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Mod 10 essay question

1) Describe in details the process of obtaining a Prt-66 Basic License & then
describe how you can obtain an extension to the basic license & how you
can obtain a type approval & how you can add additional types?

Basic license

There are 3 main requirements that i must meet before i can obtain a Part 66
basic license. The 3 main requirements are as follows;

1) Age;

The minimum age to hold a part 66 license is 18 years old. In order to
certify however i have to be 21 years old.

2) Knowledge;

I would need to have successfully completed all the exams that is required
based on the syllabus in EASA part 66. The amount of exams would
depend on the modules required based on which category that i am
applying for. I would have either self studied or trained at an approved
147 training organization. I would need to sit for all those exams at either
an approved 147 centre or a competent authority exam centre.

3) Experience;

After satisfying both the age and knowledge requirements, I would need to
submit my proof of work experience in the form of logbooks. The amount
would depend on the category that I am applying for. Reductions in
experience requirements are given to people who have trained in a part
147 training organization or skilled workers.

Once all 3 requirements have been meet, an application via form 19 together
with the logbook conforming experience and course completion certificates(if
applicable) be made to the competent authority.

Type rating

The basic pre-requisite for a type rating is the basic license itself. The type rating
only applies to category B1, B2 & C as the category A license does not contain
type ratings. There are 3 main requirements which i have to meet.

1) Appropriate Training

I must have attended a type course at an approved 147 organization which
cover both theory and practical aspects.

2) Examination

I must have passed all the required examinations in the type course
3) Experience

I must submit experience logbooks with a minimum of 4 months of working
on that particular aircraft type

To apply for the license, i would need to submit the appropriate application form
with the required fees to the quality department. I would need to be at least 21
years of age to exercise my privileges.

Additional type approvals

For any additional type approvals, the procedure is the same as the first type
approval procedure. Any additional type approvals are independent of any type

Extensions to the basic license

I would need to satisfy 2 main requirements

1) Knowledge

I would need to satisfy the knowledge requirements of the Engineer Licence
Guidance Document which would include sitting for additional exams

2) Experience

I would need to satisfy the experience requirements as per the Engineer
License Guidance Document.

Once i have satisfy both those requirements, I can apply for the extension via
form 19 with the appropriate fees.
2) Describe the four annexes of regulation (EC) 2024/2003, their purpose &

Regulation 2024/2003 establishes implementing rules for the continuing
airworthiness of aircraft & aeronautical products, parts, applications & for the
approval of organizations and personnel involved. It is applicable to all
aircraft on the registers of EASA member states except military, customs,
police or similar services & to aircraft stated in Annex 2 of the basic
regulation. It consist of 4 annexes which are Annex 1(Part M), Annex 2(Part
145), Annex 3(Part 66) & Annex 4(Part 147). Each annex is made up of 2
parts which are section A(procedures for personnel and organizations) and
section B(procedures for competent authorities). Each annex is further
clarified by the Acceptable Means of Compliance (AMC) & the Guidance

Annex 1(Part M)

It establishes the common technical requirements & administrative
procedures for ensuring the continuing airworthiness of aircraft.

Relationship with Annex 2(Part 145) – for all large aircraft above 5700 Kg
MTWA or operated for Commercial air transport, it must be maintained by an
approved by a Part 145 organization.

Relationship with Annex 3(Part 66) – All crs has to be issued by a Part 66
approved personnel.

Part M is currently not applicable to non Commercial Air Transport aircraft
until 28 September 2008.

Annex 2(Part 145)

It establishes the requirements that need to be met by an organization to
qualify for the issue or continuation of an approval for the maintenance of
aircraft and components. It is currently not applicable to large aircraft not
used for commercial Air transport until 28 sept 2008.

Relationship with Annex 3(part 66) – all certification for maintenance has to
be done by a part 66 qualified personnel

Annex 3 (Part 66)

It establishes the requirements for the issue of aircraft maintenance license
and the conditions of its validity & use. It is currently not applicable to aircraft
below 5700 Kg MTWA until 28 Sept 2008.
Relationship with Annex 4(Part 147) –

Training for basic license can be either be done at a Part 147 organization or
by self studying.

Training for a Type course for category A can be done by the 145 or the 147

Training for a Type course for category B1, B2 and C is by an approved 147
which is mandatory

Annex 4(Part 147)

It establishes the requirements to be met by organization seeking to conduct
training and examination of personnel as specified in Part 66.
3) You are a Part 145 company. What aspects would need to be audited by
the quality department to retain the company approval & what human
factor aspects would be involved. An organogram would help your



A typical organizational organogram would look like the above.The primary
purpose of a quality system is to enable the organization to ensure that it can
deliver a safe product and that the organization remains in compliance with the
requirements. The quality department would normally conduct independent
audits on all the departments based on the audit plan which is laid down in the
company exposition.

Aspects that need to be audited:

1) The facilities to carry out planned work

There should be segregated workshops and bays protected from the
weather. There should also be a large enough work area with proper
working environments which take into account all human factors which
could degrade employee productivity.(lighting, dust, noise)

2) Approved personnel

There should be an accountable manager to ensure that the organization
has enough resources to carry out all planned work. There should also be
a person to monitor the quality system.

3) Enough certifying staff
There should be sufficient part 66 qualified personnel to carry out all
certifying requirements

4) Enough equipment, tools and material

There should be sufficient equipment, test sets, calibrated tools & material
to carry out all task

5) Procedures for acceptance of components

There should be proper procedures in place to ensure only approved
components are accepted into the stores & used on the aircraft.

6) Maintenance data is current & updated

This is to ensure only up to date & current data is used for the
maintenance of aircraft

7) Production Planning to ensure correct planning with resources

This is to ensure that all aircraft are maintained to the limits of the check
cycles as stated in the maintenance schedule of each aircraft to ensure
continued airworthiness

8) Certification of Maintenance

9) A proper system to store maintenance records

This is to ensure that all maintenance records & the history of
maintenance of the aircraft is kept for the periods stated in the

10) A adequate occurrence reporting system

This is to ensure that any accidents or incidents is reported to the proper

11) A safety and quality policy

Once the audit has been completed, a feedback report which contains the details
of all the findings, recommendations for the findings, datelines and date of the
next audit will be prepared & submitted via the Quality Feedback system to the
accountable manager. There will be regular meetings with between the
accountable manager and heads of each department to ensure that any findings
are rectified & complied with.

Human Factor aspects
Human factors plays a very important role in the operation of a part 145
organization. Because of that, human factors training are now a requirement for
all personnel in the organisation. This training should be conducted for all
personnel as part as a continuation training a minimum of every 2 years. Besides
that all other human factors like lighting, the level of noise, dust and etc must
also be takes into consideration when this audits are conducted.

4) Describe the purpose of the ANO, BCAR, Commission Regulation(EC)
2024/2003 & Commission Regulation (EC) 1702/2003 & describe the
relationship btw them.


United Kingdom European Community

Legislation – Create & empower UK Parliament European

Civil Aviation Act Council Regulation 216/2008

Civil Aviation Authority European Aviation
Safety Agency

Annex 2 Excluded Aircraft

Requirements UK Parliament European

Binding by law Air Navigation Order (EC) 1702/2003

Prt 21

(EC) 2042/2003

Annex 1 Part M

Annex 2 Part 145

Annex 3 Part 66

Annex 4 Part 147
Acceptable Means of Compliance BCAR EASA

And guidance material. CS 23, 25, 27, AMC,
GM, etc

Not Binding by Law

The Civil Aviation Act and (EC) 216/2008 are both equal in which they have been
debated in parliament and has been passed as legislation. This would be the
principal act of parliament which regulates the civil aviation industry in both UK
& Europe. Both of this have allowed and given power to the creation of CAA &
EASA respectively. Currently as it stands, all aircraft expect those stated in (EC)
216/2008 are subject to the implementing rules and certification specifications of
EASA. This means that all those aircraft classified as non-easa aircraft in (EC)
216/2008 would still be subjected to the rules and requirements of the civil
aviation act and ANO.

The ANO, (EC) 1702/2003 and (EC) 2024/2003 are the principal statutory
instrument in regulating air navigation. They are binding by law. They contain all
the requirements which need to be meet in the civil aviation industry.

Although the ANO, (EC) 1702/2003 and (EC) 2024/2003 establishes in law the
basis for the regulation of the civil aviation industry , it does not provide specific
details of what is to be achieved. This information is provided in publications
such as BCAR, EASA Certification Specifications, AMC and GM. This are
considered the acceptable means of compliance or guidance material which are
not binding by law.


ANO – is the principal statutory instrument regulating air navigation. It
establishes in law the basis for the regulation of the civil aviation industry.

BCAR – Comprises of minimum technical requirements and administrative
procedures that form the basis for the manufacture of aircraft, the approval of
equipment, the approval of design, manufacturing and maintenance
organisations, the approval of personnel, certification and continued
airworthiness procedures.

(EC) 1702/2003 – lays down implementing rules for the airworthiness and
environmental certification of aircraft and related products, parts and appliances
as well as for the certification of design and production.

(EC) 2024/2003 – for the continuing airworthiness of aircraft and aeronautical
products, parts and appliances and the approval of organizations and personnel
involved in these task

(EC) 216/2008 – common rules in the field of civil aviation and establishing a
5) Describe the procedures and requirements of a maintenance organization
obtaining a part 145 approval

The application of a part 145 approval should be made to the competent
authority via EASA Form 2. For organizations having their principal
business in Member states, the component authority would refer to the
authority designated by that member state and for organizations having
their principal business located in a third country, the competent authority
would be EASA.

When applying for a part 145, there a few different approvals which can
be applied for. An organizational may be granted an approval ranging
from a single class rating with limitations to all classes and ratings with
limitations. The different type of classes are as follows;

A Category ‘A’ class – Is for maintenance of aircraft or component
(including engines/apu) only while such components are fitted to
the aircraft.

A Category ‘B’ class – Is for maintenance of uninstalled engine/apu
and engine/apu components while such components are fitted to
the engine/apu.
A Category C class – Is for maintenance of uninstalled components
expect engine/apu intended for fitment on aircraft or engine/apu.

A Category D class – Is for non-destructive inspection

When submitting an application for a part 145 approval, the organization
needs to submit a maintenance organization exposition (MOE) which
details the scope of work deemed to constitute the approval showing how
the organization intends to comply with part 145 requirements. The
exposition should contain the following, a general organization structure,
details of the management team and their roles, the organization safety
and quality policy, the maintenance procedures of the organization and
additional line maintenance procedures if applicable. This exposition
should be amended as necessary to remain an up to date description of
the organization where any subsequent amendment would need to be
approved by the competent authority.

Upon submission of the application and MOE, the competent shall verify
that the procedures specified in the MOE complies with all the
requirements of part 145. This compliance will be verified via audits. The
audit report form should be EASA Form 6. Any findings should be recorded
in this form as either being level 1 or level 2 findings. The competent
authority shall record all findings, closure actions( action to close the
findings) and recommendations. Once all the findings have been
corrected, the initial approval can be issued.

The competent authority shall then formally approve the MOE and will
issue EASA Form 3 approval certificate which includes the approval
ratings. The conditions of the approval will also be stated in Form 3. This
will only be done once the competent authority is fully satisfied that the
organization is in full compliance with part 145. The reference number of
each organization shall be a unique numeric number which will be stated
on Form 3. The validity of the approval is for an unlimited duration.

Any changes to name, address, approval scope and rating and new base
facilities should be notified to the competent authority so changes to the
approval certificate can made in accordance to the required procedures.
6) Describe the requirements for the issue of a part 66 category A license
and the procedures to obtain authorisation on this license?

A category A license permits the holder to issue certificates of release to
service following minor scheduled line activities and simple defect
rectification within the limits of tasks specifically endorsed in their
authorisation. The certification privileges are strictly restricted to work
that the authorisation holder has personally performed in a part 145

The A license is divided into four sub-categories which are;

A1 – Aeroplanes Turbine – Engines

A2 - Aeroplanes Piston – Engines

A3 – Helicopter Turbine –Engines

A4 – Helicopter Piston – Engines
Basic License

Application for the basic license should be done via Form 19E to the
competent authority. There are three main things an applicant must
satisfy before being granted a Category A basic license;

1) Age;

The minimum age to hold a part 66 license is 18 years old. In order to
certify however the applicant would have to be 21 years old.

2) Knowledge;

The applicant would need to have successfully completed all the exams
that is required based on the syllabus in EASA part 66. The applicant
would have either self studied or trained at an approved 147 training
organization. The applicant would need to sit for all those exams at either
an approved 147 centre or a competent authority exam centre.

3) Experience;

After satisfying both the age and knowledge requirements, the applicant
would need to submit his/her proof of work experience in the form of
logbooks. The current experience requirement for a category A basic
license is 3 years of practical maintenance experience on operating
aircraft if the applicant doesn’t have any previous relevant technical
training. This can be reduced to 2 years if the applicant has had training
considered relevant by the competent authority as a skilled worked. It can
be further reduced to only 1 year if the applicant has completed an
approved 147 organisation basic training course. At least 1 year of this
required practical experience must be recent maintenance experience on
the aircraft of the category A basic license being applied for.

Once all 3 requirements have been meet, an application via form 19E
together with the logbook conforming experience and course completion
certificates(if applicable) be made to the competent authority.

Authorisation on this license

The holder of a category A basic license may only exercise their
certification privileges on a specific aircraft type following the satisfactory
completion of relevant category A aircraft task training carried out by an
approved 145 or 147 organization. This training shall include practical
hands on training and theoretical training as appropriate for each task
authorised. Satisfactory completion of training shall be demonstrated by
an examination or by a workplace assessment carried out by the approved
145 or 147 organisation which will then issue an authorisation for the
applicant on his basic license.
7) What are the requirements for cockpit voice recorder in commercial
transport a/c? Discuss the requirements to release an aircraft without a

The cockpit voice recorder (CVR) is designed to record crew conversation
and communication into a memory unit in flight and on ground.

Requirements of non commercial air transport aircraft

For any aircraft which is required by the ANO Schedule 4 to be equipped
with a CVR, the CVR shall start recording from the start of the takeoff run
to the end of the landing run. It should be able to record and preserve the
last 30 minutes of its operation on not less than 4 separate channels.

Requirements for non commercial helicopters
For any helicopter which is required by the ANO Schedule 4 to be
equipped with a CVR, the CVR shall always start recording from the time
the rotors first turn for the purpose of taking off until the rotors are next
stopped. It should be able to record and preserve the last 60 minutes of its
operation on not less than 3 separate channels.

Requirements for commercial air transport aircraft first issued with an
individual Certificate of Airworthiness on or after 1 st April 1998 and above
5700 kg

Under this requirement, the CVR shall record in within a time scale the
communication of flight crew on the cockpit using radio, aeroplanes
interphone system and public address system. It should also record the
aural environment in the cockpit and the voice/audio signals identifying
navigation or approach aids introduced into the headset or speaker. The
CVR shall be able of retaining information recorded during at least the last
2 hours of its operation. The CVR must start automatically to record prior
to the aeroplane moving under its own power and continue to record until
the termination of the flight when the aircraft is no longer capable of
moving under its own power. The CVR should also have a device to assist
in locating it in water.

For all other aircraft which are used for commercial air transport but do
not fall under the above category, all the above applies with one exception
where instead of being able to retain information recorded during at least
the last 2 hours of its operation, it only has to retain information recorded
during at least the last 30 minutes of its operation.

Requirements to release an aircraft without a CVR

With regards to the ANO, it stated that an aircraft shall not be required to
carry the CVR if before takeoff the equipment is found to be
unserviceable. The aircraft can fly in accordance with the arrangements
made with the CAA. Those arrangements are normally contained in an
aircraft MEL and are specific to that particular aircraft type. Taking a
Boeing 777- 200 aircraft for example, the CVR may be inoperative
provided the flight data recorder operates normally and repairs to the CVR
needs to be carried out within the stated interval in the MEL which is
within 72 hours. On top of that, maintenance personnel are required to
place a placard indicating the CVR is in-operative on the CVR panel to
indicate to the flight crew that the CVR is unserviceable.
8) There is a deferred defect that affects both auto-land and ETOPS
capability. Describe in detail, how you would ensure any replacement
parts are compatible and how you would return the aircraft to service.

ETOPS stand for extended range twin operations are those flights
conducted over a route that contains a point further than an hour flying
time at the approved one engine inoperative cruise speed from an
adequate airport.
Auto-land capability means a system which allows precision instrument
approach to touchdown which is performed by the autopilot system with
instrument landing system(ILS) assist.

The Minimum equipment list describes items affecting ETOPS and
Autoland capability. In order to ensure operational integrity, ETOPS and
Autoland flight, a more restrictive MEL is required. Some of these items
when deferred with cause the aircraft status to be downgraded to either a
non-etops aircraft or no autoland capability respectively.

The following flowchart will help enhance the troubleshooting process
when dealing with ETOPS or autoland.




Gather Information

As the defect has already been deferred, i will refer to the deferred defect
logbook to get more information on the particular problem. If the problem has
already been identified and the problem just requires a replacement of a
component, i would check to see if the replacement part has already been pre-
ordered. If it has i would refer to the appropriate maintenance manual for the
procedures in carry out the replacement. If the problem has been identified but
the replacement spares have not been ordered, i would refer to the appropriate
illustrated parts catalog for the part number of the component i require. This
process is quite critical because the part i order has to etops compatible. The
IPC will state if the part is etops or non-etops items. I would then proceed in
ordering the part.


Upon receiving the component from the stores, i would check the new item part
number, modification status, effectivity and cross refer it to the IPC to ensure it is
the correct part. I would then perform a visual inspection on the component to
ensure it is not damaged and serviceable. I would then proceed in carrying out
the replacement of the component as per the procedures set out in the aircraft
maintenance manual. Once the component has been installed, i would label the
unserviceable component which i had removed and return to the particular
workshop or manufacturer or even the store depending on which was necessary.

Inspection and Functional

After completing the replacement, i would do a final inspection to ensure that all
the work that is required has been carried out before proceeding to do a
functional test. Before carrying out a functional test, i will ensure that all safety
aspects that need to be done have been carried out. IF the component requires a
duplicate inspection, i would ensure that a equally qualified maintenance
personnel has done a duplicate inspection.

Clearing of paperwork

Once all the functional have been carried out and are found satisfactory, i as an
ETOPS qualified maintenance personnel will certify the all the required
paperwork. As this is a deferred defect, i would have to clear the deferred defect
logbook and technical log where necessary. As this task also involved tht
replacement of a component, i would also have to enter the component change
details, defect item number, serial number off and on, part number off and on. If
the task involved a duplicate inspection, i would have to certify the 1 st part of the
duplicate and ensure the 2nd part of the duplicate is certified by the engineer who
carried out the inspection. Since etops is critical, it may require a verification
flight to ensure the serviceability of the aircraft. If this is required, i would make
a technical log entry and defer it by raising a defer defect logbook entry. I would
raise a notice to crew requesting them to carry out an ETOPS verification flight.
The captain will record in the defect column of the technical log sector record
after completing the 90 minutes of flight, ”ETOPS verification flight satisfactory
for xxx minutes(where xxx minutes is the maximum ETOPS diversion time that
the aircraft is capable of. If it takes longer than 90 minutes to evaluate, the
aircraft would be dispatched as a non ETOPS flight. For satisfactory verification
flight, the aircraft defer defect logbook and notice to crew will be cleared at the
next station using the technical log sector record if the verification was
satisfactory. The aircraft defer defect logbook will remain open for unsatisfactory
verification flight.

If the part replaced was not an approved etops part, i would do the replacement
of the part as the replacement section and then certify the paperwork as a non
etops flight.