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Year 12 General 2 Teaching Program

Year 12 General 2 Teaching Program

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MATHEMATICS GENERAL 2

YEAR 12 TEACHING PROGRAM

YEAR 11

Week SEMESTER 1 Week SEMESTER 2

Term 1 1. Collecting and presenting data Term 3 8. Buying a car

1 (DS1, DS2) 1 (FSDr1, FSDr2)

2 2

9. Analysing data

3 3 (DS2, DS3)

2. Algebra and equations

4 (AM1)

4

5 5

3. Similar figures and 10. Phone plans and

6 trigonometry

6 downloading data

(MM3) (FSCo1, FSCo2)

7 7

8 8

4. Earning money and taxation 11. Investing money

9 (FM1, FM3)

9 (FM2)

10 10

Term 2 Term 4 12. Driving safely

(FSDr3)

1 1

5. Probability

2 (PB1)

2

HSC COURSE (YEAR 12) BEGINS

3 3 1. Loans and annuities

6. Measurement (FM4, FM5)

4 (MM1, MM2)

4

5 5

2. Equations and linear functions

6 6 (AM3, AM4)

7. Linear functions

7 (AM2)

7

8 8

9 9

Lost time / Exams Lost time / Exams

10 10

SYLLABUS STRANDS

FM Financial Mathematics PB Probability

DS Data and Statistics FSCo Mathematics and Communication

MM Measurement FSDr Mathematics and Driving

AM Algebra and Modelling

YEAR 12

Week SEMESTER 1 Week SEMESTER 2

3. Area and volume 10. Non-linear functions

Term 1 (MM4) Term 3 (AM5)

1 1

2 2

3 3

4. Statistical distributions 11. Sampling and the normal

4 (DS4)

4 distribution

(DS5, DS6)

5 5

12. Energy and sustainability

6 6 (FSRe3)

5. The sine and cosine rules

7 (MM5)

7

8 8 Lost time / Revision

9 9

6. Water usage

10 (FSRe1, FSRe2)

10

Term 2

1

7. Probability

2 (PB2)

3

8. Health and medicine

4 (FSHe1, FSHe2, FSHe3)

5

6

9. Geometry of the Earth

7 (MM6)

8

9 Lost time / Exams

10

SYLLABUS STRANDS

FM Financial Mathematics PB Probability

DS Data and Statistics FSHe Mathematics and Health

MM Measurement FSRe Mathematics and Resources

AM Algebra and Modelling

1. LOANS AND ANNUITIES

Time: 3 weeks (Year 11 Term 4, Week 3).

Text: New Century Maths 12 Mathematics General 2 HSC Course Chapter 1, p. 2.

Syllabus reference: Financial Mathematics

FM4 Credit and borrowing (p.74)

FM5 Annuities and loan repayments (p.76)

INTRODUCTION

This short HSC topic is a sequel to the Investing money topic from the Preliminary course and examines the

mathematics of loans and annuities. Students study the calculations involved in interest, repayments, fees,

charges, interest-free periods, deferred payments, terms and conditions, future value, present value. The aim

of this topic is to explain and demystify the realities of personal finance so that students can make sound

financial and mathematical decisions. Students should be able to use a spreadsheet to analyse, compare and

chart the progress of different loans. A graphics calculator can also be used to calculate, graph and analyse

loan repayments.

CONTENT

1 Flat rate loans FM4

• calculate principal, interest and repayments for flat-rate loans

• compare different options for borrowing money in relation to total repayments, fees and interest rates

• calculate values in a table of loan repayments showing the progress of a loan

• recognise that P, the principal (or initial amount) in calculations with the compound interest formula

A = P(1 + r)n is the ‘present value’ (PV) and A, the final amount, is the ‘future value’ (FV)

• calculate future value and present value using the formula FV = PV(1 + r)n

• calculate credit card payments, interest charges and balances

• recognise that an annuity is a financial plan involving periodical, equal contributions to an account,

with interest compounding at the conclusion of each period

• calculate (i) the future value of an annuity (FVA) and (ii) the contribution per period, using a table of

future value interest factors for calculating a single future value of an annuity stream

• recognise that the values in a table of future value interest factors can be obtained using the formula

for the future value of an annuity

• calculate (i) the present value of an annuity (PVA) and (ii) the contribution per period, using a table

of present value interest factors for calculating a single present value of an annuity stream

• use a table of interest factors for the present value of an annuity to calculate loan instalments, and

hence the total amount paid over the term of a loan

• recognise that the values in a table of present value interest factors can be obtained using the formula

for the present value of an annuity

• calculate the monthly repayment for a home loan from a table, given the principal, rate and term

• investigate the various processes for repayment of loans

• calculate the fees and charges that apply to different options for borrowing money

• interpret graphs that compare two or more repayment options for home loans

RELATED TOPICS

Preliminary: Investing money.

EXTENSION ACTIVITIES

• Investigate different types of home loans, and the steps and fees in applying for a mortgage.

• The effective interest rate formula.

• Resources: Spreadsheets, graphics calculators, loan websites, credit card and loan information from

banks and other lending institutions, and the consumer finance section of newspapers and magazines.

• Syllabus, p.75: ‘Plan a spreadsheet for reducing balance loan using paper, pen and calculator, and

then construct a spreadsheet. Consider car loans, travel loans, loans for capital items, and home loans,

as well as other types of loans.’

• With a spreadsheet examine how size of frequency of repayments (or making a ‘one-off’ large

repayment) affects the term (length) of the loan.

• Partial answers should be left on a calculator’s display (or memory) and not rounded. Round only at

the end of the calculation.

• Students can collect brochures regarding interest rates and credit cards from banks and other financial

institutions. Compare the different brands of credit cards.

• A credit card is only ‘interest-free’ if the account is paid in full before the due date. Otherwise,

interest is charged from the date of purchase. Cash advances, such as ATM withdrawals, do not have

an interest-free period, but this may vary according to the type of credit card.

• When teaching about credit cards, do not get too caught up in the terms and conditions, as they vary

between brands and types of card. HSC questions involving credit cards will focus mainly on interest-

free periods, daily interest rates and calculating interest.

• Note that the annuity formulas are no longer a part of this course, and that teachers should spend

more time teaching the concept of annuities and the use of interest factor tables (which are generated

using those formulas).

ASSESSMENT ACTIVITIES

• Spreadsheet test or assignment on investigating a loan. The spreadsheet could be blank or prepared.

• Investigation project on a particular credit card.

TECHNOLOGY

Use a spreadsheet or graphics calculator to compare loans or annuities. Many financial websites have loan

calculators and simulators. ‘Use of technology’ is a key competency in the syllabus but the use of

spreadsheets and graphics calculators is not mandatory. However, it is very difficult for students to track the

progress of a reducing balance loan without the use of a spreadsheet.

LANGUAGE

• A flat rate loan can also be called a simple interest loan, while a reducing balance loan is also

called a reducible interest loan.

• The present value of an annuity is the sum invested today that produces the same amount as a series

of regular contributions over the same term at the same interest rate.

• As a lot of financial jargon is used in this topic, a student-generated glossary would be a useful study

aid.

2. EQUATIONS AND LINEAR FUNCTIONS

Time: 3 weeks (Year 11 Term 4, Week 6)

Text: New Century Maths 12 Mathematics General 2 HSC Course Chapter 2, p. 52

Syllabus reference: Algebra and Modelling

AM3 Further algebraic skills and techniques (p.100)

AM4 Modelling linear relationships (p.102)

INTRODUCTION

This topic revises and extends algebra concepts, such as solving equations and linear modelling, learned in

the Preliminary course, and introduces new content such as index laws, equations involving algebraic

fractions, and changing the subject of a formula. The next Algebra and Modelling course, Non-linear

functions, will examine more advanced functions, their graphs and direct and inverse variation.

CONTENT

1 Algebraic expressions AM1, AM3

• add, subtract, multiply and divide algebraic terms

• expand and simplify algebraic expressions

• add, subtract, multiply and divide simple algebraic fractions with different numerical denominators

• establish and apply index laws in algebraic form

• solve linear equations involving up to four steps, including with unknowns in the denominator

• solve equations following substitution of values

• change the subject of a formula

• generate tables of values for linear functions and graph them with pencil and paper, and with

graphing software

• interpret linear functions as models of physical phenomena, recognise the limitations of such models

and solve contextual problems

• establish the meaning of the gradient and the y-intercept for a given practical context

• develop linear equations and graphs of the form y = kx from descriptions of situations in which one

quantity varies directly with another, and use graphs to establish the value of k and solve problems

• interpret the point of intersection of the graphs of two linear functions drawn from practical contexts

• solve contextual problems graphically using a pair of simple linear simultaneous equations, and apply

break-even analysis to simple business problems that can be modelled with linear functions

10 Simultaneous equations AM4

• solve simple linear simultaneous equations algebraically

RELATED TOPICS

Preliminary: Algebra and equations, Measurement, Linear functions, HSC: Health and medicine, Non-linear

functions.

EXTENSION ACTIVITIES

• Equations involving powers and roots

• Exponential equations, solving them by guess-and-check or logarithms

• Resources: grid paper, graphing software, spreadsheet, graphics calculator.

5 d

• Keep formulas as practical and relevant as possible [for example C = ( F − 32 ) ; S = ; perimeter,

9 t

area and volume formulas; simple and compound interest formulas, Pythagoras’ theorem, Fried’s rule

mA m

for medicine dosage D = ; and the body-mass index formula b = 2 (healthy range is 21 to 25)].

150 h

TAFE handbooks may be consulted for trade formulas.

• Students could calculate their own BMI (body-mass index) and determine their healthy mass range

for a healthy BMI.

• Students should know the meanings of gradient and vertical intercept as they relate to a linear

function: gradient = rate of change of y, vertical intercept = [initial] value of y when x = 0.

• A slash in the vertical axis can be drawn if the y-values are large and do not ‘begin’ at zero.

• An algebraic model approximates real-life situations using a formula, table of values or graph.

Students should recognise the limitations of linear models as approximations of real situations.

• Syllabus, p.103: ‘Students investigate the question: “Does the approximation method ‘double and add

30°’ for converting from degrees Celsius to degrees Fahrenheit always give an answer close to the

correct answer?” The formula for converting degrees Celsius to degrees Fahrenheit could be graphed,

along with the formula arising from the “rule of thumb”.’

• Students have already met direct linear variation in the Linear equations topic in the Preliminary

course.

• See the syllabus, p.103, for an analysis of the breakeven point. For linear cost functions, distinguish

between fixed costs and variable costs.

• Solutions to simultaneous equations can be checked by substituting back into both equations.

ASSESSMENT ACTIVITIES

• Linear modelling project

• Graphing test

TECHNOLOGY

Graphing software, graphics calculators and spreadsheets can be used to graph lines. A graphics calculator

can graph a line or find the point of intersection of two lines.

LANGUAGE

• Reinforce the difference between linear functions and non-linear functions, such as quadratic and

cubic functions.

3. AREA AND VOLUME

Time: 3 weeks (Term 1, Week 1)

Text: New Century Maths 12 Mathematics General 2 HSC Course Chapter 3, p. 94

Syllabus reference: Measurement

MM4 Further applications of area and volume (p. 88)

INTRODUCTION

This Measurement topic revises and extends area, surface area and volume concepts introduced in the

Preliminary course, and applies them to composite and irregular figures in practical situations. In particular,

students examine the measurement of circular figures such as sectors, cylinders and spheres. Students

measured irregularly-shaped fields in the Preliminary course, but here they will be introduced to Simpson’s

rule as an approximation method for calculating areas and volumes. The formulas supplied in the HSC exam

are arc length of an arc, areas of a sector and annulus, surface area of a closed cylinder and sphere, volumes

of a cone, cylinder, pyramid and sphere, and Simpson’s rule.

CONTENT

1 Percentage error MM4

• calculate the percentage error in a measurement

• calculate areas of composite figures constructed from squares, rectangles and triangles

• calculate the arc length of a circle

• calculate areas of annuluses and parts of a circle (quadrant, sector), using appropriate formulas

• calculate areas of composite figures constructed from circles

• apply Simpson’s rule over three equally spaced points, that is, one application

• calculate the volume of right prisms where the base is a composite or irregular two-dimensional

shape

• calculate the surface area of right prisms

• calculate the surface area of open (without ‘top’ and/or ‘bottom’) cylinders and closed cylinders

• calculate the volume of an annular cylinder

• calculate the volume and surface area of spheres

8 Volumes of pyramids and cones MM4

• calculate the volume of a cone, square pyramid and rectangular pyramid using appropriate formulas

• calculate volumes of composite solids

• determine errors in calculations resulting from errors made in measurement

RELATED TOPICS

Preliminary: Measurement, Area and volume, HSC: The sine and cosine rules, Water usage, Geometry of the

Earth, Energy and sustainability.

EXTENSION ACTIVITIES

• Maximum/minimum problems involving surface area and volume, for example, see syllabus, p.89.

• Resources: posters of plane and solid shapes, nets of solid shapes.

• The arc length formula will be applied in the Geometry of the Earth topic.

• The number of significant figures in an answer should be at most the same as the number of

significant figures quoted in the original measurements.

• Assumed knowledge from Years 7-10 and therefore their formulas are not supplied in the HSC

examination: areas of rectangles, triangles, circles, parallelograms, trapeziums, kites and rhombuses,

volume of a right prism.

• Area, surface area and volume have a range of applications such as the cost of materials needed

(paint, wood, fencing, soil) for home renovation. See past HSC exams for examples.

• Area applications in surveying will be met in the topic The sine and cosine rules.

• Students should show their working on paper before using the calculator. Partial results should not be

rounded but kept on the calculator’s display for further use.

• Memory aid: Circular formulas for area and surface area involve r2 (two dimensions), while the

formula for volume involves r3 (three dimensions).

• It is more important that students understand the methods involved in finding surface areas and

volumes than to blindly apply formulas.

ASSESSMENT ACTIVITIES

• Syllabus, p.89: ‘Design cost-effective packaging, for example, groups of students are given four

table-tennis balls and need to design two different boxes to package them. Students should then

determine the better of the two designs in terms of minimisation of material used.’

• Practical measurement task, for example, height of tree, then explore range of errors using graphics

calculator or spreadsheet.

TECHNOLOGY

Compare approximate areas found using Simpson’s rule with exact areas.

LANGUAGE

• Students should include a glossary and formulas list in their summary of this topic.

4. STATISTICAL DISTRIBUTIONS

Time: 3 weeks (Term 1, Week 4)

Text: New Century Maths 12 Mathematics General 2 HSC Course Chapter 4, p. 144

Syllabus reference: Data and Statistics

DS4 Interpreting sets of data (p. 80)

INTRODUCTION

Building upon the two Data and Statistics topic of the Preliminary course, this topic compares the data of two

different distributions in order to interpret information about them. Students will examine more closely the

shape of distributions, as well as use an area chart to illustrate the changes in two or more variables over

time.

CONTENT

1 Collecting and presenting data DS4

• classify data as quantitative (either discrete or continuous) or categorical (either nominal or ordinal)

• represent large data sets as grouped data using frequency tables and histograms

• compare histograms for grouped data when varying the size of the class interval

• estimate measures of location from frequency tables, cumulative frequency tables and cumulative

frequency histograms and polygons

• calculate measures of location (mean, median, mode)

• calculate measures of spread (range, interquartile range, standard deviation)

• calculate and make comparisons of the population standard deviation of two or more sets of data

• describe the general shape of a graph or display which represents a given data set, for example, in

terms of smoothness, symmetry or number of modes

• investigate outliers in data sets and their effects on the mean, median and mode

• display data in double (back-to-back) stem-and-leaf plots

• determine the percentages of data between any two quartiles on a box-and-whisker plot

• display data in two box-and-whisker plots drawn on the same scale

• display two sets of data on a radar chart

• prepare an area chart to illustrate and compare different sets of data over time

• use multiple displays to describe and interpret the relationships between data sets

• use side-by-side multiple displays of the same data set

• compare summary statistics from two sets of data

9 Two-way tables DS4

• interpret data presented in two-way table form, for example, male/female versus exercise/no exercise

• group and compare variables within the same data set using cross-tabulation

RELATED TOPICS

Preliminary: Collecting and presenting data, Analysing data, HSC: Water usage, Health and medicine,

Sampling and the normal distribution, Energy and sustainability.

EXTENSION ACTIVITIES

• The normal distribution (to be covered in a later topic, Sampling and the normal distribution)

• The formula and method for calculating standard deviation. A spreadsheet could be set up to calculate

standard deviation.

• Resources: grid paper, including polar grids for radar charts, statistical data, Australian Bureau of

Statistics website www.abs.gov.au, Bureau of Meteorology website www.bom.gov.au, spreadsheets,

graphics calculators, statistical graphing software.

• Students are not required to calculate standard deviation from first principles. The emphasis is upon

knowing that it is a measure of spread about the mean and being able to calculate it using a

calculator’s statistical functions. The sample standard deviation σ n −1 is no longer part of this course:

use the population standard deviation σ n only.

• Examples of comparisons between two data sets: rainfall in Sydney vs Melbourne, ages of computer

programmers vs teachers, incomes or heights of men vs women, scores of teams at home vs away

games, marks in two different subjects or tests, rainfall or temperature in two towns, road traffic on

different days of the week.

• Area charts and skewness are concepts new to students in this topic.

• Include problems where students need to find the value of a new score that will make a data set have

a given mean: this is commonly-tested in the HSC exam.

• Collect different measures of location from newspapers and determine which is the most appropriate.

The mean can be affected by outliers, the mode is appropriate if many scores are popular, the median

is unsuitable if scores are clustered. Which is higher: the mean or median weekly income in

Australia?

• In skewed distributions, the mean is always ‘pulled’ towards the tail.

• The perfectly symmetrical normal distribution is examined in the topic Sampling and the normal

distribution.

ASSESSMENT ACTIVITIES

• Plan, implement and report on a statistical investigation comparing two sets of data.

TECHNOLOGY

Investigate the statistical functions of a calculator, graphics calculator, spreadsheet or statistical software.

The STDEV.P() function on a spreadsheet calculates σ n . Be wary of the individual differences in the

statistical modes of calculators, especially when inputting data from a frequency table.

LANGUAGE

• Reinforce the collective terms ‘measures of location’ and ‘measures of spread’.

5. THE SINE AND COSINE RULES

Time: 3 weeks (Term 1, Week 7)

Text: New Century Maths 12 Mathematics General 2 HSC Course Chapter 5, p. 204

Syllabus reference: Measurement

MM5 Applications of trigonometry (p. 90)

INTRODUCTION

This trigonometry topic introduces the sine and cosine rules, which apply to all types of triangles, not only

right-angled ones. Some students may have covered this topic in Year 10 Stage 5.3. Students use

trigonometry to calculate lengths, angles and areas in triangles. As with trigonometry in the Preliminary

course, this topic should not be rushed as the emphasis is on applying the knowledge and skills to practical

situations. Spend considerable time on bearings and the different types of surveying techniques.

CONTENT

1 Right-angled triangle trigonometry MM5

• draw diagrams to represent information given about a right-angled triangle

• solve problems using trigonometric ratios in one or more right-angled triangles

• solve problems involving angles of elevation and depression, given the appropriate diagram

2 Bearings MM5

• use compass bearings (eight points only) and true bearings (three-figure bearings) in problem-solving

related to maps and charts

• establish the sine, cosine and tangent ratios for obtuse angles using a calculator, and determine their

sign

• use the sine rule to find side lengths of triangles

• use the sine rule to find angles of triangles

• use the cosine rule to find side lengths of triangles

• use the cosine rule to find angles of triangles

1

• calculate the area of a triangle using the formula A = ab sin C

2

• use appropriate trigonometric ratios and formulas in 'two-triangle problems', where one triangle is

right-angled and the diagram is given

• select and use appropriate trigonometric ratios and formulas to solve problems involving right-angled

and non-right-angled triangles

10 Offset and radial surveys MM5

• conduct radial (both plane table and compass) surveys

• solve problems involving non-right-angled triangle trigonometry, Pythagoras’ theorem and area in

offset and radial surveys.

RELATED TOPICS

Preliminary: Similar figures and trigonometry, Area and volume, HSC: Area and volume, Water usage.

EXTENSION ACTIVITIES

• The proofs of the formulas used in this topic

• Explore the ambiguous case of the sine rule by construction

• Design an orienteering course

• Resources: clinometer, navigational compass, protractor, table, paper and cone markers for land

surveying, string, trundle wheels, measuring tape, maps, charts.

• It is not necessary to examine the trigonometry of angles greater than 180°.

• For the sine rule, promote the idea of equal proportions: the longest side is opposite the largest angle,

etc.

• Syllabus, p.91: ‘For problems involving application of the sine rule, it needs to be made clear to

students whether an angle to be found is acute or obtuse.’ The ambiguous case where two angles are

possible (acute and obtuse) does not need to be considered.

• Determine whether an answer sounds reasonable by sketching a diagram roughly in proportion.

• Common error in using the cosine rule: incorrect order of operations, for example, c2 = 34 – 30 cos

27° = 4 cos 27°. Encourage students to enter the entire expression into their calculators rather than

partial expressions.

• Do not round partial answers in the middle of a calculation. Leave unrounded answers in the

calculator’s display, and only round at the end.

• The sine rule involves two pairs of sides and the angles opposite them, while the cosine rule involves

three sides and one angle.

• Investigate whether the sine and cosine rules work for right-angled triangles.

• Carry out a radial survey of an irregular area and compare the result with an offset survey.

ASSESSMENT ACTIVITIES

• Practical outdoor test or project involving surveying of distances and areas.

TECHNOLOGY

Ensure that calculators are set to Degrees mode. Investigate sides, angles and areas of triangles using

geometry software such as GeoGebra.

LANGUAGE

• Explore the meanings of the names given to surveys: offset, radial (plane table and compass).

6. WATER USAGE

Time: 2 weeks (Term 1, Week 10)

Text: New Century Maths 12 Mathematics General 2 HSC Course Chapter 6, p. 252

Syllabus reference: Mathematics and Resources

FSRe1 Water availability and usage (p. 116)

FSRe2 Dams, land and catchment areas (p. 118)

INTRODUCTION

This focus study looks at the measurement, statistics and financial mathematics behind water usage and

storage in the home and the wider community. It is a practical topic that is particularly relevant to today’s

environmentally-friendly world, examining concepts such as conserving water, rainwater tanks, catchment

areas, reservoirs and dams. Electricity usage and energy-efficient housing will be examined in the Energy

and sustainability topic later this year.

CONTENT

1 Water usage in the home FSRe1

• interpret information about a household’s water usage, for example, a household water bill

• collect and interpret data and calculate statistics on household and personal water usage

• investigate household water usage in different Australian and international locations

2 Rainfall FSRe1

• construct and interpret rainfall graphs

• calculate the probability of rainfall in a locality

• compare rainfall in different regions, states and countries

• collect and interpret data and calculate statistics on water availability at local, state and national levels

• investigate the costs of water usage at local, state and national levels, using published data

• calculate the scale used on a photograph given that it contains features with standard dimensions, for

example, an Olympic swimming pool

• calculate the perimeter of a section of land using a site plan or aerial photograph that includes a scale

• calculate the distance between two points on a section of land using online tools

• estimate the area of land and catchment areas

• calculate actual areas using scale diagrams

• calculate the volume of water held by tanks of various shapes and sizes

• calculate the volume of rainfall using V = Ah

• estimate the volume of a reservoir or dam using Simpson’s rule (up to two applications)

RELATED TOPICS

NEW CENTURY MATHS 12 MATHEMATICS GENERAL 2 | HSC Course | Teaching program 14

Preliminary: Similar figures and trigonometry, Earning money and taxation, Probability, Measurement,

Analysing data, Phone plans and downloading data, HSC: Area and volume, Statistical distributions, Energy

and sustainability.

EXTENSION ACTIVITIES

• Investigate the history of droughts and the levels of dams in your local area.

• Resources: spreadsheets, rain gauge, rainfall statistics, Sydney Water website

www.sydneywater.com.au , maps, Google Maps website www.map.google.com, household water

bills, outdoor fields, swimming pools, dams.

• Use a spreadsheet to calculate the costs involved in a household water bill.

• Visit websites such as Sydney Water to learn more about water use and water-saving strategies.

• Use a rain gauge to measure the amount of rainfall on a rainy day or week.

• Students have already learned the metric prefixes such as mega-, giga-, tera- in the Phone plans and

downloading data topic of the Preliminary course.

• Investigate and compare the rainfall figures in two or more different locations.

• Students have met scale maps and plans in the Similar figures and trigonometry topic of the

Preliminary course.

• Syllabus, p. 119: ‘Use a map or aerial photograph where a feature has known dimensions (for

example, an Olympic swimming pool, an athletics field, or a playing field for a particular sport) to

find the scale of the map or photograph.’

• Investigate what size of rainwater tank would be appropriate for a house or farm.

• When calculating the volume of water than can be collecting from a roof, it is important to use the

roof’s ‘plan view area’ or ‘flat area’ in the formula V = Ah rather than its actual area because a steep

roof will catch much less water than a flatter roof.

ASSESSMENT ACTIVITIES

• Design a poster on different ways of conserving water use in the home and/or community.

TECHNOLOGY

Syllabus, p. 119: ‘Online tools such as those on the Google Maps website can be used to determine distances

on the surface of the Earth.’ The Bureau of Meteorology website www.bom.gov.au is a rich source of data

about rainfall in any location in Australia.

LANGUAGE

• Rainfall is measured in millimetres. For example, 5 mm of rain means that the amount of water

falling would fill a container to a height of 5 mm.

7. PROBABILITY

Time: 2 weeks (Term 2, Week 2)

Text: New Century Maths 12 Mathematics General 2 HSC Course Chapter 7, p. 292

Syllabus reference: Probability

PB2 Multistage events and applications of probability (p. 96)

INTRODUCTION

This Probability topic examines more complex problems involving counting techniques for ordered and

unordered selections. Students learned basic probability concepts in the Preliminary course, but here they

learn about the multiplication principle of counting, tree diagrams and expectation. Probability is a topic in

which many students experience difficulty, so spend considerable time teaching the key ideas and methods.

CONTENT

1 Revision: Basic probability PB2

• calculate the probability of the complement of an event

• compare theoretical probabilities with experimental estimates

• construct and use tree diagrams to establish the outcomes for a simple multi-stage event

• multiply the number of choices at each stage to determine the number of outcomes for a multi-stage

event

• establish that the number of ways in which n different items can be arranged in a line is n(n – 1)(n –

2) ... × 1 , for example, the number of different arrangements of four different items is

4×3×2×1=24;the number of arrangements of three different items is 3 × 2 × 1 = 6

• establish the number of ordered selections that can be made from a group of different items (small

numbers only), for example, if selecting two positions (such as captain and vice-captain) from a team

of five people, the number of selections is 5 × 4 = 20

• establish the number of unordered selections that can be made from a group of different items (small

numbers only), for example, if selecting a pair of people to represent a team of five, the number of

selections is half the number of ordered selections

• use the formula for the probability of an event to calculate the probability that a particular selection

will occur

• use probability tree diagrams to solve problems involving two-stage events

8 Expectation

• calculate the expected number of times a particular event will occur, given the number of trials of a

simple experiment, by establishing the theoretical probability of the event and multiplying by the

number of trials, and compare the result with an experimental result

• calculate financial expectation by multiplying each financial outcome by its probability and adding

the results together

RELATED TOPICS

Preliminary: Probability, HSC: Water usage, Health and medicine, Sampling and the normal distribution.

EXTENSION ACTIVITIES

• The terms ‘permutation’ and ‘combination’ and related formulas.

• Three-stage events

• The mathematics of games of chance and gambling

• Investigation calculation of risk in relation to insurance policy premiums (for example, fire, house,

flood, car accident/theft, life)

• Resources: spreadsheets, graphics calculators, probability simulation software, dice, coins, playing

cards, counters, spinners, games of chance (for example, Roulette), random number tables or

generators.

• Students should become skilled at differentiating between ordered and unordered selections.

• Students should evaluate the fairness of popular games of chance, overcome common gambling

misconceptions and make informed decisions involving probability.

• Note that the formulas used in this topic will not be supplied in the HSC exam.

• Many students have difficulty constructing tree diagrams, so spend considerable time in class

practising and revising these.

• Syllabus, p.97: ‘Class discussion should include whether a particular event is obviously dependent or

independent, for example, a set of free throws in basketball. Some people are of the view that the

success of each shot is independent of the result of the last shot. Others suggest that there is a

dependent psychological impact of success or failure based on the result of the last shot.’

ASSESSMENT ACTIVITIES

• Practical or problem-solving test involving a probability experiment or simulation.

TECHNOLOGY

Spreadsheets, computers and calculators have random number generators and simulation capabilities.

LANGUAGE

• A probability tree diagram is a tree diagram with probability values listed on its branches.

• Students are not expected to use factorial notation (x!) or the terms ‘permutation’ and ‘combination’.

• Considerable jargon and formulas are involved in this topic, so a good topic summary should include

a glossary and worked examples.

8. HEALTH AND MEDICINE

Time: 3 weeks (Term 2, Week 4)

Text: New Century Maths 12 Mathematics General 2 HSC Course Chapter 8, p. 330

Syllabus reference: Mathematics and Health

FSHe1 Body measurements (p. 108)

FSHe2 Medication (p. 110)

FSHe3 Life expectancy (p. 112)

INTRODUCTION

This focus study looks at the mathematics of health and medicine, applying skills from the Measurement,

Algebra and Modelling, and Data and Statistics strands. Students use correlation and lines of fit to analyse

the relationship between two variables describing body measurements, so there is much scope for practical

activity in this topic. Life expectancy statistics are also analysed in a similar way, while rates and formulas

are applied to medication situations. The data to be used in this topic should be as authentic as possible, with

the Internet being an excellent source.

CONTENT

1 Scatterplots of body measurements FSHe1

• plot ordered pairs of body measurement data onto a scatterplot by hand and by using appropriate

technology

• recognise patterns in a scatterplot of body measurements

2 Correlation FSHe1

• calculate correlation coefficients for different body measurements using appropriate technology and

interpret their sign

• interpret the strength of association for different body measurements using a given correlation

coefficient

• recognise that a high degree of correlation for different body measurements does not necessarily

imply causality

• estimate and draw ‘by eye’ a line of fit on a scatterplot

• construct the least-squares line of best fit using the correlation coefficient and the means and standard

deviations of the x- and y-scores

• use a least-squares line of best fit to interpolate

• calculate drip rates

• solve problems involving ratios, rates and repeated percentage change

• convert grams (g) to milligrams (mg), and vice versa

• perform calculations involving concentrations expressed as mass/volume

• calculate dosage strengths and required dosages for children and adults from packets given age or

weight, or using various formulas

7 Life expectancy FSHe3

• interpret life expectancy data in various forms, including in tables and graphs

• plot life expectancy data for a range of variables, using the most appropriate form of display

• investigate trends, or points of significance, for specific countries over time

• interpolate from plotted data to make predictions where appropriate

• interpret published graphs and statistics, including critically evaluating data collection methods, for

example, bias in data that may be included or omitted

• construct scatterplots of life expectancy for a range of variables

• create scatterplots for sets of variables to identify strong predictors of life expectancy, and calculate

correlation coefficients

• plot life expectancy for different variables using online life expectancy calculators to make

assessments about how variables are weighted, for example, smoking

RELATED TOPICS

Preliminary: Collecting and presenting data, Measurement, Linear functions, Analysing data, HSC:

Equations and linear functions, Statistical distributions, Probability, Non-linear functions, Sampling and the

normal distribution.

EXTENSION ACTIVITIES

• Explore how life expectancy rates affect life insurance premiums.

• Resources: graphics calculator, spreadsheet, Australian Institute of Health and Welfare data, medicine

labels.

• Syllabus, p.107: ‘This Focus Study provides students with special interest in the health sciences,

PDHPE or Visual Arts the opportunity to explore aspects of mathematics involved in those areas.’

• Liaise with the PDHPE faculty for resources and data for this topic.

• Teachers should be sensitive to the situations and experiences of students when undertaking body

measurements.

• Syllabus, p.107: ‘Outliers need to be examined carefully, but should not be removed unless there is a

strong reason to believe that they do not belong in the data set.’

• Ask the class to generate a list of factors that affect life expectancy.

• Syllabus, p.107: ‘Historical events may include medical advancements (for example, the development

of vaccines), periods of conflict and technological advancements. Graphs of Australian male life

expectancy (show) an increase in deaths from road accidents in the 1950s and 1960s.’

ASSESSMENT ACTIVITIES

• Practical project or test

• Technology test

TECHNOLOGY

Use technology to calculate correlation coefficients and least-squares lines of best fit. Use online calculators

to predict your life expectancy.

LANGUAGE

• Bivariate data simply refers to data involving two variables, such as head circumference and length

of arm, that can be represented as ordered pairs and graphed on a scatterplot.

• Syllabus, p.107: ‘The least-squares line of best fit is also called the regression line. This is the line

that lies closer to the data points than any other possible line.’

9. GEOMETRY OF THE EARTH

Time: 2 weeks (Term 2, Week 7)

Text: New Century Maths 12 Mathematics General 2 HSC Course Chapter 9, p. 380

Syllabus reference: Measurement

MM6 Spherical geometry (p. 92)

INTRODUCTION

In this short Measurement topic, students use circle and spherical geometry to solve problems relating to

positions, distances and times on the earth’s surface. Most of the concepts met in this topic will be fairly

new: latitude and longitude, great circle distances and international time zones. As there is a lot of

terminology in this topic, a student-generated glossary would be a useful study aid.

CONTENT

1 Latitude and longitude MM6

• distinguish between great and small circles

• use the equator and the Greenwich meridian as lines of reference for locations on the Earth’s surface

• locate positions on the surface of the Earth using latitude and longitude

• calculate arc length of a circle

• calculate distances in kilometres between two points on the same great circle

• calculate time differences between locations on the Earth given the difference in longitude

• use time zones and the International Date Line in solving problems

• determine the times in cities in different countries in travel questions

RELATED TOPICS

Preliminary: Measurement, HSC: Area and volume.

EXTENSION ACTIVITIES

• Nautical miles and knots.

• Small circle distances using trigonometry, from the old Mathematics in Society course.

• History of latitude, longitude and international time zones.

• Resources: world globe and map, atlas, map or table or website of international time zones.

• Please note that nautical miles and knots are no longer part of this course.

• Visualising the Earth as a sphere is often difficult as it involves three dimensions. Spend some time

illustrating the parts of a sphere using a physical model such as a world globe, basketball, tennis ball

or orange.

• Encourage students to draw ‘grid diagrams’ or number lines to calculate differences in latitude,

longitude or local times.

• Note that unlike points on the number plane, the order of global coordinates is up/down (latitude)

first, then across (longitude).

• Unless otherwise specified, assume the radius of the Earth as 6400 km.

• Investigate time zones and daylight saving in the Australian states and territories. Why is the

International Date Line bent in some places.

• Trivia: In 2011, Samoa changed its time zone from UTC – 11 to UTC + 13, moving one day forward

to improve its trade with Australia and China. In the process, it actually skipped Friday, 30th

December.

• Syllabus, p.93: ‘Find the coordinates of the point on the Earth’s surface that is at maximum distance

from the school’s location.’

ASSESSMENT ACTIVITIES

• Plan an overseas trip involving an itinerary with schedules, time zones and sleep patterns.

TECHNOLOGY

Use the Internet to investigate time zones, travel time timetables, longitude and latitude.

LANGUAGE

• UTC (Coordinated Universal Time) is also called zero time (Z time) or Greenwich Mean Time

(GMT).

10. NON-LINEAR FUNCTIONS

Time: 3 weeks (Term 3, Week 1)

Text: New Century Maths 12 Mathematics General 2 HSC Course Chapter 10, p. 416

Syllabus reference: Algebra and Modelling

AM5 Modelling non-linear relationships (p. 104)

INTRODUCTION

In this final Algebra and Modelling topic, non-linear functions are examined as further models for the

mathematical patterns and relationships occurring in nature and society. Students will examine the quadratic,

cubic, exponential and hyperbolic functions and investigate their properties and graphs. Note that in the

study of these functions, this course examines quadratic and cubic functions of the forms y = ax2 + c and y =

ax3 + c only. The topic ends with a detailed analysis of direct and inverse variation.

CONTENT

1 The quadratic function AM5

• recognise, graph and compare the properties of the graph of y = ax2 + c for all values of x

• use algebraic functions to model physical phenomena

• recognise the limitations of models when interpolating and/or extrapolating

• use a graph of a quadratic function to find the maximum and minimum value in practical contexts

• recognise, graph and compare the properties of the graph of y = ax3 + c for all values of x

a

• recognise, graph and compare the properties of the graph of y = (where a > 0) for all values of x

x

• recognise, graph and compare the properties of the graph of y = b(ax) for x ≥ 0

• solve contextual problems involving exponential growth

• develop equations of the form y = kx2, h = kt3 from descriptions of situations in which one quantity

varies directly as a power of another

• evaluate k in the above equations given one pair of variables, and use the resulting formula to find

other values of the variables

k

• develop equations of the form y = from descriptions of situations in which one quantity varies

x

inversely with another

• evaluate k in the above equation given one pair of variables, and use the resulting formula to find

other values of the variables

9 Revision and mixed problems

RELATED TOPICS

Preliminary: Algebra and equations, Linear functions, HSC: Equations and linear functions, Health and

medicine.

EXTENSION ACTIVITIES

b

• Graphing the general quadratic function y = ax2 + bx + c, the formula x = − to find the x-value of

2a

the vertex of a parabola.

• Further applications of exponential growth and decay.

• Using technology to analyse the effects of changing the parameters of a function on its graph.

• Resources: graph paper, graphing software such as GeoGebra, graphics calculator, spreadsheet.

• Introduce each function with its graph, properties and applications. Students should be competent at

recognising the different types of functions and their graphs. A good topic summary should include

many diagrams and a glossary.

• Applications of quadratic functions: maximum area problems, braking speed, projectile motion, fuel

consumption.

• Syllabus, p.105: ‘Sketch at least 10 rectangles that have the same perimeter. Record length versus

area in a table. Sketch the resulting function and use the graph to determine the rectangle with

maximum area. describe this rectangle.’

• Syllabus, p.105: ‘On the Earth, the equation d = 4.8t2 can be used to express the distance (d metres)

that an object falls in t seconds, if air resistance is ignored. Investigate the equations for the moon and

for other planets, for example, on the moon the equation is d = 0.8t2 … answer questions such as

“How long does it take an object to fall 300m?”’

• Applications of cubic functions: volume and mass problems.

• Applications of exponential growth: population and other natural growth, flu and computer viruses,

bacteria growth, compound interest.

• Syllabus, p.105: ‘An exponential expression such as M = 1.5(1.2)x can be used to calculate the mass

M kg of a baby orangutan at age x months. This model applies for a limited time, up to x = 6.

Calculate the mass of the baby orangutan at age three months.’

• Students have already studied applications of exponential functions with compound interest, inflation,

appreciation and depreciation.

• The vertical intercept of a function’s graph gives its ‘initial’ value.

• Applications of hyperbolic functions: sharing problems, interest-free loan repayments, speed.

• Linear and non-liner models have limitations as approximations of real-life situations.

• Students have already learned about direct linear variation y = kx in the Preliminary course topic

Linear functions.

• Emphasise the steps involved in solving a variation problem. Some students are confused that x and y

can take on different values while k stays the same. Stress that for different situations, x and y are

variable (‘when x - ___, y = ___’) but k is constant.

• After evaluating a constant of variation, it is better to leave it unrounded on the calculator’s display or

memory for further use, otherwise a rounded answer will give inaccurate results.

• Syllabus, p.105: ‘Variation problems should be presented in a number of formats, including in

written, tabular and graphical form.’

ASSESSMENT ACTIVITIES

• Graphing or technology test.

• Investigation project.

TECHNOLOGY

Graphing software and the graphics calculator are ideal for this topic.

Syllabus, p.105: ‘Graphing software can be used to vary coefficients and constants of the various functions

addressed in this topic to observe changes to the graphs of the functions.’

LANGUAGE

• Reinforce the difference between linear functions and non-linear functions, such as quadratic and

cubic functions.

• With direct variation, when x increases, y increases and when x decreases, y decreases. With inverse

variation, when x increases, y decreases and when x decreases, y increases.

11. SAMPLING AND THE NORMAL

DISTRIBUTION

Time: 2 weeks (Term 3, Week 4)

Text: New Century Maths 12 Mathematics General 2 HSC Course Chapter 11, p. 462

Syllabus reference: Data and Statistics

DS5 The normal distribution (p. 82)

DS6 Sampling and populations (p. 84)

INTRODUCTION

This topic examines the mathematics of sampling and the properties of data that have a normal distribution.

Students investigate the ways samples are created, use counting techniques to determine all possible sample

sizes and relate sample statistics to population statistics. The normal curve illustrates a special, perfectly

symmetrical distribution in which the mean, median and mode are equal, while z-scores use the mean and

standard deviation of a distribution to describe the location of a score.

CONTENT

1 Sampling DS6

• recognise that a sample can be used to provide an estimate for a particular population characteristic

• distinguish between the following sample types: random, stratified and systematic; and determine the

appropriateness of each type of for a given situation

• generate random numbers with a table, calculator or spreadsheet to assist in establishing random

samples

• apply counting techniques to list all possible samples of varying sizes from a known small population

(population sizes up to n = 5, sample sizes varying from n = 1 to n = 5)

• recognise the effect of sample size in estimating the nature of a population, for example using the

number of boys and girls in a particular year 11 class to estimate the gender ratio In year 11 across

NSW

• verify that the mean of a distribution of all possible sample means is equal to the population mean (μ)

for populations (populations sizes up to n = 5)

3 The capture-recapture technique DS6

• describe and use the capture-recapture technique for estimating the size of populations, for example,

the number of fish in a lake

• identify the properties of data that are normally distributed

• use collected data to illustrate the 68%-95%-99.7% limits for normally distributed data

• use these measures to make judgements in individual cases

5 z-scores DS6

• describe the z-score (standardised score) corresponding to a particular score in a set of scores as a

number indicating the position of that score relative to the mean

x−x

• use the formula z = to calculate z-scores

s

• use calculated z-scores to compare scores from different data sets

RELATED TOPICS

Preliminary: Collecting and presenting data, Analysing data, HSC: Statistical distributions, Probability,

Water usage, Health and medicine, Energy and sustainability.

EXTENSION ACTIVITIES

• Analyse how a raw exam mark is scaled.

• Resources: Statistical data, spreadsheets, statistical and graphing software.

• Biology students also learn the capture-recapture technique. It is assumed that the recapture sample is

representative of the population. See the toothpick example on page 85 of the syllabus.

• What types of data are normally distributed? Investigate people’s heights, reaction times, heartbeat

rates, lung capacities.

• Syllabus, p.83: ‘Teachers should briefly explain the application of the normal distribution to quality

control and the benefits to consumers of goods and services. Reference should be made to situations

where quality control guidelines need to be very accurate, for example, the manufacturing of

medications.’

• Students must know the 68%, 95% and 99.7% limits of a normal distribution and apply them. For

example: a cereal packet is labelled 500 g. Packets have weights that are normally distributed about a

mean of 504 g, with a standard deviation of 2 g. What percentage of packets would contain less than

the labelled weight?

• Syllabus, p.83: Frequency table data should be analysed to see if it is normally distributed.

• Use z-scores to compare a student’s exam mark in different exams//subjects. Mark scaling may be

discussed.

ASSESSMENT ACTIVITIES

• Conduct and report on a sampling activity (such as the capture-recapture technique) or statistical

investigation involving the normal distribution.

TECHNOLOGY

Random numbers for selecting samples can be generated on a calculator or spreadsheet. Computers,

spreadsheets and graphics calculators are useful tools for graphing histograms, polygons and normal

distributions.

LANGUAGE

• The z in z-score is a lower-case z, not a capital Z.

12. ENERGY AND SUSTAINABILITY

Time: 2 weeks (Term 3, Week 6)

Text: New Century Maths 12 Mathematics General 2 HSC Course Chapter 12, p. 492

Syllabus reference: Mathematics and Resources

FSRe3 Energy and sustainability (p. 120)

INTRODUCTION

This short focus study topic investigates energy-efficient housing, in particular, the economical use of

electricity in the home and wider community, as well as environmentally-friendly approaches to building and

design. Like most focus studies, this topic ties together skills from different strands, including Measurement,

Data and Statistics, and Financial Mathematics. There is much scope for practical activities and

investigations using real data and class discussions. The intention of this topic is to help students appreciate

the principles of clean and green living.

CONTENT

1 Electricity usage in the home FSRe3

• describe the watt-hour and kilowatt-hour as units of energy usage

• perform calculations and conversions involving units related to power, for example, watt, watt-hour

• interpret information about a household’s electricity usage, for example, a household electricity bill

• rank common appliances and physical activities in terms of their energy consumption in watts

• calculate the cost of running different household appliances for various time periods, given the power

rating, usage time and cost of power

• interpret the energy rating of appliances and compare running costs of different models of the same

type of appliance

• calculate and interpret summary statistics for electricity costs, production data and consumption data

at local, state, national and international levels

• investigate local council requirements for energy-efficient housing

• calculate building sustainability measures based on the requirements of the Building Sustainability

Index (BASIX) Certificate

• identify the issues addressed in the BASIX, for example the area of the site, water, thermal comfort

and energy

RELATED TOPICS

Preliminary: Earning money and taxation, Measurement, Analysing data, Phone plans and downloading

data, HSC: Area and volume, Statistical distributions, Water usage.

EXTENSION ACTIVITIES

• Further exploration of the principles of energy-efficient housing and the BASIX.

• Investigate energy-saving schemes and campaigns such as Earth Hour.

NEW CENTURY MATHS 12 MATHEMATICS GENERAL 2 | HSC Course | Teaching program 28

• Investigate alternative sources of energy, for example, solar, wind.

• Resources: spreadsheets, electricity consumption and production statistics, Origin Energy educational

website, BASIX website, electrical appliance stores websites, energy rating labels, household

electricity bills, council requirements for energy-efficient housing.

• Students have already learned the metric prefixes such as mega-, giga-, tera- in the Phone plans and

downloading data topic of the Preliminary course.

• Which countries use the most electricity? Which countries use the least?

• Use online stores to compare the features of different electrical appliances.

• Plan and design an energy-efficient house on a block of land.

ASSESSMENT ACTIVITIES

• Design a poster on different ways of conserving energy use in the home and/or community.

• Research project on the energy ratings of different electrical appliances.

TECHNOLOGY

The Internet is a great source of data about energy consumption and production locally, nationally and

internationally, as well as strategies for sustainable living. Use a spreadsheet to calculate annual running

costs of different electrical appliances.

LANGUAGE

• Sustainability means to look after and manage the Earth’s natural resources effectively and without

waste, to support its long-term ecological balance for the future.

• The watt is a unit of power, the kilowatt-hour is a unit of electrical energy.

• Thermal comfort means living in an environment where the temperature is comfortable:

keeping the home cool in summer and warm in winter.

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