2.
• Why can’t you find the logarithm of a negative number or zero? Why is log 1 = 0?
• The logarithms laws are derived from the index laws.
• Logarithms convert a difficult multiplication and division pen-and-paper calculation into a simpler addition and subtraction
one. Show the class a logarithm table from pre-calculator days. See Worksheet Logarithm tables.
• The graphs of the exponential and logarithmic functions are examined in the Stage 5.3 option topic Functions.

New Century Maths Advanced 10+10A Stages 5.2/5.3 teaching program (p. 20)
ASSESSMENT IDEAS
• Writing activity comparing and evaluating the different methods of solving an equation.
• Writing activity describing the process of solving an inequality.
• Test, assignment or project on calculating using logarithm tables.

TECHNOLOGY
CAS calculators and the Wolfram Alpha website can be used to solve equations. Investigate logarithms on a calculator, graphics

LANGUAGE
• Encourage students to set out their solutions to equations neatly with equals signs aligned in the same column.
• quadratic = algebraic expression in which the highest power of x is 2, eg 5x2 – 3x + 4.
• From the NSW syllabus: ‘The square root sign signifies a positive number (or zero). Thus 9 = 3 (only). However, the
two numbers whose square is 9 are 9 or - 9 , i.e. 3 or -3.’
• Some students believe that x < 5 and x ≤ 4 mean the same thing. Explain the difference.
• What is the origin of the terms exponent and logarithm?
• From the NSW syllabus, Stage 5.3: ‘Teachers need to emphasise the correct language used in connection with logarithms,
eg logaax = x is 'log to the base a, of a to the power of x, equals x'.

New Century Maths Advanced 10+10A Stages 5.2/5.3 teaching program (p. 21)
8. GRAPHS§
§
Recommended for Stage 5.2 students intending to study the Stage 6 Mathematics course
Time: 3 weeks (Term 2, Week 9)
Text: New Century Maths Advanced 10+10A Stages 5.2/5.3, Chapter 8, p.???
NSW and Australian Curriculum references: Number and Algebra
Ratios and rates / Real numbers
• Solve problems involving direct proportion; explore the relationship between graphs and equations corresponding to
simple rate problems (9NA208)
Non-linear relationships / Linear and non-linear relationships
• Graph simple non-linear relations, with and without the use of digital technologies (9NA296)
• Explore the connection between algebraic and graphical representations of relations such as simple quadratics, circles
and exponentials using digital technology as appropriate (10NA239)
• Describe, interpret and sketch parabolas, hyperbolas, circles and exponential functions and their transformations
(10ANA267)
• Describe, interpret and sketch cubics, other curves and their transformations (NSW Stage 5.3)
NSW Stage 5 outcomes
A student:
• MA5.1-7 NA graphs simple non-linear relationships
• MA5.2-1 WM selects appropriate notations and conventions to communicate mathematical ideas and solutions
• MA5.2-2 WM interprets mathematical or real-life situations, systematically applying appropriate strategies to solve
problems
• MA5.2-3 WM constructs arguments to prove and justify results
• MA5.2-5 NA recognises direct and direct proportion, and solves problems involving direct proportion
• MA5.2-10 NA connects algebraic and graphical representations of simple non-linear relationships
• MA5.3-1 WM uses and interprets formal definitions and generalisations when explaining solutions and/or conjectures
• MA5.3-2 WM uses deductive reasoning in presenting arguments and formal proofs
• MA5.3-4 NA draws, interprets and analyses graphs of physical phenomena
• MA5.3-9 NA sketches and interprets a variety of non-linear relationships

INTRODUCTION
This algebra topic revises and extends concepts in proportion and non-linear graphs from the Year 9 topic Coordinate geometry
and graphs. Last year, students met the idea of direct proportion and the graphs of simple parabolas and circles, but here they
are introduced to inverse proportion, conversion graphs, distance-time graphs, more parabolas and circles, the cubic curve,
graphs of higher powers, the hyperbola and the exponential curve. There is much scope for using graphing software such as
GeoGebra in this topic. In many parts of this topic, the NSW syllabus goes beyond the Australian curriculum (see the sections
labelled ‘NSW’ in red in CONTENT below).

CONTENT
1 Direct proportion 9NA208 U F PS R C
• solve problems involving direct proportion and explore the relationship between graphs and equations corresponding to
simple rate problems
2 Inverse proportion NSW U F PS R C
• identify and describe everyday examples of inverse (indirect) proportion
3 Conversion graphs NSW U F PS R C
• interpret and use conversion graphs to convert from one unit to another
4 Stage 5.3: Distance-time graphs NSW U F PS R C
• interpret distance-time graphs when the speed is variable
5 Stage 5.3: Graphs of change NSW U F PS R C
• interpret graphs where the rate of change is variable and describe the rate of change at different points on the graph
• sketch a graph from a simple description, given a variable rate of change
6 The parabola y = ax2 + c 9NA296, 10NA239 U F R C
• graph simple non-linear relations, with and without the use of digital technologies
• graph parabolic relationships of the form y = ax2 and y = ax2 + c
• determine the x-coordinate of a point on a parabola, given the y-coordinate of the point

New Century Maths Advanced 10+10A Stages 5.2/5.3 teaching program (p. 22)
7 Stage 5.3: The parabola y = a(x – r)2§ NSW U F R C
• graph parabolas of the form y = a(x – r) from the graph of y = ax2
2

## 8 Stage 5.3: The cubic curve y = ax3 + c§ NSW U F R C

• graph cubic curves of the form y = ax3 + c
9 Stage 5.3: The power curves y = axn + c§ NSW U F R C
• graph curves of the form y = axn + c and y = a(x – r)n from the graph of y = axn

10 Stage 5.3: The hyperbola y = 10ANA267 U F R C
x
k k
• graph a variety of hyperbolic curves, including y = + c and y =
x x−r
x
11 The exponential curve y = a 9NA296, 10NA239 U F R C
•sketch, compare and describe simple exponential curves of the form y = ±a±x + c
12 Stage 5.3: The circle (x – h)2 + (y – k)2 = r2 9NA296, 10NA239 U F R C
• sketch circles of the form x2 + y2 = r2
• (STAGE 5.3) sketch circles of the form (x – h)2 + (y – k)2 = r2§
13 Identifying graphs 10NA239 F R C
• match graphs of straight lines, parabolas, circles and exponentials to the appropriate equations
• (STAGE 5.3) identify and name different types of graphs from their equations§
14 Revision and mixed problems

RELATED TOPICS
Year 9: Coordinate geometry and graphs
Year 10: Coordinate geometry, Equations and logarithms, Simultaneous equations, Quadratic equations and the parabola.
Polynomials (option topic), Functions (option topic)

## PROFICIENCY STRANDS / WORKING MATHEMATICALLY

• U = Understanding (knowing and relating maths): Understanding the concepts of direct and inverse proportion
• F = Fluency (applying maths): Using appropriate techniques to graph parabolas, cubic curves, higher-power curves,
hyperbolas, exponential curves and circles
• PS = Problem solving (modelling and investigating with maths): Solving problems involving direct and inverse
proportion
• R = Reasoning (generalising and proving with maths): Generalising how the variables in an equation affect its graph’s
shape and other features
• C = Communicating (describing and representing maths): Describing and interpreting relationships using equations and
graphs.

EXTENSION IDEAS
• Direct and inverse proportion problems involving the square, cube or square root of a variable
• The conic sections.
• The parabola as a locus of all points equidistant from a fixed point and line
• The square root graph y = x , the semi-circle y = r2 − x2

## TEACHING NOTES AND IDEAS

• Resources: number plane grid paper, graphics calculator, graphing software, spreadsheets.
• Students should construct practical graphs based on their personal experiences and display them in class, for example, noise
level in a classroom, mood swings of a crowd during a football match. Teachers could develop a collection of interesting
graphs for use in the classroom.
• When graphing, encourage students to label axes, use a suitable scale and label the graph.
• The parabola is a conic section formed by the intersection of a cone by a plane that cuts it at a steeper angle to its base than
its axis. The hyperbola is a conic section formed by the intersection of a cone by a plane parallel to its axis.
• The path of a projectile (object thrown) is a parabola, as is the shape of a satellite dish, concave lens or car headlight. The
path of some comets is a parabola.
• The graph of y = ax2 + bx + c will be covered in the topic Quadratic equations and the parabola. The graph of cubic curves
of the form y = a(x – r)(x – s)(x – t) will be covered in the Stage 5.3 option topic Polynomials.

New Century Maths Advanced 10+10A Stages 5.2/5.3 teaching program (p. 23)
• All points that lie on the graph have coordinates that satisfy its equation. Points that don’t lie on the graph do not satisfy the
equation.
• Compound interest and population growth can be modelled by exponential equations and graphs.
• From the NSW syllabus, Stage 5.3: ‘Determine whether a particular point is inside, on, or outside a given circle’.

ASSESSMENT IDEAS
• Writing and literacy activities involving practical graphs: ‘tell me a story’.
• Given a worded description of a journey or situation, draw the graph.
• Practical graphing test using pen-and-paper or technology.
• Matching situations/equations to their graphs.

TECHNOLOGY
Use a graphics calculator, graphing software or spreadsheets to complete tables of values and graph linear and non-linear
equations.

LANGUAGE
• Why is it called direct proportion? Why is it called inverse proportion?
• y = ax is called an exponential equation where a is the base and x is the power, index or exponent.
• The words hyperbola and hyperbole (meaning ‘exaggeration’) both come from the Greek hyperbole, meaning ‘to throw
excessively’. The hyperbola is like an exaggerated or excessive parabola (para means ‘alongside’).
• The word asymptote comes from the Greek asumptotos meaning ‘not together falling’ (a-sum-ptotos).

New Century Maths Advanced 10+10A Stages 5.2/5.3 teaching program (p. 24)
9. TRIGONOMETRY§
§
Recommended for Stage 5.2 students intending to study the Stage 6 Mathematics course
Time: 4 weeks (Term 3, Week 2)
Text: New Century Maths Advanced 10+10A Stages 5.2/5.3, Chapter 9, p.???
NSW and Australian Curriculum references: Measurement and Geometry
Right-angled triangles (Pythagoras) / Pythagoras and trigonometry
• Apply trigonometry to solve right-angled triangle problems (9MG224)
• Solve right-angled triangle problems, including those involving direction and angles of elevation and depression
(10MG245)
• Establish the sine, cosine and area rules for any triangle and solve related problems (10AMG273)
• Use the unit circle to define trigonometric functions, and graph them with and without the use of digital technologies
(10AMG274)
• Solve simple trigonometric equations (10AMG275)
• Apply Pythagoras' theorem and trigonometry to solving three-dimensional problems in right-angled triangles
(10AMG276)
NSW Stage 5 outcomes
A student:
• MA5.1-10 MG applies trigonometry, given diagrams, to solve problems, including problems involving angles of
elevation and depression
• MA5.2-1 WM selects appropriate notations and conventions to communicate mathematical ideas and solutions
• MA5.2-2 WM interprets mathematical or real-life situations, systematically applying appropriate strategies to solve
problems
• MA5.2-13 MG applies trigonometry to solve problems, including problems involving bearings
• MA5.3-1 WM uses and interprets formal definitions and generalisations when explaining solutions and/or conjectures
• MA5.3-2 WM generalises mathematical ideas and techniques to analyse and solve problems efficiently
• MA5.3-3 WM uses deductive reasoning in presenting arguments and formal proofs
• MA5.3-15 MG applies Pythagoras’ theorem, trigonometric relationships, the sine rule, the cosine rule and the area rule
to solve problems, including problems involving three dimensions.

INTRODUCTION
This is the second trigonometry topic for Stage 5.3 students, a sequel to the right-angled trigonometry topic learned in Year 9.
Here, students extend their knowledge of trigonometry beyond right angles and right-angled triangles, examining the
trigonometric ratios of obtuse and reflex angles, some trigonometric relations, the graphs of the trigonometric functions, the
sine and cosine rules, and the area of a triangle sine formula. This topic is also recommended for Stage 5.2 students intending to
study the Stage 6 Mathematics course next year, where similar content will be met.

CONTENT
1 Right-angled trigonometry 9MG224, 10MG245 U F PS R C
• find the lengths of unknown sides in right-angled triangles where the given angle is measured in degrees and minutes
• find the size in degrees and minutes of unknown angles in right-angled triangles
• solve a variety of practical problems involving angles of elevation and depression, including problems for which a
diagram is not provided
2 Bearings 10MG245 U F PS R C
• solve a variety of practical problems involving bearings, including problems for which a diagram is not provided
3 Stage 5.3: Pythagoras’ theorem and trigonometry in 3D 10AMG276 F PS R C
• solve a variety of practical problems involving right-angled triangles in three dimensions, including problems for which
a diagram is not provided
4 Stage 5.3: Trigonometric relations§ NSW U F R C
• prove and use the relationships between the sine and cosine ratios of complementary angles in right-angled triangles:
sin A = cos(90° – A), cos A = sin(90° – A)
• determine and use the exact sine, cosine and tangent ratios for angles of 30°, 45° and 60°

New Century Maths Advanced 10+10A Stages 5.2/5.3 teaching program (p. 25)
5 Stage 5.3: The trigonometric functions§ 10AMG274 U F R C
• use the unit circle to define trigonometric functions for angles between 0° and 360°, and graph them
sin θ
• prove than tan θ =
cos θ
• use the unit circle or graphs of trigonometric functions to establish and use the following relationships for obtuse angles:
sin A = sin(180° – A), cos A = -cos(180° – A), tan A = -tan(180° – A)
6 Stage 5.3: Trigonometric equations§ 10AMG275 U F R C
• determine the possible acute and/or obtuse angle(s), given a trigonometric ratio
7 Stage 5.3: The sine rule§ 10AMG273 U F PS R C
• prove the sine rule and use it to find an unknown side in a triangle
8 Stage 5.3: The sine rule for angles 10AMG273 U F PS R C
• use the sine rule to find an unknown angle in a triangle, including in problems where there are two possible solutions
9 Stage 5.3: The cosine rule§ 10AMG273 U F PS R C
• prove the cosine rule and use it to find an unknown side in a triangle
10 Stage 5.3: The cosine rule for angles§ 10AMG273 U F PS R C
• use the cosine rule to find an unknown angle in a triangle
11 Stage 5.3: The area of a triangle§ 10AMG273 U F PS R C
• prove and use the area rule to find the area of a triangle
12 Stage 5.3: Problems involving the sine and cosine rules§ 10AMG273 F PS R C
• select and use the appropriate rule to find unknowns in non-right-angled triangles
• solve a variety of practical problems that involve non-right-angled triangles, including problems where a diagram is not
provided
13 Revision and mixed problems

RELATED TOPICS
Year 9: Pythagoras’ theorem and surds, Trigonometry
Year 10: Surds

## PROFICIENCY STRANDS / WORKING MATHEMATICALLY

• U = Understanding (knowing and relating maths): Extending the trigonometric ratios to angles beyond 90°
• F = Fluency (applying maths): Applying appropriate methods to find unknown sides and angles
• PS = Problem solving (modelling and investigating with maths): Apply trigonometric methods to real-life problems
• R = Reasoning (generalising and proving with maths): Apply geometric reasoning in trigonometry problems involving
angles beyond 90° and triangles that are not right-angled
• C = Communicating (describing and representing maths): Expressing solutions to equations and problems involving
trigonometry

EXTENSION IDEAS
• Harder problems involving angles of elevation/depression, bearings, overlapping triangles.
• Surveying and navigation, polar coordinates.
• Examining negative angles and angles beyond 360°
• Trigonometric identities, the tangent rule.
• Heron’s formula for the area of a triangle.

## TEACHING NOTES AND IDEAS

• Resources: clinometers, geometrical instruments, magnetic compass, surveying and navigation charts, graphing software.

New Century Maths Advanced 10+10A Stages 5.2/5.3 teaching program (p. 26)
• Take the class outside and use the school fields for surveying and orienteering activities. Calculate the heights of trees,
flagpoles and buildings using trigonometry.
• Construct triangles or scale diagrams and compare measured results with calculated results using trigonometry.
• Students should set out their solutions properly and use correct trigonometric terminology. Encourage them to check the
reasonableness of answers to trigonometric problems by making a rough scale drawing. Students need practice in drawing
diagrams for a given problem. Have students devise a problem for a given diagram and swap problems.
• From the NSW syllabus, Stage 5.3: ‘The graphs of the trigonometric functions mark the transition from understanding
trigonometry as the study of lengths and angles in triangles … to the study of waves, as will be developed in the Stage 6
calculus courses’.
• The m = tan θ relationship between the gradient and angle of inclination of a line is learned in the Coordinate geometry
topic.
• Students are not required to memorise the proofs of the sine, cosine and area rules.
• The sine rule demonstrates that the longest side of a triangle is opposite the largest angle. The sine rule is quoted as a ‘triple’
but in its application only a ‘pair’ is used.
• The cosine rule is an extension of Pythagoras’ theorem.
• Emphasise that the sine, cosine and area rules work for all triangles. When is it appropriate to use each rule? What happens
to the rules when one of the angles is 90°?
• Measure triangles and calculate their areas, using as many different methods as possible.
3x
• Prove that the area of an equilateral triangle with side length x is .
4

ASSESSMENT IDEAS
• Practical test involving clinometers and magnetic compasses.
• Research project on the history or applications of trigonometry.
• Surveying, navigation or orienteering project.

TECHNOLOGY
Make sure that students have set their calculators in degrees mode. Display an old book of trigonometric tables to show what
students used before calculators became widely available. Use a spreadsheet to compare the ratios of the sides of similar right-
angled triangles. The trigonometric ratios can be calculated on a spreadsheet but the angle sizes must be converted from degrees

LANGUAGE
• From the NSW syllabus: ‘The word “trigonometry” is derived from two Greek words meaning “triangle” and
“measurement”’.
• Stress that the hypotenuse is a fixed side in a right-angled triangle, while the opposite and adjacent sides depend upon the
angle quoted.
• With compass bearings, stress the terminology: ‘the bearing of P from O.’ See syllabus Language notes (Stage 5.2) for
more details.
• Ambiguous means to have more than one meaning, and the ‘ambiguous case’ when using the sine rule occurs when there
are two possible answers for an unknown angle: one acute, one obtuse. That means that there are two possible triangles
that can be drawn with the given lengths and angle sizes.

New Century Maths Advanced 10+10A Stages 5.2/5.3 teaching program (p. 27)
10. SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS
Time: 1 week (Term 3, Week 6)
Text: New Century Maths Advanced 10+10A Stages 5.2/5.3, Chapter 10, p.???
NSW and Australian Curriculum references: Number and Algebra
Equations / Linear and non-linear relationships
• Solve linear simultaneous equations, using algebraic and graphical techniques, including with the use of digital
technologies (10NA237)
NSW Stage 5 outcomes
A student:
• MA5.2-1 WM selects appropriate notations and conventions to communicate mathematical ideas and solutions
• MA5.2-2 WM interprets mathematical and real-life situations, systematically applying appropriate strategies to solve
problems
• MA5.2-8 NA solves linear and simple quadratic equations, linear inequalities and linear simultaneous equations, using
analytical and graphical techniques

INTRODUCTION
In this short Stage 5.2 algebra topic, students are introduced to linear simultaneous equations and three different methods for
solving them: graphical method, elimination method and substitution method, building upon previous work on algebra and
graphing linear equations. As mentioned previously, the process of equation-solving is detailed and technical, and even more
so for simultaneous equations, requiring careful and precise understanding and practice, so don’t rush through this topic.

CONTENT
1 Solving simultaneous equations graphically 10NA237 U F R C
• solve linear simultaneous equations by finding the point of intersection of their graphs
2 The elimination method 10NA237 U F R C
• solve linear simultaneous equations using appropriate algebraic techniques
3 The substitution method 10NA237 U F R C
4 Simultaneous equation problems 10NA237 U F PS C
• generate and solve linear simultaneous equations from word problems and interpret the results
5 Revision and mixed problems

RELATED TOPICS
Year 9: Equations, Coordinate geometry and graphs
Year 10: Coordinate geometry, Equations and logarithms, Quadratic equations and the parabola

## PROFICIENCY STRANDS / WORKING MATHEMATICALLY

• U = Understanding (knowing and relating maths): Understanding the idea of simultaneous equations
• F = Fluency (applying maths): Selecting an appropriate method for solving a pair of simultaneous equations
• PS = Problem solving (modelling and investigating with maths): Solving problems using simultaneous equations
• R = Reasoning (generalising and proving with maths): Understanding the logic behind the steps in solving simultaneous
equations
• C = Communicating (describing and representing maths): Expressing solutions to simultaneous equations algebraically
and solutions to problems in words

EXTENSION IDEAS
• Simultaneous equations involving linear and non-linear equations (covered in the topic Quadratic equations and the
parabola)
• Using technology and websites to solve simultaneous equations

## TEACHING NOTES AND IDEAS

• Encourage students to check solutions by substituting back. For word problems, check that the solution sounds reasonable.
• When solving a word problem, students need practice in identifying the unknown quantity and calling it x, say.
• When solving simultaneous equations, students often forget to give the solution for both variables x and y.
• Open-ended question: if x + 2y = 9, what are some possible values of x and y?

New Century Maths Advanced 10+10A Stages 5.2/5.3 teaching program (p. 28)
ASSESSMENT IDEAS
• Writing activity comparing and evaluating the different methods of simultaneous equations.
• Simultaneous equations test/assignment comparing different methods of solution.

TECHNOLOGY
Investigate the use of CAS (computer algebra system) calculators/software, websites such as Wolfram Alpha, spreadsheets and
graphics calculators to solve simultaneous equations. Spreadsheets are good for ‘guess-and-check’ strategies.
From the NSW syllabus, Stage 5.2: ‘Graphing software and graphics calculators allow students to graph two linear equations
and to display the coordinates of the point of intersection of their graphs’.

LANGUAGE
• Why are they called simultaneous equations? Why do the three methods of solving simultaneous equations have those
names?

New Century Maths Advanced 10+10A Stages 5.2/5.3 teaching program (p. 29)
11. QUADRATIC EQUATIONS AND THE PARABOLA§
§
Recommended for Stage 5.2 students intending to study the Stage 6 Mathematics course
Time: 3 weeks (Term 3, Week 7)
Text: New Century Maths Advanced 10+10A Stages 5.2/5.3, Chapter 11, p.???
NSW and Australian Curriculum references: Number and Algebra
Equations / Linear and non-linear relationships
• Factorise monic and non-monic quadratic expressions and solve a wide range of quadratic equations derived from a
variety of contexts (10ANA269)
Non-linear relationships / Linear and non-linear relationships
• Describe, interpret and sketch parabolas, hyperbolas, circles and exponential functions and their transformations
(10ANA267)
NSW Stage 5 outcomes
A student:
• MA5.3-1 WM uses and interprets formal definitions and generalisations when explaining solutions and/or conjectures
• MA5.3-2 WM generalises mathematical ideas and techniques to analyse and solve problems efficiently
• MA5.3-7 NA solves complex linear, quadratic, simple cubic and simultaneous equations, and rearranges literal
equations
• MA5.3-9 NA sketches and interprets a variety of non-linear relationships

INTRODUCTION
This topic extends algebra skills in solving quadratic equations and graphing parabolas from Year 10 topics Equations and
logarithms and Graphs respectively. Students should already know how to solve quadratic equations of the form x2 + bx + c =
0 by factorisation and graph the quadratic equation y = ax2 + c. They should also know how to factorise quadratic expressions
of the form ax2 + bx + c from the topic Products and factors. Solving quadratic equations of the form ax2 + bx + c = 0 and
graphing parabolas of the form y = ax2 + bx + c require different complex techniques, so students should spend considerable
time in class learning and practising the processes.

CONTENT
1 Stage 5.3: Quadratic equations ax2 + bx + c = 0§ 10ANA269 U F R C
• solve equations of the form ax2 + bx + c = 0 by factorisation
• check the solutions of quadratic equations by substituting
2 Stage 5.3: Completing the square§ 10ANA269 U F R C
• solve equations of the form ax2 + bx + c by 'completing the square'
3 Stage 5.3: The quadratic formula§ 10ANA269 U F R C
• solve a variety of quadratic equations
• identify whether a given quadratic equation has real solutions, and whether they are or are not equal
4 Stage 5.3: Higher-order quadratic equations§ NSW U F R C
• substitute a pronumeral to simplify higher-order equations and then solve the equations, for example, x4 – 13x2 + 36
5 Stage 5.3: Quadratic equation problems 10ANA269 U F PS C
• solve quadratic equations resulting from substitution into formulas
• create quadratic equations to solve a variety of problems and check solutions
6 Stage 5.3: The parabola y = ax2 + bx + c§ 10ANA267 U F R C
• graph a variety of parabolas, including where the equation is given in the form y = ax2 + bx + c, for various values of a, b
and c
7 Stage 5.3:The axis of symmetry and vertex of a parabola§ 10ANA267 U F R C
• determine the equation of the axis of symmetry of a parabola and coordinates of the vertex
• identify and use features of parabolas and their equations to assist in sketching quadratic relationships, for example,
identify and use the x- and y-intercepts, vertex, axis of symmetry and concavity

New Century Maths Advanced 10+10A Stages 5.2/5.3 teaching program (p. 30)
8 Stage 5.3: Point of intersection of a line and a curve§ NSW U F R C
• determine the points of intersection of a line with a parabola, hyperbola or circle
9 Revision and mixed problems

RELATED TOPICS
Year 9: Equations, Coordinate geometry and graphs
Year 10: Products and factors, Equations and logarithms, Graphs, Simultaneous equations, Polynomials (option topic),
Functions (option topic)

## PROFICIENCY STRANDS / WORKING MATHEMATICALLY

• U = Understanding (knowing and relating maths): Knowing the processes of solving quadratic equations and graphing
parabolas
• F = Fluency (applying maths): Selecting the best method for solving a quadratic equation
• PS = Problem solving (modelling and investigating with maths): Solving problems involving quadratic equations
• R = Reasoning (generalising and proving with maths): Understanding the reasoning behind the methods for finding the
axis of symmetry and vertex of a parabola
• C = Communicating (describing and representing maths): Using the terminology of quadratic equations and parabolas
correctly

EXTENSION IDEAS
• Equations involving powers and roots.
• Prove the quadratic formula by completing the square (see p.### of textbook).
• Investigate the value of b2 – 4ac and its effect on the solutions of the quadratic equation.
• The square root graph y = x .
• Investigate the conic sections.

## TEACHING NOTES AND IDEAS

• Resources: number plane grid paper, graphics or CAS calculator, graphing software, spreadsheets, websites such as
Wolfram Alpha that can solve quadratic equations and graph parabolas.
• Stress that the solutions to a quadratic equation may be integers, fractions or surds. Include quadratic equations with
variables other than x, or written in a different form, eg p(p – 5) = 6. Encourage students to check solutions by substituting
back.
• Applications of quadratic equations: height/path of a projectile, max/min volume/surface area problems, fencing, triangular
• When graphing, encourage students to label axes, use a suitable scale and label the graph.
• The parabola is a conic section formed by the intersection of a cone by a plane that cuts it at a steeper angle to its base than
its axis.
• The path of a projectile (object thrown) is a parabola, as is the shape of a satellite dish, concave lens or headlight.
• How many points of intersection are possible between a line and a parabola, circle or hyperbola?

ASSESSMENT IDEAS
• Quadratic equations test/assignment comparing different methods of solution.
• Matching quadratic equations to their graphs.

TECHNOLOGY
Graphics or CAS (computer algebra system) calculators, graphing software, dynamic geometry software and spreadsheets can
be used to solve quadratic equations or graph parabolas. Use spreadsheets to evaluate tables of values.

LANGUAGE
• quadratic expression: an expression of the form ax2 + bx + c.
• quadratic equation: an equation of the form ax2 + bx + c = 0 (the ‘= 0’ makes it an equation).

New Century Maths Advanced 10+10A Stages 5.2/5.3 teaching program (p. 31)
12. PROBABILITY
Time: 2 weeks (Term 3, Week 10)
Text: New Century Maths Advanced 10+10A Stages 5.2/5.3, Chapter 12, p.???
NSW and Australian Curriculum references: Statistics and Probability
Probability / Chance
• Calculate relative frequencies from given or collected data to estimate probabilities of events involving ‘and’ or ‘or’
(9SP226)
• Describe the results of two- and three-step chance experiments, with and without replacement, assign probabilities to
outcomes, and determine probabilities of events; investigate the concept of independence (10SP246)
• Use the language of 'if ... then', 'given', 'of', 'knowing that' to investigate conditional statements and to identify common
mistakes in interpreting such language (10SP247)
NSW Stage 5 outcomes
A student:
• MA5.1-13 SP calculates relative frequencies to estimate probabilities of simple and compound events
• MA5.2-1 WM selects appropriate notations and conventions to communicate mathematical ideas and solutions
• MA5.2-2 WM interprets mathematical or real-life situations, systematically applying appropriate strategies to solve
problems
• MA5.2-3 WM constructs arguments to prove and justify results
• MA5.2-17 SP describes and calculates probabilities in multi-step chance experiments

INTRODUCTION
This Stage 5.2 topic revises Year 9 probability theory before tackling the more advanced concepts of multi-step experiments,
dependent events and conditional probability. The focus is upon interpreting descriptions of events using the words ‘and’, ‘or’,
‘without replacement’ and ‘given that’, so there are many opportunities for class discussion and language activities. Tree
diagrams to represent the sample space of multi-step experiments are introduced, so spend considerable time teaching and
practising drawing these as students (even in Years 11-12) often have difficulty understanding them.

CONTENT
1 Relative frequency 9SP226 U F PS R C
• calculate relative frequencies from given or collected data to estimate probabilities of events involving ‘and’ or ‘or’
2 Venn diagrams 9SP226 U F PS R C
• represent events in Venn diagrams and solve related problems
• describe events using language of ‘at least,’ exclusive ‘or’ (A or B but not both), inclusive ‘or’ (A or B or both) and
‘and’
• calculate probabilities of events from data contained in Venn diagrams
3 Two-way tables 9SP226 U F PS R C
• represent events in two-way tables and solve related problems
• calculate probabilities of events from data contained in two-way tables
4 Two- and three-step experiments 10SP246 U F PS R C
• calculate probabilities of simple and compound events in two- and three-step chance experiments, with and without
replacement
5 Selecting with and without replacement 10SP246 U F PS R C
• describe the results of two- and three-step chance experiments, with and without replacement, assign probabilities to
outcomes, and determine probabilities of events
6 Dependent and independent events 10SP246 U F PS R C
• distinguish informally between dependent and independent events, and recognise that for independent events A and B,
P(A and B) = P(A) × P(B)
7 Conditional probability 10SP247 U F PS R C
• calculate probabilities of events where a condition is given that restricts the sample space, eg given that a number less
than 5 has been rolled on a fair six-sided die, calculate the probability that this number was a 3
• critically evaluate conditional statements used in descriptions of chance situations
8 Revision and mixed problems

RELATED TOPICS
Year 9: Probability

New Century Maths Advanced 10+10A Stages 5.2/5.3 teaching program (p. 32)
PROFICIENCY STRANDS / WORKING MATHEMATICALLY
• U = Understanding (knowing and relating maths): Understanding the concepts of multi-step experiments, dependent
events and conditional statements in probability
• F = Fluency (applying maths): Interpreting and drawing Venn diagrams, two-way tables, lists and tree diagrams
competently
• PS = Problem solving (modelling and investigating with maths): Solving problems involving multi-step experiments,
dependent events and conditional probability
• R = Reasoning (generalising and proving with maths): Using logic to interpret statements involving ‘and’, ‘or’, ‘without
replacement’ and ‘given that’
• C = Communicating (describing and representing maths): Representing events using Venn diagrams, two-way tables,
lists and tree diagrams

EXTENSION IDEAS
• Probability tree diagrams that have probability values listed on branches, addition and product rules
• Probability simulations using technology
• More complex Venn diagrams, set notation (union vs intersection)
• Investigate probability expressed as odds (ratio), for example, 10 to 1
• Counting techniques, the birthday problem
• Investigating the probability of winning games of chance and gambling
• Investigate the use of probability in insurance, for example, life expectancy

## TEACHING NOTES AND IDEAS

• Resources: Dice, coins, counters, spinners, playing cards, probability simulation software.
• Students were introduced to Venn diagrams and two-way tables in Year 8.
• Do not assume that all students have had experience with the properties of playing cards: suits, colours, deck of 52. Be
sensitive to religious and cultural differences in attitudes towards gambling.
• Graph the results of a probability experiment on a dot plot or histogram.
• What happens to relative frequencies as the number of experimental trials increases?
• If a coin is tossed seven times and comes up heads each time, what is the probability that the next toss is also a head?

ASSESSMENT IDEAS
• Writing and comprehension activities on describing events involving mutually exclusive and overlapping activities
• Experimental probability investigation or simulation
• Research project on the applications or history of probability, for example, insurance premiums, planning for roads and new
communities

TECHNOLOGY
Random numbers can be generated on the calculator, graphics calculator and spreadsheet. Spreadsheets and other software may
be used to simulate a chance situation. The Internet is also a rich source for probability simulations.

LANGUAGE
• Students should know the difference between an outcome and an event: an event contains one or more outcomes of an
experiment.
• Inclusive ‘or’ = A or B or both, exclusive ‘or’ = A or B but not both, mutually exclusive means A and B are not overlapping
and cannot both happen
• What is the difference between ‘at least 4’ and ‘4 or more’? Students (even in Year 12) often think that the two phrases
mean the same thing.
• Note that in the new syllabus the term ‘multi-step experiment’ replaces ‘multi-stage experiment’. Clearly explain the
difference between ‘with replacement’ and ‘without replacement’.
• From the NSW syllabus, Stage 4: A compound event is an event that can be expressed as a combination of simple events, eg
drawing a card that is black or a King from a standard set of playing cards, throwing at least 5 on a standard six-sided die.

13. GEOMETRY§

New Century Maths Advanced 10+10A Stages 5.2/5.3 teaching program (p. 33)
§
Recommended for Stage 5.2 students intending to study the Stage 6 Mathematics course
Time: 2 weeks (Term 4, Week 2)
Text: New Century Maths Advanced 10+10A Stages 5.2/5.3, Chapter 13, p.???
NSW and Australian Curriculum references: Measurement and Geometry
Properties of Geometrical Figures
• Apply the result for the interior angle sum of a triangle to find, by dissection, the interior angle sum of polygons with
more than three sides (NSW Stage 5.2)
• Establish that the sum of the exterior angles of any convex polygon is 360° (NSW Stage 5.2)
Properties of Geometrical Figures / Geometric reasoning
• Use the enlargement transformation to explain similarity and develop the conditions for triangles to be similar
(9MG220)
• Solve problems using ratio and scale factors in similar figures (9MG221)
• Formulate proofs involving congruent triangles and angle properties (10MG243)
• Apply logical reasoning, including the use of congruence and similarity, to proofs and numerical exercises involving
plane shapes (10MG244)

## NSW Stage 5 outcomes

A student:
• MA5.1-11 MG describes and applied the properties of similar figures and scale drawings
• MA5.2-1 WM selects appropriate notations and conventions to communicate mathematical ideas and solutions
• MA5.2-2 WM interprets mathematical or real-life situations, systematically applying appropriate strategies to solve
problems
• MA5.2-3 WM constructs arguments to prove and justify results
• MA5.2-14 MG calculates the angle sum of any polygon and uses minimum conditions to prove triangles are congruent
or similar
• MA5.3-1 WM uses and interprets formal definitions and generalisations when explaining solutions and/or conjectures
• MA5.3-2 WM generalises mathematical ideas and techniques to analyse and solve problems efficiently
• MA5.3-3 WM uses deductive reasoning in presenting arguments and formal proofs
• MA5.3-16 MG prove triangles are similar, and uses formal geometric reasoning to establish properties of triangles and

INTRODUCTION
This topic revises Year 9 geometry theory with angle sums of polygons, congruent triangle proofs and the similar triangles tests
and introduces formal geometrical proofs, tests for quadrilaterals and similar triangles proofs. Stage 5 marks the start of
deductive reasoning in geometry, so teaching time should focus upon the correct setting-out of proofs. Promote the correct and
formal use of language, with attention given to careful reasoning and drawing clear diagrams.

CONTENT
1 Angle sum of a polygon NSW U F R C
• find the interior angle sum of polygons with more than three sides
• establish that the sum of the exterior angles of any convex polygon is 360°
2 Congruent triangle proofs 10MG243 U F PS R C
• write formal proofs of the congruence of triangles, preserving matching order of vertices
3 Stage 5.3: Tests for quadrilaterals§ 10MG243 U F PS R C
• prove and apply tests for quadrilaterals
4 Proving properties of triangles and quadrilaterals 10MG243 U F PS R C
• use the congruence of triangles to prove properties of special triangles and quadrilaterals
5 Stage 5.3: Formal geometrical proofs§ 10MG243 U F PS R C
• construct and write geometrical arguments to prove a general geometrical result, giving reasons at each step of the
argument
• prove and apply theorems and properties related to triangles and quadrilaterals
6 Similar figures 9MG220 U F R C
• use the enlargement transformation to explain similarity
7 Finding unknown lengths in similar figures 9MG221 U F R C
• solve problems using ratio and scale factors in similar figures
8 Tests for similar triangles 9MG220 U F PS R C

New Century Maths Advanced 10+10A Stages 5.2/5.3 teaching program (p. 34)
• investigate the minimum conditions needed, and establish the four tests, for two triangles to be similar
9 Stage 5.3: Similar triangle proofs§ 10MG244 U F PS R C
• write formal proofs of the similarity of triangles
10 Revision and mixed problems

RELATED TOPICS
Year 9: Trigonometry, Geometry, Surface area and volume, Congruent and similar figures
Year 10: Coordinate geometry, Surface area and volume, Circle geometry (option topic)

## PROFICIENCY STRANDS / WORKING MATHEMATICALLY

• U = Understanding (knowing and relating maths): Knowing the formal definitions and tests for quadrilaterals
• F = Fluency (applying maths): Selecting appropriate theorems to prove geometrical facts and properties
• PS = Problem solving (modelling and investigating with maths): Proving that two triangles are congruent or similar
• R = Reasoning (generalising and proving with maths): Using congruence to prove properties of triangles and
• C = Communicating (describing and representing maths): Using correct geometrical terminology and notation to write
formal geometrical proofs

EXTENSION IDEAS
• Investigate the history of geometry and Euclid.
• Investigate why the geometrical constructions work by analysing the properties of the bisected isosceles triangle and the
rhombus.
• More abstract proofs or circle geometry proofs
• History of deductive geometry, including mathematicians Euclid and Gauss. Book I of The Elements of Euclid.
• History of Pythagoras’ theorem. Different formal proofs of Pythagoras’ theorem.

## TEACHING NOTES AND IDEAS

• Resources: dynamic geometry software such as GeoGebra, scale diagrams, summary charts.
• Students should have experience in classifying triangles and quadrilaterals using their properties and minimal conditions,
for example, which quadrilateral’s diagonals bisect each other?
• The exterior angle sum of a convex polygon is 360°: if you walk around the perimeter of a closed figure, the total of your
turns should be a revolution.
• See the NSW syllabus, Stage 5.3, for examples of theorems that can be proved by students.
• Is a square a rhombus? Is a rectangle a trapezium? Is an equilateral triangle an isosceles triangle?
• Students should be encouraged to prove results orally before writing them up. Introduce scaffolds of proofs where students
fill in the blanks.
• Are all equilateral triangles similar? Are all rectangles similar? Are all isosceles triangles similar?
• When forming a proportion equation involving similar triangles, make x appear in the numerator.

ASSESSMENT IDEAS
• Vocabulary test
• Writing activities, especially in identifying congruent and similar triangles or in writing a proof
• Test or assignment on setting out a geometrical proof correctly. Proving properties of geometrical figures by congruent
triangles.
• Practical activities/projects using similar triangles.

TECHNOLOGY
There is much scope in this topic to use dynamic geometry software such as GeoGebra. The Internet is full of dynamic
geometry animations and applets that demonstrate the properties shown in this topic. The Math Open Reference website
www.mathopenref.com contains animations demonstrating the tests for congruent and similar triangles.

LANGUAGE
• Encourage students to set out their geometrical answers logically, step-by-step and giving reasons.
• Deductive means using a process of reasoning where a specific conclusion necessarily follows from a set of general
premises. In Euclidean geometry, which is the conventional geometry, a set of axioms (definitions or assumptions that
cannot be proved) is given, from which theorems can be proved by formal logic. There are also other types of geometry, for

New Century Maths Advanced 10+10A Stages 5.2/5.3 teaching program (p. 35)
example, Gauss, Einstein, that suggest that Euclidean geometry may not be a true representation of the universe (for
example, space could be curved).
• From the NSW syllabus, Stage 5.3: ‘If students abbreviate geometrical reasons that they use in deductive geometry, they
must take care not to abbreviate the reasons to such an extent that the meaning is lost’.
• The mathematical symbol ‘≡’ means ‘is identical to’ in algebra and ‘is congruent to’ in geometry.
• Analyse the meaning of converse, and state possible converses of known results.
• A test for a quadrilateral is a minimum condition.
• Trivia: QED = ‘quod erat demonstrandum’ (Latin) = ‘which was to be proved’.
• Remember to name the vertices of congruent and similar figures in matching order.
• Be wary that in NSW, there is a continual debate on whether the tests for similar triangles can be abbreviated by initials in
the same way as the tests for congruent triangles. The Australian curriculum lists these abbreviations in its glossary (using
AAA for ‘equiangular’), but the NSW syllabus does not formally acknowledge them.

New Century Maths Advanced 10+10A Stages 5.2/5.3 teaching program (p. 36)
14. POLYNOMIALS# (Stage 5.3 option topic)
#
Recommended for students intending to study the Stage 6 Mathematics Extension 1 course
Time: 3 weeks (Term 4)
Text: New Century Maths Advanced 10+10A Stages 5.2/5.3, Chapter 14, p.???
NSW and Australian Curriculum references: Number and Algebra
Polynomials / Patterns and algebra
• Investigate the concept of a polynomial and apply the factor and remainder theorems to solve problems (10ANA266)
Polynomials / Linear and non-linear relationships
• Apply understanding of polynomials to sketch a range of curves and describe the features of these curves from their
equation (10ANA268)
NSW Stage 5 outcomes
A student:
• MA5.3-1 WM uses and interprets formal definitions and generalisations when explaining solutions and/or conjectures
• MA5.3-2 WM generalises mathematical ideas and techniques to analyse and solve problems efficiently
• MA5.3-3 WM uses deductive reasoning in presenting arguments and formal proofs
• MA5.3-10 NA recognises, describes and sketches polynomials, and applied the factor and remainder theorems to solve
problems

INTRODUCTION
This Stage 5.3 option topic expands on the theory of quadratic and cubic equations to the general concept of the polynomial and
its graph, which will also be met in the Stage 6 course Mathematics Extension 1. Students will learn to divide polynomials by a
linear factor using the long division algorithm, use the factor theorem to factorise polynomials of degree 3 and higher, and then
graph polynomials and solve polynomial equations. Curve sketching is a useful skill for students intending to study Stage 6
Mathematics, especially in the topics Functions and Geometrical applications of differentiation.

CONTENT
1 Stage 5.3: Polynomials# 10ANA266 U R C
• recognise a polynomial expression and use the terms degree, leading term, leading coefficient, constant term and monic
polynomial appropriately
• use the notation P(x) for polynomials
2 Stage 5.3: Adding and subtracting polynomials# 10ANA266 U F R C
3 Stage 5.3: Multiplying polynomials# 10ANA266 U F R C
• multiply polynomials by linear expressions
4 Stage 5.3: Dividing polynomials# 10ANA266 U F R C
• divide polynomials by linear expressions to find the quotient and remainder, expressing the polynomial as the product of
the linear expression and another polynomial plus a remainder, ie P(x) = (x – a)Q(x) + c
5 Stage 5.3: The remainder theorem# 10ANA266 U F R C
• verify the remainder theorem and use it to find factors of polynomials
6 Stage 5.3: The factor theorem# 10ANA266 U F R C
• use the factor theorem to factorise particular polynomials completely
• use the factor theorem and long division to find all zeros of a simple polynomials and then solve P(x) = 0 (degree ≤ 4)
7 Stage 5.3: The cubic curve y = a(x – r)(x – s)(x – t)# NSW U F R C
• graph cubic equations of the form y = a(x – r)(x – s)(x – t)
8 Stage 5.3: Graphing polynomials# 10ANA268 U F PS R C
• state the number of zeros that a polynomial of degree n can have
• sketch the graphs of quadratic, cubic and quartic polynomials by factorising and finding the zeros
• determine the effect of single, double and triple roots of a polynomial equation P(x) = 0 on the shape of the graph of y =
P(x)

New Century Maths Advanced 10+10A Stages 5.2/5.3 teaching program (p. 37)
• use the leading term, the roots of the equation P(x) = 0 and the x- and y-intercepts to sketch the graph of y = P(x)
9 Stage 5.3: Transforming graphs of polynomials# 10ANA268 U F PS R C
• use the sketch of y = P(x) to sketch y = -P(x), y = P(-x), y = P(x) + c, y = aP(x)
10 Revision and mixed problems

RELATED TOPICS
Year 10: Products and factors, Equations and logarithms, Graphs, Quadratic equations and the parabola, Functions (option
topic)

## PROFICIENCY STRANDS / WORKING MATHEMATICALLY

• U = Understanding (knowing and relating maths): Defining a polynomial and using polynomial notation
• F = Fluency (applying maths): Selecting the appropriate strategies to factorise and graph a polynomial
• PS = Problem solving (modelling and investigating with maths): Graphing a variety of polynomials
• R = Reasoning (generalising and proving with maths): Proving and applying the remainder and factor theorems
• C = Communicating (describing and representing maths): Using the terminology associated with polynomials

EXTENSION IDEAS
• Dividing a polynomial by another polynomial
• Factorising and graphing polynomials of degree 5 and above
• Sum and product of the roots of a quadratic/polynomial equation.

## TEACHING NOTES AND IDEAS

• Resources: Templates, graphics calculator or graphing software, CAS (computer algebra system) software.
• There are some similarities between this topic and another option topic, Functions, namely P(x) and f(x) notation, and
transformations of graphs.
• Some students may remember learning the long division algorithm from Year 7.
• Demonstrate the equivalence of factorisations by substituting a value for x in both sides of the identity.

ASSESSMENT IDEAS
• Practical graphing test involving pencil-and-paper or technology.
• Matching polynomials to their graphs.

TECHNOLOGY
Investigate the use of CAS calculators or software, spreadsheets and graphics calculators to factorise polynomials, solve
polynomial equations and graph polynomials.

LANGUAGE
• Use word puzzles and language activities to reinforce the terminology associated with polynomials.
• What is the difference between a root and a zero?
• polynomial = an expression of the form anxn + an-1xn-1 + … + a1x + a0.
• polynomial equation = an equation of the form anxn + an-1xn-1 + … + a1x + a0 = 0 (the ‘= 0’ makes it an equation).

New Century Maths Advanced 10+10A Stages 5.2/5.3 teaching program (p. 38)
15. CIRCLE GEOMETRY# (Stage 5.3 option topic)
#
Recommended for students intending to study the Stage 6 Mathematics Extension 1 course
Time: 2 weeks (Term 4)
Text: New Century Maths Advanced 10+10A Stages 5.2/5.3, Chapter 15, p.???
NSW and Australian Curriculum references: Measurement and Geometry
Surds and indices / Real numbers
• Prove and apply angle and chord properties of circles (10AMG272)
NSW Stage 5 outcomes
A student:
• MA5.3-1 WM uses and interprets formal definitions and generalisations when explaining solutions and/or conjectures
• MA5.3-2 WM generalises mathematical ideas and techniques to analyse and solve problems efficiently
• MA5.3-3 WM uses deductive reasoning in presenting arguments and formal proofs
• MA5.3-17 MG applies deductive reasoning to prove circle theorems and to solve related problems

INTRODUCTION
This Stage 5.3 option topic extends deductive geometry to cover circle theorems, an area that will also be learned in the Stage 6
Mathematics Extension 1 course. As in the Year 10 topic Geometry, students use more formal reasoning such as congruent and
similar triangles to prove results, so teaching time should focus upon the precise and elaborate setting-out of proofs. Students
are not expected to memorise proofs but to understand the logic behind them.

CONTENT
1 Stage 5.3: Parts of a circle# 10AMG272 U C
• identify and name parts of a circle (centre, radius, diameter, circumference, sector, arc, chord, secant, tangent, segment,
semi-circle)
2 Stage 5.3: Chord properties of circles# 10AMG272 U F R C
• prove and apply chord properties of circles (theorems 1-6 below) and use them to find unknown lengths and angles in
circles
3 Stage 5.3: Angle properties of circles# 10AMG272 U F R C
• prove and apply angle properties of circles (theorems 7-11 below) and use them to find unknown angles in circles
4 Stage 5.3: Tangent and secant properties of circles# NSW U F R C
• demonstrate that at any point on a circle, there is a unique tangent to the circle, and that this tangent is perpendicular to
the radius at the point of contact (theorem 12 below, proof not required)
• prove and apply tangent and secant properties of circles (theorems 13-18 below) and use them to find unknown lengths
and angles in circles
5 Stage 5.3: Proofs using circle theorems# NSW U F PS R
6 Revision and mixed problems

## THE CIRCLE THEOREMS (from NSW syllabus)

1 Chords of equal length in a circle subtend equal angles at the centre and are equidistant from the centre.
2 The perpendicular from the centre of a circle to a chord bisects the chord.
3 Conversely, the line from the centre of a circle to the midpoint of a chord is perpendicular to the chord.
4 The perpendicular bisector of a chord of a circle passes through the centre.
5 Given any three non-collinear points, the point of intersection of the perpendicular bisectors of any two sides of the triangle
formed by the three points is the centre of the circle through all three points.
6 When two circles intersect, the line joining their centres bisects their common chord at right angles.
7 The angle at the centre of a circle is twice the angle at the circumference standing on the same arc.
8 The angle in a semi-circle is a right angle.
9 Angles at the circumference, standing on the same arc, are equal.
10 The opposite angles of cyclic quadrilaterals are supplementary.
11 An exterior angle at a vertex of a cyclic quadrilateral is equal to the interior opposite angle.
12 A tangent to a circle is perpendicular to the radius at the point of contact.
13 The two tangents drawn to a circle from an external point are equal in length.
14 The angle between a tangent and a chord drawn to the point of contact is equal to the angle in the alternate segment.
15 When two circles touch, their centres and the point of contact are collinear.
16 The products of the intercepts of two intersecting chords of a circle are equal.
17 The products of the intercepts of two intersecting secants to a circle from an external point are equal.

New Century Maths Advanced 10+10A Stages 5.2/5.3 teaching program (p. 39)
18 The square of a tangent to a circle from an external point equals the product of the intercepts of any secants from the point.

RELATED TOPICS
Year 9: Geometry, Congruent and similar figures
Year 10: Geometry

## PROFICIENCY STRANDS / WORKING MATHEMATICALLY

• U = Understanding (knowing and relating maths): Identifying the parts of a circle and knowing what the circle theorems
mean
• F = Fluency (applying maths): Identifying the correct circle theorem to use in a geometry problem
• PS = Problem solving (modelling and investigating with maths): Finding unknown sides and angles in circle problems
• R = Reasoning (generalising and proving with maths): Proving circle theorems and using them to prove further
properties of circles
• C = Communicating (describing and representing maths): Understanding and using correct circle geometry terminology

EXTENSION IDEAS
• More abstract, non-numerical proofs. Harder or alternative proofs of the circle theorems.
• Research the history of circle geometry. From the NSW syllabus, Stage 5.3: ‘The angle in a semi-circle theorem is also
called Thales’ theorem because it was traditionally ascribed to the philosopher Thales of Miletus (c 624-c546 BC) by the
ancient Greeks, who reported that it was the first theorem ever proven in mathematics.’

## TEACHING NOTES AND IDEAS

• Demonstrate the circle theorems using dynamic geometry software and by paper-cutting and -folding activities.
• Students should be able to describe each circle theorem in words and diagram form. See Worksheet Circle geometry cards.
• Theorem 5 above regarding the ‘cyclic triangle’ is very wordy and is better described using a diagram. However, it is rarely
used in geometry proofs so the problem of quoting such a long reason is avoided.
• Find the centre of a circle by construction.
• From the NSW syllabus, Stage 5.3: ‘The tangent-and-radius theorem [theorem 12 above] is difficult to justify in Stage 5.3
and is probably better taken as an assumption’.

ASSESSMENT IDEAS
• Test or assignment on setting out a circle geometry proof correctly.
• Pencil-and-paper construction or dynamic geometry assignment involving circle geometry.

TECHNOLOGY
Use dynamic geometry software to investigate the circle theorems.

LANGUAGE
• What does subtend mean? What is the difference between a secant, tangent and intercept?
• Remind students to give reasons in their geometrical proofs, for example, ‘the alternate segment theorem’, and develop
short phrases that neatly summarise the lengthy descriptions of each theorem, for example, ‘angle at centre = twice angle at
circumference’.
• From the NSW syllabus, Stage 5.3: ‘If students abbreviate geometrical reasons that they use in circle geometry, they must
take care not to abbreviate the reasons to such an extent that the meaning is lost.’ So idiosyncratic phrases such as ‘butterfly
angles’ or ‘windsurfer theorem’ are unacceptable!
• Analyse the meaning of converse, and state possible converses of known results.

New Century Maths Advanced 10+10A Stages 5.2/5.3 teaching program (p. 40)
16. FUNCTIONS# (Stage 5.3 option topic)
#
Recommended for students intending to study the Stage 6 Mathematics Extension 1 course
Time: 1 week (Term 4)
Text: New Century Maths Advanced 10+10A Stages 5.2/5.3, Chapter 16, p.???
NSW Syllabus reference: Number and Algebra
Functions and other graphs
• Describe, interpret and sketch functions (NSW Stage 5.3)
NSW Stage 5 outcomes
A student:
• MA5.3-1 WM uses and interprets formal definitions and generalisations when explaining solutions and/or conjectures
• MA5.3-3 WM uses deductive reasoning in presenting arguments and formal proofs
• MA5.3-12 NA uses function notation to describe and sketch functions

INTRODUCTION
This short Stage 5.3 option topic introduces the concept of the function, which will be met again in the Stage 6 Mathematics
course. Similar theory has been covered in the Polynomials option topic, but this topic is specific to the NSW syllabus and goes
beyond the Australian curriculum.

CONTENT
1 Stage 5.3: Functions# NSW U F R C
• understand the definition of a function
• use the vertical line test on a graph to decide whether it represents a function
2 Stage 5.3: Function notation# NSW U F R C
• find the permissible x- and y-values (domain and range) for a variety of functions
3 Stage 5.3: Inverse functions# NSW U F R C
• determine the inverse functions for a variety of functions and recognise their graphs as reflections of the graphs of the
functions in the line y = x
4 Stage 5.3: Graphing y = ax and y = logax# 10ANA265 U F R C
• draw and compare the graphs of the inverse functions y = ax and y = logax
5 Stage 5.3: Graphing translations of functions# NSW U F R C
• sketch the graphs of y = f(x) + k and y = f(x – a), given the graph of y = f(x)
6 Revision and mixed problems

RELATED TOPICS
Year 10: Equations and logarithms, Graphs, Polynomials (option topic)

## PROFICIENCY STRANDS / WORKING MATHEMATICALLY

• U = Understanding (knowing and relating maths): Understanding the concepts of functions, function notation and
inverse functions
• F = Fluency (applying maths): Determine the domain and range of a function
• R = Reasoning (generalising and proving with maths): Test whether a function has an inverse function
• C = Communicating (describing and representing maths): Describe how the domains, ranges and graphs of a function
and its inverse function are related

EXTENSION IDEAS
• Functions as mappings between sets.
• Function of a function.
• Find a function whose inverse is itself.

New Century Maths Advanced 10+10A Stages 5.2/5.3 teaching program (p. 41)
TEACHING NOTES AND IDEAS
• Resources: Graphics or CAS calculator, graphing software, spreadsheets.
• Functions can be introduced using the concept of a ‘number machine’ with a programmed rule.
• Relate the vertical line test back to the definition of a function.
• Inverse functions can be graphed by folding the page along the graph of y = x and tracing/reflecting.

ASSESSMENT IDEAS
• Practical graphing test involving pencil-and-paper or technology.

TECHNOLOGY
Graph functions and inverse functions using graphing technology.

LANGUAGE
• Why do the dependent variable and independent variables have those names?
• Note that f -1(x) is read as ‘inverse function’ and is not a power of -1.

New Century Maths Advanced 10+10A Stages 5.2/5.3 teaching program (p. 42)