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A Simple Representation of Dynamic Hysteresis Losses in Power Transformers

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IN POWER TRANSFORMERS

Francisco de Leon Adam Semlyen

Instituto Politknico Nrtcional - E.S.I.M.E. Department of Electrical 'and Computer Engineering

Editicio No. 5 , 3er Piso University of Toronto

07738 - MCxico, D.F., MCxico Toronto, Ontario, Canada, MSS 1A4

Abstract - The paper describes a procedure for the representation of dependent, rather than to include - as done in many classical texts -

hysteresis in the laminations of power transformers in the simulation the effects of eddy currents in the laminations.

of electromagnetic transient phenomena. The model is based on the

recognition that in today's iron cores the hysteresis loops are narrow Review of Existing Models

and therefore the modeling details are only important in relation to the There are basically three types of vaguely defined approaches and

incurred losses and the associated attenuation effects. The resultant originators in modeling of hysteresis in ferromagnetic materials. In the

model produces losses proportional to the square of the flux density, first group we have the physicists. They primarily look at the physical

as expected from measurement data. It is formulated as a simple, properties of the material, i.e., domain alignments, wall movements,

linear relationship between the variation B -Brev of the magnetic flux spin rotations, etc. In the second group are those working in machine

density B after a reversal point B,, and the resulting additional field designing based on electromagnetic fields. They prefer a macroscopic

intensity H , . This idea can be easily implemented in existing description of hysteresis using mathematical models to predict the

transformer models with or without frequency dependent modeling of B-H curve but without completely neglecting the physics of the

eddy currents in the laminations. It has been found that in many material. In the third group we have power system engineers. They

simulation tests the representation of hysteresis is not necessary and need equivalent circuits to be introduced in existing computer

those situations have been described where the modeling of hysteresis programs. Their base for modeling is the B-H curve obtained by tests.

appears to be more meaningful. The circuits should predict the losses in transient and steady state

conditions. The purpose of the paper is to contribute to this last

Keywords: Transformer modeling, Electromagnetic transients, approach.

Hysteresis, Ferroresonance.

The bibliographic review presented in the Appendix is mainly

INTRODUCTION devoted to models of the second two groups and especially to the last

one, after 1970. Most of the publications pre-1970 can be found in the

Transformer inodeling for the simulation of electromagnetic transients references of 131.

has made significant advances in the last decade. A fairly complete

list of references in this field can be found in 111. This reference In the following we introduce, justify, and describe the new

summarizes our contributions to the field with the remark that it hysteresis model. Then we show its effects on different types of

covers all the major phenomena that are relevant for transformer transformer transients.

modeling with the exception, however, of the dynamic representation

of hysteresis in the iron core. The main reason why this has been left DYNAMIC HYSTERESIS MODELING

out is the complexity of the phenomena, where the nonlinearity of

saturation is coupled with the complicated dependence of the magnetic Fundamental Remarks

field intensity on the present and past values of the flux density, Hysteresis is a very complex phenomenon. Curves showing the

characteristic to hysteresis. Numerous studies exist, however, related dynamic relation between B and H illustrate that the hysteresis related

to hysteresis [2]-[53] and successful achievements have been reported component Hhys, of the magnetic field intensity H is strongly

in the implementation of some models in the representation of dependent on the magnetization history. In figure 1 we show a

transformers. Because of their significance, we present a fairly measured hysteresis characteristic showing minor loops taken from

extensive overview of these models in the Appendix at the end of the reference [26], Figure 7. It is not our purpose to analyze or describe

paper. this problem. We make however two basic observations relative to the

A general characteristic of most existing hysteresis models is problem of hysteresis as it applies to power transformers:

their sophistication and complexity. This may slow down the 0 As a result of technological improvements, the iron core laminations

computer simulation of transients. A careful examination of the have at present much reduced losses compared to past constructions.

rationale for the representation of hysteresis in transformer models and These are generally only a fraction of one percent (based on

of the plots showing results of measurements of dynamic hysteresis transformer rating). Therefore, the figures that describe hysteresis

has lead us to the conclusion that a very simple hysteresis model could should be viewed as having increased scales for H in order to exhibit

be adequate for achieving the correct representation of the attenuation the details; when, however, the magnetization curve is displayed with

of transients that can be attributed to hysteresis. We are thus in the a sufficient portion of the saturated branches, then the hysteresis loops

position of presenting a simple and efficient hysteresis model to narrow down to a very thin strip so that their details become

supplement the fairly complete transformer model we have previously immaterial and only the associated losses and attenuation remain

described 111. relevant for the simulation of transients (see Figure 2). Figure 6 of

We make from the outset the following clarification regarding reference [26] presents a measured full cycle that shows the described

the terminology we use: the word "dynamic" in relation to hysteresis features (very narrow cycle). Therefore, in what follows, we shall

is used to indicate and emphasize that the phenomena are history focus primarily on an adequate reproduction of the hysteresis related

losses and give preference to simplicity over precision as the latter has

only negligible influence on the magnitude of the magnetizing current.

94 SM 407-7 PWRD A p a p e r recommended and a p p r o v e d Magnetizing curves have branches with asymptotically finite slopes

by t h e IEEE T r a n s f o r m e r s Committee of t h e IEEE Power at increasing flux densities. It may therefore appear that hyperbolic

E n g i n e e r i n g S o c i e t y f o r p r e s e n t a t i o n a t t h e IEEE/PES approximations [12] would be the most appropriate for their fitting.

1994 Summer Meeting, San F r a n c i s c o , CA, July 24 - 28, While they have been examined in great detail and implemented for

1994. M a n u s c r i p t s u b m i t t e d August 20, 1993; made the modeling of hysteresis loops [54], they do not have a flexibility

a v a i l a b l e for p r i n t i n g A p r i l 20, 1994. comparable to polynomial approximations for improved fitting of the

magnetization characteristic. Since, as discussed above, the precise

representation of hysteresis loops is not of primordial importance, full

freedom remains for the representation of the basic magnetization

curve, including polynomial fitting.

316

pu

0.1 r

(see Figure 4;here, for better illustration the basis curve is different

from that of Figure 3). Reversal means that the time derivative of B

changes sign.

B

showing minor loops

B

B

Hhyst

In order to build our hysteresis model we have found it convenient to

postulate the existence of a "basis" magnetization curve Figure 4.Basic idea of hysteresis modeling

HlnrSlS =fo(B) (14 (a) Hhysfcomponent to be added, equation (2a)

(b) HhysIadded to basis curve, equation (2b)

This curve is related to the standard magnetization curve for the real

magnetic material (i.e., in the presence of hysteresis) through the If at the point A there is again a reversal, we return to the basis

hysteresis losses, as reflected by the model described below. It should curve fo.If the process is now duplicated with descending B , we have

not be identified with the magnetization curve for the idealized the loop shown in Figure 5. The resulting area of the loop is

behavior of the same magnetic material without hysteresis. The term AREAlmp = Hhy.u (B -Brev) = Khysf ( B - Brev)2 (3)

"basis" simply reflects the fact that in our model hysteresis effects are

assumed to originate and to end on this curve. It is a "reset" curve for B

hysteresis before any reversal of B .

As the hysteresis loop is very thin (as mentioned above), we

will use a polynomial approximation for the basis curve with a very

steep initial slope

Himis = K,,, B + K,,, B"' + K,,, B"' (1b)

In Figure 3 we show a basis curve for n, = 1 7 and n 2 = 2 1 with

Klw,, = 0, K I 7 = 0.2181, and K 2 , = 0.1353 (for S.I. units; see [47]).

B

This indicates that even in minor loops the losses are proportional

toAB', see reference [ S I . In 1892 Steinmetz [56] proposed an

empirical equation that relates the hysteresis losses to frequency and

flux density:

Figure 3. Basis curve Physr = Kbss f B " (4)

In our model we assume that there exists a hysteresis related Steinmetz computed an exponent n = 1.6 which, however, for modem

field intensity, proportional to the change in B from the previous steels used in transformers varies between 1.5 and 2.5 and may not be

reversal point: constant [55]. Although an expression of the form (4)is not fully

accurate for general use, as an approximation we have selected an

Hhyd = Khysf (B-Brev) (24 exponent equal to two.

317

B,w = -B (5) (13)

and (3) yields

AREA,, = Klo, B 2 (6) IMPLEMENTATION OF THE HYSTERESIS MODEL

where Due to the model's simplicity, the computer implementation is

straightforward. It is based on equation (2b). We start by computing

Klom = Khyst (7) Kloss from hysteresis loss measurements. Then, for a given

The area of (6) corresponds to the hysteresis losses with symmetrical approximation (11) of the magnetization curve, we use (13) to obtain

magnetization. Values of Klms are available from measurements. Thus KbaaS. For time simulations one only needs to keep track of B for the

we also know present time and the two previous integration steps. Using a very

simple logic (only one ifstatement) one can control the program flow.

If the direction of the change in B is unchanged (i.e., the point where

we are is not a reversal point), we continue using equation (2b). When

a reversal point is encountered, then we first reset H of (2b) to Hlxlsls

.j+F

B and continue with equation (2b). What we do at a reversal point is,

geometrically s-g, displacing the operating point horizontally to

the basis curve (see Figure 5). The displacement at reversal points is

+B horizontal in our case, consistently with the asymptotes of the

polynomial describing the saturation characteristics, but primarily for

simplicity. In a transformer model the above procedure is

implemented in all magnetic branches, including those possibly used

in the discretized representation of the laminations for the purpose of

eddy current modeling [l]. However, the focus of the following

simulations is on the effect of hysteresis itself.

In order to illustrate how the model works, we present in

Figure 8 the simulation of an iron core driven by a sinusoidal voltage

source with increasing amplitude. Figure 8a shows the excitation

voltage and Figure 8b shows the response when the iron core has no

remanent magnetization.

Figure 6. Symmetrical loop

If symmetrical loops of different amplitude are repeated, we get

the picture of Figure 7. This appears to be a generalization of

idealized hysteresis loops presented in the literature. In [57], for

example, straight line loops are proposed (Fig. 2.21), similar to those

in the central, unsaturated part of Figure 7. Such idealized, I

B

symmetrical hysteresis loops shown in the literature are, however, the

starting point for simulations, while in the approach of the paper they

are the result of a more general, dynamic model (equation 2a) valid for

any type of transient and not restricted to linear magnetization curves.

B

H

(a) Excitation voltage; (b) Model response

SIMULATION RESULTS

Figure 7. Symmetrical loops In this section we perform a number of transient studies to find the

effect of including hysteresis in the simulations. To start, we note

By definition, the magnetization curve however that only transients involving a single winding may lead to

dominance of iron core phenomena. This excludes all "longitudinal"

H =f (B) (9) transients. Moreover, even in open circuit, at high frequencies the

is the locus of the return points A and A' in Figure 7. It is obtained magnetizing flux will be small and, therefore, modeling of both

from fo of (1) by adding Hhysf of (2a) corresponding to 2B, according saturation and hysteresis becomes unimportant. Consequently, only a

to (5): few situations which are suspected to remain of significance (although

there may be more) are analyzed below.

Hhysf = Khp' (10)

This yields Inrush Currents

When a transformer is energized, a large (inrush) current may be

+ KhYd 2B = K , B + Kn,B"'

H = Hhns + Kn,Bn' (11) drawn from the source. There are a great number of references dealing

where, by (7), with this problem; see, for example, the book by Greenwood [58]or

reference [59]. To illustrate the effect of hysteresis in the inrush

current, we use the simplest representation for the source, i.e., an ideal

K 1 = Khsis + 2Khys~=K h i s + -

Kloss

(12) sinusoidal voltage source with constant amplitude. In Figure 9 we

2

present the simulation of the inrush current for phase C of the three-

318

phase three-legged transformer presented in reference [ 11. The figure distortion due to saturation. As the transient attenuates, the contours

actually shows two cases: with and without hysteresis in the describe more perfect ellipses, corresponding to non-saturated

simulation. We note that there is no difference between the two cases conditions.

in the magnitude and damping of the inrush current.

loo00

current

[AI 5000

0

time [ s ] Figure 11. Flux versus voltage (of Figure loa)

Figure 9. Inrush current with and without hysteresis The differences in the amount of damping seen in the

We believe, the explanation of this negative result is as follows: simulations of Figure 10 can be explained by examining a periodic

if we imagine the circuit representation of hysteresis as a resistance in oscillation. Then the voltage (gradient) is related to the flux density

parallel with the inductor, then the voltage source will absorb directly by

the losses caused by hysteresis. Since the magnitude of the inrush

current is only dependent of how much the material becomes E=wB (14)

saturated, the effect of hysteresis is important solely in establishing the Our model predicts the correct losses, proportional to B and f. Thus,

point from where the flux starts building up. according to (4),

From our simulations we conclude: p,, = K ' h s w B 2 (15)

0 Hysteresis does not add noticeable damping to the inrush current.

(where KIIoss = K,,, /(27~)).

From (14) and (15) we have

0 Hysteresis only affects the magnitude of the inrush current when

there is remanent magnetization (which sets the initial condition).

The losses in a constant resistance are

The chopping of magnetizing currents may lead to large transient

overvoltages. This subject has also received very much attention in

the literature; see for example [58], [60] and [61]. In this section we

analyze the effects that hysteresis has in the disconnection of a From (16) and (17) we see that for a given sinusoidal voltage the

transformer. The magnetizing current is abruptly chopped by a circuit hysteresis losses vary inversely proportional with frequency, while for

breaker before its zero crossing, leaving a capacitance C ( = lo-'' F) a shunt resistance the losses do not depend on frequency. To properly

connected at the terminals of the transformer of [ 11. In Figure 10 we represent the hysteresis losses the equivalent resistance should be

show the transient voltage (without restrikes) when the starting point

is well into saturation. Figure 10a corresponds to the simulation with

the hysteresis model presented in this paper. We can observe that as

the amplitude decreases, the frequency of the oscillations becomes

smaller, as expected. If the damping due to hysteresis is represented From our observations we conclude:

by a shunt resistance calculated from the losses at 60 Hz, then the 0 Hysteresis has a significant effect in the damping of transients due

transient is excessively damped. If, on the other hand, we increase the to magnetizing current chopping.

value of the shunt resistance to give the correct damping at the highest

0 For the calculation of electromagnetic transients, hysteresis losses

frequency of the transient, then the damping is insufficient at lower

frequencies; the results are shown in Figure lob. cannot be adequately represented by a constant resistance connected in

parallel with the nonlinear inductance.

i

Ferroresonance

terminal

voltage (a) The phenomenon is a series resonance between the nonlinear inductor

of an iron core transformer and the capacitance of the cable connected

to it [58]. A very large voltage can appear across the inductor or

capacitor even if the applied voltage is within reasonable bounds.

There has been a considerable amount of work in this area; see for

example the recent publications [62]-[64]. The circuit for the analysis

terminal

voltage (b) is shown in Figure 12.

0 5 10

time [ms]

Figure 10. Transient following magnetizing current chopping

(a) Damping due to hysteresis model

(b) Damping due to high frequency equivalent resistance Figure 12. Circuit for the study of ferroresonance

Often, the situation in which ferroresonance occurs [62], [64] is

Discussion when one or two phases of the feeder to an open-circuited transformer

The frequency variation of the transient voltage is due to the fact that are disconnected from the supply source so that the capacitance to

the effective inductance of the transformer varies with the saturation ground of these conductors appears in series with the magnetizing

conditions. In saturation the inductance is smaller giving faster inductance of the transformer. The winding involved may have any

transient oscillations. Figure 11 gives the phase portrait (flux versus connection, but if it has a star point, it should be isolated from ground.

voltage) for the transient of Figure 10a. We note that the extemal Any load or loss-producing element may prevent the appearance of a

contours, corresponding to the beginning of the transient, reflect the resonance condition.

319

Since the circuit of Figure 12 has no unique natural frequency simulations as in Figures 14 and 15a with ICfms varied over a

(see Figure lo), one cannot analyze the phenomenon of reasonable range, by displaying only the maxima of the peak values,

ferroresonance using the simple concepts and approaches applied to i.e., their upper envelope.

the examination of resonance in linear circuits. In particular, one

cannot separate a transient part from a steady state solution. The latter

may not even exist and when it does it may and will often take many

8004 . I

seconds (real, not simulation time), or even longer, to reach it. This capacitor

long duration dynamic is very complex and extremely sensitive to voltage

small variations of all parameters of the problem. These include: C, V, [VI

the initial conditions (which can be considered as contributors to the

initial stored energy in the system), and last but not least, the damping

due to resistances and hysteresis.

While all our simulations eventually converged to a periodic

steady state, with or without subharmonics, the long duration transient

has often shown significant overvoltages, multiples of the peak of the capacitor

source voltage. Therefore, the reliable simulation of ferroresonance is voltage

of great practical importance. Since we are dealing with a transient, it [VI

is inaccurate to assign a single frequency to it. Often subharmonic

oscillations of different orders have been noticed in our simulations;

see, for example, Figure 13. These results were obtained with the

transformer used above for v = 100sin(ol) and C = F. However,

due to space limitations we can only show a single sample of the many

interesting results we have obtained. Figure 14 represents the peak

values of the voltage oscillations across the capacitance in Figure 12,

as a function of time. It corresponds to the transient shown in Figure 15. Ferroresonance with (a) hysteresis, (b) resistance damping

Figure 13 for a ten times longer time. A subharmonic of order 2 is

clearly visible during most of the transient. This type of display is CONCLUSIONS

similar to those in [62] and is also related to the ideas of Poincar6

sections, except that here we show maximum values (rather than The paper describes a simple procedure for the representation of

periodically taken samples) because of their practical importance. We hysteresis in the laminations of power transformers for the simulation

emphasize the significance of the special display used in our analysis: of electromagnetic transients. The model produces losses proportional

it gives directly the maximum values relevant for insulation to frequency and to the square'of the flux density, as expected from

coordination while any regular patterns can also be distinguished. measurements.

The main characteristics of the model are, besides its

simplicity, the fact that it is dynamic (i.e., it is not restricted to

symmetrical hysteresis loops or, in fact, any closed loops at all), and

that it can be applied to any magnetization characteristic (described by

capacitor polynomial, hyperbolic, or other types of functions). It deforms

voltage 0 insignificantly the magnetization characteristic and affects a transient

[VI only through the incurred damping.

While the damping can be obtained by an equivalent parallel

-500 resistance, the frequency dependence of the two is different.

I I I I Therefore, in cases where the dynamics of the phenomena is very

0 0.05 0.1 0.15 sensitive to the losses and to speed and frequency, as in studies of

ferroresonance and magnetizing current chopping, the dynamic

time [SI modeling of hysteresis appears to be particularly important. We have

Figure 13. Ferroresonant voltage found, however, that hysteresis does not add damping to the inrush

currents. This indicates that the mere existence of losses may be of no

1 . I practical importance in situations where they are directly covered from

the power source.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

Financial support by the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research

Council of Canada is gratefully acknowledged. The 6rst author

04 . wishes to express his gratitude to the Instituto Politknico Nacional,

Mexico, for the study leave at the University of Toronto.

I I I I

0 0.5 1 1.5 APPENDIX

time [SI Review of Existing Models

Figure 14. Maxima of the voltage of Figure 13 References 121 to 153) represent a list of the most cited (or used) publications.

Since under transient conditions an equivalent resistance for the It is of course not exhaustive. The first classic model for the prediction of

hysteresis was by Preisach 121 in the 1930's. In this model materials are

representation of hysteresis losses, chosen for the single frequency of comprised by a number of magnetic dipoles each one exhibiting a square loop.

60Hz, is inadequate, it was suspected that the simulation of Many researchers have followed Preisach's approach. It is the preferred

fenoresonance, under otherwise equal conditions, would give different approach of those developing finite elements programs. In 1970 Chua and

results with a hysteresis model than with an "equivalent" resktance. Stromsmoe [3] presented the first attempt for the computer modeling of

Figure 15a shows that indeed with hysteresis damping the simulation hysteresis with an electric circuit. Their model consists of a nonlinear resistor

converges to a voltage of 6 0 H z base frequency, while with an in parallel with a nonlinear inductor following a series of complicated function

equivalent resistance (for 60 Hz), the steady state voltage, shown in compositions. In 1971 Swift I41 states that eddy current losses are much more

Figure 15b. has a base frequency of 30 Hz (subharmonic of order 2). important than hysteresis losses for power transformers. Bouc (51 in 1971

presents a form of functional to give a mathematicaldescription of hysteresis.

These simulations were obtained using the same transformer, as Chua and Bass [61 improve on the model of reference 131 in 1972 to account for

above, with C = and v =245sin(wi). the d.c. loop with a still more complicated model. In 1974 (hinay et al. [7]

resent static, dynamic and transient models based on the theory of

We conclude by noting that even a small change in the

hysteresis loss coefficient Kfms may significantly change the results. P'reisach 121. 'Ihe static model is obtainedfrom the magnetization curve and the

largest static hysteresis loop they could measure. The dynamic model is

For practical purposes it is therefore useful to condense the results of suitable for steady state a.c. conditions. Although, there are no details for their

320

transient model, the authors admit that while it works very accurately for steady REFERENCES

state simulations, transient conditions are calculated with limited accuracy. F de Leon and A. Semlyen, "Com lete Transformer Model for

111

Nakra and Barton 181 in the same year proposed a transformer model where the

hysteresis is represented as a number of closely spaced trajectories Electromagnetic Transients", paper No. f3 W M 053-9 PWRD presented

experimentally determined. Teape et al. 191 proposed in 1974 a model derived at the 1993 IEEEPES Winter Meeting.

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Inductors Exhibiting Hysteresis hops", IEEE Transactions on Circuit

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gives a representation of hysteresis. Also in 1975 Yamashita et al. 1131 141 G.W. Swift, "Power Transformer Core Behavior Under Transient

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suitable for calculation of fields using finite elements. In 1982, Saito 1321 1975, paper No. A 75 403-6.

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1421 M.O. Mahmoud and R.W. Whitehead, "Piecewise Fitting Function for Francisco de Le6n (M)was born in Mexico, in 1959. He received his B.Sc.

Magnetisation Characteristics", IEEE Transactions on Power Apparatus degree and his M.Sc. degree (summa cum Iaude) from Instituto Polit6cnico

and Systems, Vol. PAS-104, No. 7, July 1985, pp. 1822-1824. Nacional (I.P.N.), Mexico, in 1983 and 1986, respectively. From 1984 to 1987

he worked as a lecturer at the same institute. He obtained the Ph.D. degree in

(431 S.S. Udpa and W. Lord, "A Fourier Descriptor Model of Hysteresis Loop 1991 at the University of Toronto. He continued his research there as a

Phenomena", IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, Vol. MAG-21, No. 6, ostdoctoral fellow until his return to the I.P.N., Mexico, in September 1992.

November 1985, pp. 2370-2373. b e is now a professor in the Graduate Division of the School of Electrical and

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Transformer", IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, Vol. PWRD-1, No. fields and transients.

3, July 1986, pp. 174-183.

[45] J.D. Greene and C.A. Gross, "Nonlinear Modeling of Transformers", Dipl. Adam Semlyen (F)was born and educated in Rumania where he obtained a

IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, Vol. 24, No. 3, May/June Ing. degree and his Ph.D. He started his career with an electric power

1988, pp. 434-438. utility and held an academic position at the Polytechnic Institute of Timisoara,

Rumania. In 1969 he joined the University of Toronto where he is a professor

146) C.E. Lin, J.B. Wei, C.L. Huang, and C.J. Huang, "A New Method for in the Department of Electrical and Computer Engmeering, emeritus since

Re resentation of Hysteresis Loops", IEEE Transactions on Power 1988. His research interests include the steady state and dynamic analysis of

Defivery, Vol. 4, No. 1, January 1989, pp. 413-420. power systems, electromagnetictransients, and power system optimization.

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