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Dear ACE students(ECE),
Solutions along with the explanation are given here for
typical questions of Communication System booklet which has been issued to
you. The student is suggested to try the questions given in the booklet, on his/her
own and then refer to the solutions given below.
Good Luck.
ACE Academy.
CHAPTER 2
Random Signals & Noise
01. From the property of CDF is that F
x
(∞) = 1. So, the options ‘c’ and ‘d’ can be
eliminated since F
x
(∞ ) is Zero in both of them.
if CDF is a Ramp, the corresponding pdf will be
dx
d
(Ramp)= Step . But, since the given
pdf is not step, the option ‘b’ also can be eliminated.
Hence, the correct option is ‘a’.
02.
C R 2
1
f f &
RC f π 2 J 1
1
(f) H
c 3db
π
= =
+
=
( ) fc f J 1
1
(f) H
+
= ∴
( )
2
2
fc f 1
k
PSD p i . (f) H PSD p o
+
= =
p o Noise Power =
( )
fc k .df
c f f 1
k
2
π =
+
∫
∞
∞ −
.
Ans: ‘c’
03. Auto correlation is maximum at τ=0
i.e. R (O) ≥ R(τ)
Ans : ‘b’
04. Power spectral density is always non negative
i.e. S(f) ≥ 0
Ans: ‘b’
2 Solutions to Communication Systems ACE Academy
05. This corresponds to Binomial distribution. When an experiment is repeated for n times,
the probability of getting the success ‘m’ times, independent of order is
P(x=m) =
m
c
n . p
m
. (q)
nm
Where p = Prob. of success & q = 1p
In the present problem, success is getting an error. The corresponding probability is
given as ‘p’.
P(At most one error) = P(no errors) + P(one error)
= P(X=0) + P(X=1)
1 n 1
c
n 0
c
p) (1 (p) . n p) (1 . (p) . n
1 0
−
− + − =
= (1p)
n
+ np(1p)
n1
Ans: ‘c’
06. The random variable y is taking two values 0 & 1.
P(y=1) = P (2.5 < x < 2.5)
P(y=0) = P (x ≥ 2.5) + P(x ≤ 2.5)
∴ P (2.5 < x < 2.5) =
∫
−
=
5 . 2
5 . 2
5 . 0 dx ) x ( f
P(x ≥ 2.5) = ∫ =
5
5 . 2
25 . 0 dx ) x ( f
∫
−
−
= = − ≤
2.5
5
0.25 dx f(x) ) 2.5 P(x
∴ P(y = 1) = 0.5 ; P(y=0) = 0.25
+ 0.25 = 0.5
∴ f (y) = 0.5 δ(y) + 0.5 δ(y1)
Ans : ‘b’
07. Ans: ‘b’
08. PSD of p i process S
xx
(ω) = 1
PSD of p o process S
yy
(ω) =
2
ω 16
16
+
 H (ω)
2
=
2
XX
YY
ω 16
16
) ( S
) ( S
+
=
ω
ω
ω J 4
4
) H(
ω 16
4
) H(
2
+
= ω ⇒
+
= ω
We have H(ω) for a
n
RL – Low Pass Filter as H(ω) =
L J R
R
ω +
∴ Ans : (a)
09. R = 4Ω ; L = 4H
Ans : ‘a’
ACE Academy Electronics & Communication Engineering 3
10. p o Noise Power = ( p o ) PSD × B.ω
H (ω) = 2 . exp (Jωt
d
)
 H (ω) 
2
= 4 ⇒ p o Noise PSD = 4N
O
∴ p o Noise Power = 4N
O
B
Ans : ‘b’
11. 4 k 0 for r
4
k
) r P( ≤ ≤ 
¹

\

=
= 0 elsewhere
Since
∫
= ⇒ =
4
0
2
1
k 1 r ).d r P(
Mean Square Value is
∫
=
4
0
2
8 r d ). r ( P . r
Ans : ‘c’
12. H(f)
2
= 1 + (0.1 × 10
3
)f for 10 KHz ≤ f ≤ 0
= 1 − (0.1 × 10
3
)f for 0 ≤ f ≤ 10 KHz
( ) p o
PSD
= p i ) f ( H
2
× PSD
Power of p o Process = ∫
×
× −
−
ω × =
3
10 10
3
10 10
6
10 1 df PSD. ) p o (
Ans: ‘b’
13. R (τ) ( )   ω S PSD
xx
FT
÷→ ←
Since PSD is sinc – squared function, its inverse Fourier Transform is a Triangular
pulse.
Ans: ‘b’
14. Var [d(n)] = E[d
2
(n)] − {E[d(n)]}
2
E[d(n)] = E[x(n) − x(n−1)]
= E[x(n)] − E[x(n−1)] = 0
Var[d(n)] = E[d
2
(n)] = E[{x(n) − x(n−1)}
2
]
= E[x
2
(n)] + E[x
2
(n−1)] − 2.E[x(n).x(n−1)]
=
2
x
σ +
2
x
σ − 2.R
xx
(1)
⇒ 2
2
x
σ – 2R
xx
(1) = σ
10
1
2
x
⇒
2
x
xx
) k ( R
σ
at k = 1 = 0.95
Ans: ‘a’
4 Solutions to Communication Systems ACE Academy
15. P
X
(x) =
( )
−
−
π 18
4 x
exp
2 3
1
2
=
( )
×
−
−
× π 9 2
4 x
exp
9 2
1
2
P{ } 4 X = =
4 x
X
) x ( P
=
=
π 2 3
1
Ans: b
16. P(at most one bit error)
= P(No error) + P(one error)
= n
0
C
. (P)
0
(1P)
n0
+ n
1
C
(P)
1
(1P)
n1
= (1P)
n
+ n P(1P)
n1
Ans: d
17.
∴ H( ) ω = a ⇒ PSD of g
1
(t) = a ) ( S .
g
2
ω
R
g1
( ) τ = F
1 −
  ) ( S . a
g
2
ω = a
2
. R
g
( ) τ
⇒ power of R
g1
( τ ) = a
2
. R
g
( ) 0 = a
2
. P
g
Ans: a
18. The fourier Transform of a Gaussian Pulse is also Gaussian.
Ans: ‘c’
19. The Auto correlation Function (ACF) of a rectangular Pulse of duration T is a Triangular
Pulse of duration 2T
Ans: ‘d’
20. The Prob. density function of the envelope of Narrow band Gaussian noise is Rayleigh
Ans: ‘c’
21. P(x) = K. exp ( ) 2 x
2
,  ∞ < < ∞ x
∫
∞
∞ −
) x ( P . dx = 1 ⇒ 1 dx ) 2 x exp( . k
2
= −
∫
∞
∞ −
a
g(t)
a . g(t) = g
1
(t)
ACE Academy Electronics & Communication Engineering 5
We have
π 2
1
∫
∞
∞ −
−
2
x
2
e
.dx = 1, since
π 2
1
2
x
2
e
−
is the Normal density
N (m, )
2
σ = N (0,1)
π
= ∴
2
1
k
Ans: ‘a’
22. F
1   PSD =
Auto correlation Function R( ) τ
∴ R( ) τ = F
1

¹

\

2
f
f sin
, which is a triangular pulse.
Ans: ‘d’
23. R( ) τ =R( ) τ ⇒ Even symmetry
Ans : ‘d’
24. Rayleigh
Ans : ‘d’
25.
The Noise equivalent circuit is
∴
∴
∴
∴ RT = R
1
T
1
+R
2
T
2
⇒ T =
2 1
2 2 1 1
R R
T R T R
+
+
R
1
(T
0
1
K)
R
2
(T
0
2
K)
(R
1
+ R
2
)
2
V = 4(R
1
T
1
+R
2
T
2
) KB
R
2
V = 4RKTB
2
1
V = 4R
1
KT
1
B
R
1
2
2
V = 4R
2
KT
2
B
R
2
6 Solutions to Communication Systems ACE Academy
26. E(X) =
∫
−
=
3
1
1 dx ) x ( P . x
E(X
2
) =
∫
−
=
3
1
3 / 7 dx ) x ( P . x
Var (X) = E(X
2
) – [E(X)]
2
=
3
4
1
3
7
= −
Ans: ‘b’
27. Half wave rectification is Y = X for x 0 ≥
= 0 elsewhere
f(y) =
2N
y
2
e
N 2π
1
(y) δ
2
1
−
+
E(Y) = 0 & E(Y
2
) = N
Ans: ‘d’
28. P(X = at most one error) = P(X = 0) + P(X = 1)
= 8
C
0
. (P)
0
(1P)
8
+ 8
C
1
. (P)
1
(1P)
81
= (1−P)
8
+ 8P (1−P)
7
Ans: ‘b’
29. Var [(−kx)] = E[(− kx)
2
] − {E(−kx)}
2
= k
2
E (x
2
) − [− k. E (x)]
2
= k
2
E (x
2
) − k
2
. [E (x)]
2
= k
2
[E (x
2
) − {E(x)}
2
]
= k
2
. σ
x
2
Ans: ‘d’
ACE Academy Electronics & Communication Engineering 7
CHAPTER – 3
Objective Questions Set – A
01. (B.W)
AM
= 2 ( Highest of the Baseband frequency available)
= 2(20 KHZ) = 40 KHZ
02. Percentage Power saving = 100
P
P P
T
TX T
×
−
%
= 100
m 2
2
2
×
+
%
For m = 1 , Power saving = 100
3
2
× % = 66.66 %
03. P
T
= P
C


¹

\

+
2
m
1
2
For m = 0 ; P
T
= P
C
For m = 1 ; P
T
= 1.5 P
C
⇒ TX. Power increased by 50%
04. m
T
=
2 2 2
2
2
1
(0.4) (0.3) m m + = + = 0.5
06. m =
2
1
V V
V V
min max
min max
=
+
−
07. The given AM signal is of the form [A + m(t)] cos
c
ω t, which is an AMDSBFC
signal. It can be better detected by the simplest detector i.e. Diode Detector
08. MW/Broadcast band is 550 KHz – 1650 KHz.
09. Hence the received 1 MHz signal lies outside the MW band.
10. Q =
BW
f
0
=
3
6
10 10
10 1
×
×
=100
12. P
T
= P
C
+ P
C
2
m
2
⇒
2
m . P
2
c
=
2
) 4 . 0 ( P
2
c
= 0.08 P
c
∴P
T
= 1.08P
c
⇒
Increase in Power is 8%.
8 Solutions to Communication Systems ACE Academy
14. e
m
(t) = 10(1+0.4 cos 10
3
t + 0.3 cos 10
4
t) cos ( 10
6
t )
This is a multi Tone AM signal with m
1
=0.4 and m
2
=0.3
∴ m =
2
2
2
1
m m + =0.5
15. Image freq(f
i
) = f
s
+2 IF
⇒
f
s
= f
i
– 2 IF = 2100 – 900 = 1200 KHz.
16. Same as Prob. 2
18. Same as 3
19. P
SB
= 75 + 75 = 150 = P
C
2
m
2
and P
c
=P
T
 P
SB
= 600 – 150 = 450
∴ P
C
2
m
2
=
2
m 450
2
×
=150
⇒
m= 3 / 2
20. P
c
= 450 ω
22. BW of each AM station = 10 KHZ.
No. of stations =
3
3
10 10
10 100
×
×
=10
25. m=
c
m
E
E
=
60
15
⇒
m=25%
26. (B.W)
AM
= 2 × 1500 = 3 KHz.
27. Message B.W = Band limiting freq. of the baseband signal = 10 KHz.
28. B.W = 2(10 KHz) = 20 KHz.
29. The various freq. in o/p are 1000 KHz, (1000 ± 1) KHz & (1000 ± 10) KHz.
∴ The freq. which will not be present in the spectrum is 2 MHz.
30. Highest freq. = USB w.r.t highest baseband freq. available =
(1000 + 10) KHz = 1010 KHz
ACE Academy Electronics & Communication Engineering 9
CHAPTER – 3
Objective Questions – SET C
5. A freq. tripler makes the freq. deviation, three times the original.
∴ New Modulation Index = 3.
m
f
f δ
= 3 m
f
6. Mixer will not change the deviation. Thus, deviation at the o/p of the mixer is δ .
20. B.W
1
= 2( δ f + 10 KHz)
B.W
2
=2( δ f + 20 KHz) ⇒ B.W increases by 20 KHz.
29. In NBFM, Modulation Index is always less than 1.
CHAPTER – 3
Additional objective questions – SET D
1. Amplitude of each sideband =
2
E m
c
=
2
10 3 . 0
3
×
= 150v
Ans: ‘b’
2 E
c
= 1 KV ⇒
2
E m
c
=
2
m 1000×
=200
⇒ m = 0.4
Ans: ‘c’
3. P
c
= 1 KW; P
SB
=
2
P
C
= 0.5 KW
∴P
T
= P
C
+ P
SB
= 1.5 KW.
Ans: ‘b’
4. As per FCC regulations, in AM, (f
m
)
max
= 5 KHz
Ans: ‘b’
10 Solutions to Communication Systems ACE Academy
5. E
c
+ E
m
= 130 ⇒ E
m
= 130 – 100 = 30 V
m =
c
m
E
E
=
100
30
= 0.3
Ans: ‘b’
6. V(t) = A[1 + m sin t
m
ω ] sin t
c
ω
By comparing the given with above V(t), the unmodulated carrier peak A = 20
⇒ rms value = 20/ 2
Ans : b’
7. Side band peak =
2
mE
c
=
2
20 5 . 0 ×
=5
Rms value = 5/ 2
Ans: a’
8. m = 0.5 ⇒ 50% Modulation
Ans: b’
09. V = A[1+msin t
m
ω ] sin t
c
ω
⇒
m
ω =6280
Ans: c’
10.
c
ω =6.28 × 10
6
Ans : ‘a’
11. m > 1 results in over Modulation, causing distortion .
Ans : ‘d’
12. Ans: ‘b’
13. E
C
+ E
m
= 2E
c
⇒ E
m
= E
c
⇒m =
c
m
E
E
= 100%
Ans: ‘d’
ACE Academy Electronics & Communication Engineering 11
14. E
c
+ E
m
= 110
E
c
 E
m
= 90
⇒E
c
= 100V; E
m
= 10V
Ans: ‘c’
15. Using the above results, m =
c
m
E
E
=
100
10
= 0.1
Ans: ‘a’
16. using the above results, the sideband amplitude is
2
mE
c
=
2
100 1 . 0 ×
= 5V
Ans: ‘b’
17. m =
c
m
E
E
⇒ E
m
= m.E
c
The carrier peak is (100) 2
∴ E
m
= (0.2)(100) 2 = 20 2
∴E
c
+ E
m
= (120) 2
The corresponding rms value = 120 V
Ans: ‘d’
20. I
t
= I
c
2
m
1
2
+
I
c
= 10 Amp; I
t
= 10.4 Amp.
∴m = 0.4 ⇒ Ans: b
21. m =
2 2
) 4 . 0 ( ) 3 . 0 ( + = 0.5
⇒ Modulation Index = 50%
Ans: ‘a’
23. P
c
= P
T
 P
SB
= 1160 – 160 = 1000 Watts
Ans: ‘a’
12 Solutions to Communication Systems ACE Academy
24. m =
min max
min max
I I
I I
+
−
=
20
6
= 0.3
⇒ Percent Modulation = 30%
Ans: ‘b’
27. To implement Envelope detection,
T
c
< RC < T
m
T
c
= 1 usec; T
m
= 0.5 msec
= 500 usec
Since T
c
< RC < T
m
⇒ RC = 20 usec.
Ans: ‘b’
28. As per FCC regulations in FM, (f
m
)
max
= 15 KHz
Ans: ‘c’
29. In FM, ( δ f) ∝ E
m
⇒ if E
m
is doubled, δf also gets doubled
Ans: ‘a’
30. If FM, (δf) is independent of Base Band signal frequency. Thus, δf remains unaltered.
Ans: ‘d’
31 Ans: ‘d’
32. frequency doubler doubles the freq. deviation. Thus at the o/p of the doubler, the
modulation index is 2.m
f
Ans: ‘a’
33. Mixer will not change the freq. deviation. Thus freq. deviation at the o/p of Mixer is δ
Ans: ‘b’
35. δf = (f
c
)
max
− f
c
= 210 − 200 = 10 KHZ
Ans: ‘b’
ACE Academy Electronics & Communication Engineering 13
37. m
f
=
m
f
δf
= 10
Hz 500
KHz 5
=
Ans: ‘a’
38. δf ∝ E
m
⇒
2
m
1
m
2
1
E
E
δf
f δ
=
⇒
( )( )
( )
KHz 20
V 2.5
V 10 KHZ 5
) (E
) )(E f (
δf
1
m
2
m 1
2
=
=
δ
=
39. m = 40
500
10 20
f
f
3
m
2
=
×
=
δ
40. δf
2
=
( )( )
KHz 50
2
20 5
E
E δf
1
m
2
m 1
=
×
=
Ans: ‘b’
41. Assuming the signal to be an FM signal, the Power of the Modulated signal is same
as that of un Modulated carrier.
Ans: ‘a’
43. ( ) t
FM
ν = A cos (ω
c
t + m
f
. Sin ω
m
t)
⇒ ω
c
= 6.28 × 10
8
Ans: ‘a’
44. ω
m
= 628 Hz
Ans: ‘a’
45. m
f
=
m
f
f δ
⇒
m
f 4 f = δ = 25/2 Hz
Ans: ‘c’
46. Figure of Merit in FM is γ = where , m
2
3
2
f
m
f
is the Modulation Index.
∴ Noise Performance increases with increase in freq. deviation.
Ans: ‘a’
14 Solutions to Communication Systems ACE Academy
47. In FM, Modulation Index ∝
m
f
1
Ans: ‘a’
48. In FM, o/p Power is independent of modulation Index.
Ans: ‘d’
52. B.W = 2 ( δf + f
m
) = 2 (75 + 15) =180 KHz
Ans: ‘c’
53. B W = 2nf
m
= 2(8) (15 KHz) = 240 KHz
Ans: ‘d’
54. B. W = 2nf
m
& n = m
f
+ 1 = 8
⇒ 2(8) (f
m
) = 160 × 10
3
⇒ f
m
= 10 KHz
∴ δf (m
f
) (f
m
) = (7) (10) KHz = 70 KHz
Ans: ‘c’
55. B.W = 2nf
m
The modulation Index m
f
= 100
10 10
10
f
δf
3
6
m
=
×
=
∴ n = 100 + 1 = 101
∴ B.W = 2(101) (10 × 10
3
) = 2.02 MHz
Ans: ‘b’
56. If E
m
gets doubled, δf also get doubled.
∴ m
f
= 200
10 10
10 2
f
δf
3
6
m
=
×
×
=
n = 201
B.W = 2(201) (10 × 10
3
) = 4.02 MHz
Ans: ‘d’
ACE Academy Electronics & Communication Engineering 15
58. For WBFM, B.W = 2(δf + f
m
).
Ans: ‘d’
59. For NBFM, B.W = 2 f
m
Ans: ‘b’
60. In WBFM, δf >> f
m
⇒ B.W ≅ 2 δf
Ans: ‘d’
63. Since (δf) is independent of carrier freq. ∴ the peak deviations are same.
Ans: ‘c’
66. At the o/p of the mixer, ‘δ’ remains the same.
Ans: ‘d’
67. ψ
i
( t ) = 50t + sin 5t
ω
i
= ) t (
dt
d
i
ψ = 50 + 5 cos 5t
∴ At t = 0, ω
i
= 55 rad /sec
Ans: ‘c’
75. IF = 455 KHz; f
s
= 1200 KHz.
∴ Image freq. = f
s
+ 2 IF
= 2110 KHz
76. Ans: Refer Q. No. 26 Set–F
77. f
i
= f
s
+ 2 IF = 1000 + 2(455)
= 1910 KHz
Ans: ‘d’
78. f
i
= f
s
+ 2 IF = 1500 + 2(455)
= 2410 KHz
Ans: ‘d’
16 Solutions to Communication Systems ACE Academy
82. f
i
= f
s
+ 2 IF = 500 + 2 (465)
= 1430 KHz
Ans; ‘b’
Chapter – 3
Additional objective
Questions − −− − Set E
01. By comparing with the general AM − DSB − FC signal A
c
. cos ω
c
t + m(t) . cos ω
c
t, it
is found that m(t) = 2 cos ω
m
t. To demodulate using Envelope detector,
A
c
≥ m
p
, where m
p
is the Peak of the baseband signal, which is 2.
∴ (A
c
)
min
= 2
Ans: ‘a’
02. ν
FM
(t) = 10 cos 2π × 10
5
t + 5 sin (2π × 1500t) + 7.5 sin (2π × 1000t)]
ψ
i
(t) = 2π × 10
5
t + 5 sin (2π × 1500)t + 7.5 sin (2π × 1000)t]
ω
i
=
dt
d
ψ
i
(t) = 2π × 10
5
+ 5(2π × 1500) cos (2π × 1500t) + 7.5(2π × 1000) cos (2π × 1000t)
δω = 5(2π × 1500) + 7.5(2π × 1000)
δf = 7500 + 7500 = 15000 Hz
F
m
= 1500 Hz
` ∴ Modulation Index = 10
f
δf
m
=
Ans: ‘b’
03. ν (t) = cos ω
c
t + 0.5 cos ω
m
t . sinω
c
t
Let r(t). cos θ(t) = 1
r(t). sin θ(t) = 0.5 cosω
m
t
ν (t) = r(t). cos ω
c
t. cos θ(t) + r(t). sin θ(t). sin ω
c
t
= r(t). cos [ω
c
t − θ(t)]
Where r(t) =
2
m
t) cosω (0.5 1+
ACE Academy Electronics & Communication Engineering 17
= [1 + 0.25 cos
2
ω
m
t]
1/2
= [1 + ( )
1/2
m
t cos2ω 1
2
0.25
+
= [1.125 + 0.125 cos2ω
m
t]
1/2
≅ 1.125 +
2
0.125
cos2ω
m
t
∴ ν (t) = [1.125 + 0.0625 cos2ω
m
t] cos[ω
c
t − θ(t)]
Hence it is both FM and AM
Ans: ‘c’
04. To avoid diagonal clipping, Rc <
ω
1
Ans: ‘a’
05. The LSB − Modulated signal f
1
c
− f
m
= 990 KHZ
Considering this as the Baseband signal, the B.ω of resulting FM signal is
2(990 ×10
3
) = 1.98 MHz ≅ 2 MHz
Ans: ‘b’
06. P(t) = and g (t) =
X
AM
(t) = 100 [P (t) + 0.5 g(t)] cosω
c
t for 0 ≤ t ≤ 1
By Comparing the above with an AM − DSB − FC signal under arbitrary Modulation
i.e. A [ 1 + u . m(t) ] cos ω
c
t
u = 0.5 & m(t) = g(t) is a ramp over 0 ≤ t ≤ 1
∴ one set of Possible values of modulating signal and Modulation Index would be
t, 0.5
Ans: ‘a’
0 1 2
1
0
1
t
18 Solutions to Communication Systems ACE Academy
07. X
AM
(t) = 10 [ 1 + 0.5 sin2πf
m
t ] cos2πf
c
t
The above signal is a Tone Modulated signal.
The AM Side band Power =
( )
2
2
0.5
2
100
2
2
m
c
P
× =
= 6.25 ω
Ans: ‘c’
08. Mean Noise Power is the area enclosed by noise PSD Curve, and is equal to
× ×
2
N
B
2
1
4
0
= N
0
B
∴ The ratio of Ave. sideband Power to Mean noise Power =
B 4N
25
B N
6.25
0 0
=
Ans: ‘b’
10. y(t) = x
2
(t)
A squaring circuit acts as a frequency doubler
∴ New δf = 180 KHZ
∴ B.W of o/p signal = 2(180 + 5) = 370 KHZ
Ans: ‘a’
11. (δω)
PM
= K
f
E
m
W
m
, Where K
f
E
m
is the Phase deviation.
Since, it is given that Phase deviation remains unchanged,
(δ ω)
PM
∝ ω
m
⇒
2
1
2
1
m ω
m ω
ω δ
ω δ
=
⇒
2
1
2
1
m f
m f
f δ
f δ
=
⇒
KHZ 2
KHZ 1 KHZ 10
2
=
ω δ
⇒ δ f
2
= 20 KHZ
∴ B.ω = 2 (δ f
2
+ fm
2
)
ACE Academy Electronics & Communication Engineering 19
= 2 (20 + 2 ) KHZ = KHZ 44
Ans: ‘d’
13. Power efficiency η = ×
T
SB
P
P
100 °
The sidebands are m(t). cos ω
c
t
=
+ t sinω
2
1
t cosω
2
1
2 1
cosω
c
t
= ( ) ( )   t ω ω cos t ω ω cos
4
1
1 c 1 c
− + + + ( ) ( )   t sin t sin
4
1
2 c 2 c
ω − ω − ω + ω
∴P
SB
= ( ) 8 1 4 1
2
1
4
2
=
P
T
= P
C
+ P
SB
=
8
1
2
1
+
∴ η =
0
0
0
0
20 100
8 5
8 1
= ×
Ans: ‘c’
14. C
1
= B log 
¹

\

+
N
S
1 bps
Since
N
S
>> 1
C
1
= B log N S
C
2
= B log (2. N S ) = B log 2 + Blog N S
= B + C
1
∴ C
2
= C
1
+ B
Ans: ‘b’
15. T
c
< RC < T
m
⇒ 1 u sec < RC < 500 u sec
∴ RC = 20 usec
Ans; ‘b’
16. ν
AM
(t) = A cosω
c
t + 0.1 cosω
m
t. cosω
c
t
= A cosω
c
t + 0.05 [cos(ω
c
+ ω
m
)t + cos(ω
c
− ω
m
)t]
NBFM is similar to AM signal, except for a Phase reversal of 180
0
for LSB
20 Solutions to Communication Systems ACE Academy
ν
NBFM
(t) = Acosω
c
t + 0.05 [cos (ω
c
+ ω
m
)t − cos (ω
c
− ω
m
)t]
∴ ν
AM
(t) + ν
NBFM
(t) = 2A cosω
c
t + cos(ω
c
+ ω
m
)t
This is SSB with carrier.
Ans: ‘b’
17. Noise Power = 10
−20
× 100 ×10
6
= 10
−12
ω
Loss = 40 dB
⇒ loss = 10
4
Signal Power at the receiver = ω 10
10
10
7
4
3
−
−
=
∴ 10 log
N
S
= 10 log
12
7
10
10
−
−
= 10 log10
−5
= 50 db
Ans: ‘a’
18. Carrier = cos 2π (101 × 10
6
)t
Modulating signal = cos 2π (10
6
)t
o/p of BM = 0.5 [cos 2π(101 × 10
6
)t + cos 2π (99 × 10
6
)t]
o/p of HPF
= 0.5 cos2π(101 × 10
6
)t
o/p of Adder is
= 0.5 cos 2π(101 × 10
6
)t + sin 2π(100 × 10
6
)t
= 0.5 cos2π [(100 + 1) × 10
6
]t + sin 2π(100 × 10
6
)t
= 0.5 [cos 2π(100 × 10
6
)t. cos2π × 10
6
t
− sin 2π (100 × 10
6
)t.sin2π×10
6
t] + sin2π(100 × 10
6
)t
= 0.5 cos 2π(100 × 10
6
)t. cos2π × 10
6
t
− sin 2π (100 × 10
6
)t [1− 0.5 sin(2π× 10
6
)t]
Let. 0.5 cos(2π × 10
6
)t = R(t). sinθ(t)
1− 0.5 sin(2π × 10
6
)t = R(t).cosθ(t)
The envelope R(t) = {[0.5 cos(2π×10
6
)t]
2
+ [1− 0.5 sin(2π×10
6
)t]
2
}
1/2
= [1.25 − sin(2π × 10
6
)t]
1/2
=
2 1
6
)t 10 (2π sin
4
5
× −
Ans: ‘b’
ACE Academy Electronics & Communication Engineering 21
19. A frequency detector produces a d.c voltage (constant) depending on the difference of
the two i/p frequencies.
Ans: ‘d’
20. Ans: ‘c’
21. o/p of Balanced Modulator is
o/p of HPF is
The freq. at the o/p of 2
nd
BM are
∴ The +ve frequencies where Y(f) has spectral peaks are 2 KHZ & 24 KHZ
Ans: ‘b’
22. V
0
= a
0
[A
c
1
.cos(2πf
c
1
t) + m(t)] + a
1
[A
c
1
cos(2πf
c
1
t) + m(t)]
3
= a
0
[A
c
1
cos(2πf
c
1
t) + m(t)] + a
1
[(A
c
1
)
3
cos
3
(2πf
c
1
t) + m
3
(t)
+ 3 (A
c
1
)
2
cos
2
(2πf
c
1
t). m (t)
+ 3 (A
c
1
). Cos (2πf
c
1
t). m
2
(t)]
The DSB − Sc Components are
2 f
c
1
± f
m
These should be equal to f
c
± f
m
⇒ 2f
c
1
= f
c
⇒ f
c
1
= 2 f
c
= 0.5 MHZ
Ans: ‘c’
− 11 − 10 10 11 13
f(KHz)
− 13
2 3 23 26 24 0
f(KHz)
− 13 − 11 − 9 − 7 7 9 10 11 13
f(KHz)
− 10 0
22 Solutions to Communication Systems ACE Academy
23.
8
1
2
m
P
2
m
P
power carrier
Power band side Total
2
c
2
c
= =
=
Ans: ‘d’
24. f
m
= 2KHZ; f
c
= 10
6
HZ
δf = 3(2f
m
) = 12 KHZ
Modulation index β = 6
f
δf
m
=
ν
FM
(t) =
∑
∞
∞ − =
+ β
n
m c n
t ) nω (ω os c ) ( A.J
=
∑
∞
∞ − = n
. 5 J
n
(6) cos {2π [{1000 + n(2)}10
3
] t}
∴ the coefficient of cos 2π (1008 × 10
3
)t is 5. J
4
(6)
Ans: ‘d’
25. P − 6 ; Q − 3; R − 2; S − 4
Ans: ‘a’
26. f
0
= f
s
+ IF
(f
0
)
max
= (f
s
)
max
+ IF = 1650 + 450 = 2100
(f
0
)
min
= (f
s
)
min
+ IF = 1650 − 450 = 1200
(f
0
)
max
= 2100
Lc 2π
1
min
=
(f
0
)
min
= 1200
Lc 2π
1
max
=
∴ 4 7
1200
2100
c
c
min
max
= =
⇒
min
max
c
c
= 3
ACE Academy Electronics & Communication Engineering 23
t
100 usec
m(t)
Image freq. = f
s
+ 2 IF = 700 + 2 (450) = 1600 KHZ
Ans: ‘c’
27. Let the i/p signal be
cosω
c
t. cosω
m
t + n (t)
= cosω
c
t. cosω
m
t + n
c
(t) cosω
c
t − n
s
(t). sinω
c
t
= [n
c
(t) + cosω
m
t] cosω
c
t − n
s
(t). sinω
c
t
When this is multiplied with local carrier, the o/p of the multiplier is
[n
c
(t) + cosω
m
t ] cos
2
ω
c
t − .
2
) t ( n
s
sin2ω
c
t
= [n
c
(t) + cosω
m
t] t sin2ω
2
(t) n
2
t cos2ω 1
c
s c
−
+
The o/p of Base band filter is
2
1
[n
c
(t) + cosω
m
t]
Thus, the noise at the detector o/p is n
c
(t) which is the inphase component.
Ans: ‘a’
28. The o/p noise in an Fm detector varies parabolically with frequency.
29. Ans: ‘a’
30.
f
m
= KHZ 10
10 100
1
6
=
×
Its Fourier series representation is
π
4
[cos2π (10 × 10
3
)t −
3
1
cos2π(30 × 10
3
)t +
5
1
cos2π (50 × 10
3
) t + ]
24 Solutions to Communication Systems ACE Academy
The frequency components present in the o/p are f
c
± 10KHZ = (1000 ± 10) KHZ
f
c
± 30 KHZ = (1000 ± 30) KHZ 
i.e. 970 KHZ , 990KHZ, 1010KHZ, 1030 KHZ etc.
Hence, among the frequencies given, the frequency that is not present in the
modulated signal is 1020 KHZ
Ans: ‘c’
31. S(t) = cos 2π (2 × 10
6
t + 30 sin 150 t + 40 cos 150t)
ψ
i
(t) = 2π (2 × 10
6
t + 30 sin 150t + 40 cos150t)
∴ Phase change = 2π [30 sin150t + 40 cos150t]
Let r cosθ = 30 ; r sinθ = 40
∴ Phase Change = 2π r cos (150t  θ)
Where r = 50 (40) (30)
2 2
= +
∴ Phase change = 100π .cos (150t − θ).
∴ Max Phase deviation = 100π
ω
i
=
dt
d
ψ
i
(t) = 2π [2 × l0
6
+ (30)(150) cos(150t) − (40) (150) sin 150t]
Frequency change = 2π [(30)(150)cos150t − (40)(150)sin150t]
This can be written as
(2π) (150) r. cos(150 t + θ), Where r = 50
Frequency change = (2π)(150)(50) cos(150t + θ)
Max frequency deviation δω = 2π (150)(50)
⇒ δf = (150) (50) = 7.5 KHz
Ans: ‘d’
32. LPF can be used as reconstruction filter.
Ans: ‘d’
33. The envelope of an AM is the baseband signal. Thus, the o/p of the envelope detector
is the base band signal
Ans: ‘a’
34. 2(δf + f
m
) = 10
6
HZ
⇒ δf = 495 KHZ
ACE Academy Electronics & Communication Engineering 25
For y(t), δf = 3(495 KHZ ) = 1485KHZ
and f
c
= 300 MHZ
∴ B.ω of y(t) = 2 (1485 + 5) KHZ
= 2980 KHZ = 2.9 MHZ ≅ 3 MHZ
adjacent frequency components in FM signal will be separated by f
m
= 5 KHz.
Ans: ‘a’
35. o/p of multiplier = m(t) cosω
0
t .cos(ω
0
t + θ)
=   cosθ θ) t cos(2ω
2
m(t)
0
+ +
o/p of LPF = cosθ .
2
m(t)
Power of o/p = θ cos .
4
(t) m
2
2
Since, ) t ( m
2
= P
m
, the Power of output signal is .
4
θ cos . P
2
m
Ans: ‘d’
36. ‘a’
37. ‘a’
38. The frequency components available in S(t) are (f
c
− 15) KHZ, (f
c
− 10) KHZ,
(f
c
+ 10) KHZ, (f
c
+ 15) KHZ.
∴ B.ω = (f
c
+ 15) KHZ − (f
c
− 15) KHZ
= 30 KHZ.
Ans: ‘d’
39. Complex envelope or pre envelope is S(t) + J . S
h
(t), Where S(t) is the Hilbert
Transform of S(t).
Let S(t) = e
−at
. cos (ω
c
+ ∆ω)t.
⇒ S
h
(t) = e
−at
. sin (ω
c
+ ∆ω)t
∴ pre envelope = e
−at
. [cos (ω
c
+ ∆ω)t + J sin (ω
c
+ ∆ω)t]
= e
−at
. exp [J(ω
c
+ ∆ω)t]
Ans: ‘a’
26 Solutions to Communication Systems ACE Academy
40. To Provide better Image frequency rejection for a superheterodyne receiver, image
frequency should be prevented from reaching the mixer, by providing more tuning
circuits in between Antenna and the mixer, and increasing their selectivity against
image frequency. There circuits are preselector and RF amplifier.
Ans: ‘d’
41. Ans: ‘a’
42. Ans: ‘b
43. New deviation is 3 times the signal. So, Modulation Index of the output signal is 3(9)
= 27
Ans: ‘d’
44. Ans: ‘b’
45. Ans: ‘c’
46. a − 2 ; b − 1 ; c − 5
47. a − 2 ; b − 1 ; c − 5
48. ν (t) = 5 [cos ( 10
6
π t) − sin (10
3
πt) sin 10
6
πt]
= 5 cos 10
6
(πt) −
2
5
[2sin 10
3
πt. sin 10
6
πt ]
= 5 cos 10
6
πt −
2
5
[cos(10
6
− 10
3
)πt − cos(10
6
+10
3
)πt
= 5.cos 10
6
πt +
2
5
cos (10
6
+10
3
)πt −
2
5
cos (10
6
− 10
3
)πt.
It is a narrow band FM signal, where the phase of LSB is 180
0
out of phase with that
of AM.
Ans: d
49. B.ω = 2 (50 + 0.5) KHZ = 101 KHZ
50. a − 3 ; b − 1 ; c − 2
51. The given signal is AM − DSB − FC, which will be demodulated by envelope
detector.
Ans: ‘a’
52. Image frequency = f
s
+ 2 IF
= 1200 KHZ + 2(455) = 2110 KHZ
ACE Academy Electronics & Communication Engineering 27
53. Power efficiency =
T
useful
P
P
× 100 %
=
2
2
m 2
m
+
× 100%
For m = 1, the Power efficiency is max. and is 33.3 %
54. Picture → AM − VSB
Speech → FM
Ans: ‘c’
55. For the generated DSB − Sc signal,
Lower frequency Limit f
L
= (4000 − 2) MHZ
= 3998 MHZ
and Upper frequency Limit f
H
= (4000 + 2) MHZ
= 4002 MHZ.
(f
s
)
min
= 2 f
H
= 8.004 GHZ
Ans: ‘d’
56. Ans: ‘a’
57. m
f
=
m
f
δf
where δf =
2π
E K
m f
∴ δf =
π
10 10
2π
2 10 10
3 3
×
=
× ×
ω
m
= 10
4
× π → f
m
=
2
10
4
∴ m
f
=
π
2
Ans: ‘d’
28 Solutions to Communication Systems ACE Academy
58.
T
0
= 300
0
K
Noise fig. of amp. F
1
= 1 +
0
e
T
T
= 1 +
300
21
= 1.07
For a Lossy Network, Boise Figure is same as its loss. ∴ f
2
= 3 db ⇒ f
2
= 1.995
∴ Overall Noise figure f = f
1
+
1
2
g
1 f −
g
1
= 13db ⇒ g
1
= 19.95
∴ f = 1.07 +
19.95
1 1.995 −
= 1.1198
⇒ f = 0.49 db
T
e
of cable = (f − 1) T
0
= (1.995 − 1) 300 = 298.5
0
K
Overall T
e
= T
e
1
+
1
e
g
T
2
= 21 +
19.95
298.5
= 35.96
0
K
Ans: ‘c’
60. A preamplifier is of very large gain. This will improve the noise figure (i.e. reduces its
numerical value) of the receiver, if placed on the antenna side
Ans: ‘a’
61. Ans: ‘a’
T
e
= 21
0
K
g
1
= 13 db
Loss = 3 db
ACE Academy Electronics & Communication Engineering 29
Chapter − −− − 4
01. A source transmitting ‘n’ messages will have its maximum entropy, if all the
messages are equiprobable and the maximum entropy is logn bits/message.
Thus, Entropy increases as logn.
Ans: ‘a’
02. This corresponds to Binomial distribution. Let the success be that the transmitted bit
will be received in error.
P(X = error) = P(getting zero no. of ones) + P(getting one of ones)
= P(X = 0) + P(X = 1)
=
2
c
3 0
c
p ) p 1 ( 3 p ) p 1 ( 3
1 0
− + −
= p
3
+ 3p
2
(1 – p)
Ans: ‘a’
03. Most efficient source encoding is Huffman encoding.
0.5 0 0.5 0
0.25 10 0.5 1
0.25 11
L = 1 × 0.5 + 2 × 0.25 + 2 × 0.25
= 1.5 bits/symbol
Ave. bit rate = 1.5 × 3000 = 4500 bits/sec
Ans: ‘b’
04. Considering all the intensity levels are equiprobable, entropy of each pixel = log
2
64
= 6 bits/pixel
There are 625 × 400 × 400 = 100 × 10
6
pixels/sec
∴ Data rate = 6 × 100 × 10
6
bps
= 600 Mbps
Ans: ‘c’
05. Source coding is a way of transmitting information with less number of bits without
information loss. This results in conservation of transmitted power.
Ans. ‘c’
06. Entropy of the given source is
H(x) =  0.8 log 0.8 – 0.2 log 0.2
= 0.722 bits/symbol
4
th
order extension of the source will have an entropy of 4.H(x) = 2.888 bits/4 symbol
As per shanon’s Theoram,
H(x) ≤ L ≤ H(x) + 1
i.e., 2.888 ≤ L ≤ 3.888 bits/4 messges
30 Solutions to Communication Systems ACE Academy
07. 12 × 512 × log
8
2
= 18432 bits
08. Code efficiency = η = % 100
L
H
% 100
L
L
min
× = ×
L= 2 bits/symbol and the entropy of the source is
H =
8
1
log
8
2
4
1
log
4
1
2
1
log
2
1
− − −
=
8
14
bits/symbol
∴ η = % 100
16
14
× = 87.5%
Ans : ‘b’
09. H(X) =
8
1
log
8
2
4
1
log
4
1
2
1
log
2
1
− − −
= 1.75 bits/symbol
10. Channel Capacity C =


¹

\

η
+
B
S
1 log B
2
B
S
η
= 30 db →
B
S
η
= 1000
∴ C = 3 × 10
3
log
2
(1 + 1000) = 29904.6 bits/sec
For errorless transmission, information rate of source R < C. Since, 32 symbols are
there the number of bits required for encoding each = log
2
32
= 5 bits
→ 29904.6 bits/sec constitute 5980 symbols/sec. So, Maximum amount of
information should be transmitted through the channel, satisfying the constraint R < C
→ R = 5000 symbols/sec
Ans: ‘c’
11. Not included in the syllabus
12. H(x) = log
2
16 = 4 bits
Ans: ‘d’
13. P(0/1) = 0.5 → P(0/0) = 0.5
P(1/0) = 0.5 → P(1/1) = 0.5
P(Y/X) =
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
A channel with such noise matrix is called the channel with independent input and
o/p. Such a channel conveys no information.
ACE Academy Electronics & Communication Engineering 31
∴ its capacity = 0
Ans: ‘d’
14. A ternary source will have a maximum entropy of log
2
3 = 1.58 bits/message. The
entropy is maximum if all the messages are equiprobable i.e. 1/3
Ans: ‘a’
15. Ans: ‘b’
16. Entropy coding – McMillan’s rule
Channel capacity – Shanon’s Law
Minimum length code – Shanon Fano
Equivocation – Redundancy
Ans: ‘c’
17. Since
N
S
<< 1
C ≈ B log 1 ≈ 0
∴ C is nearly o bps
Ans: ‘d’
18. Ans: ‘b’
19. Ave. information = log
2
26 = 4.7 bits/symbol
Ans: ‘d’
20. Ans: ‘d’
21. Ans: ‘b’
22. Ans: ‘b’
23. H
1
= log
2
4 = 2 bits/symbol
H
2
= log
2
6 = 2.5 bits/symbol
H
1
< H
2
Ans: ‘a’
24. The maximum entropy of binary source is 1 bit/message.
The maximum entropy of a quaternary source is 2 bits/message.
The maximum entropy of an octal source is 3 bits/message.
Since the existing entropy is 2.7 b/symbol the given source can be an octal source
Ans: ‘c’
32 Solutions to Communication Systems ACE Academy
Chapter – 5A Set A
01. (f
s
)
min
= 4 KHz
→ (T
s
)
max
= sec 250
KHz 4
1
) f (
1
min s
u = =
Ans: ‘c’
Set B
05. In PCM, (B.W)
min
= Hz
2
f
s
γ
If Q = 4 ⇒ γ = 2
∴ (B.W)
min
= f
s
Hz.
If Q = 64 → γ = 6
∴(B.W)
min
= 3f
s
Ans: ‘a’
18. (f
s
)
min
= 8 KHz; γ = log
2
128 = 7
B.W = KHz 28
2
f
s
=
γ
Ans: ‘d’
Set – C
01. Maximum slope = S f
s
=
3
3
10 5 . 1
10 75
−
−
×
×
= 50 V/sec
Ans: ‘a’
02. a ) at (
dt
d
) t ( m
dt
d
= =
Rate of rise of the modulator = δ.f
s
= δ/T
s
Slope over loading will occur if δ f
s
< a ⇒ a
T
s
<
δ
⇒ δ < a T
s
Ans: ‘c’
03. Ans: ‘c’
04. Since with increasing ‘n’ (increased number of Q levels), N
q
reduces, S/N
q
increases.
For every 1 bit increase in ‘n’. N
q
S/N
q
improves by a factor of 4.
Ans: ‘d’
05. o/p bit rate = γ f
s
, where γ = log
2
258 = 8
∴ γ f
s
= 64 kbps
Ans: ‘c’
06.
07. Ans: ‘c’
ACE Academy Electronics & Communication Engineering 33
08. (Q. E)
max
= S/2 =
Q 2
V V
L H
−
=
264
1
of the total peak to peak range
Ans: ‘c’
09. Ans: ‘b’
10. For every one bit increase in the data word length, S/N
q
improves by a 6 db.
∴ The total increase is 21 db
Ans: ‘b’
11. Number of samples from the multiplexing system = 4 × 2 × 4 KHz
= 32 KHz
Each sample is encoded into log
2
256 = 8 bits
So, the bit transmission rate
= 32 × 8 kbps = 256 kbps
Ans: ‘c’
12. f
s
= 10 KHz; γ = log
2
64 = 6
Transmission Rate = 60 kbps
Ans: ‘a’
13. V
PP
= 2 V; γ = 8 ⇒ Q = 256
S/N
q
= (1.76 + 20 log
Q
10
) db
= 49.9 db
Ans: ‘b’
14. (f
s
)
Multiplexed system
= 200 + 400 + 800 + 200
= 1600 Hz
Ans: ‘a’
15. Each sample is represented by 7 + 1 = 8 bits.
Total bit rate = 8 × 20 × 8000
= 1280 kbps
Ans: ‘b’
16. ‘a’ (Question number 5 in set B)
Set – D
01. The power spectrum of Bipolar pulses is
PSD
f
2/T
b
f
b
= 1/T
b
34 Solutions to Communication Systems ACE Academy
(B.W)
min
required = f
b
Here γ = 8; f
s
= 8 KHz
∴ Bit rate = 64 kbps
∴ (B.W)
min
= 64 KHz
Ans: ‘a’
02. Signal power =
∫
−
5
5
2
dx ). x ( f x
f(x) =
10
1
 5 ≤ x ≤ 5
= 0 elsewhere
∴ Signal Power = 25/3 watts.
Quantization Noise Power N
q
=
12
s
2
Step size = V 039 . 0
256
10
2
10
Q
V
8
P P
= = =
−
∴ N
q
=
12
) size Step (
2
= 0.126 mW
10 log
q
N
S
= 48 db
Ans: ‘c’
03. For every one bit increase in the data word length, N
q
reduces by a factor of H.
Given γ = 8 ⇒ Required γ = 9
⇒ Number of Q − levels = 2
9
= 512
Ans: ‘b’
04. Ans: ‘d’
05. Since, entropy of the o/p of the quantizer is to be maximized, it implies that all the
decision boundaries are equiprobable.
∴
∫
−
−
=
1
5
3
1
dx f(x).
⇒
12
1
b
3
1
dx . b
1
5
= ⇒ = ∫
−
−
ACE Academy Electronics & Communication Engineering 35
Similarly
∫
−
= ⇒ =
1
1
6
1
a
3
1
dx a.
Ans: ‘a’
06. Reconstruction levels are − 3V, 0V and 3V.
Step size = 3V ⇒ N
q
=
4
3
12
9
=
Signal Power = 2. dx
6
1
x dx
12
1
x
1
1
2
1
5
2
∫ ∫
−
−
−

¹

\

+ 
¹

\

+
=
−
−
−
1
1
3
1
5
3
3
x
3
x
6
1
=
3
21
18
126
3
2
3
124
6
1
= =
+
∴
9
28
3
4
3
21
N
S
q
= × =
07. g(t) is Periodic with period of 10
−4
sec
i.e.
In its Fourier series representation, a
0
= 0.
The remaining frequency components will be f
s
= 10 KHZ; 2f
s
= 20 KHZ;
3f
s
= 30 KHz ….etc.
∴ The frequency components in the sampled signal are 10 KHz ± 500 Hz; 20 KHz ±
500 Hz ….etc.
When the sampled signal is passed through an ideal LPF with Band width of 1 KHz,
The o/p of the LPF will be zero.
Ans: ‘c’
08. x(t) = x
1
(t) + x
2
(t)
Since ) ( G .
πt
at sin
a 2
F.T
ω π ÷ ÷→ ←
÷ ÷→ ←
F.T
πt
1000t 2π sin
0 0.5×10
−4
2(0.5×10
−4
) 3(0.5×10
−4
) ….
t
π
ω
− 2π (1000)
2π(1000)
36 Solutions to Communication Systems ACE Academy
− 4π(1000) 4π(1000)
ω
−6π(1000) −4π(1000) 4π(1000) 6π(1000)
⇒ x
1
(t) = 5
3
πt
1000t 2π sin

¹

\

÷ ÷→ ←
T . F
x
2
(t) = 7
2
πt
1000t 2π sin

¹

\

÷ ÷→ ←
T . F
Thus, x
1
(t) + x
2
(t) ÷ ÷→ ←
T . F
∴ ω
m
= 6π(1000) ⇒ f
m
= 3 KHz
∴ (f
s
)
min
= 6 KHz
Ans: ‘c’
09. x(t) =
To Track the signal, rate of rise of Delta Modulator and of the signal should be same,
i.e. Sf
s
= 125
⇒ S = V 0.0039
10 32
125
3
=
×
= 2
8
V
Ans: ‘b’
10. In the process of Quantization, the quantizer is able to avoid the effect of all channel
noise Magnitudes less than or equal to 2. S
If the channel noise Magnitude exceeds 2 / S , there may be an error in the output of
the quantizer.
On the given Problem for y
1
(t) + c to be different from y
2
(t), the minimum value of c
to be added is half of the step size, i.e.
2
∆
Ans: ‘b’
11.
∫ ∫
+
− −
= ⇒ =
a
a
a
a
3
1
dx .
4
1
3
1
dx P(x)
⇒a =
3
2
Ans: ‘b’
5π
ω
− 6π(1000)
6π(1000)
7π
ω
125
0 1 2
ACE Academy Electronics & Communication Engineering 37
12.
3
2
a
a
3
2
3
x
4
1
dx f(x). x ∫
−
=
=
3 2
27
8 2
12
1
−
×
=
81
4
Ans: ‘a’
13. signal Power =
∫
−
5
5
2
dx f(x) . x
f(x) =
10
1
for − 5 ≤ x ≤ + 5
= 0 elsewhere
∴ signal power =
3
25
volts
2
db 5 . 43
N
S
q
= ⇒ 22387.2
N
S
q
=
⇒ N
q
= 3.722 × 10
4
=
( )
12
stepsize
2
⇒ step size = 0.0668 V
Ans: ‘c’
14. Total N
q
=
( ) ( )
3
2 2
10 1.041
12
0.1
12
0.05
−
× = +
∴ =
q
N
S
40db
Ans: ‘d’
15. for every one bit increase in data word length,
q
N S improves by a factor of 4.Hence,
for two bits increase, the improvement factor is 16.
Ans: ‘c’
16. Between two adjacent sampling instances, if the base band signal changes by an
amount less than the step size, i.e. if the variations are very less magnitude, the o/p of
the Delta Modulator consists of a sequence of alternate +ve and –ve Pulses.
Ans: ‘a’
17. f(x) = 1 for 0 ≤ x ≤ 1
= 0 elsewhere
M.S. value of Quantization Noise
38 Solutions to Communication Systems ACE Academy
=
∫ ∫
− +
0.3
0
1
0.3
2 2
dx f(x) 0.7) (x f(x).dx . x
= 0.039 volts
2
∴ rms value = 0.198 Volts
18. FM − Capture effect
DM − Slope overload
PSK − Matched filter
PCM − u−Law
Ans: ‘c’
19. Step size = V 0.012
128
1.536
levels Q no.of
V
P P
= =
−
N
q
=
2 6 
2
Volts 10 12
12
S
× =
Ans: ‘c’
20. slope overload occurs if S f
s
< 2π f
m
. E
m
S f
s
= 25120 < 2π (4 × 10
3
) (1.5) = 37699.11
Ans: ‘b’
21. R = γ f
s
= 8 × 8 KHz = 64 Kbps
=
q
N
S
1.76 + 20 log Q (db) = 49.8 db
Ans: ‘b’
22. Let S(t) = 5 × 10
6
( ) sec µ 100 T & nT t δ
S
n
s
= −
∑
= 10
4
sec
The Fourier series representation of S(t) is
∴ S(t) = 5 × 10
6
[ ∑
∞
∞ − =
π +
n
s
s s
t nf 2 cos
T
2
T
1
]
= 5 × 10
2
+ 10
1
 
∑
∞
∞ − =
× ×
n
3
)t 10 10 (n 2π cos
∴ y(t) = S(t). x(t)
= S(t). 10 cos 2π (4 × 10
3
)t
= 5 × 10
1
cos 2π (4 × 10
3
)t +
∑
∞
∞ − = n
cos 2π(n ×10
4
)t.cos2π(4 × 10
3
)t
∴ The o/p of ideal LPF = 5 × 10
1
cos (8π × 10
3
)t
Ans: ‘c’
23. x(t) = 100 cos 2π (12 × 10
3
)t
ACE Academy Electronics & Communication Engineering 39
T
s
= 50 usec ⇒ f
s
= 20 KHz
The frequency components available in the sampled signal are
12 KHZ, (20 ± 12) KHZ, (40 ± 12) KHZ …..etc.
The o/p of the ideal LPF are 8 KHZ and 12 KHZ.
Ans: ‘d’
24. x(t) = sinc (700t) + sinc (500t)
=
500t
(500t) sin
700t
(700t) sin
+
=
πt
) t 700 ( sin
700
π
+
πt
) t 500 ( sin
500
π
The band limiting frequency of above x(t) is ω
m
= 700 ⇒ f
m
= 350/π
⇒ (f
s
)
min
= Hz
π
700
∴ (T
s
)
max
= sec 700 π
25. x(t) = 6 × 10
4
sinc
2
(400t) + 10
6
sinc
3
(100t)
Sinc
2
(400t) ÷ ÷→ ←
T . F
Sinc
3
(100t) ÷ ÷→ ←
T . F
The convolution extends from ω = − 1100 to ω = +1100.
∴ω
m
= 1100 ⇒ f
m
=
π 2
1100
= 175 Hz
(f
s
)
min
= 350 Hz
26. step size =
28
2
= 0.0078 Volts
N
q
=
12
S
2
= 5.08 u volts
2
Signal Power =
( )
2
5 . 0
2
= 0.125 Volts
2
10 log =
q
N
S
44db
27. For every one bit increase in the data word length, quantization noise power reduces
by a factor of 4.
Ans: ‘c’
− 800
800
ω
m
− 300
300
ω
m
40 Solutions to Communication Systems ACE Academy
28. Flat Top sampling is observing be baseband signal through a finite time aperture. This
results in Aperture effect distortion.
Ans: ‘a’
29. In compression the baseband signal is subjected to a non linear Transformation,
whose slope reduces at higher amplitude levels of the baseband signal.
Ans: ‘a’
30. Most of the signal strength will be available in the Major lobe. Hence,
(f
s
)
min
= 2(1 KHZ) = 2 KHZ
Ans: ‘b’
31. Irrespective of the value of η, for every one bit increase in Data word length,
q
N S
improves by a factor of 4.
Ans: ‘d’
32. 10 log 4 = 6 db
Ans: ‘b’
33. The frequency components available in the sampled signal are 1 KHz, (1.8 ± 1) KHz,
(3.6 ± 1) KHz etc.
The o/p of the filter are 800 Hz and 1000 Hz.
Ans: ‘c’
34. Ans: ‘c’
35. Ans: a – 2, b – 1, c – 5.
36. Ans: a – 2, b – 1, c – 4.
37. If pulse width increases, the spectrum of the sampled signal becomes zero even before
f
m
.
Ans: ‘a’
38. (B.ω)
min
=
2
f
s
γ
Q = 4 ⇒ γ = 2
Q = 64 ⇒ γ = 6
⇒ B.ω increases by a factor of 3.
39. (B.ω)
min
= (3ω + ω + 2ω + 3ω + 2ω) Hz
= 11 ω Hz
ACE Academy Electronics & Communication Engineering 41
40. The given signal is a band pass signal. (f
s
)
min
=
N
f 2
H
, where N =
3
f
H
N =
1500
10 8 . 1
3
×
=
1500
1800
= 1.2
⇒ N = 1
∴ (f
s
)
min
= 2 f
H
= 3600 Hz
41. LSB = (4000 – 2) MHz = 3998 MHz
USB = (4000 + 2) MHZ = 4002 MHz
N =
B
f
H
=
4
4002
= 1000.5
⇒ N = 1000
(f
s
)
min
=
N
f 2
H
=
1000
4002 2 ×
MHz = 8.004 MHz
42. P
e
=
2
1
erfc
2 / 1
2
cos .
Es
φ
η
∴ The factor is cos
2
20
Ans: ‘b’
43. N
q
depends on step size, which inturn depends on No. of Qlevels.
Ans: ‘c’
44. (f
s
)
min
to reconstruct 3 KHz part = 6 KHz
(f
s
)
min
to reconstruct 6 KHz part = 12 KHz
The frequencies available in sampled signal are 3 KHz, 6 KHz, (8 ± 3) KHz, (8 ± 6)
KHz, (16 ± 3) KHz, (16 ± 6) KHz etc.
The o/p of LPF are 3 KHZ, 6 KHz, 5 KHz and 2 KHz.
Ans: ‘d’
45. Ans: ‘c’
Chapter – 5 B & C
01. Required Probability
= P (No bit is 1 i.e. zero No. of 1’s) + P (one bit is 1)
=
0
C
3 . (P)
3
. (1  P)
33
+
1
C
3 . P
2
(1  P)
32
= P
3
+ 3P
2
(1  P)
Ans: ‘a’
02. The given raised cosine pulse will be defined only for 0 ≤  f  ≤ 2ω. Thus, at t = 1/4ω,
i.e. f = 4ω, P(t) = 0.
Ans: b
42 Solutions to Communication Systems ACE Academy
t
0 1
1 P(t) =
0
2
g(t) =
03. Required probability = P(X = 0) + P(X = 1)
1 n
1
C
0 n 0
0
C
P) P(1 n P) (1 (P) n
− −
− + − =
1 n n
P) (1 P n P) (1
−
− + − =
Ans: c
04. Constellation – 1:
S
1
(t) = 0; S
2
(t) = −√2 a φ
1
+ √2 a.φ
2
S
3
(t) = −2√2a.φ
1
; S
4
(t) = −√2 a φ
1
− √2 a φ
2
Energy of S
1
(t) = E
1
= 0
Energy of S
2
(t) = E
2
= 4a
2
Energy of S
3
(t) = E
3
= 8a
2
Energy of S
4
(t) = E
4
= 4a
2
Avg. Energy of Constellation 1
2 4 3 2 1
1
C
4a
4
E E E E
E =
+ + +
=
Constellation – 2:
S
1
(t) = a φ
1
⇒ E
1
= a
2
S
2
(t) = a φ
2
⇒ E
2
= a
2
S
3
(t) = −a φ
1
⇒ E
3
= a
2
S
4
(t) = −a φ
2
⇒ E
4
= a
2
2
2
C
a E =
4
E
E
2
C
1
C
=
Ans: b
05. Constellation – 1
Distance ; a 2 d
2
S
1
S
= ; a 2 2 d
3
S
1
S
= ; a 2 d
4
S
1
S
= ; a 2 d
3
S
2
S
= ; a 2 2 d
4
S
2
S
= a 2 d
4
S
3
S
=
2a ) (d
1
C min
= ∴
Constellation – 2
; a 2 d
2
S
1
S
= ; a 2 d
3
S
1
S
= ; a 2 d
4
S
1
S
= ; a 2 d
3
S
2
S
= ; a 2 d
4
S
2
S
= ; a 2 d
4
S
3
S
=
a 2 ) (d
2
C min
=
Since
1
C min
2
C min
) (d ) (d = ,
Probability of symbol error in Constellation – 2 (C
2
) is more than that of
constellation – 1 (C
1
).
Ans: a
06.
ACE Academy Electronics & Communication Engineering 43
0 2 4
t
2 1 0
t
2 1 0
S(t) = g(t) − δ(t − 2) * g(t)
We have δ(t – 2) ∗ g(t) = g(t − 2)
S(t) = g(t) − g(t − 2)
=
The impulse response of corresponding Matched filter is h(t) = S(−t + 4)
= −S(t)
=
Ans: c
07. Since P(t) = 1 for 0 ≤ t ≤ 1, and g(t) = t for 0 ≤ t ≤ 1, the given
x
AM
(t) = 100[1 + 0.5t] cosω
c
t
Ans: a
08. Output of the matched filter is the convolution of its impulse response and its input.
The given input S(t) =
The corresponding impulse response is
h(t) =
The response should extend from t = 0 to t = 4.
∫
∞
∞ −
− = τ d τ) h(t ) τ s( Response
0 2
S(t)
4
44 Solutions to Communication Systems ACE Academy
1
−1
0
Let t = 1
S(τ) h(−τ + 1) =
∴ The response at t = 1 is −1
Ans: ‘c’
09. Let z be the received signal.
P(z/0) =
5 . 0
1
for −0.25 ≤ z ≤ 0.25
= 0 elsewhere
P(1/0) =
∫

¹

\

25 . 0
2 . 0
5 . 0
1
dz
= 0.1
P(z/1) = 1 for 0 ≤ z ≤ 1
= 0 elsewhere
P(0/1) = 2 . 0 dz
2 . 0
0
=
∫
Ave. bit error prob. =
2
2 . 0 1 . 0 +
= 0.15
Ans: ‘a’
10. Ans: ‘c’
11. (B.W)
BPSK
= 2f
b
= 20 KHz
(B.W)
QPSK
= f
b
= 10 KHz
Ans: ‘c’
12.
0
0
N
S
=
0
b
N
E 2
=
5
6
10
10 2×
= 20
10 20 log = 13 db
Ans: ‘d’
13. B.W efficiency =
min
) W . B (
rate data
For BPSK, (B.W)
min
required is same as data rate.
∴ B.W efficiency for BPSK = 1
Since, coherent detection is used for BPSK, Carrier synchronization is required.
Ans: ‘b’
14. (P
e
)
PSK
=
2
1
2
2
T A
erfc
2
1
η
ACE Academy Electronics & Communication Engineering 45
(P
e
)
FSK
= erfc
2
1
2
1
2
2
T A
6 . 0
η
10 log 0.6 = 2.2 db = 2 db
Ans: ‘c’
15. f
H
= nf
b
& f
L
= mf
b
, where n and m are integers such that n>m.
Ans: ‘d’
16. Ans: ‘d’
17. f
H
= 25 KHz & f
L
= 10 KHz
⇒
f
c
+
π
Ω
2
= 25 KHz
f
c

π
Ω
2
= 10 KHz
⇒
π
Ω
= 15 KHz
Ω ⇒ = 15 ( )
3
10 π
For FSK signals to be orthogonal,
2ΩT
b
= nπ ⇒ 2(15 × π × 10
3
) T
b
= n π
→ 30 × 10
3
× T
b
should be an integer. This is satisfied for T
b
= 280 usec
Ans: ‘d’
18. Ans: ‘c’
19. In PSK, the signaling format is NRZ and in ASK, it is ONOFF signaling. Both
representations are having same PSD plot.
Ans: ‘c’
20. Ans: ‘d’
21. Ans: ‘b’
22. Ans: a – 3; b – 1; c – 2
46 Solutions to Communication Systems ACE Academy
23.
b(t) 0 1 0 0 1
b
1
(t) 1 1 0 0 0 1
Phase 0 π π π 0
Ans: ‘c’
24. a
25. c
26. QPSK
27. a
28.
b(t) 1 1 0 0 1 1
b
1
(t) 1 1 1 0 1 1 1
since the phase of the first two message bits is π π, , the received is
) 0 0 1 0 1 1 1
0 0 1 0 1 1 (1
______________________________________________
0 0 0 0 1 1
π π π π 0 0
Ans : d
29. P(at most one error)
= P(X=0) + P(X=1)
= 8
C
0
.
(1P)
8
. P
0
+ 8
C
1
. ( )
7
P 1− P = (1 – P)
8
+ 8P (1 – P)
7
Ans: b
D
b
1
(t)
b
1
(t – T
6
)
b(t)
T
b
b
1
(t)
b(t)
ACE Academy Electronics & Communication Engineering 47
Chapter – 6 (Objective Questions)
01. (B.W)
min
= w+w+2w+3w = 7w
Ans: ‘d’
02. The total No.of channels in 5 MHz B.W is
5
6
10 2
10 5
×
×
×8 = 200
With a five cell repeat pattern, the no. of simultaneous channels is
5
200
= 40
Ans : B
03. R
C
= 1.2288 × 10
6
G
P
=
b
c
R
R
≥ 100
⇒
100
R
c
≥ R
b
⇒1.2288 ×10
4
≥ R
b
⇒R
b
≤12.288 × 10
3
bps
Ans: a
04. Bit rate = 12 ( 2400 + 1200+1200)
= 57.6 kbps
Ans: c
05. Sample rate = 200+ 200 + 400 +800
= 1600 Hz
Ans : a
06. d
07. 12 × 5 KHz + 1 KHz = 61 KHz
08. b
09. d
10 . Theoritical (B.W)
min
=
2
1
(data rate)
=
2
1
(4 × 2 × 5 KHz)
= 20 KHz
11. c
12. a
48 Solutions to Communication Systems ACE Academy
13. The path loss is due to
a) Reflection : Due to surface of earth, buildings and walls
b) Diffraction : This is due to the surfaces between Tx. and Rx. that has sharp
irregularities (edges)
c) Scatterings: Due to foliage, street signs, lamp posts, i.e. scattering is due to rough
surfaces, small objects or by other irregularities in a mobile communication systems.
14. 1333 Hz.
15. Min. Tx. Bit rate = (2 × 4000 + 2× 8000 + 2× 8000 + 2×4000)8
= 384 kbps
Ans: ‘d’
16. 12 × 8 KHz
Ans : c
17. a
18. c
19. b
20. c
21. b
All the Best.
ACE Academy
2
Solutions to Communication Systems
ACE Academy
05. This corresponds to Binomial distribution. When an experiment is repeated for n times, the probability of getting the success ‘m’ times, independent of order is P(x=m) = n c m . pm . (q)nm Where p = Prob. of success & q = 1p In the present problem, success is getting an error. The corresponding probability is given as ‘p’.
P(At most one error) = P(no errors) + P(one error) = P(X=0) + P(X=1) = n c 0 . (p) 0 . (1 − p) n + n c 1 . (p)1 (1 − p) n −1 = (1p)n + np(1p)n1 Ans: ‘c’ 06. The random variable y is taking two values 0 & 1. P(y=1) = P (2.5 < x < 2.5) P(y=0) = P (x ≥ 2.5) + P(x ≤ 2.5)
2 .5
∴ P (2.5 < x < 2.5) =
5
− 2.5
∫ f (x ) dx = 0.5
P(x ≥ 2.5) = ∫ f ( x )dx = 0.25
2.5
P(x ≤ − 2.5 ) = ∫ f(x) dx = 0.25
−5
−2.5
∴ P(y = 1) = 0.5 ; P(y=0) = 0.25 + 0.25 = 0.5 ∴ f (y) = 0.5 δ(y) + 0.5 δ(y1) Ans : ‘b’ 07. Ans: ‘b’ 08. PSD of i p process Sxx (ω) = 1 PSD of o p process Syy (ω) =  H (ω)2 = 16 16 + ω 2
SYY (ω) 16 = SXX (ω) 16 + ω 2 4 4 ⇒ H( ω) = H(ω) = 2 4+Jω 16 + ω R R + JωL
We have H(ω) for an RL – Low Pass Filter as H(ω) =
∴ Ans : (a)
09. R = 4Ω ; L = 4H Ans : ‘a’
ACE Academy
Electronics & Communication Engineering
3
10. o p Noise Power = ( o p ) PSD × B.ω H (ω) = 2 . exp (Jωtd)  H (ω)  2 = 4 ⇒ o p Noise PSD = 4NO ∴ o p Noise Power = 4NO B Ans : ‘b’
k 11. P( r ) = r for 0 ≤ k ≤ 4 4 = 0 elsewhere
Since ∫ P( r ).d r = 1 ⇒ k = 1
0 4
2
Mean Square Value is
∫r
0
4
2
. P( r ). d r = 8
Ans : ‘c’ 12. H(f)2 = 1 + (0.1 × 103)f for 10 KHz ≤ f ≤ 0 = 1 − (0.1 × 103)f for 0 ≤ f ≤ 10 KHz ( o p) PSD = H(f ) × i p PSD
10×103 2
Power of o p Process = Ans: ‘b’
∫
−10×103
(o p) PSD. df = 1 ×10 −6 ω
FT 13. R (τ) ←→ PSD [Sxx (ω )] Since PSD is sinc – squared function, its inverse Fourier Transform is a Triangular pulse.
Ans: ‘b’ 14. Var [d(n)] = E[d2(n)] − {E[d(n)]}2 E[d(n)] = E[x(n) − x(n−1)] = E[x(n)] − E[x(n−1)] = 0 Var[d(n)] = E[d2(n)] = E[{x(n) − x(n−1)}2] = E[x2(n)] + E[x2(n−1)] − 2.E[x(n).x(n−1)] = σ 2 + σ 2 − 2.Rxx (1) x x 1 2 ⇒ 2 σ 2 – 2Rxx(1) = σx x 10 R (k ) ⇒ xx 2 at k = 1 = 0.95 σx Ans: ‘a’
4
Solutions to Communication Systems
(x − 4 )2 1 exp − 18 3 2π (x − 4 )2 1 = exp − 2π × 9 2×9 1 P {X = 4} = PX ( x ) x = 4 = 3 2π
Ans: b
ACE Academy
15. PX(x) =
16. P(at most one bit error) = P(No error) + P(one error) = n C0 . (P)0 (1P)n0 + n C1 (P)1 (1P)n1 = (1P)n + n P(1P)n1 Ans: d
17. g(t) a
∴ H( ω) = a ⇒ PSD of g1(t) = a 2 .Sg (ω)
a . g(t) = g1(t)
⇒ power of Rg1( τ ) = a . Rg (0 ) = a 2 . Pg
2
Rg1 ( τ) = F −1 a 2 .Sg (ω) = a 2 . Rg (τ)
[
]
Ans: a 18. The fourier Transform of a Gaussian Pulse is also Gaussian. Ans: ‘c’ 19. The Auto correlation Function (ACF) of a rectangular Pulse of duration T is a Triangular Pulse of duration 2T Ans: ‘d’ 20. The Prob. density function of the envelope of Narrow band Gaussian noise is Rayleigh Ans: ‘c’ 21. P(x) = K. exp ( x 2 2) ,  ∞ < x < ∞
∞
−∞
∫ P( x )
∞
. dx = 1 ⇒
−∞
∫ k.exp(− x
2
2) dx = 1
0 R1 (T 1 K) R2 (T 0 K) 2 The Noise equivalent circuit is R1 ∴ ∴ R2 V12 = 4R1KT1B V22 = 4R2KT2B (R1 + R2) ∴ V 2 = 4(R1T1+R2T2) KB R V 2 = 4RKTB ∴ RT = R1T1 +R2T2 ⇒ T= R 1T1 + R 2 T2 R1 + R 2 .ACE Academy 1 2π 2 Electronics & Communication Engineering ∞ 5 We have −x 1 e 2π −∞ ∫e −x2 2 . F1 [PSD ] =Auto correlation Function R( τ) sin f 2 ∴ R( τ) = F1 .dx = 1. Rayleigh Ans : ‘d’ 25.τ) ⇒ Even symmetry Ans : ‘d’ 24. R( τ) =R(. f Ans: ‘d’ 23. σ 2 ) = N (0.1) ∴k = 1 2π Ans: ‘a’ 22. since 2 is the Normal density N (m. which is a triangular pulse.
E(X) = −1 ∫ x. P(X = at most one error) = P(X = 0) + P(X = 1) = 8C 0 . (P)0 (1P)8 + 8C 1 .6 Solutions to Communication Systems ACE Academy 26. P( x)dx = 1 ∫ x. (P)1 (1P)81 = (1−P)8 + 8P (1−P)7 Ans: ‘b’ 29. [E (x)]2 = k2 [E (x2) − {E(x)} = k2 . Var [(−kx)] = E[(− kx)2] − {E(−kx)} = k2 E (x2) − [− k. E (x)]2 = k2 E (x2) − k2. Half wave rectification is Y = X for x ≥ 0 = 0 elsewhere −y 1 1 f(y) = δ (y) + e 2 2π N 2 2N E(Y) = 0 & E(Y2) = N Ans: ‘d’ 28. P(x )dx = 7 / 3 7 4 −1 = 3 3 3 3 E(X2) = −1 Var (X) = E(X2) – [E(X)]2 = Ans: ‘b’ 27. σx2 Ans: ‘d’ 2 2 ] .
Diode Detector MW/Broadcast band is 550 KHz – 1650 KHz.W)AM = 2 ( Highest of the Baseband frequency available) = 2(20 KHZ) = 40 KHZ 02. PT = PC PT = 1. 12.5 Vmax − Vmin Vmax + Vmin =1 2 The given AM signal is of the form [A + m(t)] cos ωc t. Power increased by 50% 04. PT = PC 1 + 2 For m = 0 For m = 1 . It can be better detected by the simplest detector i.66 % 3 m2 03.08Pc ⇒ Increase in Power is 8%. 07. PT = PC + PC m 2 ⇒ 2 Pc . .4) = 0. Power saving = 2 ×100 % = 66. m 2 = Pc (0.4) 2 = 0. . mT = m= 2 m1 + m 2 = 2 (0. Percentage Power saving = 2 ×100 % 2 + m2 PT − PTX ×100 % PT = For m = 1 . Hence the received 1 MHz signal lies outside the MW band.e. (B.08 P c 2 2 ∴ PT = 1. 06. 09. 10. which is an AMDSBFC signal.3) 2 + (0. Q= f0 1×10 6 = =100 BW 10 ×10 3 2 08.ACE Academy Electronics & Communication Engineering CHAPTER – 3 Objective Questions Set – A 7 01.5 PC ⇒ TX.
m= E m 15 = ⇒ m=25% E c 60 (B. 30. Same as Prob. 16.8 14.4 and m2=0.3 ∴m= 2 m1 + m 2 =0.W)AM = 2 × 1500 = 3 KHz. which will not be present in the spectrum is 2 MHz.W = 2(10 KHz) = 20 KHz. 18. The various freq. Pc = 450 ω BW of each AM station = 10 KHZ.r. in o/p are 1000 KHz. ∴ The freq.4 cos 10 3 t + 0. of the baseband signal = 10 KHz. 26. 29.W = Band limiting freq.t highest baseband freq. 22. = USB w. Solutions to Communication Systems em(t) = 10(1+0. available = (1000 + 10) KHz = 1010 KHz .PSB = 600 – 150 = 450 2 ∴ PC m 2 2 2 = 450 × m 2 =150 m= 2 / 3 ⇒ 2 20. 27. 28. Message B.3 cos 104 t) cos ( 106t ) This is a multi Tone AM signal with m1=0. B. Image freq(fi) = fs +2 IF ⇒ fs = fi – 2 IF = 2100 – 900 = 1200 KHz. Highest freq. (1000 ± 1) KHz & (1000 ± 10) KHz. of stations = 100 ×10 3 =10 10 ×10 3 25. 19. No. 2 Same as 3 PSB = 75 + 75 = 150 = PC m and Pc=PT .5 2 ACE Academy 15.
deviation. CHAPTER – 3 Additional objective questions – SET D 1.3 × 103 2 = 150v Ans: 2 ‘b’ m E c 1000× m = =200 2 2 Ec = 1 KV ⇒ ⇒ m = 0. Thus.W1 = 2( δ f + 10 KHz) B. Modulation Index is always less than 1.5 KW 2 ∴ PT = PC + PSB = 1. Amplitude of each sideband = m Ec 2 = 0.4 Ans: ‘c’ 3.W2=2( δ f + 20 KHz) ⇒ B. ∴ New Modulation Index = 3. Ans: 4. 29. 20. PSB = PC = 0. ‘b’ As per FCC regulations.W increases by 20 KHz. A freq. In NBFM. tripler makes the freq. Pc = 1 KW. Mixer will not change the deviation.5 KW.ACE Academy Electronics & Communication Engineering 9 CHAPTER – 3 Objective Questions – SET C 5. B. (fm)max = 5 KHz Ans: ‘b’ . three times the original. in AM. δf = 3 mf fm 6. deviation at the o/p of the mixer is δ .
the unmodulated carrier peak A = 20 ⇒ rms value = 20/ 2 Ans : b’ 7.28 × 106 Ans : ‘a’ 11.5 ⇒ 50% Modulation Ans: b’ 09. causing distortion . Ans : ‘d’ 12. 13.10 5. V(t) = A[1 + m sin ωm t ] sin ωc t By comparing the given with above V(t). Solutions to Communication Systems Ec + Em = 130 ⇒ Em = 130 – 100 = 30 V m= Ans: Em 30 = 0. Ans: ‘b’ EC + Em = 2Ec ⇒ Em = Ec ⇒m = Em = 100% Ec ‘d’ Ans: . Side band peak = Rms value = 5/ 2 Ans: 8. m > 1 results in over Modulation. V = A[1+msin ωm t ] sin ωc t ⇒ ω m =6280 Ans: 10.5 × 20 = =5 2 2 m = 0. a’ mE c 0.3 = Ec 100 ACE Academy ‘b’ 6. c’ ωc =6.
4) 2 = 0. using the above results.Ec Ec mE c 0.PSB = 1160 – 160 = 1000 Watts Ans: ‘a’ .2)(100) 2 = 20 2 ∴ Ec + Em = (120) 2 The corresponding rms value = 120 V Ans: ‘d’ 20.ACE Academy 14. Ec + Em = 110 Ec . ∴ m = 0. ‘c’ Using the above results.4 Amp. It = Ic 1+ m 2 2 Ic = 10 Amp. m= The carrier peak is (100) 2 ∴ Em = (0. m= (0.4 ⇒ Ans: b 21.5 ⇒ Modulation Index = 50% Ans: 23. ‘a’ Pc = PT . It = 10.1 = 100 Ec 16.3) 2 + (0.1×100 = = 5V 2 2 17. the sideband amplitude is Ans: ‘b’ Em ⇒ Em = m.Em = 90 Electronics & Communication Engineering 11 ⇒ Ec = 100V. m = Ans: ‘a’ Em 10 = 0. Em = 10V Ans: 15.
Thus freq. δf also gets doubled Ans: 30. Ans: ‘b’ 28.5 msec = 500 µ sec Since Tc < RC < Tm ⇒ RC = 20 µ sec. ‘b’ To implement Envelope detection. deviation at the o/p of Mixer is δ Ans: ‘b’ 35. Solutions to Communication Systems m= ACE Academy I max − I min 6 = = 0. (fm)max = 15 KHz Ans: ‘c’ 29. Tm = 0.12 24. ‘a’ If FM. ( δ f) ∝ Em ⇒ if Em is doubled. Mixer will not change the freq. the modulation index is 2.mf Ans: ‘a’ 33. As per FCC regulations in FM. Ans: ‘d’ frequency doubler doubles the freq. deviation. δf remains unaltered. deviation. Ans: ‘d’ 31 32. Thus at the o/p of the doubler. In FM.3 20 I max + I min ⇒ Percent Modulation = 30% Ans: 27. Thus. Tc < RC < Tm Tc = 1 µ sec. δf = (fc)max − fc = 210 − 200 = 10 KHZ Ans: ‘b’ . (δf) is independent of Base Band signal frequency.
Ans: ‘a’ 43. Ans: ‘a’ . Assuming the signal to be an FM signal. 2 Ans: 46. deviation. ν FM (t ) = A cos (ωct + mf .28 × 108 Ans: ‘a’ 44. Electronics & Communication Engineering 13 5 KHz δf = = 10 500 Hz fm ‘a’ E m1 δ f1 = δf 2 E m2 δf ∝ Em ⇒ ⇒ δf 2 = (δf1 )(E m2 ) (E m1 ) = (5 KHZ)(10 V ) (2. ωm = 628 Hz Ans: ‘a’ 45. mf = δf ⇒ δf = 4 f m = 25/2 Hz fm ‘c’ 3 2 m f . Figure of Merit in FM is γ = ∴ Noise Performance increases with increase in freq. δf 2 20 × 10 3 m= = = 40 fm 500 δf2 = Ans: 40. the Power of the Modulated signal is same as that of un Modulated carrier. Sin ωmt) ⇒ ωc = 6.5 V ) = 20 KHz 39. (δf1 ) (E m2 ) E m1 ‘b’ = 5 × 20 = 50 KHz 2 41. where mf is the Modulation Index. mf = Ans: 38.ACE Academy 37.
B. In FM. W = 2nfm & n = mf + 1 = 8 ⇒ 2(8) (fm) = 160 × 103 ⇒ fm = 10 KHz ∴ δf (mf) (fm) = (7) (10) KHz = 70 KHz Ans: 55. Solutions to Communication Systems In FM. B. ‘c’ B. ∴ mf = n = 201 δf 2 ×10 6 = 200 = fm 10 ×103 B.W = 2 ( δf + fm ) = 2 (75 + 15) =180 KHz Ans: ‘c’ 53.W = 2(101) (10 × 103) = 2.02 MHz Ans: ‘b’ 56. o/p Power is independent of modulation Index. Modulation Index ∝ Ans: ‘a’ ACE Academy 1 fm 48. Ans: ‘d’ 52. If Em gets doubled. B W = 2nfm = 2(8) (15 KHz) = 240 KHz Ans: ‘d’ 54.14 47. δf also get doubled.W = 2(201) (10 × 103) = 4.W = 2nfm The modulation Index mf = δf 10 6 = = 100 f m 10 × 103 ∴ n = 100 + 1 = 101 ∴ B.02 MHz Ans: ‘d’ .
W = 2(δf + fm).W ≅ 2 δf Ans: ‘d’ 63. 26 Set–F 77. fi = fs + 2 IF = 1500 + 2(455) = 2410 KHz Ans: ‘d’ . Since (δf) is independent of carrier freq. ‘δ’ remains the same. ψi ( t ) = 50t + sin 5t ωi = d ψ i ( t ) = 50 + 5 cos 5t dt ∴ At t = 0.W = 2 fm Ans: ‘b’ 60. B. δf >> fm ⇒ B. In WBFM. ‘c’ IF = 455 KHz. = fs + 2 IF = 2110 KHz 76. B. Ans: ‘c’ 66. ∴ the peak deviations are same. At the o/p of the mixer. ∴ Image freq. Ans: ‘d’ 67. fi = fs + 2 IF = 1000 + 2(455) = 1910 KHz Ans: ‘d’ 78. Ans: ‘d’ 59. For NBFM. ωi = 55 rad /sec Ans: 75.ACE Academy 58. Ans: Refer Q. No. fs = 1200 KHz. Electronics & Communication Engineering 15 For WBFM.
which is 2. ‘b’ ACE Academy Chapter – 3 Additional objective Questions − Set E 01. cos ωct + m(t) .5 sin (2π × 1000)t] ωi = d ψi(t) = 2π × 105 + 5(2π × 1500) cos (2π × 1500t) + 7. where mp is the Peak of the baseband signal. cos ωct.5 cos ωmt .5(2π × 1000) δf = 7500 + 7500 = 15000 Hz Fm = 1500 Hz ` ∴ Modulation Index = Ans: ‘b’ δf = 10 fm 03. sin θ(t).16 82. ∴ (Ac)min = 2 Ans: 02. ‘a’ ν FM (t) = 10 cos [2π × 105t + 5 sin (2π × 1500t) + 7. Solutions to Communication Systems fi = fs + 2 IF = 500 + 2 (465) = 1430 KHz Ans. cos [ωct − θ(t)] Where r(t) = 1 + (0.5 sin (2π × 1000t)] ψi (t) = [2π × 105t + 5 sin (2π × 1500)t + 7. By comparing with the general AM − DSB − FC signal Ac . sin θ(t) = 0.5(2π × 1000) cos (2π × 1000t) dt δω = 5(2π × 1500) + 7.5 cosω m t) 2 .5 cosωmt ν (t) = r(t). cos ωct. sin ωct = r(t). it is found that m(t) = 2 cos ωmt. sinωct Let r(t). cos θ(t) + r(t). Ac ≥ mp. cos θ(t) = 1 r(t). To demodulate using Envelope detector. ν (t) = cos ωct + 0.
ACE Academy Electronics & Communication Engineering 17 = [1 + 0.e.5 Ans: ‘a’ .125 + 0.5 & m(t) = g(t) is a ramp over 0 ≤ t ≤ 1 ∴ one set of Possible values of modulating signal and Modulation Index would be t.25 (1 + cos2ω m t )1/2 2 = [1.5 g(t)] cosωct for 0 ≤ t ≤ 1 By Comparing the above with an AM − DSB − FC signal under arbitrary Modulation i. A [ 1 + µ .125 + 0. 0. m(t) ] cos ωct µ = 0. P(t) = 0 1 t and g (t) = 0 1 2 XAM (t) = 100 [P (t) + 0. Rc < Ans: ‘a’ 05.ω of resulting FM signal is 2(990 ×103) = 1. The LSB − Modulated signal f c1 − fm = 990 KHZ Considering this as the Baseband signal.125 cos2ωmt]1/2 ≅ 1. ‘c’ 1 ω To avoid diagonal clipping.125 + 0.0625 cos2ωmt] cos[ωct − θ(t)] Hence it is both FM and AM Ans: 04. the B.25 cos2 ωmt]1/2 = [1 + 0.98 MHz ≅ 2 MHz Ans: ‘b’ 1 06.125 cos2ωmt 2 ∴ ν (t) = [1.
Pc m 2 2 = 100 (0. and is equal to N 1 4 × B × 0 = N0 B 2 2 ∴ The ratio of Ave.18 07. Since. ‘a’ (δω)PM = Kf Em Wm. ‘b’ 6.W of o/p signal = 2(180 + 5) = 370 KHZ Ans: 11.25 25 = N 0 B 4N 0 B y(t) = x2 (t) A squaring circuit acts as a frequency doubler ∴ New δf = 180 KHZ ∴ B. sideband Power to Mean noise Power = Ans: 10.5 sin2πfmt ] cos2πfct The above signal is a Tone Modulated signal. Where Kf Em is the Phase deviation. Solutions to Communication Systems XAM (t) = 10 [ 1 + 0. ‘c’ Mean Noise Power is the area enclosed by noise PSD Curve. it is given that Phase deviation remains unchanged.25 ω Ans: 08.5 )2 × 2 2 ACE Academy The AM Side band Power = = 6.ω = 2 (δ f2 + fm2) . (δ ω)PM ∝ ωm ⇒ δ ω1 ω m1 = δ ω2 ω m 2 δ f1 f m1 = δ f2 f m2 ⇒ ⇒ 10 KHZ 1 KHZ = ⇒ δ f2 = 20 KHZ δ ω2 2 KHZ ∴ B.
Tc < RC < Tm ⇒ 1 µ sec < RC < 500 µ sec ∴ RC = 20 µsec Ans.1 cosωmt. 16. cosωct = A cosωct + 0. except for a Phase reversal of 1800 for LSB . cos ωct 1 1 = cosω1 t + sinω 2 t cosωc t 2 2 1 1 = [cos(ω c +ω1 ) t + cos (ω c −ω1 )t ] + [sin (ωc +ω2 ) t − sin (ωc − ω2 )t ] 4 4 1 2 ∴PSB = 4 (1 4 ) = 1 8 2 1 1 PT = PC + PSB = + 2 8 ∴η= Ans: 14.ACE Academy Electronics & Communication Engineering 19 = 2 (20 + 2 ) KHZ = 44 KHZ Ans: 13. ‘b’ ν AM (t) = A cosωct + 0. ‘d’ Power efficiency η = PSB × 100 % PT The sidebands are m(t).05 [cos(ωc+ ωm)t + cos(ωc − ωm)t] NBFM is similar to AM signal. S N ) = B log 2 + Blog S N = B + C1 ∴ C2 = C1 + B Ans: ‘b’ 15. 18 ×100 0 0 = 20 0 0 58 ‘c’ S C1 = B log 1 + bps N S >> 1 Since N C1 = B log S N C2 = B log (2.
5 [cos 2π(101 × 106)t + cos 2π (99 × 106)t] o/p of HPF = 0.5 cos 2π(100 × 106)t. cos2π × 106t 18.5 sin(2π×106)t]2}1/2 = [1.05 [cos (ωc + ωm)t − cos (ωc − ωm)t] ∴ ν AM (t) + ν NBFM (t) = 2A cosωct + cos(ωc + ωm)t This is SSB with carrier. Ans: ‘b’ ACE Academy 17.sin2π×106t] + sin2π(100 × 106)t = 0. − sin 2π (100 × 106)t.20 Solutions to Communication Systems ν NBFM (t) = Acosωct + 0. cos2π × 106t − sin 2π (100 × 106)t [1− 0.5 [cos 2π(100 × 106)t. 0.5 cos(2π×106)t]2 + [1− 0.5 sin(2π × 106)t = R(t). sinθ(t) 1− 0.5 sin(2π× 106 )t] Let.5 cos 2π(101 × 106)t + sin 2π(100 × 106)t = 0.5 cos(2π × 106)t = R(t).5 cos2π(101 × 106)t o/p of Adder is = 0.25 − sin(2π × 106)t]1/2 5 = − sin (2π ×10 6 )t 4 Ans: ‘b’ 12 .cosθ(t) The envelope R(t) = {[0. Noise Power = 10−20 × 100 ×106 = 10−12 ω Loss = 40 dB ⇒ loss = 104 10 −3 = 10 −7 ω Signal Power at the receiver = 4 10 10 −7 S = 10 log −12 = 10 log10−5 ∴ 10 log N 10 = 50 db Ans: ‘a’ Carrier = cos 2π (101 × 106)t Modulating signal = cos 2π (106)t o/p of BM = 0.5 cos2π [(100 + 1) × 106]t + sin 2π(100 × 106)t = 0.
c voltage (constant) depending on the difference of the two i/p frequencies. Ans: o/p of Balanced Modulator is − 13 − 11 − 10 − 9 o/p of HPF is −7 0 7 9 10 11 13 f(KHz) − 13 − 11 − 10 10 11 13 f(KHz) The freq. Ans: ‘d’ ‘c’ 20. 21. m2 (t)] The DSB − Sc Components are 2 fc1 ± fm These should be equal to fc ± fm ⇒ 2fc1 = fc ⇒ fc1 = f c 2 = 0. at the o/p of 2nd BM are 0 2 3 23 24 26 f(KHz) ∴ The +ve frequencies where Y(f) has spectral peaks are 2 KHZ & 24 KHZ Ans: 22.cos(2πfc1t) + m(t)] + a1 [Ac 1 cos(2πfc1t) + m(t)]3 = a0 [Ac 1 cos(2πfc1t) + m(t)] + a1[(Ac1)3 cos3(2πfc1t) + m 3(t) + 3 (Ac1)2 cos2 (2πfc1t).5 MHZ Ans: ‘c’ . Electronics & Communication Engineering 21 A frequency detector produces a d. m (t) + 3 (Ac1). ‘b’ V0 = a0 [Ac 1 .ACE Academy 19. Cos (2πfc1t).
Q − 3. fc = 106 HZ δf = 3(2fm) = 12 KHZ Modulation index β = ∞ δf =6 fm ν FM (t) = ∞ n =−∞ ∑ A. Jn (6) cos {2π [{1000 + n(2)}103] t} ∴ the coefficient of cos 2π (1008 × 103)t is 5. J4 (6) Ans: 25. ‘d’ fm = 2KHZ.22 Solutions to Communication Systems 2 Pc m Total side band Power 2 = carrier power Pc ACE Academy 23. R − 2. ‘d’ P − 6 . ‘a’ f0 = fs + IF (f0) max = (fs)max + IF = 1650 + 450 = 2100 (f0) min = (fs)min + IF = 1650 − 450 = 1200 (f0) max = 1 = 2100 2π Lc min 1 = 1200 2π Lc max (f0) min = ∴ c max 2100 = =7 4 c min 1200 c max =3 c min ⇒ . S − 4 Ans: 26.J n (β) cos (ω c +nω m ) t = n =−∞ ∑ 5. m2 = = 1 8 2 Ans: 24.
30. Ans: ‘a’ m(t) 100 µsec t fm = 1 = 10 KHZ 100 × 106 Its Fourier series representation is 4 [cos2π (10 × 103)t − 1 cos2π(30 × 103)t + 1 cos2π (50 × 103) t + ] π 3 5 . sin2ωct 2 1+ cos2ω c t n s (t) = [nc(t) + cosωmt] − 2 sin2ω c t 2 The o/p of Base band filter is 1 [nc(t) + cosωmt] 2 Thus. cosωmt + nc(t) cosωct − ns (t). cosωm t + n (t) = cosωct. ‘a’ The o/p noise in an Fm detector varies parabolically with frequency. Ans: 28. the noise at the detector o/p is nc(t) which is the inphase component. sinωct When this is multiplied with local carrier.ACE Academy Electronics & Communication Engineering 23 Image freq. = fs + 2 IF = 700 + 2 (450) = 1600 KHZ Ans: 27. 29. the o/p of the multiplier is [nc (t) + cosωmt ] cos2ωct − n s (t ) . ‘c’ Let the i/p signal be cosωct. sinωc t = [nc(t) + cosωmt] cosωct − ns (t).
The envelope of an AM is the baseband signal.θ) Where r = (30) 2 + (40) 2 = 50 ∴ Phase change = 100π . the frequency that is not present in the modulated signal is 1020 KHZ Ans: 31. 990KHZ. 2(δf + fm) = 106 HZ ⇒ δf = 495 KHZ . cos(150 t + θ). r sinθ = 40 ∴ Phase Change = 2π r cos (150t . Ans: ‘d’ 33. ‘d’ LPF can be used as reconstruction filter. 1010KHZ. 970 KHZ . the o/p of the envelope detector is the base band signal Ans: ‘a’ 34.cos (150t − θ). 1030 KHZ etc. Frequency change = (2π)(150)(50) cos(150t + θ) Max frequency deviation δω = 2π (150)(50) Where r = 50 ⇒ δf = (150) (50) = 7. Thus. ‘c’ S(t) = cos 2π (2 × 106t + 30 sin 150 t + 40 cos 150t) ψi (t) = 2π (2 × 106 t + 30 sin 150t + 40 cos150t) ∴ Phase change = 2π [30 sin150t + 40 cos150t] Let r cosθ = 30 .e. ∴ Max Phase deviation = 100π ωi = d ψi (t) = 2π [2 × l06 + (30)(150) cos(150t) − (40) (150) sin 150t] dt Frequency change = 2π [(30)(150)cos150t − (40)(150)sin150t] This can be written as (2π) (150) r. Hence.5 KHz Ans: 32. among the frequencies given.24 Solutions to Communication Systems ACE Academy The frequency components present in the o/p are fc ± 10KHZ = (1000 ± 10) KHZ fc ± 30 KHZ = (1000 ± 30) KHZ i.
m 2 ( t ) = Pm.cos(ω0t + θ) = m(t) [cos(2ω0 t + θ) + cosθ] 2 m(t) . cos 2θ 4 Pm . ⇒ Sh(t) = e−at . 37. cos 2 θ . Ans: 39. Where S(t) is the Hilbert Transform of S(t). Ans: 35. the Power of output signal is Ans: 36. Let S(t) = e−at . 38. ∴ B. (fc + 15) KHZ. cos (ωc + ∆ω)t.9 MHZ ≅ 3 MHZ adjacent frequency components in FM signal will be separated by fm = 5 KHz. cosθ 2 o/p of LPF = Power of o/p = m 2 (t) . sin (ωc + ∆ω)t ∴ pre envelope = e−at.ω of y(t) = 2 (1485 + 5) KHZ = 2980 KHZ = 2. 4 Since.ω = (fc + 15) KHZ − (fc − 15) KHZ = 30 KHZ. δf = 3(495 KHZ ) = 1485KHZ and fc = 300 MHZ ∴ B. ‘d’ Complex envelope or pre envelope is S(t) + J . exp [J(ωc + ∆ω)t] Ans: ‘a’ . ‘a’ o/p of multiplier = m(t) cosω0t . ‘a’ ‘a’ ‘d’ The frequency components available in S(t) are (fc − 15) KHZ. (fc + 10) KHZ.ACE Academy Electronics & Communication Engineering 25 For y(t). (fc − 10) KHZ. Sh(t). [cos (ωc + ∆ω)t + J sin (ωc + ∆ω)t] = e−at .
26 40. 47. and increasing their selectivity against image frequency. b−1. Modulation Index of the output signal is 3(9) = 27 Ans: ‘d’ ‘b’ ‘c’ 44. where the phase of LSB is 1800 out of phase with that of AM. image frequency should be prevented from reaching the mixer. which will be demodulated by envelope detector. Ans: d 49. B. 48.cos 106 πt + 5 [2sin 103πt. 2 2 It is a narrow band FM signal. So. 43.b−1. 42. Solutions to Communication Systems ACE Academy To Provide better Image frequency rejection for a superheterodyne receiver.c−5 a−2. sin 106πt ] 2 5 [cos(106 − 103)πt − cos(106 +103)πt 2 5 5 cos (106 +103)πt − cos (106 − 103)πt. There circuits are preselector and RF amplifier.b−1. ‘a’ Image frequency = fs + 2 IF = 1200 KHZ + 2(455) = 2110 KHZ . Ans: Ans: a−2.c−5 ν (t) = 5 [cos ( 106 π t) − sin (103 πt) sin 106πt] = 5 cos 106(πt) − = 5 cos 106 πt − = 5. 50. 51.ω = 2 (50 + 0. Ans: Ans: New deviation is 3 times the signal. c−2 The given signal is AM − DSB − FC. Ans: 52.5) KHZ = 101 KHZ a−3. 46. 45. by providing more tuning circuits in between Antenna and the mixer. Ans: ‘d’ ‘a’ ‘b 41.
‘c’ For the generated DSB − Sc signal. Electronics & Communication Engineering Puseful × 100 % PT m2 × 100% 2 + m2 27 Power efficiency = = For m = 1.3 % 54. (fs)min = 2 fH = 8. the Power efficiency is max.ACE Academy 53. and is 33. 57.004 GHZ Ans: ‘d’ ‘a’ 56. Picture → AM − VSB Speech → FM Ans: 55. Ans: mf = K E δf where δf = f m fm 2π ∴ δf = 10 ×10 3 × 2 10 ×10 3 = 2π π 10 4 2 ωm = 104 × π → fm = ∴ mf = Ans: 2 π ‘d’ . Lower frequency Limit fL = (4000 − 2) MHZ = 3998 MHZ and Upper frequency Limit fH = (4000 + 2) MHZ = 4002 MHZ.
of amp.95 f 2 −1 g1 ∴ f = 1.95 ⇒ f = 0. ‘c’ A preamplifier is of very large gain.50 K Overall Te = Te 1 + Te 2 g1 = 21 + 298. Solutions to Communication Systems ACE Academy Te = 210 K Loss = 3 db g1 = 13 db T0 = 3000 K Noise fig.1198 19.995 − 1) 300 = 298.95 = 35.07 21 300 For a Lossy Network. F1 = 1 + Te T0 = 1+ = 1.28 58. Boise Figure is same as its loss. This will improve the noise figure (i.995 ∴ Overall Noise figure f = f1 + g1 = 13db ⇒ g1 = 19. Ans: ‘a’ ‘a’ . reduces its numerical value) of the receiver.995 − 1 = 1.07 + 1.e. if placed on the antenna side Ans: 61.960 K Ans: 60.49 db Te of cable = (f − 1) T0 = (1.5 19. ∴ f2 = 3 db ⇒ f2 = 1.
8 log 0.ACE Academy Electronics & Communication Engineering 29 Chapter − 4 01. H(x) ≤ L ≤ H(x) + 1 i.25 + 2 × 0.722 bits/symbol th 4 order extension of the source will have an entropy of 4.2 = 0. bit rate = 1. A source transmitting ‘n’ messages will have its maximum entropy.2 log 0. Entropy of the given source is H(x) = .. This results in conservation of transmitted power. entropy of each pixel = log2 64 = 6 bits/pixel There are 625 × 400 × 400 = 100 × 106 pixels/sec 02.0. Ans: ‘a’ This corresponds to Binomial distribution. Thus.5 1 0. 0.5 bits/symbol Ave.25 11 L = 1 × 0.888 bits/4 messges .888 bits/4 symbol As per shanon’s Theoram.5 + 2 × 0.e.8 – 0. Let the success be that the transmitted bit will be received in error. of ones) + P(getting one of ones) = P(X = 0) + P(X = 1) = 3c 0 (1 − p)0 p3 + 3c1 (1− p) p 2 = p3 + 3p2(1 – p) Ans: ‘a’ Most efficient source encoding is Huffman encoding. if all the messages are equiprobable and the maximum entropy is logn bits/message. P(X = error) = P(getting zero no. ∴ Data rate = 6 × 100 × 106 bps = 600 Mbps Ans: 05. ‘c’ 06.888 ≤ L ≤ 3.H(x) = 2. ‘c’ Source coding is a way of transmitting information with less number of bits without information loss.5 × 3000 = 4500 bits/sec Ans: ‘b’ Considering all the intensity levels are equiprobable.25 = 1. Entropy increases as logn. Ans. 03. 2.5 0 0.5 0 0. 04.25 10 0.
10.6 bits/sec For errorless transmission. 32 symbols are there the number of bits required for encoding each = log2 32 = 5 bits → 29904. 08. S Channel Capacity C = B log 2 1 + ηB S S = 30 db → = 1000 ηB ηB ∴ C = 3 × 103 log2 (1 + 1000) = 29904. Not included in the syllabus H(x) = log2 16 = 4 bits Ans: 13. 12. . So.5 P(0/1) = 0.6 bits/sec constitute 5980 symbols/sec. Solutions to Communication Systems 12 × 512 × log 8 = 18432 bits 2 Code efficiency = η = L min H × 100% = × 100% L L L = 2 bits/symbol and the entropy of the source is 1 1 1 1 2 1 H = − log − log − log 2 2 4 4 8 8 14 = bits/symbol 8 14 ∴η= × 100% = 87.5 → P(1/1) = 0. satisfying the constraint R < C → R = 5000 symbols/sec Ans: ‘c’ 11. Maximum amount of information should be transmitted through the channel.75 bits/symbol ACE Academy 09. ‘d’ P(0/0) = 0.5% 16 Ans : ‘b’ 1 1 1 1 2 1 H(X) = − log − log − log 2 2 4 4 8 8 = 1. Such a channel conveys no information.5 → P(1/0) = 0. Since.5 1 1 2 P(Y/X) = 2 1 1 2 2 A channel with such noise matrix is called the channel with independent input and o/p.30 07. information rate of source R < C.
21. 19. Since the existing entropy is 2.ACE Academy Electronics & Communication Engineering 31 Ans: 14.7 bits/symbol Ans: ‘d’ ‘d’ ‘b’ ‘b’ 20. 1/3 Ans: ‘a’ ‘b’ 15. information = log2 26 = 4.e. 23. S << 1 N C ≈ B log 1 ≈ 0 ∴ C is nearly o bps Since Ans: ‘d’ ‘b’ 18. 22. The maximum entropy of an octal source is 3 bits/message. Ans: Ans: Ans: H1 = log2 4 = 2 bits/symbol H2 = log2 6 = 2.58 bits/message. Ans: Ave. The maximum entropy of binary source is 1 bit/message. 16.7 b/symbol the given source can be an octal source Ans: ‘c’ .5 bits/symbol H1 < H2 Ans: ‘a’ 24. ∴ its capacity = 0 ‘d’ A ternary source will have a maximum entropy of log2 3 = 1. The entropy is maximum if all the messages are equiprobable i. The maximum entropy of a quaternary source is 2 bits/message. Ans: Entropy coding – McMillan’s rule Channel capacity – Shanon’s Law Minimum length code – Shanon Fano Equivocation – Redundancy Ans: ‘c’ 17.
γ = log2 128 = 7 γf B.W = s = 28 KHz 2 Ans: ‘d’ Set – C 01.32 Solutions to Communication Systems Chapter – 5A Set A ACE Academy 01.5 ×10 −3 02.W)min = γ fs Hz 2 If Q = 4 ⇒ γ = 2 ∴ (B. where γ = log2 258 = 8 ∴ γ fs = 64 kbps Ans: ‘c’ 05. 04. Ans: ‘c’ . 06. Ans: ‘a’ d d m( t ) = (at ) = a dt dt Rate of rise of the modulator = δ. 07.W)min = 3fs Ans: ‘a’ 18. If Q = 64 → γ = 6 ∴(B. S/Nq increases. For every 1 bit increase in ‘n’.W)min = fs Hz. (fs)min = 4 KHz → (Ts)max = Ans: ‘c’ 1 1 = = 250 µ sec (f s ) min 4 KHz Set B 05. (f s )min = 8 KHz. Maximum slope = S fs = 75 ×10 −3 = 50 V/sec 1. Ans: Since with increasing ‘n’ (increased number of Q levels). Nq S/Nq improves by a factor of 4. Ans: ‘d’ o/p bit rate = γ fs.fs = δ/Ts Slope over loading will occur if δ fs < a ⇒ Ans: ‘c’ ‘c’ δ < a ⇒ δ < a Ts Ts 03. Nq reduces. (B. In PCM.
14. Ans: For every one bit increase in the data word length. S/Nq improves by a 6 db. (Q.ACE Academy Electronics & Communication Engineering VH − VL 2Q 33 08.9 db Ans: ‘b’ (fs)Multiplexed system = 200 + 400 + 800 + 200 = 1600 Hz Ans: ‘a’ Each sample is represented by 7 + 1 = 8 bits. the bit transmission rate = 32 × 8 kbps = 256 kbps Ans: ‘c’ fs = 10 KHz. Set – D 01. 10. 12. 16. The power spectrum of Bipolar pulses is PSD fb = 1/Tb 2/Tb f .76 + 20 log 10 ) db = 49. E)max = S/2 = = 1 of the total peak to peak range 264 ‘c’ ‘b’ Ans: 09. 13. γ = log2 64 = 6 Transmission Rate = 60 kbps Ans: ‘a’ VPP = 2 V. Total bit rate = 8 × 20 × 8000 = 1280 kbps Ans: ‘b’ ‘a’ (Question number 5 in set B) 11. γ = 8 ⇒ Q = 256 Q S/Nq = (1. ∴ The total increase is 21 db Ans: ‘b’ Number of samples from the multiplexing system = 4 × 2 × 4 KHz = 32 KHz Each sample is encoded into log2 256 = 8 bits So. 15.
126 mW 12 S = 48 db 10 log Nq Ans: ‘c’ 03. dx = 1 ⇒ b = 1 3 12 . For every one bit increase in the data word length. entropy of the o/p of the quantizer is to be maximized.W)min required = fb Here γ = 8. Given γ = 8 ⇒ Required γ = 9 ⇒ Number of Q − levels = 29 = 512 Ans: 04. Ans: ‘b’ ‘d’ 05. fs = 8 KHz ∴ Bit rate = 64 kbps ∴ (B.W)min = 64 KHz Ans: 02.dx 1 5≤x≤5 10 = 0 elsewhere ∴ Signal Power = 25/3 watts.34 Solutions to Communication Systems ACE Academy (B.039 V Q 256 2 (Step size) 2 = 0. ‘a’ −5 Signal power = f(x) = ∫x 5 2 f ( x ). Since. dx = 13 −1 −5 ⇒ ∫ b . Nq reduces by a factor of H. −1 ∴ −5 ∫ f(x). it implies that all the decision boundaries are equiprobable. Quantization Noise Power Step size = ∴ Nq = Nq = s2 12 VP −P 10 10 = 8 = = 0.
etc. 20 KHz ± 500 Hz …. The o/p of the LPF will be zero. 1 124 2 126 21 = + = 6 3 3 18 3 21 4 28 ∴ S = × = Nq 3 3 9 g(t) is Periodic with period of 10−4 sec = i.e. When the sampled signal is passed through an ideal LPF with Band width of 1 KHz.5×10−4 2(0. ‘a’ Electronics & Communication Engineering 35 −1 ∫ a.T ←→ π − 2π (1000) 2π(1000) ω . 0V and 3V. 3fs = 30 KHz …. 2fs = 20 KHZ. G 2a (ω) πt sin 2π1000t πt F.ACE Academy Similarly Ans: 06. Ans: 08. The remaining frequency components will be fs = 10 KHZ.5×10−4) 3(0. ‘c’ x(t) = x1(t) + x2(t) Since sin at F. 9 Step size = 3V ⇒ Nq = =3 4 12 −1 1 1 1 Signal Power = 2. ∴ The frequency components in the sampled signal are 10 KHz ± 500 Hz. ∫ x 2 dx + ∫ x 2 dx −5 −1 6 12 −1 1 x3 1 x 3 = + 6 3 −5 3 −1 07. 0. t 0 In its Fourier series representation. a0 = 0.5×10−4) ….T ←→ π. dx = 13 1 ⇒ a= 1 6 Reconstruction levels are − 3V.etc.
‘b’ In the process of Quantization. i.36 Solutions to Communication Systems ACE Academy 5π sin 2π 1000t ⇒ x1(t) = 5 πt 3 F. the quantizer is able to avoid the effect of all channel noise Magnitudes less than or equal to S 2. −a ∫ P(x) dx = 2 3 1 ⇒ 3 −a ∫ 4 . dx = 3 ‘b’ a 1 1 ⇒a = Ans: . i.e. rate of rise of Delta Modulator and of the signal should be same. 2 Ans: ‘b’ +a 11.T ← → − 6π(1000) 6π(1000) 7π ω sin 2π 1000t x2(t) = 7 πt 2 F.T ← → − 4π(1000) 4π(1000) ω Thus. the minimum value of c ∆ to be added is half of the step size. If the channel noise Magnitude exceeds S / 2 .T ← → −6π(1000) −4π(1000) 4π(1000) 6π(1000) ω ∴ ωm = 6π(1000) ⇒ fm = 3 KHz ∴ (fs)min = 6 KHz Ans: 09. x1(t) + x2(t) F.e. x(t) = ‘c’ 125 0 1 2 To Track the signal.0039 V 32 ×10 3 = 28 V Ans: 10. there may be an error in the output of the quantizer. ⇒ Sfs = 125 S= 125 = 0. On the given Problem for y1(t) + c to be different from y2(t).
the o/p of the Delta Modulator consists of a sequence of alternate +ve and –ve Pulses. for every one bit increase in data word length. i.ACE Academy Electronics & Communication Engineering 37 12.05)2 + (0.1)2 =1.5db ⇒ = 22387. value of Quantization Noise . f(x) dx 1 for − 5 ≤ x ≤ + 5 10 = 0 elsewhere 25 volts2 ∴ signal power = 3 S S = 43. Ans: ‘a’ 17.S. ‘a’ 1 2×8 12 27 −2 3 = 4 81 signal Power = f(x) = −5 ∫x 5 2 . Ans: ‘c’ 16. if the base band signal changes by an amount less than the step size.e. 1 x3 ∫ x f(x). S N q improves by a factor of 4. f(x) = 1 for 0 ≤ x ≤ 1 = 0 elsewhere M.0668 V (stepsize )2 12 Ans: 14.722 × 104 = ⇒ step size = 0. for two bits increase. Between two adjacent sampling instances. dx = −a 4 3 a 2 2 3 = Ans: 13.Hence. if the variations are very less magnitude. ‘c’ 12 S ∴ = 40db Nq Ans: ‘d’ Total Nq = (0.041 ×10 −3 12 15.2 Nq Nq ⇒ Nq = 3. the improvement factor is 16.
of Q levels 128 19.dx + ∫ (x − 0. 10 cos 2π (4 × 103)t = 5 × 101 cos 2π (4 × 103)t + n =−∞ ∑ cos 2π(n ×104)t.cos2π(4 × 103)t ∞ ∴ The o/p of ideal LPF = 5 × 101 cos (8π × 103)t Ans: ‘c’ 23.8 db Nq Ans: ‘b’ 22.198 Volts 18.76 + 20 log Q (db) = 49.38 = Solutions to Communication Systems 0.3 ACE Academy ∫x 0 2 . Em S fs = 25120 < 2π (4 × 103) (1. R = γ fs = 8 × 8 KHz = 64 Kbps S = 1.012 V no. slope overload occurs if S fs < 2π fm . f(x).536 = = 0. FM DM PSK PCM Ans: − Capture effect − Slope overload − Matched filter − µ−Law ‘c’ VP−P 1.7) 2 f(x) dx 0. x(t) = 100 cos 2π (12 × 103)t . Step size = Nq = Ans: ‘c’ S2 = 12 × 10 6 Volts 2 12 20.039 volts2 ∴ rms value = 0. Let S(t) = 5 × 106 ∑ δ(t − nT )& T s n S = 100 µ sec = 104 sec The Fourier series representation of S(t) is 1 2 ∞ ∴ S(t) = 5 × 106 [ + ∑ cos 2πnf s t ] Ts Ts n = −∞ = 5 × 10 + 10 2 1 n = −∞ ∑ [cos 2π (n ×10 ×10 )t ] 3 ∞ ∴ y(t) = S(t).11 Ans: ‘b’ 21. x(t) = S(t).3 1 = 0.5) = 37699.
ACE Academy Electronics & Communication Engineering 39 Ts = 50 µsec ⇒ fs = 20 KHz The frequency components available in the sampled signal are 12 KHZ. step size = Nq = 2 = 0. Ans: ‘d’ 24. x(t) = sinc (700t) + sinc (500t) sin (700t) sin (500t) = + 700t 500t π sin (700 t ) π sin (500 t ) = + 500 700 πt πt The band limiting frequency of above x(t) is ωm = 700 ⇒ fm = 350/π 700 ⇒ (fs)min = Hz π ∴ (Ts)max = π 700 sec x(t) = 6 × 104 sinc2 (400t) + 106 sinc3(100t) 25. The o/p of the ideal LPF are 8 KHZ and 12 KHZ. T ← → − 800 800 ωm F.08 µ volts2 12 (0. Ans: ‘c’ . For every one bit increase in the data word length. (20 ± 12) KHZ. − 300 300 1100 = 175 Hz ∴ωm = 1100 ⇒ fm = 2π (fs)min = 350 Hz ωm 26. (40 ± 12) KHZ ….etc. quantization noise power reduces by a factor of 4.0078 Volts 28 S2 = 5. Sinc2 (400t) F.5)2 = 0.. T Sinc3 (100t) ← → The convolution extends from ω = − 1100 to ω = +1100.125 Volts2 Signal Power = 2 S = 44db 10 log Nq 27.
The o/p of the filter are 800 Hz and 1000 Hz. Ans: a – 2. . 37. (3. (1.8 ± 1) KHz. Ans: ‘a’ γf (B. (fs)min = 2(1 KHZ) = 2 KHZ Ans: ‘b’ 31. Ans: ‘a’ 29. Hence.ω)min = s 2 Q=4⇒ γ =2 Q = 64 ⇒ γ = 6 ⇒ B. (B. 10 log 4 = 6 db Ans: ‘b’ 33. whose slope reduces at higher amplitude levels of the baseband signal. This results in Aperture effect distortion. S N q improves by a factor of 4. 36.6 ± 1) KHz etc. b – 1. Ans: ‘c’ Ans: a – 2. Irrespective of the value of η. Solutions to Communication Systems ACE Academy Flat Top sampling is observing be baseband signal through a finite time aperture. If pulse width increases.40 28. c – 4. b – 1. c – 5. for every one bit increase in Data word length. 30. the spectrum of the sampled signal becomes zero even before f m. 39.ω)min = (3ω + ω + 2ω + 3ω + 2ω) Hz = 11 ω Hz 38.ω increases by a factor of 3. Ans: ‘c’ 34. 35. Ans: ‘a’ In compression the baseband signal is subjected to a non linear Transformation. Ans: ‘d’ 32. The frequency components available in the sampled signal are 1 KHz. Most of the signal strength will be available in the Major lobe.
(8 ± 3) KHz. LSB = (4000 – 2) MHz = 3998 MHz USB = (4000 + 2) MHZ = 4002 MHz f 4002 N= H = = 1000.004 MHz N 1000 Es 1 erfc .P)33 + 3C1 . The o/p of LPF are 3 KHZ.e. cos 2 φ Pe = 2 η ∴ The factor is cos2 20 1/ 2 42. zero No.ACE Academy 40. The given raised cosine pulse will be defined only for 0 ≤  f  ≤ 2ω. of 1’s) + P (one bit is 1) = 3C0 . (16 ± 3) KHz. which inturn depends on No. Ans: 43. ‘b’ Nq depends on step size.5 B 4 ⇒ N = 1000 2 fH 2 × 4002 (fs)min = = MHz = 8. 6 KHz.P)32 = P3 + 3P2 (1 . where N = H N 3 41 The given signal is a band pass signal. Thus. (P)3 . (16 ± 6) KHz etc. of Qlevels. (fs)min to reconstruct 3 KHz part = 6 KHz (fs)min to reconstruct 6 KHz part = 12 KHz The frequencies available in sampled signal are 3 KHz. Required Probability = P (No bit is 1 i. i. at t = 1/4ω.e. Electronics & Communication Engineering (fs)min = 2 fH f .2 1500 1500 ⇒N=1 ∴ (fs)min = 2 fH = 3600 Hz 41. P(t) = 0. 5 KHz and 2 KHz. (8 ± 6) KHz. (1 .P) Ans: ‘a’ 02. P2 (1 . Ans: b . Chapter – 5 B & C 01. f = 4ω. N= 1.8 × 103 1800 = = 1. Ans: ‘c’ 44. 6 KHz. Ans: ‘d’ Ans: ‘c’ 45.
φ1. d S3 S4 = 2 a ∴ (d min )C1 = 2a Constellation – 2 d S1 S2 = 2 a . d S2 S4 = 2 a . P(t) = 1 t 0 1 g(t) = 0 2 . dS1 S3 = 2 2 a . Probability of symbol error in Constellation – 2 (C2) is more than that of constellation – 1 (C1).φ2 S4(t) = −√2 a φ1 − √2 a φ2 S3(t) = −2√2a. S2(t) = −√2 a φ1 + √2 a. (d min ) C2 = 2 a Since (d min )C2 = (d min )C1 . d S2 S4 = 2 2 a . d S3 S4 = 2 a . Ans: a 06. d S1 S3 = 2 a . d S2 S3 = 2 a . d S1 S4 = 2 a . Energy of Constellation 1 E + E 2 + E3 + E 4 = 4a 2 E C1 = 1 4 Constellation – 2: E1 = a2 S1(t) = a φ1 ⇒ S2(t) = a φ2 ⇒ E2 = a2 S3(t) = −a φ1 ⇒ E3 = a2 S4(t) = −a φ2 ⇒ E4 = a2 E C2 = a 2 E C1 E C2 Ans: = 4 b 05. d S2 S3 = 2 a . Required probability = P(X = 0) + P(X = 1) = n C0 (P) 0 (1− P) n − 0 + n C1 P(1− P) n −1 = (1 − P) n + n P (1 − P) n −1 Ans: c 04. Constellation – 1: S1(t) = 0. d S1 S4 = 2 a . Energy of S1(t) = E1 = 0 Energy of S2(t) = E2 = 4a2 Energy of S3(t) = E3 = 8a2 Energy of S4(t) = E4 = 4a2 Avg. Constellation – 1 Distance d S1 S2 = 2 a .42 Solutions to Communication Systems ACE Academy 03.
Since P(t) = 1 for 0 ≤ t ≤ 1. The given input S(t) = 0 1 2 t The corresponding impulse response is h(t) = t 0 1 2 The response should extend from t = 0 to t = 4. the given xAM(t) = 100[1 + 0.5t] cosωct Ans: a 2 4 08. Response = ∫ s( τ ) h(t − τ) d τ −∞ ∞ .ACE Academy Electronics & Communication Engineering 43 S(t) = g(t) − δ(t − 2) * g(t) We have δ(t – 2) ∗ g(t) = g(t − 2) S(t) = g(t) − g(t − 2) S(t) = 0 2 4 The impulse response of corresponding Matched filter is h(t) = S(−t + 4) = −S(t) = 0 Ans: c 07. Output of the matched filter is the convolution of its impulse response and its input. and g(t) = t for 0 ≤ t ≤ 1.
15 2 ‘a’ 13.2 0 Ave.W)BPSK = 2fb = 20 KHz (B.2 = 0. coherent detection is used for BPSK.W)min required is same as data rate. B. Carrier synchronization is required. (B. 1 P(z/0) = for −0.1 P(z/1) = 1 for 0 ≤ z ≤ 1 = 0 elsewhere 0. Ans: ‘c’ 11. Ans: ‘b’ 1 2 A2 T 1 14.2 P(0/1) = ∫ dz = 0. ∴ B. (Pe)PSK = erfc 2 2η .44 Solutions to Communication Systems Let t = 1 S(τ) h(−τ + 1) = ACE Academy 0 −1 1 ∴ The response at t = 1 is −1 Ans: ‘c’ 09. S0 2E b 2 × 106 = = = 20 105 N0 N0 10 log 20 = 13 db Ans: ‘d’ 0. = Ans: 10.W ) min For BPSK.1 + 0.25 0.W efficiency for BPSK = 1 Since. Let z be the received signal. (B.5 = 0 elsewhere 0.2 = 0.5 0. bit error prob.W efficiency = data rate (B.25 1 P(1/0) = ∫ dz 0.25 ≤ z ≤ 0.W)QPSK = fb = 10 KHz Ans: ‘c’ 12.
b – 1. Ans: a – 3. where n and m are integers such that n>m. fH = nfb & fL = mfb. Ans: 21.2 db = 2 db Ans: ‘c’ 15. fH = 25 KHz & fL = 10 KHz Ω = 25 KHz ⇒ fc + 2π Ω = 10 KHz fc 2π Ω = 15 KHz ⇒ π ⇒ Ω = 15 π 103 For FSK signals to be orthogonal. Ans: ‘d’ 16. Ans: ‘d’ ‘b’ ‘c’ 22.6 = 2.ACE Academy Electronics & Communication Engineering 1 45 A 2T 2 1 (Pe)FSK = erfc 0. it is ONOFF signaling. Ans: ‘d’ 17. Both representations are having same PSD plot. the signaling format is NRZ and in ASK. Ans: 20. 2 Ω Tb = n π ⇒ 2(15 × π × 10 3 ) Tb = n π ( ) → 30 × 103 × Tb should be an integer.6 2 2η 10 log 0. c – 2 . In PSK. Ans: ‘c’ 19. This is satisfied for Tb = 280 µ sec Ans: ‘d’ 18.
a 25. QPSK 27.46 Solutions to Communication Systems ACE Academy 23. a 28. the received is 0 1 0 1 1 1 (1 0 0 1 0 1 1 ______________________________________________ 0 0 0 0 1 1 π π π π 0 0 Ans : d 29. P0 + 8C 1 . (1 − P ) P = (1 – P)8 + 8P (1 – P)7 Ans: b 0) .(1P)8 . b(t) b1(t – T6) D b(t) b1(t) Phase Ans: 24. π . b(t) b1(t) ‘c’ 0 1 0 1 0 π b1(t) 1 0 0 π 0 0 π 1 1 0 Tb b(t) b1(t) 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 since the phase of the first two message bits is π. P(at most one error) = P(X=0) + P(X=1) 7 = 8C 0 . c 26.
Bit rate = 12 ( 2400 + 1200+1200) = 57.2288 × 106 R GP = c ≥ 100 Rb Rc ⇒ ≥ Rb 100 ⇒ 1. The total No.W is 5 × 106 × 8 = 200 2 × 105 With a five cell repeat pattern. c 12.2288 × 104 ≥ Rb ⇒ Rb ≤ 12. the no.of channels in 5 MHz B. (B.288 × 103 bps Ans: a 04. b 09. d 10 . of simultaneous channels is Ans : B 03. d 07. a .W)min = w+w+2w+3w = 7w Ans: ‘d’ 02. RC = 1.6 kbps Ans: c 05. Sample rate = 200+ 200 + 400 +800 = 1600 Hz Ans : a 06. Theoritical (B. 12 × 5 KHz + 1 KHz = 61 KHz 08.ACE Academy Electronics & Communication Engineering 47 Chapter – 6 (Objective Questions) 01.W)min = 1 (data rate) 2 1 = (4 × 2 × 5 KHz) 2 = 20 KHz 200 = 40 5 11.
i. and Rx. 1333 Hz. Tx. small objects or by other irregularities in a mobile communication systems. Bit rate = (2 × 4000 + 2× 8000 + 2× 8000 + 2×4000)8 = 384 kbps Ans: ‘d’ 16. 15. 14.e. lamp posts. b 20. c 19. 12 × 8 KHz Ans : c 17. buildings and walls b) Diffraction : This is due to the surfaces between Tx.48 Solutions to Communication Systems ACE Academy 13. that has sharp irregularities (edges) c) Scatterings: Due to foliage. street signs. Min. b All the Best. a 18. ACE Academy . c 21. scattering is due to rough surfaces. The path loss is due to a) Reflection : Due to surface of earth.