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IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, Vol. 10, No.

1, January 1995 315


Francisco de Leon Adam Semlyen
Instituto Politknico Nrtcional - E.S.I.M.E. Department of Electrical 'and Computer Engineering
Editicio No. 5 , 3er Piso University of Toronto
07738 - MCxico, D.F., MCxico Toronto, Ontario, Canada, MSS 1A4

Abstract - The paper describes a procedure for the representation of dependent, rather than to include - as done in many classical texts -
hysteresis in the laminations of power transformers in the simulation the effects of eddy currents in the laminations.
of electromagnetic transient phenomena. The model is based on the
recognition that in today's iron cores the hysteresis loops are narrow Review of Existing Models
and therefore the modeling details are only important in relation to the There are basically three types of vaguely defined approaches and
incurred losses and the associated attenuation effects. The resultant originators in modeling of hysteresis in ferromagnetic materials. In the
model produces losses proportional to the square of the flux density, first group we have the physicists. They primarily look at the physical
as expected from measurement data. It is formulated as a simple, properties of the material, i.e., domain alignments, wall movements,
linear relationship between the variation B -Brev of the magnetic flux spin rotations, etc. In the second group are those working in machine
density B after a reversal point B,, and the resulting additional field designing based on electromagnetic fields. They prefer a macroscopic
intensity H , . This idea can be easily implemented in existing description of hysteresis using mathematical models to predict the
transformer models with or without frequency dependent modeling of B-H curve but without completely neglecting the physics of the
eddy currents in the laminations. It has been found that in many material. In the third group we have power system engineers. They
simulation tests the representation of hysteresis is not necessary and need equivalent circuits to be introduced in existing computer
those situations have been described where the modeling of hysteresis programs. Their base for modeling is the B-H curve obtained by tests.
appears to be more meaningful. The circuits should predict the losses in transient and steady state
conditions. The purpose of the paper is to contribute to this last
Keywords: Transformer modeling, Electromagnetic transients, approach.
Hysteresis, Ferroresonance.
The bibliographic review presented in the Appendix is mainly
INTRODUCTION devoted to models of the second two groups and especially to the last
one, after 1970. Most of the publications pre-1970 can be found in the
Transformer inodeling for the simulation of electromagnetic transients references of 131.
has made significant advances in the last decade. A fairly complete
list of references in this field can be found in 111. This reference In the following we introduce, justify, and describe the new
summarizes our contributions to the field with the remark that it hysteresis model. Then we show its effects on different types of
covers all the major phenomena that are relevant for transformer transformer transients.
modeling with the exception, however, of the dynamic representation
of hysteresis in the iron core. The main reason why this has been left DYNAMIC HYSTERESIS MODELING
out is the complexity of the phenomena, where the nonlinearity of
saturation is coupled with the complicated dependence of the magnetic Fundamental Remarks
field intensity on the present and past values of the flux density, Hysteresis is a very complex phenomenon. Curves showing the
characteristic to hysteresis. Numerous studies exist, however, related dynamic relation between B and H illustrate that the hysteresis related
to hysteresis [2]-[53] and successful achievements have been reported component Hhys, of the magnetic field intensity H is strongly
in the implementation of some models in the representation of dependent on the magnetization history. In figure 1 we show a
transformers. Because of their significance, we present a fairly measured hysteresis characteristic showing minor loops taken from
extensive overview of these models in the Appendix at the end of the reference [26], Figure 7. It is not our purpose to analyze or describe
paper. this problem. We make however two basic observations relative to the
A general characteristic of most existing hysteresis models is problem of hysteresis as it applies to power transformers:
their sophistication and complexity. This may slow down the 0 As a result of technological improvements, the iron core laminations
computer simulation of transients. A careful examination of the have at present much reduced losses compared to past constructions.
rationale for the representation of hysteresis in transformer models and These are generally only a fraction of one percent (based on
of the plots showing results of measurements of dynamic hysteresis transformer rating). Therefore, the figures that describe hysteresis
has lead us to the conclusion that a very simple hysteresis model could should be viewed as having increased scales for H in order to exhibit
be adequate for achieving the correct representation of the attenuation the details; when, however, the magnetization curve is displayed with
of transients that can be attributed to hysteresis. We are thus in the a sufficient portion of the saturated branches, then the hysteresis loops
position of presenting a simple and efficient hysteresis model to narrow down to a very thin strip so that their details become
supplement the fairly complete transformer model we have previously immaterial and only the associated losses and attenuation remain
described 111. relevant for the simulation of transients (see Figure 2). Figure 6 of
We make from the outset the following clarification regarding reference [26] presents a measured full cycle that shows the described
the terminology we use: the word "dynamic" in relation to hysteresis features (very narrow cycle). Therefore, in what follows, we shall
is used to indicate and emphasize that the phenomena are history focus primarily on an adequate reproduction of the hysteresis related
losses and give preference to simplicity over precision as the latter has
only negligible influence on the magnitude of the magnetizing current.
94 SM 407-7 PWRD A p a p e r recommended and a p p r o v e d Magnetizing curves have branches with asymptotically finite slopes
by t h e IEEE T r a n s f o r m e r s Committee of t h e IEEE Power at increasing flux densities. It may therefore appear that hyperbolic
E n g i n e e r i n g S o c i e t y f o r p r e s e n t a t i o n a t t h e IEEE/PES approximations [12] would be the most appropriate for their fitting.
1994 Summer Meeting, San F r a n c i s c o , CA, July 24 - 28, While they have been examined in great detail and implemented for
1994. M a n u s c r i p t s u b m i t t e d August 20, 1993; made the modeling of hysteresis loops [54], they do not have a flexibility
a v a i l a b l e for p r i n t i n g A p r i l 20, 1994. comparable to polynomial approximations for improved fitting of the
magnetization characteristic. Since, as discussed above, the precise
representation of hysteresis loops is not of primordial importance, full
freedom remains for the representation of the basic magnetization
curve, including polynomial fitting.

0885-8977/95/$04.00 0 1994 IEEE


0.1 r
(see Figure 4;here, for better illustration the basis curve is different
from that of Figure 3). Reversal means that the time derivative of B
changes sign.

Figure 1. Measured magnetization curve [26]

showing minor loops

Figure 2. Narrow hysteresis main cycle

The New Dynamic Hysteresis Model

In order to build our hysteresis model we have found it convenient to
postulate the existence of a "basis" magnetization curve Figure 4.Basic idea of hysteresis modeling
HlnrSlS =fo(B) (14 (a) Hhysfcomponent to be added, equation (2a)
(b) HhysIadded to basis curve, equation (2b)
This curve is related to the standard magnetization curve for the real
magnetic material (i.e., in the presence of hysteresis) through the If at the point A there is again a reversal, we return to the basis
hysteresis losses, as reflected by the model described below. It should curve fo.If the process is now duplicated with descending B , we have
not be identified with the magnetization curve for the idealized the loop shown in Figure 5. The resulting area of the loop is
behavior of the same magnetic material without hysteresis. The term AREAlmp = Hhy.u (B -Brev) = Khysf ( B - Brev)2 (3)
"basis" simply reflects the fact that in our model hysteresis effects are
assumed to originate and to end on this curve. It is a "reset" curve for B
hysteresis before any reversal of B .
As the hysteresis loop is very thin (as mentioned above), we
will use a polynomial approximation for the basis curve with a very
steep initial slope
Himis = K,,, B + K,,, B"' + K,,, B"' (1b)
In Figure 3 we show a basis curve for n, = 1 7 and n 2 = 2 1 with
Klw,, = 0, K I 7 = 0.2181, and K 2 , = 0.1353 (for S.I. units; see [47]).

Figure 5. Asymmetrical loop

This indicates that even in minor loops the losses are proportional
toAB', see reference [ S I . In 1892 Steinmetz [56] proposed an
empirical equation that relates the hysteresis losses to frequency and
flux density:
Figure 3. Basis curve Physr = Kbss f B " (4)
In our model we assume that there exists a hysteresis related Steinmetz computed an exponent n = 1.6 which, however, for modem
field intensity, proportional to the change in B from the previous steels used in transformers varies between 1.5 and 2.5 and may not be
reversal point: constant [55]. Although an expression of the form (4)is not fully
accurate for general use, as an approximation we have selected an
Hhyd = Khysf (B-Brev) (24 exponent equal to two.

Consider now the symmetrical loop of Figure 6. Then Accordingly,

B,w = -B (5) (13)
and (3) yields
where Due to the model's simplicity, the computer implementation is
straightforward. It is based on equation (2b). We start by computing
Klom = Khyst (7) Kloss from hysteresis loss measurements. Then, for a given
The area of (6) corresponds to the hysteresis losses with symmetrical approximation (11) of the magnetization curve, we use (13) to obtain
magnetization. Values of Klms are available from measurements. Thus KbaaS. For time simulations one only needs to keep track of B for the
we also know present time and the two previous integration steps. Using a very
simple logic (only one ifstatement) one can control the program flow.
If the direction of the change in B is unchanged (i.e., the point where
we are is not a reversal point), we continue using equation (2b). When
a reversal point is encountered, then we first reset H of (2b) to Hlxlsls

B and continue with equation (2b). What we do at a reversal point is,
geometrically s-g, displacing the operating point horizontally to
the basis curve (see Figure 5). The displacement at reversal points is
+B horizontal in our case, consistently with the asymptotes of the
polynomial describing the saturation characteristics, but primarily for
simplicity. In a transformer model the above procedure is
implemented in all magnetic branches, including those possibly used
in the discretized representation of the laminations for the purpose of
eddy current modeling [l]. However, the focus of the following
simulations is on the effect of hysteresis itself.
In order to illustrate how the model works, we present in
Figure 8 the simulation of an iron core driven by a sinusoidal voltage
source with increasing amplitude. Figure 8a shows the excitation
voltage and Figure 8b shows the response when the iron core has no
remanent magnetization.
Figure 6. Symmetrical loop
If symmetrical loops of different amplitude are repeated, we get
the picture of Figure 7. This appears to be a generalization of
idealized hysteresis loops presented in the literature. In [57], for
example, straight line loops are proposed (Fig. 2.21), similar to those
in the central, unsaturated part of Figure 7. Such idealized, I
symmetrical hysteresis loops shown in the literature are, however, the
starting point for simulations, while in the approach of the paper they
are the result of a more general, dynamic model (equation 2a) valid for
any type of transient and not restricted to linear magnetization curves.

Figure 8. Dynamic hysteresis model

(a) Excitation voltage; (b) Model response

Figure 7. Symmetrical loops In this section we perform a number of transient studies to find the
effect of including hysteresis in the simulations. To start, we note
By definition, the magnetization curve however that only transients involving a single winding may lead to
dominance of iron core phenomena. This excludes all "longitudinal"
H =f (B) (9) transients. Moreover, even in open circuit, at high frequencies the
is the locus of the return points A and A' in Figure 7. It is obtained magnetizing flux will be small and, therefore, modeling of both
from fo of (1) by adding Hhysf of (2a) corresponding to 2B, according saturation and hysteresis becomes unimportant. Consequently, only a
to (5): few situations which are suspected to remain of significance (although
there may be more) are analyzed below.
Hhysf = Khp' (10)
This yields Inrush Currents
When a transformer is energized, a large (inrush) current may be
+ KhYd 2B = K , B + Kn,B"'
H = Hhns + Kn,Bn' (11) drawn from the source. There are a great number of references dealing
where, by (7), with this problem; see, for example, the book by Greenwood [58]or
reference [59]. To illustrate the effect of hysteresis in the inrush
current, we use the simplest representation for the source, i.e., an ideal
K 1 = Khsis + 2Khys~=K h i s + -
(12) sinusoidal voltage source with constant amplitude. In Figure 9 we
present the simulation of the inrush current for phase C of the three-

phase three-legged transformer presented in reference [ 11. The figure distortion due to saturation. As the transient attenuates, the contours
actually shows two cases: with and without hysteresis in the describe more perfect ellipses, corresponding to non-saturated
simulation. We note that there is no difference between the two cases conditions.
in the magnitude and damping of the inrush current.

[AI 5000

0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 voltage

time [ s ] Figure 11. Flux versus voltage (of Figure loa)
Figure 9. Inrush current with and without hysteresis The differences in the amount of damping seen in the
We believe, the explanation of this negative result is as follows: simulations of Figure 10 can be explained by examining a periodic
if we imagine the circuit representation of hysteresis as a resistance in oscillation. Then the voltage (gradient) is related to the flux density
parallel with the inductor, then the voltage source will absorb directly by
the losses caused by hysteresis. Since the magnitude of the inrush
current is only dependent of how much the material becomes E=wB (14)
saturated, the effect of hysteresis is important solely in establishing the Our model predicts the correct losses, proportional to B and f. Thus,
point from where the flux starts building up. according to (4),
From our simulations we conclude: p,, = K ' h s w B 2 (15)
0 Hysteresis does not add noticeable damping to the inrush current.
(where KIIoss = K,,, /(27~)).
From (14) and (15) we have
0 Hysteresis only affects the magnitude of the inrush current when
there is remanent magnetization (which sets the initial condition).

Magnetizing Current Chopping

The losses in a constant resistance are
The chopping of magnetizing currents may lead to large transient
overvoltages. This subject has also received very much attention in
the literature; see for example [58], [60] and [61]. In this section we
analyze the effects that hysteresis has in the disconnection of a From (16) and (17) we see that for a given sinusoidal voltage the
transformer. The magnetizing current is abruptly chopped by a circuit hysteresis losses vary inversely proportional with frequency, while for
breaker before its zero crossing, leaving a capacitance C ( = lo-'' F) a shunt resistance the losses do not depend on frequency. To properly
connected at the terminals of the transformer of [ 11. In Figure 10 we represent the hysteresis losses the equivalent resistance should be
show the transient voltage (without restrikes) when the starting point
is well into saturation. Figure 10a corresponds to the simulation with
the hysteresis model presented in this paper. We can observe that as
the amplitude decreases, the frequency of the oscillations becomes
smaller, as expected. If the damping due to hysteresis is represented From our observations we conclude:
by a shunt resistance calculated from the losses at 60 Hz, then the 0 Hysteresis has a significant effect in the damping of transients due
transient is excessively damped. If, on the other hand, we increase the to magnetizing current chopping.
value of the shunt resistance to give the correct damping at the highest
0 For the calculation of electromagnetic transients, hysteresis losses
frequency of the transient, then the damping is insufficient at lower
frequencies; the results are shown in Figure lob. cannot be adequately represented by a constant resistance connected in
parallel with the nonlinear inductance.

voltage (a) The phenomenon is a series resonance between the nonlinear inductor
of an iron core transformer and the capacitance of the cable connected
to it [58]. A very large voltage can appear across the inductor or
capacitor even if the applied voltage is within reasonable bounds.
There has been a considerable amount of work in this area; see for
example the recent publications [62]-[64]. The circuit for the analysis
voltage (b) is shown in Figure 12.

0 5 10
time [ms]
Figure 10. Transient following magnetizing current chopping
(a) Damping due to hysteresis model
(b) Damping due to high frequency equivalent resistance Figure 12. Circuit for the study of ferroresonance
Often, the situation in which ferroresonance occurs [62], [64] is
Discussion when one or two phases of the feeder to an open-circuited transformer
The frequency variation of the transient voltage is due to the fact that are disconnected from the supply source so that the capacitance to
the effective inductance of the transformer varies with the saturation ground of these conductors appears in series with the magnetizing
conditions. In saturation the inductance is smaller giving faster inductance of the transformer. The winding involved may have any
transient oscillations. Figure 11 gives the phase portrait (flux versus connection, but if it has a star point, it should be isolated from ground.
voltage) for the transient of Figure 10a. We note that the extemal Any load or loss-producing element may prevent the appearance of a
contours, corresponding to the beginning of the transient, reflect the resonance condition.

Since the circuit of Figure 12 has no unique natural frequency simulations as in Figures 14 and 15a with ICfms varied over a
(see Figure lo), one cannot analyze the phenomenon of reasonable range, by displaying only the maxima of the peak values,
ferroresonance using the simple concepts and approaches applied to i.e., their upper envelope.
the examination of resonance in linear circuits. In particular, one
cannot separate a transient part from a steady state solution. The latter
may not even exist and when it does it may and will often take many
8004 . I
seconds (real, not simulation time), or even longer, to reach it. This capacitor
long duration dynamic is very complex and extremely sensitive to voltage
small variations of all parameters of the problem. These include: C, V, [VI
the initial conditions (which can be considered as contributors to the
initial stored energy in the system), and last but not least, the damping
due to resistances and hysteresis.
While all our simulations eventually converged to a periodic
steady state, with or without subharmonics, the long duration transient
has often shown significant overvoltages, multiples of the peak of the capacitor
source voltage. Therefore, the reliable simulation of ferroresonance is voltage
of great practical importance. Since we are dealing with a transient, it [VI
is inaccurate to assign a single frequency to it. Often subharmonic
oscillations of different orders have been noticed in our simulations;
see, for example, Figure 13. These results were obtained with the
transformer used above for v = 100sin(ol) and C = F. However,
due to space limitations we can only show a single sample of the many
interesting results we have obtained. Figure 14 represents the peak
values of the voltage oscillations across the capacitance in Figure 12,
as a function of time. It corresponds to the transient shown in Figure 15. Ferroresonance with (a) hysteresis, (b) resistance damping
Figure 13 for a ten times longer time. A subharmonic of order 2 is
clearly visible during most of the transient. This type of display is CONCLUSIONS
similar to those in [62] and is also related to the ideas of Poincar6
sections, except that here we show maximum values (rather than The paper describes a simple procedure for the representation of
periodically taken samples) because of their practical importance. We hysteresis in the laminations of power transformers for the simulation
emphasize the significance of the special display used in our analysis: of electromagnetic transients. The model produces losses proportional
it gives directly the maximum values relevant for insulation to frequency and to the square'of the flux density, as expected from
coordination while any regular patterns can also be distinguished. measurements.
The main characteristics of the model are, besides its
simplicity, the fact that it is dynamic (i.e., it is not restricted to
symmetrical hysteresis loops or, in fact, any closed loops at all), and
that it can be applied to any magnetization characteristic (described by
capacitor polynomial, hyperbolic, or other types of functions). It deforms
voltage 0 insignificantly the magnetization characteristic and affects a transient
[VI only through the incurred damping.
While the damping can be obtained by an equivalent parallel
-500 resistance, the frequency dependence of the two is different.
I I I I Therefore, in cases where the dynamics of the phenomena is very
0 0.05 0.1 0.15 sensitive to the losses and to speed and frequency, as in studies of
ferroresonance and magnetizing current chopping, the dynamic
time [SI modeling of hysteresis appears to be particularly important. We have
Figure 13. Ferroresonant voltage found, however, that hysteresis does not add damping to the inrush
currents. This indicates that the mere existence of losses may be of no
1 . I practical importance in situations where they are directly covered from
the power source.

Financial support by the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research
Council of Canada is gratefully acknowledged. The 6rst author
04 . wishes to express his gratitude to the Instituto Politknico Nacional,
Mexico, for the study leave at the University of Toronto.
0 0.5 1 1.5 APPENDIX
time [SI Review of Existing Models
Figure 14. Maxima of the voltage of Figure 13 References 121 to 153) represent a list of the most cited (or used) publications.
Since under transient conditions an equivalent resistance for the It is of course not exhaustive. The first classic model for the prediction of
hysteresis was by Preisach 121 in the 1930's. In this model materials are
representation of hysteresis losses, chosen for the single frequency of comprised by a number of magnetic dipoles each one exhibiting a square loop.
60Hz, is inadequate, it was suspected that the simulation of Many researchers have followed Preisach's approach. It is the preferred
fenoresonance, under otherwise equal conditions, would give different approach of those developing finite elements programs. In 1970 Chua and
results with a hysteresis model than with an "equivalent" resktance. Stromsmoe [3] presented the first attempt for the computer modeling of
Figure 15a shows that indeed with hysteresis damping the simulation hysteresis with an electric circuit. Their model consists of a nonlinear resistor
converges to a voltage of 6 0 H z base frequency, while with an in parallel with a nonlinear inductor following a series of complicated function
equivalent resistance (for 60 Hz), the steady state voltage, shown in compositions. In 1971 Swift I41 states that eddy current losses are much more
Figure 15b. has a base frequency of 30 Hz (subharmonic of order 2). important than hysteresis losses for power transformers. Bouc (51 in 1971
presents a form of functional to give a mathematicaldescription of hysteresis.
These simulations were obtained using the same transformer, as Chua and Bass [61 improve on the model of reference 131 in 1972 to account for
above, with C = and v =245sin(wi). the d.c. loop with a still more complicated model. In 1974 (hinay et al. [7]
resent static, dynamic and transient models based on the theory of
We conclude by noting that even a small change in the
hysteresis loss coefficient Kfms may significantly change the results. P'reisach 121. 'Ihe static model is obtainedfrom the magnetization curve and the
largest static hysteresis loop they could measure. The dynamic model is
For practical purposes it is therefore useful to condense the results of suitable for steady state a.c. conditions. Although, there are no details for their
transient model, the authors admit that while it works very accurately for steady REFERENCES
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1421 M.O. Mahmoud and R.W. Whitehead, "Piecewise Fitting Function for Francisco de Le6n (M)was born in Mexico, in 1959. He received his B.Sc.
Magnetisation Characteristics", IEEE Transactions on Power Apparatus degree and his M.Sc. degree (summa cum Iaude) from Instituto Polit6cnico
and Systems, Vol. PAS-104, No. 7, July 1985, pp. 1822-1824. Nacional (I.P.N.), Mexico, in 1983 and 1986, respectively. From 1984 to 1987
he worked as a lecturer at the same institute. He obtained the Ph.D. degree in
(431 S.S. Udpa and W. Lord, "A Fourier Descriptor Model of Hysteresis Loop 1991 at the University of Toronto. He continued his research there as a
Phenomena", IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, Vol. MAG-21, No. 6, ostdoctoral fellow until his return to the I.P.N., Mexico, in September 1992.
November 1985, pp. 2370-2373. b e is now a professor in the Graduate Division of the School of Electrical and
1441 D.N. Ewart, "Digital Computer Simulation Model of a Steel Core Mechanical Engeneering. His main research interests include electromagnetic
Transformer", IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, Vol. PWRD-1, No. fields and transients.
3, July 1986, pp. 174-183.
[45] J.D. Greene and C.A. Gross, "Nonlinear Modeling of Transformers", Dipl. Adam Semlyen (F)was born and educated in Rumania where he obtained a
IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, Vol. 24, No. 3, May/June Ing. degree and his Ph.D. He started his career with an electric power
1988, pp. 434-438. utility and held an academic position at the Polytechnic Institute of Timisoara,
Rumania. In 1969 he joined the University of Toronto where he is a professor
146) C.E. Lin, J.B. Wei, C.L. Huang, and C.J. Huang, "A New Method for in the Department of Electrical and Computer Engmeering, emeritus since
Re resentation of Hysteresis Loops", IEEE Transactions on Power 1988. His research interests include the steady state and dynamic analysis of
Defivery, Vol. 4, No. 1, January 1989, pp. 413-420. power systems, electromagnetictransients, and power system optimization.