Steam Turbines

Jeddah Roadshow, 22 July 2006

Guido Raimondi Head of Steam Turbine Thermodynamics Design

STEAM TURBINES

New equipment Product development Repowering Concept Retrofit and modernization
Application examples

2

Steam Turbine Technology Evolution
Siemens AEG Sulzer BBC SACM Rateau AEI GEC

GE USA IMPULSE

Siemens-KWU
REACTION

D

Westinghouse
REACTION

USA

BBC
REACTION

CH

Alsthom
IMPULSE

F

GEC
IMPULSE

UK

1970

Ansaldo Toshiba Doosan

N. Pignone (1)

BHEL

ASEA STAL CEM
F. Tosi

Parsons

1987

1989 LMZ

Mitsubishi

ABB
De Pretto Ansaldo

GEC – Alsthom

Fuji Hitachi

Zamech

1998

1999

GE
IMPULSE

USA

Siemens Westinghouse
REACTION

D

Mitsubishi
REACTION

J

ABB-Alstom
REACTION

F
(2)

2000

Hitachi

Toshiba
J

J

ESG

Fuji

J

Ansaldo I
1) Industrial Turbines 2) Impulse on Nuclear Turbines

3

STEAM TURBINES

New equipment Product development Repowering Concept Retrofit and modernization
Application examples

4

IT 20 100 MIDDLE SIZE TURBINES .Ansaldo Energia Steam Turbines Product Range Type and Application GEOTHERMAL TURBINES .Combined Cyle .Combined Cycle 100 CT.Combined Heat and Power 300 RT (3-4cylinders) 0 100 200 Power output ( MW ) 300 1000 5 .Geothermal Cycle GT 20 INDUSTRIAL TURBINES .Steam Cycle .Steam cycle . MR (2-cylinders) 70 REHEAT TURBINES .Steam Cycle .Combined Heat and Power .Combined Cycle MT.

Gas Turbines 1 7 8 16 15 16 22 23 17 17 up to 600 MVA 24 18 20 19 18 HYDROGEN/WATER COOLED .Steam Turbines .Ansaldo Energia Turbogenerators – Product Range Type and Application AIR COOLED .Geothermal Turbines up to 300 MVA HYDROGEN COOLED 14 6 10 11 12 13 21 9 5 4 3 2 .Gas Turbines .Steam Turbines .Steam Turbines Up to 900 MVA 0 300 600 900 1200 Rating ( MVA ) 6 .

Also used for steam extraction in co-generation / district heating systems.Ansaldo Steam Turbines • • Modular concept – Ansaldo builds single-/multiple-casing ST’s to match output ranges up to 1000 MW for combined cycle and conventional fossil-fired power plants for both 50 and 60 Hz. desalination or chemical processes Frame turbines MT10C RT20C MT25S RT60S RT50S RT40S RT30C MT15C 7 .

Ansaldo Energia Steam Turbines Main Features Reaction Technology Reaction Technology No piston No piston cooling steam cooling steam Free-standing Free-standing LSB LSB HP shrink rings HP shrink rings Welded rotors Welded rotors Valves directly connected Valves directly connected One-piece One-piece 3D blades 3D blades 8 RT TURBINES – tandem compound double flow .

2 4.1 7.5 6.6 11.2 9.0 5.9 LSB type 23 25 33G 33 37 43 48 With lacing wire With lacing wire Laced Free standing Free standing Free standing Continuous coupling 23 25 30 36 60 60 60 60 3.0 6.7 With lacing wire With lacing wire Free standing Free standing 9 .2 4.Ansaldo Energia Steam Turbines Standard LP Sections LP type Speed Exhaust area per flow (1/s) (m2) 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 3.0 5.

Back-Pressure Steam Turbine for Heat and Power MTG20 PERFORMANCE DATA Output range Live steam pressure Live steam temperature Back pressure 100-250 MW 70-100 bar 540-565 °C 1-4 bar Operation mode Fixed and/or Sliding pressure DESIGN FEATURES Full arc or control stage admission Single / Double stop/control valve assembly One controlled extraction solution available for coogeneration application Downward or upward exhaust for low-profile plant Shipped assembled for fast installation 10 .

condensing Steam Turbine for C. pressure Condenser pressure 100-250 MW 70-100 bar 540-565 °C 1-4 bar 0.Controlled extraction.C. and Desalination Plant MTG20-C Controlled extraction Controlled extraction Single flow axial exhaust Single flow axial exhaust PERFORMANCE DATA Output range Live steam pressure Live steam temperature Controlled extrac.2 bar Operation mode Fixed and/or Sliding pressure DESIGN FEATURES Full arc or control stage admission Single / Double stop/control valve assembly One controlled extraction solution available for coogeneration application Downward or upward exhaust for low-profile plant HP shipped assembled for fast installation 11 .08-0.

035-0.80 bar 510-530 °C 0.No Reheat Steam Turbine for Combined Cycle MT10c PERFORMANCE DATA Output range Live steam pressure Live steam temperature Condenser pressure 90-160 MW 60.LSB 50 Hz 43” Welded rotor for material optimization Axial exhaust for low profile plant Modular LP design for optimized performance 12 . LP opposite flow configuration .25 bar Operation mode: Sliding pressure 1 + 1 ( 50 Hz ) Configuration 2 + 1 ( 50 Hz ) Configuration DESIGN TOPICS Full arc admission One stop / control valves assembly HP.

035 .43” LSB 60 Hz 36” 13 .25 bar Sliding pressure 1 + 1 ( 50 Hz.Reheat Steam Turbine for Combined Cycle MT15c MT10c PERFORMANCE DATA Output range: Live steam pressure: Live steam temperature: Reheat steam temperature: Condenser pressure: Operation mode: 90-150 MW 100-160 540-565 540-565 bar °C °C 0. 60 Hz ) Configuration ( GT 180 / 260 MW ) SINGLE FLOW HP SECTION Full arc admission for improved operation Single stop / Control valve assembly Shipped assembled for fast installation COMBINED IP-LP SECTION Axial exhaust for low profile plants Single combined reheat valve Welded rotor for material optimization Modular LP design for optimized performance LSB 50 Hz 33” .0.

25 bar 7-8 Operation mode: Fixed and/or sliding pressure Speed: 50 . of Extractions: 250-450 MW 170-280 540-580 540-600 bar °C °C 0.LSB 50 Hz : 33” .0.Reheat Steam Turbine for Fossil fired Power Plants (1/2) RT40s PERFORMANCE DATA Output range: Live steam pressure: Live steam temperature: Reheat steam temperature: Condenser pressure: No.05 .LSB 60 Hz : 36” 14 . 43” .60 Hz HP SECTION Separated HP section for high efficiency Full arc admission or control stage admission for high efficiency at partial load Welded rotor solution for material optimization Two stop / control valve assembly Shipped assembled for fast installation IP SECTION Separated IP section for high efficiency Double casing design Two combined reheat valves Welded rotor solution for material optimization Shipped assembled for fast installation LP SECTION Double flow design Bearing pedestals connected directly to turbine foundation Cast inner casing with 360 ° inlet scroll to optimize steam flow Modular design for optimized performance .

Reheat Steam Turbine for Fossil fired Power Plants (2/2) RT60s PERFORMANCE DATA Output range: Live steam pressure: Live steam temperature: Reheat steam temperature: Condenser pressure: 400-700 170-250 540-580 540-600 MW bar °C °C 0.LSB 50 Hz : 33” . 43” .25 bar Operation mode: Fixed and/or sliding pressure operation Speed: 50 .LSB 60 Hz : 36” 15 .0.60 Hz HP SECTION Separated HP section for high efficiency Full arc admission Two stop / control valve assembly Welded rotor solution for material optimization Shipped assembled for fast installation IP SECTION Separated IP section for high efficiency Double casing design Double flow design Two combined reheat valves Welded rotor solution for material optimization Shipped assembled for fast installation LP SECTION Four flow design Bearing pedestals connected directly to turbine foundation Cast inner casing with 360 ° inlet scroll to optimize steam flow Modular design for optimized performance .035 .

Ansaldo Steam Turbines Experience List Application Fossil fueled power plants Nuclear power plants Combined Cycles Waste to Energy power plants Geothermal power plants Industrial plants Total Units 344 12 89 26 130 581 1.176 Power( MW) 65.423 87.118 5.882 6.100 16 .180 7095 402 2.

Erection. including BBC/ABB fleet – Subcontract components manufacturing to third parties – Grant licenses to third parties 17 • After Termination Ansaldo has the right to .Cooperation and Technology Transfer Agreement between ABB/Alstom and AEN • • Validity: 1989-2003 Products – Steam Turbines > 25 MW – Generators > 10 MVA (designed according to ABB/Alstom-CH technology) • Know-how – Ansaldo had full access to ABB/Alstom-CH technology relating to Design. Quality Control. Manufacture. Commissioning – Continue to use ABB/Alstom-CH technology on new units and for retrofit/modification of old units. R&D.

STEAM TURBINES New equipment Product development Repowering Concept Retrofit and modernization Application examples 18 .

Efficiency Improvement Advanced New Blading Design HP-IP HIGH PERFORMANCE BLADING UPDATING FOR COMBINED CYCLE APPLICATIONS TEMPERATURE DISTRIBUTION ON BLADING SURFACE BLADING DEVELOPMENT FOR ULTRA SUPERCRITICAL APPLICATIONS 19 .

Efficiency Improvement 48” Last Stage Bucket Design L-0 rotating blade 3-D model Development of a new Last Stage Steel Blade 48” length with an annular area of 12 m2 (JRP Ansaldo Energia – Skoda Power) 3-D Navier-Stokes analysis 20 .

STEAM TURBINES New equipment Product development Repowering Concept Retrofit and modernization Application examples 21 .

atmosphere. more than 61% of available energy in the fuel is lost. • The high energy content in exhaust gases can be used to produce high temperature steam by 19% HRSG • and produce more kW in a new Steam Turbine • Transformation of an open cycle in a combined cycle reduces the lost energy to less than 44 % • The Net Efficiency of a combined cycle is higher than: than: 32.5% 56 % 10% 22 . the high temperature combustion gases are exhausted to atmosphere.Repowering From open cycle to Combined Cycle • In open cycle GT is alone. lost.

Steam Cycle Unit In a steam cycle unit the Net Efficiency is about 39% The steam flow distribution is mSH=100% Steam Turbine & Generator mHRH=90% mLP=80% mcond=70% Condenser Steam Generator Feedwatwer cycle 23 .

C. (1+1 configuration) mHRH=55% 1 . the Net Efficiency is higher than cycle.ST steam path could be optimized.Repowering From Steam Cycle to Combined Cycle Conversion of a conventional unit in C.Piping is new 10% mSH=40% mcond=65% 32. 56 % 24 .Deaerator is new 5 . extraction pipes blanked 3 .Steam Generator is replaced by GT and HRSG.Condenser is maintained 4 . Feedwater cycle is removed 2 .5% In combined cycle.

STEAM TURBINES New equipment Product development Repowering Concept Retrofit and modernization Application examples 25 .

Steam Turbine Technology Evolution Siemens AEG Sulzer BBC SACM Rateau AEI GEC GE USA IMPULSE Siemens-KWU REACTION D Westinghouse REACTION USA BBC REACTION CH Alsthom IMPULSE F GEC IMPULSE UK 1970 Ansaldo Toshiba Doosan N. Pignone (1) BHEL ASEA STAL CEM F. Tosi Parsons 1987 1989 LMZ Mitsubishi ABB De Pretto Ansaldo GEC – Alsthom Fuji Hitachi Zamech 1998 1999 GE IMPULSE USA Siemens Westinghouse REACTION D Mitsubishi REACTION J ABB-Alstom REACTION F (2) 2000 Hitachi Toshiba J J ESG Fuji J Ansaldo I 1) Industrial Turbines 2) Impulse on Nuclear Turbines 26 .

Ansaldo Steam Turbine Technologies General Electric General Electric 1949 .2003 Westinghouse Westinghouse 1949 .1988 Ansaldo Componenti ESG ESG Franco Tosi Franco Tosi AnsaldoEnergia AnsaldoEnergia 27 .1989 BBC //ABB //Alstom BBC ABB Alstom 1989 .

Steam Turbines Retrofit and Rehabilitation Non-OEM Fleet Market for Ansaldo GE IMPULSE USA Toshiba Hitachi J J Westinghouse REACTION USA Mitsubishi J ABB-Alstom REACTION F BBC CEM CH F 28 .

g. through the increase of ST efficiency (e. without changing steam parameters. by adopting enlarged LP flows to reduce exhaust losses) Additionally.Retrofit • The modification/change of the existing turbine hardware into a new one of updated design in order to improve thermal performance (IEC Code 60953-3) Performance improving is needed when: – The steam turbine has to match the steam parameters of a new Combined Cycle repowering the original fossil fired one – The steam turbine output power has to suit the capacity of upgraded boilers – The steam plant heat rate has to be improved. the retrofit provides improved reliability and life time • • 29 .

inner casing) – Replacement of one or more complete turbine sections 30 . the retrofit hardware can include: – Partial replacement of blading on existing rotor and casing – Replacement of one or more complete inner blocks (steam path.Retrofit solutions • According to the expected effects. rotor.

Retrofit technologies • • • Two technologies – reaction type blading (drum construction) – impulse type (disc and diaphragm construction) Ansaldo has developed updates for both technologies and selected the most cost-effective retrofit solution This means that machines originally designed for impulse operation can be totally or partially retrofitted with impulse or reaction design and viceversa Original – Impulse type Retrofit – Reaction type (HP-IP section) 31 .

Retrofit process Example of retrofit of non-OEM equipment 32 .

Longer last stage blade to reduce exhaust losses and convert them to additional power output. 2. Improved gland seal arrangements to reduce interstage leakage.Updated technology Performance improvements can be realized through the introduction of updated steam path technology 1. 33 . particularly important for short HP and IP blades The application of “brush” tip seals reduces the amount of steam leakages and improves the stage efficiency in the HP-IP turbine sections 3. Three dimensional blading (3D) on HP-IP section to reduce profile and secondary losses.

STEAM TURBINES New equipment Product development Repowering Concept Retrofit and modernization Application examples 34 .

operates now in CC. Year: 1966 Retrofit Solution Reason for retrofit The existing 250 MW unit. previously operating in steam cycle.5 MW. 1 GT + 1 ST configuration. Effects • Nominal rating: 129. Scope of supply Complete replacement of the old HP-IP section (impulse design) with a new HP-IP turbine (reaction design) connected to the existing LP section. • High temperature inlet 565°C/565°C. 35 .Chivasso 2 OEM: Ansaldo (GE licence) 1 x 250 MW Comm.

Effects • Nominal rating: 124.1966 BB070 Retrofit Solution Reason for retrofit The two existing 156 MW units. operate now in CC. lic. • Gain of 5.) 2 x 156 MW Comm. Year: 1964 . 1 GT + 1 ST configuration. Tosi (Westingh.Porto Corsini 3 – 4 OEM: F. 36 .6 MW in power output with reference to the original design. Scope of supply A complete new 33” LP inner block with larger exhaust area in the existing LP outer casing. previously operating in conventional cycle.5 MW.

Scope of supply A complete new 43” LP inner block with larger exhaust area in the existing LP outer casing. 2 GT+1 ST configuration. now operates in CC. Effects • Nominal rating: 267 MW. previously operating in conventional cycle.5” OEM: Ansaldo (GE licence) 1 x 320 MW Comm. • Gain of 8 MW in power output with reference to the original deisgn. 37 .Torre Valdaliga Sud 2 2x33. Year: 1968 Retrofit Solution 2x43” Reason for retrofit The existing 320 MW unit.

1975 BB073 Retrofit Solution Reason for retrofit LP section upgrading in order to improve the heat rate of the unit. 38 .Fusina 3 – 4 OEM: F. rotor.5 MW.) 2 x 320 MW Comm. lic. Tosi (Westingh. inner casing) with larger exhaust area in the existing LP outer casing. Year: 1973 . • Gain of 8 MW in power output with reference to the original design. Scope of supply A complete new 43” LP inner block (new steam path. Effects • Nominal rating: 337.

T. Westinghouse F.T. / /Westinghouse F. / /Westinghouse F. / /Westinghouse F.T. Westinghouse Ansaldo Ansaldo F.T.T.T.5 --New HP Rotor and diaphragms 1 x 66. Westinghouse 4 x 120 4 x 120 2 x 123 2 x 123 1 x 130 1 x 130 2 x 120 2 x 120 1 x 267 1 x 267 2 x 350 2 x 350 TORREVALDALIGA SUD 2 Ansaldo TORREVALDALIGA SUD 2 Ansaldo FUSINA 3-4 FUSINA 3-4 F. / /Westinghouse F.T.T. Westinghouse 39 . //Westinghouse F.T.T.T. / /Westinghouse F. Westinghouse 2 x 60 2 x 60 2 x 120 2 x 120 1999 1999 2001 2001 Italy Italy CASSANO D’ADDA 1 CASSANO D’ADDA 1 Ansaldo Ansaldo 1 x 80 1 x 80 2000 2000 2001 2001 2002 2002 2002 2002 2002 2002 2006 2006 2001 2001 2002 2002 2003 2003 2003 2003 2003 2003 2007 2007 Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy LA CASELLA 1-4 LA CASELLA 1-4 PORTO CORSINI PORTO CORSINI CHIVASSO 2 CHIVASSO 2 PRIOLO GARGALLO 1-2 PRIOLO GARGALLO 1-2 F. Westinghouse F.T.Ansaldo Steam Turbine Retrofits Experience List Order Order year year Start-up Start-up year year Country Country Plant Plant Manifacturer ( (OEM ) ) Manifacturer OEM Units / /MW Units MW Scope of Supply Scope of Supply 1990 1990 1994 1994 Greece Greece LAVRION LAVRION General Electric General Electric 1 x 66.5 New HP Rotor and diaphragms --New LP Rotor and diaphragms New LP Rotor and diaphragms 4 x 120 4 x 120 --New HP Rotor and diaphragms New HP Rotor and diaphragms --New IP Rotor and diaphragms New IP Rotor and diaphragms --New LP Rotor and diaphragms New LP Rotor and diaphragms --New 1°HP nozzle stage New 1°HP nozzle stage --New HP-IP section New HP-IP section --New LP last stage blading New LP last stage blading --New HP-IP rotor and diaphragms New HP-IP rotor and diaphragms --New LP rotor and diaphragms New LP rotor and diaphragms --New HP blading New HP blading --New LP inner block New LP inner block --New HP-IP section New HP-IP section --New HP blading New HP blading --New LP inner block New LP inner block New LP inner block New LP inner block 1990 1990 1994 1994 Argentina Argentina COSTANERA COSTANERA British Thompson-Houston British Thompson-Houston 1990 1990 1998 1998 2002 2002 2000 2000 Italy Italy Italy Italy PIETRAFITTA PIETRAFITTA LA SPEZIA 1-2 LA SPEZIA 1-2 F.

Steam Turbines Jeddah Roadshow. 22 July 2006 Guido Raimondi Head of ST Thermodynamics Design .

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