You are on page 1of 2000

OptiSystem

Component Library
Optical Communication System Design Software

Version 11
OptiSystem
Component Library
Optical Communication System Design Software

Copyright © 2012 Optiwave


All rights reserved.

All OptiSystem documents, including this one, and the information contained therein, is copyright material.

No part of this document may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means whatsoever,
including recording, photocopying, or faxing, without prior written approval of Optiwave.

Disclaimer
Optiwave makes no representation or warranty with respect to the adequacy of this documentation or the programs which it
describes for any particular purpose or with respect to its adequacy to produce any particular result. In no event shall Optiwave, its
employees, its contractors or the authors of this documentation, be liable for special, direct, indirect, or consequential damages,
losses, costs, charges, claims, demands, or claim for lost profits, fees, or expenses of any nature or kind.
Technical Support

If you purchased Optiwave software from a distributor that is not listed here, please send technical
questions to your distributor.

Optiwave Canada/US
Tel (613) 224-4700 E-mail support@optiwave.com
Fax (613) 224-4706 URL www.optiwave.com

Cybernet Systems Co., Ltd. Japan


Tel +81 (03) 5297-3342 E-mail owtech@cybernet.co.jp
Fax +81 (03) 5297-3646 URL www.cybernet.co.jp

Optiwave Europe Europe


Tel +33 (0) 494 08 27 97 E-mail support@optiwave.com
Fax +33 (0) 494 33 65 76 URL www.optiwave.eu
Table of contents
Transmitters Library ........................................................................................ 1

Pulse Generators ...................................................................................................... 1


Electrical ..............................................................................................................................1
Duobinary Pulse Generator........................................................................................3
Electrical Jitter............................................................................................................5
Noise Source..............................................................................................................7
RZ Pulse Generator ...................................................................................................9
NRZ Pulse Generator...............................................................................................13
Gaussian Pulse Generator.......................................................................................17
Hyperbolic-Secant Pulse Generator.........................................................................19
Sine Generator.........................................................................................................21
Triangle Pulse Generator .........................................................................................23
Saw-Up Pulse Generator .........................................................................................25
Saw-Down Pulse Generator.....................................................................................27
Impulse Generator ...................................................................................................29
Raised Cosine Pulse Generator...............................................................................31
Sine Pulse Generator...............................................................................................33
Measured Pulse .......................................................................................................35
Measured Pulse Sequence ......................................................................................37
Bias Generator .........................................................................................................39
M-ary Pulse Generator.............................................................................................41
M-ary Raised Cosine Pulse Generator ....................................................................43
Predistortion .............................................................................................................45
Optical................................................................................................................................47
Optical Gaussian Pulse Generator...........................................................................49
Optical Sech Pulse Generator..................................................................................53
Optical Impulse Generator .......................................................................................57
Measured Optical Pulse ...........................................................................................61
Measured Optical Pulse Sequence..........................................................................65
Time Resolve Chirp (TRC) Measurement Data .......................................................69
Spatial Optical Gaussian Pulse Generator...............................................................73
Spatial Optical Sech Pulse Generator......................................................................77
Spatial Optical Impulse Generator ...........................................................................81
Optical Sources....................................................................................................... 85
CW Laser .................................................................................................................87
Laser Rate Equations...............................................................................................91
Laser Measured .......................................................................................................97
Fabry Perot Laser ..................................................................................................105
LED ........................................................................................................................111
White Light Source.................................................................................................113
Pump Laser............................................................................................................115
Pump Laser Array ..................................................................................................117
Controlled Pump Laser ..........................................................................................121
CW Laser Array......................................................................................................123
CW Laser Array ES................................................................................................127
CW Laser Measured ..............................................................................................131
Directly Modulated Laser Measured ......................................................................137
VCSEL Laser .........................................................................................................145
Spatial CW Laser ...................................................................................................157
Spatiotemporal VCSEL ..........................................................................................161
Spatial VCSEL .......................................................................................................169
Spatial Laser Rate Equations.................................................................................177
Spatial LED ............................................................................................................181
Optical Transmitters ............................................................................................. 185
WDM Transmitter ...................................................................................................187
Optical Transmitter.................................................................................................195
Optical Duobinary Transmitter ...............................................................................201
Optical DPSK Transmitter ......................................................................................207
Optical CSRZ Transmitter ......................................................................................213
Optical QPSK Transmitter......................................................................................217
Optical DP-QPSK Transmitter................................................................................221
Spatial Optical Transmitter.....................................................................................225
Modulators............................................................................................................. 233
Optical..............................................................................................................................233
Mach-Zehnder Modulator.......................................................................................235
Electroabsorption Modulator ..................................................................................237
Amplitude Modulator ..............................................................................................239
Phase Modulator ....................................................................................................241
Frequency Modulator .............................................................................................243
Dual Drive Mach-Zehnder Modulator Measured ....................................................245
Electroabsorption Modulator Measured .................................................................249
Single Drive Mach-Zehnder Modulator Measured .................................................253
Dual Port Dual Drive Mach-Zehnder Modulator Measured ....................................257
Lithium Niobate Mach-Zehnder Modulator.............................................................261
Bit Sequence Generators ..................................................................................... 265
Pseudo-Random Bit Sequence Generator.............................................................267
User-Defined Bit Sequence Generator ..................................................................271
Multimode Library........................................................................................ 273

Donut Transverse Mode Generator .......................................................................275


Hermite Transverse Mode Generator ....................................................................279
Laguerre Transverse Mode Generator...................................................................283
Multimode Generator .............................................................................................287
Measured Transverse Mode ..................................................................................291
Mode ID Modifier....................................................................................................295

Optical Fibers Library.................................................................................. 297

Optical fiber ............................................................................................................299


Optical fiber CWDM ...............................................................................................337
Bidirectional Optical Fiber ......................................................................................361
Nonlinear Dispersive Fiber (Obsolete) ...................................................................383
Linear Multimode Fiber ..........................................................................................399
Parabolic-Index Multimode Fiber ...........................................................................405
Measured-Index Multimode Fiber ..........................................................................413

Free Space Optics Library .......................................................................... 425

FSO Channel .........................................................................................................427


OWC Channel ........................................................................................................433

Receivers Library......................................................................................... 439

Multimode .............................................................................................................. 439


Mode Combiner......................................................................................................441
Mode Selector ........................................................................................................443
Regenerators ......................................................................................................... 445
Clock Recovery ......................................................................................................447
Data Recovery .......................................................................................................449
3R Regenerator......................................................................................................453
Electronic Equalizer ...............................................................................................457
MLSE Equalizer .....................................................................................................463
Integrate And Dump ...............................................................................................467
Voltage-Controlled Oscillator .................................................................................469
Detectors................................................................................................................ 471
Optical Chirp Detector............................................................................................473
Optical Phase Detector ..........................................................................................477
Optical Power Detector ..........................................................................................481
Optical Receivers .................................................................................................. 485
Optical Receiver.....................................................................................................487
Optical DPSK Receiver ..........................................................................................491
Optical Coherent QPSK Receiver ..........................................................................495
Optical Coherent DP-QPSK Receiver....................................................................499
Spatial Optical Receiver.........................................................................................505
Photodetectors...................................................................................................... 509
Photodetector PIN..................................................................................................511
Photodetector APD ................................................................................................517
Spatial PIN Photodetector......................................................................................523
Spatial APD Photodetector ....................................................................................527

Amplifiers Library ........................................................................................ 531

Optical .................................................................................................................... 531


EDFA Black Box.....................................................................................................533
EDFA......................................................................................................................545
Optical Amplifier ....................................................................................................553
Optical Amplifier Measured ....................................................................................559
Optical Fiber Amplifier............................................................................................565
Raman ..............................................................................................................................579
Raman Amplifier Component (Obsolete) ...............................................................581
Raman Amplifier-Average Power Model ................................................................597
Raman Amplifier-Dynamic Model...........................................................................607
Doped Fibers ...................................................................................................................617
Er Doped Fiber Dynamic........................................................................................619
Er Doped Fiber Dynamic Analytical .......................................................................627
Er Doped Fiber.......................................................................................................635
Er Doped Multimode Fiber .....................................................................................675
Er-Yb Codoped Fiber .............................................................................................693
Er-Yb Codoped Fiber Dynamic ..............................................................................707
Er-Yb Codoped Waveguide ..................................................................................717
Pr Doped Fiber.......................................................................................................737
Yb-Doped Fiber......................................................................................................749
Yb-Doped Fiber Dynamic.......................................................................................763
Yb Doped Multimode Fiber ....................................................................................775
Tm Doped Fiber .....................................................................................................791
SOA ..................................................................................................................................805
Traveling Wave SOA .............................................................................................807
Wideband Traveling Wave SOA ............................................................................813
Reflective SOA.......................................................................................................821
Electrical ................................................................................................................ 827
Limiting Amplifier....................................................................................................829
Electrical Amplifier..................................................................................................833
Transimpedance Amplifier .....................................................................................835
AGC Amplifier ........................................................................................................837

Filters Library ............................................................................................... 839

Optical .................................................................................................................... 839


Optical IIR Filter (Obsolete)....................................................................................841
Optical Digital Filter ................................................................................................845
Measured Optical Filter ..........................................................................................849
Measured Group Delay Optical Filter.....................................................................853
Rectangle Optical Filter..........................................................................................859
Trapezoidal Optical Filter .......................................................................................861
Gaussian Optical Filter...........................................................................................863
Butterworth Optical Filter........................................................................................865
Bessel Optical Filter ...............................................................................................867
Fabry Perot Optical Filter .......................................................................................871
Acousto Optical Filter .............................................................................................873
Mach-Zehnder Interferometer ................................................................................877
Inverted Optical IIR Filter (Obsolete)......................................................................879
Inverted Optical Digital Filter ..................................................................................883
Inverted Rectangle Optical Filter............................................................................887
Inverted Trapezoidal Optical Filter .........................................................................889
Inverted Gaussian Optical Filter.............................................................................891
Inverted Butterworth Optical Filter..........................................................................893
Inverted Bessel Optical Filter .................................................................................895
Gain Flattening Filter..............................................................................................897
Delay Interferometer ..............................................................................................901
Transmission Filter Bidirectional ............................................................................903
Reflective Filter Bidirectional..................................................................................907
3-Port Filter Bidirectional........................................................................................911
Periodic Optical Filter .............................................................................................915
FBG ..................................................................................................................................919
Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG).....................................................................................921
Uniform Fiber Bragg Grating ..................................................................................927
Ideal Dispersion Compensation FBG.....................................................................929
Electrical ................................................................................................................ 935
IIR Filter (Obsolete)................................................................................................937
Digital Filter ............................................................................................................941
Low Pass Rectangle Filter .....................................................................................945
Low Pass Gaussian Filter ......................................................................................947
Low Pass Butterworth Filter ...................................................................................949
Low Pass Bessel Filter...........................................................................................951
Low Pass Chebyshev Filter....................................................................................955
Low Pass RC Filter ................................................................................................957
Low Pass Raised Cosine Filter ..............................................................................959
Low Pass Cosine Roll Off Filter .............................................................................961
Low Pass Squared Cosine Roll Off Filter...............................................................963
Band Pass IIR Filter (Obsolete) .............................................................................965
Measured Filter ......................................................................................................969
Band Pass Rectangle Filter....................................................................................973
Band Pass Gaussian Filter.....................................................................................975
Band Pass Butterworth Filter .................................................................................977
Band Pass Bessel Filter .........................................................................................979
Band Pass Chebyshev Filter..................................................................................983
Band Pass RC Filter...............................................................................................985
Band Pass Raised Cosine Filter ............................................................................987
Band Pass Cosine Roll Off Filter............................................................................989
Band Pass Squared Cosine Roll Off Filter .............................................................991
S Parameters Measured Filter ...............................................................................993

WDM Multiplexers Library........................................................................... 997

Add and Drop ........................................................................................................ 997


WDM Add...............................................................................................................999
WDM Drop ...........................................................................................................1003
WDM Add and Drop .............................................................................................1007
Demultiplexers .................................................................................................... 1011
WDM Demux 1x2 .................................................................................................1013
WDM Demux 1x4 .................................................................................................1017
WDM Demux 1x8 .................................................................................................1021
WDM Demux........................................................................................................1025
WDM Demux ES ..................................................................................................1029
WDM Interleaver Demux......................................................................................1031
Ideal Demux .........................................................................................................1033
Multiplexers ......................................................................................................... 1035
WDM Mux 2x1......................................................................................................1037
WDM Mux 4x1......................................................................................................1041
WDM Mux 8x1......................................................................................................1045
WDM Mux ............................................................................................................1049
WDM Mux ES.......................................................................................................1053
Ideal Mux..............................................................................................................1055
Nx1 Mux Bidirectional ..........................................................................................1057
AWG ..................................................................................................................... 1061
AWG NxN.............................................................................................................1063
AWG NxN Bidirectional ........................................................................................1065

Network Library.......................................................................................... 1071

Optical Switches ................................................................................................. 1071


Dynamic Y Select Nx1 Measured ........................................................................1073
Dynamic Y Switch 1xN Measured........................................................................1077
Dynamic Y Switch 1xN.........................................................................................1081
Dynamic Y Select Nx1 .........................................................................................1085
Dynamic Space Switch Matrix NxM Measured ....................................................1089
Dynamic Space Switch Matrix NxM .....................................................................1093
Optical Switch ......................................................................................................1097
Digital Optical Switch ...........................................................................................1099
Optical Y Switch ...................................................................................................1101
Optical Y Select....................................................................................................1103
Ideal Switch 2x2 ...................................................................................................1105
Ideal Y Switch ......................................................................................................1107
Ideal Y Select .......................................................................................................1109
Ideal Y Switch 1x4................................................................................................1111
Ideal Y Select 4x1 ................................................................................................1113
Ideal Y Switch 1x8................................................................................................1115
Ideal Y Select 8x1 ................................................................................................1117
Ideal Y Select Nx1................................................................................................1119
Ideal Y Switch 1xN ...............................................................................................1121
2x2 Switch Bidirectional .......................................................................................1123
Frequency Conversion ....................................................................................... 1125
Ideal Frequency Converter...................................................................................1127

Passives Library ........................................................................................ 1129

Electrical .............................................................................................................. 1129


Electrical Phase Shift ...........................................................................................1131
Electrical Signal Time Delay ................................................................................1133
Attenuators....................................................................................................................1135
Electrical Attenuator .............................................................................................1137
Couplers ........................................................................................................................1139
90 Degree Hybrid Coupler ...................................................................................1141
180 Degree Hybrid Coupler .................................................................................1143
DC Blockers...................................................................................................................1145
DC Block ..............................................................................................................1147
Splitters..........................................................................................................................1149
Splitter 1x2 ...........................................................................................................1151
Splitter 1xN...........................................................................................................1153
Combiners .....................................................................................................................1155
Combiner 2x1.......................................................................................................1157
Combiner Nx1 ......................................................................................................1159
Measured Components ................................................................................................1161
1 Port S Parameters.............................................................................................1163
2 Port S Parameters.............................................................................................1165
3 Port S Parameters.............................................................................................1169
4 Port S Parameters.............................................................................................1171
Transmission Lines ......................................................................................................1173
Coaxial Cable.......................................................................................................1175
Transmission Line ................................................................................................1181
Two Wire Cable....................................................................................................1185
RLCG Transmission Line .....................................................................................1191
Parallel Plate Transmission Line..........................................................................1195
Optical .................................................................................................................. 1201
Phase Shift...........................................................................................................1203
Time Delay ...........................................................................................................1207
Attenuators....................................................................................................................1211
Optical Attenuator ................................................................................................1213
Attenuator Bidirectional ........................................................................................1215
Connectors ....................................................................................................................1219
Connector.............................................................................................................1221
Connector Bidirectional ........................................................................................1223
Spatial Connector.................................................................................................1227
Reflectors ......................................................................................................................1231
Reflector Bidirectional ..........................................................................................1233
Saturable Absorber ..............................................................................................1237
Taps................................................................................................................................1239
Tap Bidirectional ..................................................................................................1241
Measured Components ................................................................................................1245
Luna Technologies OVA Measurement ...............................................................1247
Measured Component..........................................................................................1251
Multimode ......................................................................................................................1255
Spatial Aperture ...................................................................................................1257
Thin Lens .............................................................................................................1259
Vortex Lens ..........................................................................................................1261
Couplers ........................................................................................................................1263
X Coupler .............................................................................................................1265
Pump Coupler Co-Propagating ............................................................................1267
Pump Coupler Counter-Propagating....................................................................1269
Coupler Bidirectional ............................................................................................1271
Pump Coupler Bidirectional..................................................................................1277
Power Splitters..............................................................................................................1283
Power Splitter 1x2 ................................................................................................1285
Power Splitter 1x4 ................................................................................................1287
Power Splitter 1x8 ................................................................................................1289
Power Splitter.......................................................................................................1291
1xN Splitter Bidirectional ......................................................................................1293
Power Combiners .........................................................................................................1297
Power Combiner 2x1............................................................................................1299
Power Combiner 4x1............................................................................................1301
Power Combiner 8x1............................................................................................1303
Power Combiner ..................................................................................................1305
Polarization....................................................................................................................1307
Linear Polarizer ....................................................................................................1309
Circular Polarizer..................................................................................................1311
Polarization Attenuator.........................................................................................1313
Polarization Delay ................................................................................................1315
Polarization Phase Shift .......................................................................................1317
Polarization Combiner..........................................................................................1319
Polarization Controller..........................................................................................1321
Polarization Rotator..............................................................................................1323
Polarization Splitter ..............................................................................................1325
PMD Emulator......................................................................................................1327
Polarization Combiner Bidirectional .....................................................................1331
Polarization Waveplate ........................................................................................1335
Polarization Filter .................................................................................................1337
Isolators .........................................................................................................................1339
Isolator .................................................................................................................1341
Ideal Isolator.........................................................................................................1343
Isolator Bidirectional.............................................................................................1345
Circulators .....................................................................................................................1349
Circulator..............................................................................................................1351
Ideal Circulator .....................................................................................................1353
Circulator Bidirectional .........................................................................................1355

Signal Processing Library......................................................................... 1359

Arithmetic ............................................................................................................ 1359


Electrical ........................................................................................................................1359
Electrical Gain ......................................................................................................1361
Electrical Adder ....................................................................................................1363
Electrical Subtractor .............................................................................................1365
Electrical Multiplier ...............................................................................................1367
Electrical Bias.......................................................................................................1369
Electrical Norm.....................................................................................................1371
Electrical Differentiator .........................................................................................1373
Electrical Integrator ..............................................................................................1375
Electrical Rescale.................................................................................................1377
Electrical Reciprocal.............................................................................................1379
Electrical Abs .......................................................................................................1381
Electrical Sgn .......................................................................................................1383
Optical............................................................................................................................1385
Optical Gain .........................................................................................................1387
Optical Adder .......................................................................................................1389
Optical Subtractor ................................................................................................1391
Optical Bias ..........................................................................................................1393
Optical Multiplier...................................................................................................1395
Optical Hard Limiter .............................................................................................1397
Tools..................................................................................................................... 1399
Electrical ........................................................................................................................1399
Convert To Electrical Individual Samples.............................................................1401
Convert From Electrical Individual Samples ........................................................1403
Electrical Downsampler........................................................................................1405
Optical............................................................................................................................1407
Merge Optical Signal Bands.................................................................................1409
Convert to Parameterized ....................................................................................1411
Convert to Noise Bins ..........................................................................................1413
Convert To Optical Individual Samples ................................................................1415
Convert From Optical Individual Samples............................................................1417
Optical Downsampler ...........................................................................................1419
Signal Type Selector ............................................................................................1421
Convert To Sampled Signals ...............................................................................1423
Channel Attacher .................................................................................................1425
Binary.............................................................................................................................1427
Convert To Individual Bits ....................................................................................1429
Convert From Individual Bits ................................................................................1431
Serial To Parallel Converter .................................................................................1433
Serial To Parallel Converter 1xN..........................................................................1435
Parallel To Serial Converter .................................................................................1437
Parallel To Serial Converter Nx1..........................................................................1439
Logic..................................................................................................................... 1441
Binary.............................................................................................................................1441
Binary NOT ..........................................................................................................1443
Binary AND ..........................................................................................................1445
Binary OR.............................................................................................................1447
Binary XOR ..........................................................................................................1449
Binary NAND........................................................................................................1451
Binary NOR ..........................................................................................................1453
Binary XNOR........................................................................................................1455
Delay ....................................................................................................................1457
Duobinary Precoder .............................................................................................1459
4-DPSK Precoder.................................................................................................1461
Electrical ........................................................................................................................1463
Electrical NOT ......................................................................................................1465
Electrical AND ......................................................................................................1467
Electrical OR ........................................................................................................1469
Electrical XOR......................................................................................................1471
Electrical NAND ...................................................................................................1473
Electrical NOR......................................................................................................1475
Electrical XNOR ...................................................................................................1477
T Flip-Flop ............................................................................................................1479
D Flip-Flop............................................................................................................1481
JK Flip-Flop ..........................................................................................................1483
RS Flip-Flop .........................................................................................................1485
RS NOR Latch .....................................................................................................1487
RS NAND Latch ...................................................................................................1489
Clocked RS NAND Latch .....................................................................................1491

Tools Library .............................................................................................. 1493


Switch...................................................................................................................1495
Select ...................................................................................................................1497
Fork 1x2 ...............................................................................................................1499
Loop Control.........................................................................................................1501
Ground .................................................................................................................1503
Buffer Selector .....................................................................................................1505
Fork 1xN...............................................................................................................1507
Binary Null............................................................................................................1509
Optical Null...........................................................................................................1511
Electrical Null .......................................................................................................1513
Binary Delay.........................................................................................................1515
Optical Delay........................................................................................................1517
Electrical Delay ....................................................................................................1519
Optical Ring Controller .........................................................................................1521
Electrical Ring Controller......................................................................................1523
Duplicator .............................................................................................................1525
Limiter ..................................................................................................................1527
Initializer ...............................................................................................................1529
Save to file ...........................................................................................................1531
Load from file .......................................................................................................1533
Command Line Application ..................................................................................1535
Swap Horiz...........................................................................................................1541

Optiwave Software Tools .......................................................................... 1543

OptiAmplifier.........................................................................................................1545
OptiGrating...........................................................................................................1553
WDM_Phasar Demux 1xN ...................................................................................1557
WDM_Phasar Mux Nx1........................................................................................1559
OptiBPM Component NxM...................................................................................1563
Save Transverse Mode ........................................................................................1567
OptiSPICE Output ................................................................................................1571
OptiSPICE NetList................................................................................................1573

MATLAB Library......................................................................................... 1575

MATLAB Filter Component ..................................................................................1577


MATLAB Optical Filter Component ......................................................................1581
MATLAB Component ...........................................................................................1585

Scilab Library ............................................................................................. 1599

Scilab Component................................................................................................1601
EDA Cosimulation Library ........................................................................ 1605

Save ADS File......................................................................................................1607


Load ADS File ......................................................................................................1611
Save Spice Stimulus File .....................................................................................1615
Load Spice CSDF File..........................................................................................1621
Triggered Save Spice Stimulus File .....................................................................1625
Triggered Load Spice CSDF File .........................................................................1631

Analog/Digital Library................................................................................ 1635

Carrier Generators .............................................................................................. 1635


Carrier Generator .................................................................................................1637
Carrier Generator Measured ................................................................................1641
Transmitters ........................................................................................................ 1643
Modulators.....................................................................................................................1643
Electrical Amplitude Modulator (AM)....................................................................1645
Electrical Frequency Modulator (FM) ...................................................................1647
Electrical Phase Modulator (PM)..........................................................................1649
Quadrature Modulator ..........................................................................................1651
PAM Modulator ....................................................................................................1653
QAM Modulator ....................................................................................................1655
PSK Modulator .....................................................................................................1657
DPSK Modulator ..................................................................................................1659
OQPSK Modulator ...............................................................................................1661
MSK Modulator ....................................................................................................1663
FSK Modulator .....................................................................................................1665
CPFSK Modulator ................................................................................................1667
OFDM Modulator..................................................................................................1669
OFDM Modulator Measured.................................................................................1677
Burst Modulator....................................................................................................1685
Pulse generators...........................................................................................................1687
PAM Pulse Generator ..........................................................................................1689
QAM Pulse Generator..........................................................................................1691
PSK Pulse Generator...........................................................................................1695
DPSK Pulse Generator ........................................................................................1697
OQPSK Pulse Generator .....................................................................................1699
MSK Pulse Generator ..........................................................................................1701
Sequence generators ...................................................................................................1705
PAM Sequence Generator ...................................................................................1707
QAM Sequence Generator...................................................................................1711
PSK Sequence Generator....................................................................................1715
DPSK Sequence Generator .................................................................................1719
PPM Sequence Generator ...................................................................................1723
DPIM Sequence Generator..................................................................................1725
4B5B Sequence Generator ..................................................................................1727
NRZI Sequence Generator ..................................................................................1729
AMI Sequence Generator ....................................................................................1731
Manchester Sequence Generator ........................................................................1735
4B3T Sequence Generator ..................................................................................1737
8B10B Sequence Generator ................................................................................1739
Receivers ............................................................................................................. 1741
Demodulators................................................................................................................1741
Electrical Amplitude Demodulator ........................................................................1743
Electrical Phase Demodulator..............................................................................1745
Electrical Frequency Demodulator .......................................................................1747
Quadrature Demodulator .....................................................................................1749
OFDM Demodulator .............................................................................................1751
OFDM Demodulator Measured ............................................................................1755
Burst Demodulator ...............................................................................................1759
Decoders........................................................................................................................1761
PAM Sequence Decoder......................................................................................1763
QAM Sequence Decoder .....................................................................................1767
PSK Sequence Decoder ......................................................................................1771
DPSK Sequence Decoder....................................................................................1775
PPM Sequence Decoder......................................................................................1779
DPIM Sequence Decoder ....................................................................................1781
4B5B Sequence Decoder.....................................................................................1783
NRZI Sequence Decoder .....................................................................................1785
AMI Sequence Decoder .......................................................................................1787
Manchester Sequence Decoder...........................................................................1791
4B3T Sequence Decoder.....................................................................................1793
8B10B Sequence Decoder...................................................................................1795
Detectors .......................................................................................................................1797
M-Ary Threshold Detector ....................................................................................1799

Visualizer Library ....................................................................................... 1801

Optical .................................................................................................................. 1801


Optical Spectrum Analyzer (OSA)........................................................................1803
Optical Time Domain Visualizer (OTDV)..............................................................1809
Optical Power Meter.............................................................................................1817
Polarization Meter ................................................................................................1821
Polarization Analyzer ...........................................................................................1827
WDM Analyzer (WDMA) ......................................................................................1835
Dual Port WDM Analyzer (DPWDMA) .................................................................1841
Differential Mode Delay Analyzer.........................................................................1849
Spatial Visualizer..................................................................................................1853
Encircled Flux Analyzer........................................................................................1861
Test Sets ........................................................................................................................1865
Optical Filter Analyzer ..........................................................................................1867
Photonic All-parameter Analyzer..........................................................................1871
Convergence Monitor...........................................................................................1875
Electrical .............................................................................................................. 1879
Oscilloscope Visualizer ........................................................................................1881
RF Spectrum Analyzer (RFSA) ...........................................................................1885
Eye Diagram Analyzer .........................................................................................1889
BER Analyzer.......................................................................................................1907
Electrical Power Meter .........................................................................................1925
Electrical Carrier Analyzer (ECAN) ......................................................................1929
Dual Port Electrical Carrier Analyzer....................................................................1935
Electrical Constellation Visualizer ........................................................................1941
Test Sets ........................................................................................................................1949
Electrical Filter Analyzer.......................................................................................1951
S Parameter Extractor..........................................................................................1953
Binary ................................................................................................................... 1957
Binary Sequence Visualizer .................................................................................1959
M-ary Sequence Visualizer ..................................................................................1963
Test Sets ........................................................................................................................1967
BER Test Set .......................................................................................................1969
Transmitters Library
Pulse Generators
Electrical

• Duobinary Pulse Generator


• Electrical Jitter
• Noise Source
• RZ Pulse Generator
• NRZ Pulse Generator
• Gaussian Pulse Generator
• Hyperbolic-Secant Pulse Generator
• Sine Generator
• Triangle Pulse Generator
• Saw-Up Pulse Generator
• Saw-Down Pulse Generator
• Impulse Generator
• Raised Cosine Pulse Generator
• Sine Pulse Generator
• Measured Pulse
• Measured Pulse Sequence
• Bias Generator
• M-ary Pulse Generator
• M-ary Raised Cosine Pulse Generator
• Predistortion

1
Notes:

2
DUOBINARY PULSE GENERATOR

Duobinary Pulse Generator

Used for duobinary modulation schemes. It is equivalent to a subsystem based on an


electrical delay and adder. It can be used together with any electrical pulse generator.

Ports

Name and description Port type Signal type


Input Input Electrical

Clock Input Binary

Output Output Electrical

Parameters
Simulation

Name and description Default value Units Value range


Enabled True — True, False
Determines whether or not the component is enabled

3
DUOBINARY PULSE GENERATOR

Technical background
The equivalent subsystem is:

Figure 1 Duobinary Pulse Generator subsystem

4
ELECTRICAL JITTER

Electrical Jitter

Inserts jitter in the input signal.

Ports

Name and description Port type Signal type


Input Input Electrical

Clock Input Binary

Output Output Electrical

Parameters
Main

Name and description Default Default unit Units Value


value range
Frequency 100 MHz Hz, MHz, GHz, [0,+INF[
THz
Jitter frequency

Jitter amplitude 0.1 UI - [0,+INF[

Jitter amplitude range

Random jitter amplitude 0 UI - [0,+INF[

rms Random jitter

Simulation

Name and description Default Units Value


value range
Enabled True - True, False
Determines whether or not the component is enabled

5
ELECTRICAL JITTER

Technical background
The jitter is a short-term, non-cumulative variation of the significant instants of a digital
signal from their positions in time. Jitter amplitude is measured in unit intervals (UI),
where 1 UI is the phase deviation of one clock period. The peak-to-peak UI deviation
of the phase function with respect to time is referred as jitter amplitude. The output
signal is:

A
out ( t ) = E in ⎛⎝ t + tr + ------- sin ( 2πft )⎞⎠
2B

where A is the deterministic jitter amplitude, B is the signal bit rate, and f is the jitter
frequency. And tr is the random jitter that has a Gaussian probability distribution with
zero mean and standard deviation defined by the parameter Random jitter amplitude
(rms value).

6
NOISE SOURCE

Noise Source

Source of thermal noise.

Ports

Name and description Port type Signal type


Output Output Electrical

Parameters
Main

Name and description Default Default unit Units Value


value range

PSD True — True, False

Determines whether the power is defined as PSD


or as the average power in time

Noise Power –60 dBm W, mW, dBm ]-INF,+INF[

Value of the PSD or the average power

Simulation

Name and description Default Default unit Units Value


value range
Enabled True — — True, False

Determines whether or not the component is


enabled

Iterations Iterations — — [1,+INF[


Number of times to repeat the calculation

Sample rate Sample rate Hz Hz, GHz, THz ]0,+INF[

Frequency simulation window

7
NOISE SOURCE

Noise

Name and description Default Units Value


value range
Add noise to signal False — True, False

Determines whether the noise will propagate separately from the


signal or will be added to the signal

Random numbers

Name and description Default Units Value


value range
Generate random seed True — True, False

Determines if the seed is automatically defined and unique

Random seed index 0 — [0, 4999]

User-defined seed index for noise generation

Technical background
The average output Power or Power spectral density are parameters that you specify.
This model generates electrical sampled signals or electrical sampled noise
according to:

E out = [ x ( t ) + jy ( t ) ] P ⁄ 2

A Gaussian distribution describes the probability density function for the real and
imaginary part of E. P is the average power when PSD parameter is false, if PSD is
true then P is calculated from the power spectral density multiplied by the Sample
rate.

8
RZ PULSE GENERATOR

RZ Pulse Generator

Generates a Return to Zero (RZ) coded signal.

Ports

Name and description Port type Signal type


Bit sequence Input Binary

Output Output Electrical

Parameters
Main

Name and description Default Default unit Value


value range
Rectangle shape Exponential — Exponential,
Gaussian,
Determines the shape for the edges of the pulse Linear, Sine

Amplitude 1 a.u. ]-INF,+INF[

Peak-to-peak amplitude of the pulse

Bias 0 a.u. ]-INF,+INF[

DC Offset of the pulse

Duty cycle 0.5 bit [0,1]


Duration of the high level bit

Position 0 bit

Rise time 0.05 bit [0,1]

Defined as the time from when the rising edge reaches 10% of the
amplitude to the time it reaches 90% of the amplitude

Fall time 0.05 bit [0,1]

Defined as the time from when the falling edge reaches 90% of the
amplitude to the time it reaches 10% of the amplitude

9
RZ PULSE GENERATOR

Simulation

Name and description Default Default Unit Value


value units range
Enabled True — — True, False

Determines whether or not the component is


enabled

Sample rate Sample rate Hz Hz, GHz, THz ]0,+INF[

Frequency simulation window

Technical background
According to the parameter Rectangle shape, this model can produce pulses with
different edge shapes:

Exponential

⎧ – ( t ⁄ cr )
⎪1 – e ,0 ≤ t < t 1

⎪ 1, t 1 ≤ t < t 2
E(t ) = ⎨
⎪ e – ( t ⁄ cf ) ,t ≤ t < t
⎪ 2 c
⎪ 0, t c ≤ t < T

Gaussian


2
–( t ⁄ cr )
⎪1 – e ,0 ≤ t < t 1

⎪ 1, t 1 ≤ t < t 2
E(t) = ⎨ 2
⎪ e – ( t ⁄ c f ) ,t ≤ t < t
⎪ 2 c
⎪ 0, t c ≤ t < T

10
RZ PULSE GENERATOR

Linear

⎧ t ⁄ c r ,0 ≤ t < t 1

⎪ 1, t 1 ≤ t < t 2
E(t) = ⎨
⎪ t ⁄ c f ,t 2 ≤ t < t c

⎩ 0, t c ≤ t < T

Sine
⎧ sin ( π.t ⁄ c r ) ,0 ≤ t < t 1

⎪ 1 ,t 1 ≤ t < t 2
E(t ) = ⎨
⎪ sin ( π.t ⁄ c f ) ,t 2 ≤ t < t c

⎩ 0 ,t c ≤ t < T

where cr is the rise time coefficient and cf is the fall time coefficient. t1 and t2, together
with cr and cf, are numerically determinate to generate pulses with the exact values
of the parameters Rise time and Fall time. tc is the duty cycle duration, and T is the
bit period.

11
RZ PULSE GENERATOR

Notes:

12
NRZ PULSE GENERATOR

NRZ Pulse Generator

Generates a Non Return to Zero (NRZ) coded signal.

Ports

Name and description Port type Signal type


Bit sequence Input Binary

Output Output Electrical

Parameters
Main

Name and description Default Default unit Value


value range
Rectangle shape Exponential — Exponential,
Gaussian,
Determines the shape for the edges of the pulse Linear, Sine

Amplitude 1 a.u. ]-INF,+INF[

Peak-to-peak amplitude of the pulse

Bias 0 a.u. ]-INF,+INF[

DC Offset of the pulse

Position 0 bit

Rise time 0.05 bit [0,1]

Defined as the time from when the rising edge reaches 10% of the
amplitude to the time it reaches 90% of the amplitude

Fall time 0.05 bit [0,1]


Defined as the time from when the falling edge reaches 90% of the
amplitude to the time it reaches 10% of the amplitude

13
NRZ PULSE GENERATOR

Simulation

Name and description Default Default Unit Value


value units range
Enabled True — — True, False

Determines whether or not the component is


enabled

Sample rate Sample rate Hz Hz, GHz, THz ]0,+INF[

Frequency simulation window

14
NRZ PULSE GENERATOR

Technical background
According to the parameter Rectangle shape, this model can produce pulses with
different edge shapes:

Exponential

⎧ – ( t ⁄ cr )
⎪1 – e ,0 ≤ t < t 1

E(t ) = ⎨ 1 ,t 1 ≤ t < t 2
⎪ –( t ⁄ c )
⎪ e f
,t 2 ≤ t < T

Gaussian

⎧ –( t ⁄ cr )2
⎪ e ,0 ≤ t < t 1

E(t) = ⎨ 1 ,t 1 ≤ t < t 2
⎪ 2
⎪ e –( t ⁄ c f ) ,( t ≤ t < T )
⎩ 2

15
NRZ PULSE GENERATOR

Linear
⎧ t ⁄ c r ,0 ≤ t < t 1

E ( t ) = ⎨ 1, t 1 ≤ t < t 2

⎩ t ⁄ c f ,t 2 ≤ t < T

Sine

⎧ sin ( π.t ⁄ c r ) ,0 ≤ t < t 1



E(t) = ⎨ 1 ,t 1 ≤ t < t 2

⎩ sin ( π.t ⁄ c f ) ,t 2 ≤ t < T

where cr is the rise time coefficient and cf is the fall time coefficient. t1 and t2, together
with cr and cf, are numerically determined to generate pulses with the exact values of
the parameters Rise time and Fall time, and T is the bit period.

16
GAUSSIAN PULSE GENERATOR

Gaussian Pulse Generator

Generates an electrical Gaussian-pulsed signal.

Ports

Name and description Port type Signal type


Bit sequence Input Binary

Output Output Electrical

Parameters
Main

Name and description Default Default unit Value


value range
Amplitude 1 a.u. ]-INF,+INF[

Peak-to-peak amplitude of the pulse

Bias 0 a.u. ]-INF,+INF[

DC Offset of the pulse

Width 0.5 bit [0,1]

FWHM of the pulse amplitude

Position 0 bit

Order 1 — [1,100]
Order of the function

Truncated False — True, False

Determines whether or not the pulses overlap with each other

17
GAUSSIAN PULSE GENERATOR

Simulation

Name and description Default Default Unit Value


value units range
Enabled True — — True, False

Determines whether or not the component is


enabled

Sample rate Sample rate Hz Hz, GHz, THz ]0,+INF[

Frequency simulation window

Technical background
This model generates Gaussian or super-Gaussian electrical pulses according to the
bit sequence at the input. For each bit
2N
1 t.k
⎛ – --- ⎛⎝ ----------------⎞⎠ ⎞
2 T FWHM

E ( t ) = B. ⎜ A p .e + A bias⎟⎟
⎝ ⎠

where Ap is the parameter peak-to-peak Amplitude, and Abias is the parameter Bias.
B is the bit value (1 or 0) and depends on the input bit sequence. k is the fitting
coefficient determined numerically to generate pulses with the exact values of the
parameter Width TFWHM, and N is the Order of the Gaussian (N=1) or super-Gaussian
pulses (N>1).

18
HYPERBOLIC-SECANT PULSE GENERATOR

Hyperbolic-Secant Pulse Generator

Generates a hyperbolic-secant pulsed signal.

Ports

Name and description Port type Signal type


Bit sequence Input Binary

Output Output Electrical

Parameters
Main

Name and description Default Default unit Value


value range
Amplitude 1 a.u. ]-INF,+INF[

Peak-to-peak amplitude of the pulse

Bias 0 a.u. ]-INF,+INF[

DC Offset of the pulse

Width 0.5 bit [0,1]

FWHM of the pulse amplitude

Position 0 bit

Truncated False — True, False


Defines whether or not the pulses overlap with each other

19
HYPERBOLIC-SECANT PULSE GENERATOR

Simulation

Name and description Default Default Unit Value


value units range
Enabled True — — True, False

Determines whether or not the component is


enabled

Sample rate Sample rate Hz Hz, GHz, THz ]0,+INF[

Frequency simulation window

Technical background
This model generates electrical pulses according to the bit sequence at the input. For
each bit:

t.k 2
E ( t ) = B. ⎛ A p ⁄ cosh ⎛ -----------------⎞ + A bias⎞
⎝ ⎝ T FWHM⎠ ⎠

where Ap is the parameter peak-to-peak Amplitude, and Abias is the parameter Bias.
B is the bit value (1 or 0) and depends on the input bit sequence. k is the fitting
coefficient determined numerically to generate pulses with the exact values of the
parameter Width, TFWHM.

20
SINE GENERATOR

Sine Generator

Generates an electrical sine waveform signal.

Ports

Name and description Port type Signal type


Output Output Electrical

Parameters
Main

Name and description Default Default unit Units Value


value range
Frequency 32 GHz Hz, MHz, GHz, ]0,+INF[
THz
Frequency simulation window

Amplitude 1 a.u. — ]-INF,+INF[

Peak-to-peak amplitude of the pulse

Bias 0 a.u. — ]-INF,+INF[


DC Offset of the pulse

Phase 0 deg — ]-INF,+INF[

Initial phase of the signal

21
SINE GENERATOR

Simulation

Name and description Default Default unit Units Value


value range
Enabled True — — True, False

Determines whether or not the component is


enabled

Iterations Iterations — — [1,+INF[

Number of times to repeat the calculation

Sample rate Sample rate Hz Hz, GHz, THz ]0,+INF[

Frequency simulation window

22
TRIANGLE PULSE GENERATOR

Triangle Pulse Generator

Generates an electrical triangle-pulsed signal.

Ports

Name and description Port type Signal type


Bit sequence Input Binary

Output Output Electrical

Parameters
Main

Name and description Default Default unit Value


value range
Amplitude 1 a.u. ]-INF,+INF[

Peak-to-peak amplitude of the pulse

Bias 0 a.u. ]-INF,+INF[

DC Offset of the pulse

Width 0.5 bit [0,1]

FWHM of the pulse amplitude

Position 0 bit

Truncated False — True, False


Determines whether or not the pulses overlap with each other

23
TRIANGLE PULSE GENERATOR

Simulation

Name and description Default Default Unit Value


value units range
Enabled True — — True, False

Determines whether or not the component is


enabled

Sample rate Sample rate Hz Hz, GHz, THz ]0,+INF[

Frequency simulation window

24
SAW-UP PULSE GENERATOR

Saw-Up Pulse Generator

Generates a saw-up signal.

Ports

Name and description Port type Signal type


Bit sequence Input Binary

Output Output Electrical

Parameters
Main

Name and description Default Default unit Value


value range
Amplitude 1 a.u. ]-INF,+INF[

Peak-to-peak amplitude of the pulse

Bias 0 a.u. ]-INF,+INF[

DC Offset of the pulse

Width 0.5 bit [0,1]

FWHM of the pulse amplitude

Position 0 bit

Truncated False — True, False


Determines whether or not the pulses overlap with each other

25
SAW-UP PULSE GENERATOR

Simulation

Name and description Default Default Unit Value


value units range
Enabled True — — True, False

Determines whether or not the component is


enabled

Sample rate Sample rate Hz Hz, GHz, THz ]0,+INF[

Frequency simulation window

26
SAW-DOWN PULSE GENERATOR

Saw-Down Pulse Generator

Generates a saw-down pulsed signal.

Ports

Name and description Port type Signal type


Bit sequence Input Binary

Output Output Electrical

Parameters
Main

Name and description Default Default unit Value


value range
Amplitude 1 a.u. ]-INF,+INF[

Peak-to-peak amplitude of the pulse

Bias 0 a.u. ]-INF,+INF[

DC Offset of the pulse

Width 0.5 bit [0,1]

FWHM of the pulse amplitude

Position 0 bit [-1, 1]

Truncated False — True, False


Determines whether or not the pulses overlap with each other

27
SAW-DOWN PULSE GENERATOR

Simulation

Name and description Default Default Unit Value


value units range
Enabled True — — True, False

Determines whether or not the component is


enabled

Sample rate Sample rate Hz Hz, GHz, THz ]0,+INF[

Frequency simulation window

28
IMPULSE GENERATOR

Impulse Generator

Generates an electrical signal composed by a sequence of Impulses.

Ports

Name and description Port type Signal type


Bit sequence Input Binary

Output Output Electrical

Parameters
Main

Name and description Default Default unit Value


value range
Amplitude 1 a.u. ]-INF,+INF[

Peak-to-peak amplitude of the pulse

Bias 0 a.u. ]-INF,+INF[

DC Offset of the pulse

Position 0.5 bit [0,1]

Relative position of the impulse

Simulation

Name and description Default Default Unit Value


value units range
Enabled True — — True, False

Determines whether or not the component is


enabled

Sample rate Sample rate Hz Hz, GHz, THz ]0,+INF[

Frequency simulation window

29
IMPULSE GENERATOR

Notes:

30
RAISED COSINE PULSE GENERATOR

Raised Cosine Pulse Generator

Generates a raised-cosine pulsed signal.

Ports

Name and description Port type Signal type


Bit sequence Input Binary

Output Output Electrical

Parameters
Main

Name and description Default Default unit Value


value range
Amplitude 1 a.u. ]-INF,+INF[

Peak-to-peak amplitude of the pulse

Bias 0 a.u. ]-INF,+INF[

DC Offset of the pulse

Width 0.5 bit [0,1]

FWHM of the pulse amplitude

Position 0 bit

Truncated False — True, False


Determines whether or not the pulses overlap with each other

31
RAISED COSINE PULSE GENERATOR

Simulation

Name and description Default Default unit Unit Value


value range
Enabled True — — True, False

Determines whether or not the component is


enabled

Sample rate Sample rate Hz Hz, GHz, THz ]0,+INF[

Frequency simulation window

Technical background
This model generates electrical pulses according to the bit sequence at the input. For
each bit:

t.k 2
E ( t ) = B. ⎛ A p . cos ⎛ -----------------⎞ + A bias⎞
⎝ ⎝ T FWHM⎠ ⎠

where Ap is the parameter peak-to-peak Amplitude, and Abias is the parameter Bias.
B is the bit value (1 or 0) and depends on the input bit sequence. k is the fitting
coefficient determined numerically to generate pulses with the exact values of the
parameter Width, TFWHM.

32
SINE PULSE GENERATOR

Sine Pulse Generator

Generates a sine-pulsed signal.

Ports

Name and description Port type Signal type


Bit sequence Input Binary

Output Output Electrical

Parameters
Main

Name and description Default Default unit Value


value range
Amplitude 1 a.u. ]-INF,+INF[

Peak-to-peak amplitude of the pulse

Bias 0 a.u. ]-INF,+INF[

DC Offset of the pulse

Width 0.5 bit [0,1]

FWHM of the pulse amplitude

Position 0 bit

Truncated False — True, False


Determines whether or not the pulses overlap with each other

33
SINE PULSE GENERATOR

Simulation

Name and description Default Default Unit Value


value units range
Enabled True — — True, False

Determines whether or not the component is


enabled

Sample rate Sample rate Hz Hz, GHz, THz ]0,+INF[

Frequency simulation window

Technical background
This model generates electrical pulses according to the bit sequence at the input. For
each bit:

t.k
E ( t ) = B. ⎛ A p . cos ⎛ -----------------⎞ + A bias⎞
⎝ ⎝ T FWHM⎠ ⎠

where Ap is the parameter peak-to-peak Amplitude, and Abias is the parameter Bias.
B is the bit value (1 or 0) and depends on the input bit sequence. k is the fitting
coefficient numerically determinate to generate pulses with the exact values of the
parameter Width TFWHM.

34
MEASURED PULSE

Measured Pulse

Generates an electrical pulse based on measurements according to the bit sequence


at the input port.

Ports

Name and description Port type Signal type


Bit sequence Input Binary

Output Output Electrical

Parameters
Main

Name and description Default value Default unit Value range


Amplitude 1 a.u. ]-INF,+INF[

Peak-to-peak amplitude of the pulse

Bias 0 a.u. ]-INF,+INF[

DC Offset of the pulse

Position 0 bit

Filename Pulse.dat — —

Filename with the measured data

Numerical

Name and description Default value Units Value range


Interpolation Linear — Linear, Cubic
Determines the interpolation algorithm for the measured data

35
MEASURED PULSE

Simulation

Name and description Default Default Unit Value


value units range
Enabled True — — True, False

Determines whether or not the component is


enabled

Sample rate Sample rate Hz Hz, GHz, THz ]0,+INF[

Frequency simulation window

Graphs

Name and description X Title Y Title


Measured data Time period (a.u.) Amplitude (a.u.)

Technical background
This model generates electrical signal loading measurements from a file. The input
file is formatted containing two values per line, the time in seconds and signal
amplitude in arbitrary units. The time scale is normalized to fit in one bit period - the
duration of the pulse. For example, the file representing one measurement has the
following form:

0 0

1e-6 0.5

2e-6 0.5

3e-6 0

...

36
MEASURED PULSE SEQUENCE

Measured Pulse Sequence

Generates an electrical signal based on measurements.

Ports

Name and description Port type Signal type


Output Output Electrical

Parameters
Main

Name and description Default value Default unit Value range


Scale 1 a.u. ]-INF,+INF[

Factor to scale the signal amplitude

Start time 0 s [0,+INF[

Initial part of the signal to be skipped

Filename Sequence.dat — —

Filename with the measured data

Numerical

Name and description Default value Units Value range


Interpolation Linear — Linear, Cubic

Determines the interpolation algorithm for the measured data

37
MEASURED PULSE SEQUENCE

Simulation

Name and description Default Default Units Value


value unit range
Enabled True — — True, False

Determines whether or not the component is


enabled

Iterations Iterations — — [1,+INF[

Number of times to repeat the calculation

Sample rate Sample rate Hz Hz, GHz, THz ]0,+INF[

Frequency simulation window

Graphs

Name and description X Title Y Title


Measured data Time (s) Amplitude (a.u.)

Technical background
This model generates electrical signal loading measurements from a file. The input
file is formatted containing two values per line, the time in seconds and signal
amplitude in arbitrary units. For example, the file representing one measurement has
the following form:

0 0

1e-6 0.5

2e-6 0.5

3e-6 0

...

38
BIAS GENERATOR

Bias Generator

A d.c. source.

Ports

Name and description Port type Signal type


Output Output Electrical

Parameters
Main

Name and description Default Units Value


value range
Amplitude 1 a.u. ]-INF,+INF[

Amplitude of the signal output

Simulation

Name and description Default Default unit Units Value


value range
Enabled True — — True, False

Determines whether or not the component is


enabled

Iterations Iterations — — [1,+INF[

Number of times to repeat the calculation

Sample rate Sample rate Hz Hz, GHz, THz ]0,+INF[

Frequency simulation window

39
BIAS GENERATOR

Notes:

40
M-ARY PULSE GENERATOR

M-ary Pulse Generator

Generates multilevel pulses according to the M-ary signal input.

Ports

Name and description Port type Signal type


Input Input M-ary

Output Output Electrical

Parameters
Main

Name and description Default Units Value


value range
Gain 0 ]-INF,+INF[

Linear gain to be applied to the signal input

Bias 1 a.u. ]-INF,+INF[

DC Offset of the pulse

Duty cycle 1 bit [0,1]

Duration of the high level bit

Position 0 bit

Simulation

Name and description Default Default Unit Value


value units range
Enabled True — — True, False
Determines whether or not the component is
enabled

Sample rate Sample rate Hz Hz, GHz, THz ]0,+INF[

Frequency simulation window

41
M-ARY PULSE GENERATOR

Technical background
This model generates pulses according to:


⎪ b, 0 ≤ t < t 1

v out ( t ) = ⎨ av in ( t ) + b, t 1 ≤ t < t 1 + t c

⎪ b, t 1 + t c ≤ t < T

where v in is the input M-ary signal, a is the linear gain, and b is the parameter Bias.

T is the bit period, t c is the duty cycle, and t 1 is the pulse position.

42
M-ARY RAISED COSINE PULSE GENERATOR

M-ary Raised Cosine Pulse Generator

Generates multilevel raised cosine pulses according to the M-ary signal input.

Ports

Name and description Port type Signal type


Input Input M-ary

Output Output Electrical

Parameters
Main

Name and description Default Units Value


value range
Gain 0 ]-INF,+INF[

Linear gain to be applied to the signal input

Bias 1 a.u. ]-INF,+INF[

DC offset of the pulse

Width 1 bit [0,1]

Duration of the high level bit

Position 0 bit

Roll off factor 1 [0,1]


The raised cosine roll off factor

Square root False True, False

Determines whether or not the square root is enabled

43
M-ARY RAISED COSINE PULSE GENERATOR

Simulation

Name and description Default Default Unit Value


value units range
Enabled True — — True, False

Determines whether or not the component is


enabled

Sample rate Sample rate Hz Hz, GHz, THz ]0,+INF[

Frequency simulation window

Technical background
This model generates pulses according to:


⎪ b, 0 ≤ t < t 1

v out ( t ) = ⎨ ah ( t ) + b, t 1 ≤ t < t 1 + w

⎪ b, t 1 + w ≤ t < T

where v in is the input M-ary signal, a is the linear gain, and b is the parameter Bias.

T is the bit period, w is the pulse width, and t 1 is the pulse position. h is given by:

⎛ sin ⎛ πt -----⎞ cos ⎛ απt ---------⎞ ⎞


⎜ ⎝ T⎠ ⎝ T ⎠⎟
h ( t ) = ⎜ ------------------------------------------
2
-⎟
⎜ πt ⎛ ⎛ 2αt ⎞ ⎞ ⎟
⎝ ----T⎝
- 1 – ---------
⎝ T ⎠ ⎠ ⎠

If parameter Square root is enable, h is given by:

πt
sin ⎛ ----- ( 1 + α )⎞
πt ⎝ T ⎠
cos ⎛ ----- ( 1 + α )⎞ + -------------------------------------
⎝T ⎠ 4αt
---------
T
h ( t ) = 4α ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------
2
-
4αt
π T ⎛ 1 – ⎛⎝ ---------⎞⎠ ⎞
⎝ T ⎠

44
PREDISTORTION

Predistortion

Apply predistortion to electrical signals. The component can inversely model an


optical modulator's amplitude and phase characteristics.

Ports

Name and description Port type Signal type


Input Input Electrical

Output Output Electrical

Parameters
Main

Name and description Default Units Value


value range
Predistortion Arcsin Arcsin,
Polynomial
Predistortion type

Coefficients 1 a.u. ]-INF,+INF[


Coefficients for Polynomial predistortion type

Gain 1 ]-INF,+INF[

Linear gain to be applied to the signal

Bias 0 a.u. ]-INF,+INF[

DC Offset of the signal

Simulation

Name and description Default Default Unit Value


value units range
Enabled True — — True, False
Determines whether or not the component is
enabled

45
PREDISTORTION

Technical background
If parameter Predistortion is Arcsin, the function applied to the input signal is:

1
v out ( t ) = --- arc sin ( v in ( t ) ) ⋅ a + b
π

where v in is the input signal, a is the linear gain, and b is the bias.

If parameter Predistortion is Polynomial, the function applied to the input signal is:

2 N
v out ( t ) = ( c 0 + c 1 v in ( t ) + c 2 v ( t ) in + … + c N v ( t ) in ) ⋅ a + b

where c i is the polynomial coefficient of index i.

46
PREDISTORTION

Transmitters Library
Pulse Generators
Optical

• Optical Gaussian Pulse Generator


• Optical Sech Pulse Generator
• Optical Impulse Generator
• Measured Optical Pulse
• Measured Optical Pulse Sequence
• Time Resolve Chirp (TRC) Measurement Data
• Spatial Optical Gaussian Pulse Generator
• Spatial Optical Sech Pulse Generator
• Spatial Optical Impulse Generator

47
PREDISTORTION

Notes:

48
OPTICAL GAUSSIAN PULSE GENERATOR

Optical Gaussian Pulse Generator

Generates a Gaussian-pulsed optical signal.

Ports

Name and description Port type Signal type


Bit sequence Input Binary

Output Output Optical

Parameters
Main

Name and description Default Default unit Units Value


value range
Frequency 193.1 THz Hz, THz, nm [0,+INF[

Emission frequency

Power 0 dBm W, mW, dBm ]-INF,+INF[

Peak-to-peak power of the pulse

Bias –100 dBm W, mW, dBm ]-INF,+INF[

DC Offset of the pulse

Width 0.5 bit — [0,1]

FWHM of the pulse amplitude

Position 0 bit —

Order 1 — — [1,100]

Order of the function

Truncated False — — True, False

Determines whether or not the pulses overlap with


each other

49
OPTICAL GAUSSIAN PULSE GENERATOR

Chirp

Name and description Default Default unit Value


value range
Chirp definition Linear — Linear,
Measured

Chirp factor 0 rad/s

Alpha parameter 0 rad/W

Adiabatic chirp 0 1/s [0,1]

Results from changes in the steady state carrier densities

Polarization

Name and description Default Default unit Value


value range
Azimuth 0 deg ]-90,90]

Azimuth angle of output polarization

Ellipticity 0 deg [-45,45]

Ellipticity angle of output polarization

Simulation

Name and description Default Default unit Units Value


value range
Enabled True — — True, False

Determines whether or not the component is


enabled

Parameterized Parameterized — —

Sample rate Sample rate Hz Hz, GHz, THz ]0,+INF[

Frequency simulation window

50
OPTICAL GAUSSIAN PULSE GENERATOR

Technical background
This model generates Gaussian or super-Gaussian optical pulses according to the bit
sequence at the input. For each bit, the output optical power is:
2N
1 t.k
⎛ – --- ⎛ ----------------⎞ ⎞
2 ⎝ T FWHM⎠

P ( t ) = B. A p .e + A bias⎟
⎜ ⎟
⎝ ⎠

where Ap is the parameter peak-to-peak Power, and Abias is the parameter Bias. B is
the bit value (1 or 0) and depends on the input bit sequence. k is the fitting coefficient
determined numerically to generate pulses with the exact values of the parameter
Width, TFWHM, and N is Order of the Gaussian (N=1) or super-Gaussian pulses (N>1).

The chirp is modeled using:

dϕ α d
------ = -----e- ----
- ln P ( t ) + κP ( t )
dt 2 dt
where ϕ is the signal phase, αe is the parameter Linewidth enhancement factor, and
κ is the parameter Adiabatic chirp.

The output is multiplied with a complex vector considering the state of polarization:

⎛ E X ( t )⎞ = ⎛⎜ 1 – k⎞⎟ ⋅ P ( t )
⎝ E Y ( t )⎠ ⎝ ke jθ ⎠

where the power splitting k and the phase difference θ are related to the parameters
Azimuth α and Ellipticity ε as:
k ( 1 – k ) cos ( θ )
tan ( 2α ) = 2 -----------------------------------------
1 – 2.k
sin ( 2ε ) = 2 k ( 1 – k ) sin ( θ )

51
OPTICAL GAUSSIAN PULSE GENERATOR

Notes:

52
OPTICAL SECH PULSE GENERATOR

Optical Sech Pulse Generator

Generates a hyperbolic-secant pulsed optical signal.

Ports

Name and description Port type Signal type


Bit sequences Input Binary

Output Output Optical

Parameters
Main

Name and description Default Default unit Units Value


value range
Frequency 193.1 THz Hz, THz, nm [0,+INF[

Emission frequency

Power 0 dBm W, mW, dBm ]-INF,+INF[

Peak-to-peak power of the pulse

Bias –100 dBm W, mW, dBm ]-INF,+INF[

DC Offset of the pulse

Width 0.5 bit — [0,1]

FWHM of the pulse amplitude

Position 0 bit —

Truncated False — — True, False

Determines whether or not the pulses overlap with


each other

53
OPTICAL SECH PULSE GENERATOR

Chirp

Name and description Default Default unit Value


value range
Chirp definition Linear — Linear,
Measured

Chirp factor 0 rad/s

Alpha parameter 0 rad/W

Adiabatic chirp 0 1/s [0,1]

Results from changes in the steady state carrier densities

Polarization

Name and description Default Units Value


value range
Azimuth 0 deg ]-90,90]

Azimuth angle of output polarization

Ellipticity 0 deg [-45,45]

Ellipticity angle of output polarization

Simulation

Name and description Default Default unit Units Value


value range
Enabled True — — True, False

Determines whether or not the component is


enabled

Parameterized Parameterized — —

Sample rate Sample rate Hz Hz, GHz, THz ]0,+INF[

Frequency simulation window

54
OPTICAL SECH PULSE GENERATOR

Technical background
This model generates optical pulses according to the bit sequence at the input. For
each bit, the output optical power is:
t.k
P ( t ) = B. ⎛ A p ⁄ cosh ⎛ -------------⎞ + A bias⎞
⎝ ⎝ T FWHM⎠ ⎠

where Ap is the parameter peak-to-peak Power, and Abias is the parameter Bias. B is
the bit value (1 or 0) and depends on the input bit sequence. k is the fitting coefficient
determined numerically to generate pulses with the exact values of the parameter
Width, TFWHM.

The chirp is modeled using:

dϕ α d
------ = -----e- ----
- ln P ( t ) + κP ( t )
dt 2 dt
where ϕ is the signal phase, αe is the parameter Linewidth enhancement factor, and
κ is the parameter Adiabatic chirp.

The output is multiplied with a complex vector considering the state of polarization:

⎛ E X ( t )⎞ = ⎛⎜ 1 – k⎞⎟ ⋅ P ( t )
⎝ E Y ( t )⎠ ⎝ ke jθ ⎠

The power splitting k and the phase difference θ are related to the parameters
Azimuth α and Ellipticity ε as:
k ( 1 – k ) cos ( θ )
tan ( 2α ) = 2 -----------------------------------------
1 – 2.k
sin ( 2ε ) = 2 k ( 1 – k ) sin ( θ )

55
OPTICAL SECH PULSE GENERATOR

Notes:

56
OPTICAL IMPULSE GENERATOR

Optical Impulse Generator

Generates an optical signal composed by a sequence of Impulses.

Ports

Name and description Port type Signal type


Bit sequence Input Binary

Output Output Optical

Parameters
Main

Name and description Default Default unit Units Value


value range
Frequency 193.1 THz Hz, THz, nm [0,+INF[

Emission frequency

Power 0 dBm W, mW, dBm ]-INF,+INF[

Peak-to-peak power of the pulse

Bias –100 dBm W, mW, dBm ]-INF,+INF[

DC Offset of the pulse

Position 0 bit [0,1]

Relative position of the impulse

Chirp

Name and description Default Units Value


value range
Alpha parameter 0 rad/W

Adiabatic chirp 0 1/s [0,1]

Results from changes in the steady state carrier densities

57
OPTICAL IMPULSE GENERATOR

Polarization

Name and description Default Units Value


value range
Azimuth 0 deg ]-90,90]

Azimuth angle of output polarization

Ellipticity 0 deg [-45,45]


Ellipticity angle of output polarization

Simulation

Name and description Default Default unit Units Value


value range
Enabled True — — True, False

Determines whether or not the component is


enabled

Parameterized Parameterized — —

Sample rate Sample rate Hz Hz, GHz, THz ]0,+INF[

Frequency simulation window

58
OPTICAL IMPULSE GENERATOR

Technical background
This model generates optical pulses according to the bit sequence at the input. For
each bit, the output optical power is:
P ( t ) = B. ( A p δ ( t – t p ) + A bias )

where Ap is the parameter peak-to-peak Power, and Abias is the parameter Bias. B is
the bit value (1 or 0) and depends on the input bit sequence. δ is the impulse function
and tP is the parameter Pulse position.

The chirp is modeled using:

dϕ α d
------ = -----e- ----
- ln P ( t ) + κP ( t )
dt 2 dt
where ϕ is the signal phase, αe is the parameter Linewidth enhancement factor, and
κ is the parameter Adiabatic chirp.

The output is multiplied with a complex vector considering the state of polarization:

⎛ E X ( t )⎞ = ⎛⎜ 1 – k⎞⎟ ⋅ P ( t )
⎝ E Y ( t )⎠ ⎝ ke jθ ⎠

The power splitting k and the phase difference θ are related to the parameters
Azimuth α and Ellipticity ε as:

k ( 1 – k ) cos ( θ )
tan ( 2α ) = 2 -----------------------------------------
1 – 2.k
sin ( 2ε ) = 2 k ( 1 – k ) sin ( θ )

59
OPTICAL IMPULSE GENERATOR

Notes:

60
MEASURED OPTICAL PULSE

Measured Optical Pulse

Generates a pulse based on measurements.

Ports

Name and description Port type Signal type


Bit sequence Input Binary

Output Output Optical

Parameters
Main

Name and description Default Default unit Units Value


value range
Frequency 193.1 THz Hz, THz, nm [0,+INF[

Emission frequency

Power 0 dBm W, mW, dBm ]-INF,+INF[

Peak-to-peak power of the pulse

Bias –100 dBm W, mW, dBm ]-INF,+INF[

DC Offset of the pulse

Position 0 bit —

Filename Optical — — —
pulse.dat
Filename with the measured data

File format Power — — Power, Power


Phase, Real
Determines the format of the file with the
Imag, Phase
measurements

61
MEASURED OPTICAL PULSE

Polarization

Name and description Default Units Value


value range
Azimuth 0 deg ]-90,90]

Azimuth angle of output polarization

Ellipticity 0 deg [-45,45]


Ellipticity angle of output polarization

Numerical

Name and description Default Units Value


value range
Interpolation Linear — Linear, Cubic

Determines the interpolation algorithm for the measured data

Simulation

Name and description Default Default unit Units Value


value range
Enabled True — — True, False

Determines whether or not the component is


enabled

Parameterized Parameterized — —

Sample rate Sample rate Hz Hz, GHz, THz ]0,+INF[

Frequency simulation window

Graphs

Name and description X Title Y Title


Measured magnitude data Time period (a.u.) Amplitude (V)

Measured phase data Time period (a.u.) Phase (rad)

62
MEASURED OPTICAL PULSE

Technical background
The input file is formatted containing two items per line — the time in seconds and the
signal measurement (Power in watts, Phase in radians, Real and Imag in Volts). The
time scale is normalized to fit in one bit period - the duration of the pulse. According
to the parameter File format, the second item can be one value (Power or Phase), or
two values (Power and Phase or Real and Imag).

Power (Phase will be set to zero)

0 0

1e-6 0.5

2e-6 0.5

3e-6 0

...

Power Phase

0 0 0

1e-6 0.5 3.14

2e-6 0.5 3.14

3e-6 0 0

...

Real Imag

0 0 0

1e-6 –0.5 7.9e-4

2e-6 –0.5 7.9e-4

3e-6 0 0

...

63
MEASURED OPTICAL PULSE

Phase (Power will be set to one)

0 0

1e-6 3.14

2e-6 3.14

3e-6 0

...

This model generates optical pulses according to the bit sequence at the input. For
each bit, the output optical power is:
P ( t ) = B. ( A p M ( t ) + A bias )

where Ap is the parameter peak-to-peak Power, and Abias is the parameter Bias. B is
the bit value (1 or 0) and depends on the input bit sequence. M is the measured data.

The output is multiplied with a complex vector considering the state of polarization:

⎛ E X ( t )⎞ = ⎛⎜ 1 – k⎞⎟ ⋅ P ( t )
⎝ E Y ( t )⎠ ⎝ ke jθ ⎠

The power splitting k and the phase difference θ are related to the parameters
Azimuth α and Ellipticity ε as:
k ( 1 – k ) cos ( θ )
tan ( 2α ) = 2 -----------------------------------------
1 – 2.k
sin ( 2ε ) = 2 k ( 1 – k ) sin ( θ )

64
MEASURED OPTICAL PULSE SEQUENCE

Measured Optical Pulse Sequence

Generates an optical signal based on measurements.

Ports

Name and description Port type Signal type


Output Output Optical

Parameters
Main

Name and description Default Default unit Units Value


value range
Frequency 193.1 THz Hz, THz, nm [0,+INF[

Emission frequency

Scale 1 a.u. — ]-INF,+INF[

Factor to scale the signal amplitude

Start time 0 s — [0,+INF[


Initial part of the signal to be skipped

Filename Sequence.dat — — —

Filename with the measured data

File format Power — — Power, Power


Phase, Real
Determines the format of the file with the Imag, Phase
measurements

Polarization

Name and description Default Units Value


value range
Azimuth 0 deg ]-90,90]

Azimuth angle of output polarization

65
MEASURED OPTICAL PULSE SEQUENCE

Name and description Default Units Value


value range
Ellipticity 0 deg [-45,45]

Ellipticity angle of output polarization

Numerical

Name and description Default Units Value


value range
Interpolation Linear — Linear, Cubic

Determines the interpolation algorithm for the measured data

Simulation

Name and description Default Default unit Units Value


value range
Enabled True — — True, False

Determines whether or not the component is


enabled

Iterations Iterations — — [1,+INF[

Number of times to repeat the calculation

Parameterized Parameterized — — Sampled,


Parameterized

Sample rate Sample rate Hz Hz, GHz, THz ]0,+INF[

Frequency simulation window

Graphs

Name and description X Title Y Title


Measured magnitude data Time (s) Amplitude (V)

Measured phase data Time (s) Phase (rad)

66
MEASURED OPTICAL PULSE SEQUENCE

Technical background
This model generates optical signal loading measurements from a file.

The input file is formatted containing two items per line — the time in seconds and
signal measurement (Power in watts, Phase in radians, Real and Imag in Volts).
According to the parameter File format, the second item can be one value (Power or
Phase) or two values (Power and Phase or Real and Imag).

Power (Phase will be set to zero)

0 0

1e-6 0.5

2e-6 0.5

3e-6 0

...

Power Phase

0 0 0

1e-6 0.5 3.14

2e-6 0.5 3.14

3e-6 0 0

...

Real Imag

0 0 0

1e-6 –0.5 7.9e-4

2e-6 –0.5 7.9e-4

3e-6 0 0

...

67
MEASURED OPTICAL PULSE SEQUENCE

Phase (Power will be set to one)

0 0

1e-6 3.14

2e-6 3.14

3e-6 0

...

The output is multiplied with a complex vector considering the state of polarization:

⎛ E X ( t )⎞ = ⎛⎜ 1 – k⎞⎟ ⋅ P ( t )
⎝ E Y ( t )⎠ ⎝ ke jθ ⎠

The power splitting k and the phase difference θ are related to the parameters
Azimuth α and Ellipticity ε as:
k ( 1 – k ) cos ( θ )
tan ( 2α ) = 2 -----------------------------------------
1 – 2.k
sin ( 2ε ) = 2 k ( 1 – k ) sin ( θ )

68
TIME RESOLVE CHIRP (TRC) MEASUREMENT DATA

Time Resolve Chirp (TRC) Measurement Data

This component is an interface between OptiSystem and time resolve chirp (TRC) [1]
measurement instruments, such as the OSA Agilent 86146B with TRC option.

Ports

Name and description Port type Signal type


Output Output Optical

Parameters
Main

Name and description Default Default unit Units Value


value range
Frequency 193.1 THz Hz, THz, nm [0,+INF[

Emission frequency

Scale 1 a.u. — ]-INF,+INF[

Factor to scale the signal amplitude

Start time 0 s — [0,+INF[


Initial part of the signal to be skipped

Filename Sequence.dat — — —

Filename with the measured data

Polarization

Name and description Default Units Value


value range
Azimuth 0 deg ]-90,90]

Azimuth angle of output polarization

Ellipticity 0 deg [-45,45]


Ellipticity angle of output polarization

69
TIME RESOLVE CHIRP (TRC) MEASUREMENT DATA

Numerical

Name and description Default Units Value


value range
Interpolation Linear — Linear, Cubic

Determines the interpolation algorithm for the measured data

Simulation

Name and description Default Default unit Units Value


value range
Enabled True — — True, False
Determines whether or not the component is
enabled

Iterations Iterations — — [1,+INF[

Number of times to repeat the calculation

Parameterized Parameterized — — Sampled,


Parameterized

Sample rate Sample rate Hz Hz, GHz, THz ]0,+INF[

Frequency simulation window

Graphs

Name and description X Title Y Title


Measured power data Time (s) Power (W)

BER measured chirp data Time (s) Chirp (Hz)

Technical background
This component generates optical signal loading measurements from a file. These
measurements are TRC data that describe the power and chirp evolution of the
optical signal in time [1].

TRC provides frequency vs. time information about a modulated lightwave signal.
Also called dynamic chirp, the TRC graph provides useful information on the ability of
a modulated signal to propagate over long distances in optical fiber.

Using measurement equipment such as the Agilent 86146B, with the filter mode
capability, Agilent 86100 Infinium Digital Communications Analyzer (DCA) dedicated
software (86146B Option TRL), and a personal computer, the time resolved chirp
(TRC) of a modulated laser can be calculated.

From the measurement, a file with the TRC data is generated. OptiSystem can load
this file and the effect of laser chirp on a wide variety of system performance metrics

70
TIME RESOLVE CHIRP (TRC) MEASUREMENT DATA

- such as the effect on the performance of a long-haul dense wavelength division


multiplexed (DWDM) system with EDFA and Raman optical amplification and
dispersion compensation - can be studied across an unlimited range of system
designs.

The input file is formatted containing three items per line - the time in seconds, the
signal power is Watt (Linear scale) or dBm, and the signal chirp (Hz).

Time Signal power (W or dBm) Signal chirp


0 1.27617e-006 -7.80425e+009

6.25e-012 1.139e-006 -4.94806e+009

1.25e-011 1.46161e-006 -6.57706e+009

1.875e-011 1.33136e-006 -6.10874e+009

2.5e-011 1.54705e-006 -2.89844e+009

3.125e-011 1.03595e-006 -7.38826e+009

... ... ...

The output is multiplied with a complex vector considering the state of polarization:

⎛ E X ( t )⎞ = ⎛⎜ 1 – k⎞⎟ ⋅ P ( t )
⎝ E Y ( t )⎠ ⎝ ke jθ ⎠

The power splitting k and the phase difference θ are related to the parameters
Azimuth α and Ellipticity ε as:
k ( 1 – k ) cos ( θ )
tan ( 2α ) = 2 -----------------------------------------
1 – 2.k
sin ( 2ε ) = 2 k ( 1 – k ) sin ( θ )

71
TIME RESOLVE CHIRP (TRC) MEASUREMENT DATA

References
[1] Agilent Technologies, “Making Time-Resolved Chirp Measurements Using the Optical
Spectrum Analyzer and Digital Communications Analyzer”, Agilent Application Note 1550-7,
2002.

72
SPATIAL OPTICAL GAUSSIAN PULSE GENERATOR

Spatial Optical Gaussian Pulse Generator

This component is Gaussian pulse generator that includes transverse mode profiles
in the optical output. It is a subsystem built using the Optical Gaussian Pulse and the
Multimode Generators.

Ports

Name and description Port type Signal type


Bit sequence Input Binary

Output Output Optical

Parameters
Main

Name and description Default Default unit Units Value


value range
Frequency 850 nm Hz, THz, nm [10, 10000]

Emission frequency

Power 0 dBm W, mW, dBm [-1000, 1000]


Peak-to-peak power of the pulse

Bias –100 dBm W, mW, dBm [-1000, 1000]

DC Offset of the pulse

Width 0.5 bit [0, 1]

FWHM of the pulse amplitude

Position 0 bit [-1,1]


Relative position of the impulse

Order 1 [1, 100]

Order of the function

Truncated NO [YES, NO]

Determines whether or not the pulses overlap with


each other

73
SPATIAL OPTICAL GAUSSIAN PULSE GENERATOR

Chirp

Name and description Default value Default unit Units Value range
Chirp definition Linear [Linear,
Measured]

Chirp factor 0 rad/s [-1000, 1000]

Alpha parameter 0 rad/W [-1000, 1000]

Adiabatic chirp 0 1/s [-1000, 1000]

Results from changes in the steady-


state carrier densities

Polarization

Name and description Default value Units Value range


Azimuth 0 deg ]-90, 90]

Azimuth angle of output polarization

Ellipticity 0 deg [-45, 45]

Ellipticity angle of output polarization

Spatial Effects

Name and description Default value Default unit Units Value range
Power ratio array 1

List of power values that describe the


power distribution between multiple
modes

Mode type Laguerre- Laguerre-


Gaussian Gaussian,
Defines the output signal mode types Hermite-
Gaussian

Mode polarization X=Y X = Y, X and Y, X,


Y
Defines how the spatial modes are
attached to the output signal

Pol. X m,n index array 00

List of mode indexes 'm,n' for X


polarization

Pol. X spot size 5 um [1e-100, 1e+100]

Spot size for X polarization

74
SPATIAL OPTICAL GAUSSIAN PULSE GENERATOR

Name and description Default value Default unit Units Value range
Pol. X inv. radius of curvature 0 1/um [0, 1e+100]

Inverse radius of curvature for X


polarization

Pol. Y m,n index array 00

List of mode indexes 'm,n' for Y


polarization

Pol. Y spot size 5 um [1e-100, 1e+100]

Spot size for Y polarization

Pol. Y inv. radius of curvature 0 1/um [0, 1e+100]

Inverse radius of curvature for


polarization

Simulation

Name and description Default Default unit Units Value


value range
Enabled YES [YES, NOT]

Determines whether or not the component is


enabled

Sample rate Sample rate Hz Hz, GHz, THz [1, 1e+100]

Frequency simulation window

Space width X Space width X um [1e-100,


1e+100]
Horizontal spatial simulation window

Space width Y Space width Y um [1e-100,


1e+100]
Vertical spatial simulation window

Technical Background
The layout of the Spatial Optical Gaussian Pulse Generator is presented in Figure 1.
Refer to Optical Gaussian Pulse Generator and Multimode Generator component
documentation for the technical background of the models.

75
SPATIAL OPTICAL GAUSSIAN PULSE GENERATOR

Figure 1 Spatial Optical Gaussian Pulse Generator subsystem

76
SPATIAL OPTICAL SECH PULSE GENERATOR

Spatial Optical Sech Pulse Generator

This component is sech pulse generator that includes transverse mode profiles in the
optical output. It is a subsystem built using a the Optical Sech Pulse and the
Multimode Generators.

Ports

Name and description Port type Signal type


Bit sequence Input Binary

Output Output Optical

Parameters
Main

Name and description Default Default unit Units Value


value range
Frequency 850 nm Hz, THz, nm [10, 10000]

Emission frequency

Power 0 dBm W, mW, dBm [-1000, 1000]


Peak-to-peak power of the pulse

Bias –100 dBm W, mW, dBm [-1000, 1000]

DC Offset of the pulse

Width 0.5 bit [0, 1]

FWHM of the pulse amplitude

Position 0 bit [-1, 1]


Relative position of the impulse

Truncated NO [YES, NO]

Determines whether or not the pulses overlap with


each other

77
SPATIAL OPTICAL SECH PULSE GENERATOR

Chirp

Name and description Default value Default unit Units Value range
Chirp definition Linear [Linear,
Measured]

Chirp factor 0 rad/s [-1000, 1000]

Alpha parameter 0 rad/W [-1000, 1000]

Adiabatic chirp 0 1/s [-1000, 1000]

Results from changes in the steady-


state carrier densities

Polarization

Name and description Default Units Value


value range
Azimuth 0 deg [-90, 90]

Azimuth angle of output polarization

Ellipticity 0 deg [-45, 45]

Ellipticity angle of output polarization

Spatial Effects

Name and description Default value Default unit Units Value range
Power ratio array 1

List of power values which describe the


power distribution between multiple
modes

Mode type Laguerre- Laguerre-


Gaussian Gaussian,
Defines the output signal mode types Hermite-
Gaussian

Mode polarization X=Y X = Y, X and Y, X,


Y
Defines how the spatial modes are
attached to the output signal

Pol. X m,n index array 00

List of mode indexes 'm,n' for X


polarization

Pol. X spot size 5 um [1e-100, 1e+100]

Spot size for X polarization

78
SPATIAL OPTICAL SECH PULSE GENERATOR

Name and description Default value Default unit Units Value range
Pol. X inv. radius of curvature 0 1/um [0, 1e+100]

Inverse radius of curvature for X


polarization

Pol. Y m,n index array 00

List of mode indexes 'm,n' for Y


polarization

Pol. Y spot size 5 um [1e-100, 1e+100]

Spot size for Y polarization

Pol. Y inv. radius of curvature 0 1/um [0, 1e+100]

Inverse radius of curvature for Y


polarization

Simulation

Name and description Default Default unit Units Value


value range
Enabled YES [YES, NOT]

Determines whether or not the component is


enabled

Sample rate Sample rate Hz Hz, GHz, THz [1, 1e+100]

Frequency simulation window

Space width X Space width X um [1e-100,


1e+100]
Horizontal spatial simulation window

Space width Y Space width Y um [1e-100,


1e+100]
Vertical spatial simulation window

Technical Background
The layout of the Spatial Optical Sech Pulse Generator is presented in Figure 1. Refer
to Optical Sech Pulse Generator and Multimode Generator component
documentation for the technical background of the models.

79
SPATIAL OPTICAL SECH PULSE GENERATOR

Figure 1 Spatial Optical Sech Pulse Generator subsystem

80
SPATIAL OPTICAL IMPULSE GENERATOR

Spatial Optical Impulse Generator

This component is impulse generator that includes transverse mode profiles in the
optical output. It is a subsystem built using a the Impulse and the Multimode
Generators.

Ports

Name and description Port type Signal type


Bit sequence Input Binary

Output Output Optical

Parameters
Main

Name and description Default Default unit Units Value


value range
Frequency 193.1 nm Hz, THz, nm [10, 10000]

Emission frequency

Power 0 dBm W, mW, dBm [-1000, 1000]


Peak-to-peak power of the pulse

Bias –100 dBm W, mW, dBm [-1000, 1000]

DC Offset of the pulse

Position 0 bit [-1, 1]

Relative position of the impulse

Chirp

Name and description Default value Default unit Units Value range
Alpha parameter 0 rad/W [-1000, 1000]

81
SPATIAL OPTICAL IMPULSE GENERATOR

Name and description Default value Default unit Units Value range
Adiabatic chirp 0 1/s [-1000, 1000]

Results from changes in the steady-


state carrier densities

Polarization

Name and description Default Units Value


value range
Azimuth 0 deg [-90, 90]

Azimuth angle of output polarization

Ellipticity 0 deg [-45, 45]


Ellipticity angle of output polarization

Spatial Effects

Name and description Default value Default unit Units Value range
Power ratio array 1

List of power values that describe the


power distribution between multiple
modes

Mode type Laguerre- Laguerre-


Gaussian Gaussian,
Defines the output signal mode types Hermite-
Gaussian

Mode polarization X=Y X = Y, X and Y, X,


Y
Defines how the spatial modes are
attached to the output signal

Pol. X m,n index array 00

List of mode indexes 'm,n' for X


polarization

Pol. X spot size 5 um [1e-100, 1e+100]

Spot size for X polarization

Pol. X inv. radius of curvature 0 1/um [0, 1e+100]

Inverse radius of curvature for X


polarization

Pol. Y m,n index array 00

List of mode indexes 'm,n' for Y


polarization

82
SPATIAL OPTICAL IMPULSE GENERATOR

Name and description Default value Default unit Units Value range
Pol. Y spot size 5 um [1e-100, 1e+100]

Spot size for Y polarization

Pol. Y inv. radius of curvature 0 1/um [0, 1e+100]

Inverse radius of curvature for


polarization

Simulation

Name and description Default Default unit Units Value


value range
Enabled YES [YES, NOT]

Determines whether or not the component is


enabled

Sample rate Sample rate Hz Hz, GHz, THz [1, 1e+100]

Frequency simulation window

Space width X Space width X um [1e-100,


1e+100]
Horizontal spatial simulation window

Space width Y Space width Y um [1e-100,


1e+100]
Vertical spatial simulation window

Technical Background
The layout of the Spatial Optical Impulse Generator is presented in Figure 1. Refer to
Optical Impulse Generator and Multimode Generator component documentation for
the technical background of the models.

Figure 1 Spatial Optical Impulse Generator subsystem

83
SPATIAL OPTICAL IMPULSE GENERATOR

Notes:

84
SPATIAL OPTICAL IMPULSE GENERATOR

Transmitters Library
Optical Sources
• CW Laser
• Laser Rate Equations
• Laser Measured
• Fabry Perot Laser
• LED
• White Light Source
• Pump Laser
• Pump Laser Array
• Controlled Pump Laser
• CW Laser Array
• CW Laser Array ES
• CW Laser Measured
• Directly Modulated Laser Measured
• VCSEL Laser
• Spatiotemporal VCSEL
• Spatial CW Laser
• Spatial VCSEL
• Spatial Laser Rate Equations
• Spatial LED

85
SPATIAL OPTICAL IMPULSE GENERATOR

Notes:

86
CW LASER

CW Laser

Generates a continuous wave (CW) optical signal.

Ports

Name and description Port type Signal type


Output Output Optical

Parameters
Main

Name and description Default Default unit Units Value


value range
Frequency 193.1 THz Hz,THz, nm [0,+INF[

Emission frequency

Power 0 dBm W, mW, dBm ]-INF,+INF[

Linewidth 10 MHz — [0,+INF[

Initial phase 0 deg — ]-INF,+INF[

Polarization

Name and description Default Units Value


value range
Azimuth 0 deg ]-90,90]

Azimuth angle of output polarization

Ellipticity 0 deg [-45,45]


Ellipticity angle of output polarization

87
CW LASER

Simulation

Name and description Default Default unit Units Value


value range
Enabled True — — True, False

Determines whether or not the component is


enabled

Iterations Iterations — — [1,+INF[

Number of times to repeat the calculation

Parameterized Parameterized — — Sampled,


Parameterized

Sample rate Sample rate Hz Hz, GHz, THz ]0,+INF[


Frequency simulation window

Noise

Name and description Default Default unit Units Value


value range
Noise bandwidth 0 THz Hz, THz, nm [0,+INF[

Bandwidth to create noise bins

Noise threshold –100 dB — ]-INF,+INF[

Minimum value for adaptation of noise bins

Noise dynamic 3 dB — ]-INF,+INF[

Threshold ratio for adaptation of noise bins

Random numbers

Name and description Default Units Value


value range
Generate random seed True — True, False
Determines if the seed is automatically defined and unique

Random seed index 0 — [0,4999]

User-defined seed index for noise generation

88
CW LASER

Technical background
In the CW case, the average output Power is a parameter that you specify. Laser
phase noise is modeled using the probability density function:
2
Δϕ
1 – -----------------
4πΔfdt
-
f ( Δϕ ) = ---------------------- ⋅ e
2π Δfdt
where Δϕ is the phase difference between two successive time instants and dt is the
time discretization. A Gaussian random variable for the phase difference between two
successive time instants with zero mean and a variance equal to 2 π Δ f has been
assumed, with Δf as the laser Linewidth.

The output is multiplied with a complex vector considering the state of polarization:

⎛ E X ( t )⎞ = ⎛⎜ 1 – k⎞⎟ ⋅ P ( t )
⎝ E Y ( t )⎠ ⎝ ke jθ ⎠

where the power splitting k and the phase difference θ are related to the parameters
Azimuth α and Ellipticity ε as follows:
2 k ( 1 – k ) cos ( θ )
tan ( 2α ) = --------------------------------------------
1 – 2.k

sin ( 2ε ) = 2 k ( 1 – k ) sin ( θ )

89
CW LASER

Notes:

90
LASER RATE EQUATIONS

Laser Rate Equations

Utilizes the rate equations to simulate the modulation dynamics of a laser.

Ports

Name and description Port type Signal type


Modulation Input Electrical

Output Output Optical

Parameters
Main

Name and description Default Default unit Unit Value


value range
Frequency 193.1 THz Hz, THz, nm [30,3e5]

Emission frequency of the laser

Calculate current True — — True, False

Defines whether to estimate the input bias and


peak current to achieve the user defined steady

Power 10 dBm W, mW, dBm [-1e100, 1e100]

Steady state power at the peak current

Power at bias current 0 dBm W, mW, dBm [-1e100, 1e100]


Steady state power at the bias current

Bias current 38 mA — [0, 1000]

Input bias current

91
LASER RATE EQUATIONS

Name and description Default Default unit Unit Value


value range
Modulation peak current 23 mA — [0, 1000]

Input modulation peak current

Threshold current 33.4572 mA — [0, 1000]


The threshold current, calculated from the laser
physical parameters

Threshold power 0.0155558 mW — [0, 1000]

The threshold power, calculated from the laser


physical parameters

Physical

Name and description Default Default unit Value


value range
Active layer volume 1.5e-010 cm3 0, 1e-3

Quantum efficiency 0.4 — 0, 1

Group velocity 8.5e+009 cm/s 0, 100e9

Differential gain coefficient 2.5e-016 cm2 0, 50e-16

Carrier density at transparency 1e+018 cm-3 0, 100e18

Mode confinement factor 0.4 — 0, 1

Recombination model Lifetime — Lifetime,


Coefficients

Carrier lifetime 1e-009 s 0, 50e-9

Recombination coefficient A 100000000 1/s 0, 1e15

Linear recombination coefficient

Recombination coefficient B 3e-029 cm^3/s 0, 1e-7

Bimolecular recombination coefficient

Recombination coefficient C 1e-009 cm^6/s 0, 1e-7

Auger recombination coefficient

Photon lifetime 3e-012 s 0, 50e-9

Differential gain coefficient 2.5e-016 cm2 0, 50e-16

Photon lifetime 3e-012 — 0, 50e-9

Spontaneous emission factor 3e-005 — 2e-5, 20e-5

Gain compression coefficient 1e-017 cm3 0.5e-17, 10e-


17

92
LASER RATE EQUATIONS

Name and description Default Default unit Value


value range
Linewidth enhancement factor 5 — –20, 20

Mode confinement factor 0.4 — 0, 1

Carrier lifetime 1e-009 s 0, 50e-9

Photon lifetime 3e-012 s 0, 50e-9

Numerical

Name and description Default Units Value


value range
Adaptive step False — True, False

Defines whether to use adaptive step or not

Max. number of steps 1000000 — [1e3,10e6]

The maximum number of steps

Relative error 0.0001 — —

Relative integration error

Graphs

Name and description Default Units Value


value range
Calculate graphs False True, False

Defines whether to calculate graphs or not

Number of points 20 [5, 100e6]

Number of points for the graphs

From 0 mA [0, +INF]

Current lower limit for the graphs

To 40 mA [0, +INF]

Current upper limit for the graphs

Simulation

Name and description Default Units Value


value range
Enabled True — True, False

Parameterized Parameterized — —

93
LASER RATE EQUATIONS

Noise

Name and description Default Units Value


value range
Include noise True — True, False

Include phase noise True — True, False

Random numbers

Name and description Default Units Value


value range
Generate random seed True — True, False

Determines if the seed is automatically defined and unique

Random seed index 0 — [0,4999]

User-defined seed index for noise generation

Technical background
The modulation dynamics of the laser are modeled by coupled rate equations which
describe the relation between the carrier density N ( t ) , photon density S ( t ) , and
optical phase φ ( t ) :

dN ( t )- I(t) N(t ) 1
------------- = ----------- – ---------- – g o ⋅ ( N ( t ) – N t ) ⋅ ------------------------------- ⋅ S ( t ) (2)
dt q⋅V τn (1 + ε ⋅ S(t))

dS ( t )- 1 S(t) Γ ⋅ β ⋅ N(t)
------------ = Γ ⋅ g o ⋅ ( N ( t ) – N t ) ⋅ ------------------------------- ⋅ S ( t ) – --------- + -------------------------- (3)
dt (1 + ε ⋅ S(t)) τp τn

dφ ( t )- 1 1
------------ = --- ⋅ α ⋅ Γ ⋅ g o ⋅ ( N ( t ) – N t ) – ----- (4)
dt 2 τp

where go is the gain slope constant, g o = v g ⋅ a o

a0 is the active layer coefficient

vg is the group velocity

ε is the gain compression factor

Nt is the carrier density at transparency

is the fraction of spontaneous emission coupled into the lasing


β mode

94
LASER RATE EQUATIONS

Γ is the mode confinement factor

V is the active layer volume

τp is the photon lifetime

τn is the electron lifetime

α is the linewidth enhancement factor

The optical power and chirp response of the semiconductor laser to a current
waveform I ( t ) is determined by the above equations. Parameters Bias current and
Modulation peak current are scale factors applied to the input electrical signal.

The internal current I ( t ) is given by:

I ( t ) = I DC + I in ( t ) × I Pk (5)

Where I in ( t ) is the input signal current, I DC is the parameter Bias Current and
I Pk is the parameter Modulation peak current. If parameter Bias Current and
Modulation peak current have zero values, the internal current is given by I in ( t ) only.

A Runge-Kutta algorithm is used to numerically integrate the coupled first order


differential equations (2-4). If parameters Include noise and Include phase noise are
disabled, these equations apply to a noiseless laser oscillating in a single longitudinal
mode above threshold. The photon and electron densities within the active region of
the laser are assumed to be uniform. If parameter Include noise is enabled, the
Langevin noise terms for photon and electron densities are included in the model[2].
If Include phase noise is enabled, the Langevin noise term for the phase is included
in the model. The linewidth enhancement factor and the nonlinear gain compression
parameter are taken to be constant for a given structure.

The time variations for the optical and laser chirp are:

S ⋅ V ⋅ ηo ⋅ h ⋅ v (6)
P = ------------------------------------
2 ⋅ Γτ p

1 dφ
Δv = ---------- ⋅ ------ (7)
2 ⋅ π dt

95
LASER RATE EQUATIONS

where η o is the differential quantum efficiency

v is the optical frequency

h is the Planck’s constant

The Laser Rate Equations supports individual samples for time-driven simulation.

References
[1] J. C. Cartledge and G. S. Burley, “The Effect of the Laser Chirping on Lightwave System
Performance”, J. Lightwave Technology, vol. 7, pp. 568-573, March 1989.

[2] Agrawal GP, Dutta NK. Semiconductor lasers, 2nd ed. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1993.

96
LASER MEASURED

Laser Measured

Extracts values of the rate equation parameters using measurements and simulates
the modulation dynamics of a laser.

Ports

Name and description Port type Signal type


Modulation Input Electrical

Output Output Optical

Parameters
Main

Name and description Default Default unit Units Value


value range
Frequency 193.1 THz Hz, THz, nm [30,3e5]

Emission frequency of the laser

Calculate current True — — True, False


Defines whether to estimate the input bias and
peak current to achieve the user defined steady

Power 10 dBm W, mW, dBm [-1e100, 1e100]

Steady state power at the peak current

Power at bias current 0 dBm W, mW, dBm [-1e100, 1e100]


Steady state power at the bias current

Bias current 23 mA — [0, 1000]

Input bias current

Modulation peak current 28 mA — [0, 1000]

Input modulation peak current

97
LASER MEASURED

Measurements

Name and description Default Default unit Units Value


value range
Frequency response data type Parameters — — Parameters,
From file
Defines whether the frequency response data is
provided by the damping factor and resonance
frequency factor parameters or by the subtracted
IM response curve

Damping factor 10.28 1e9 s-1 — ]0, 1000]


The measured damping factor of the laser

Resonance frequency factor 6.43 1e20 Hz2 — ]0, 1000]

The measured resonance frequency factor of the


laser

Subtracted IM response filename 6.43 1e20 Hz2 — ]0, 1000]

File containning the subtracted IM response curve

Threshold current 18 mA — [0, 1000]

The measured threshold current of the laser

Reference current 23 mA — [0, 1000]

The reference current used to estimate the


measured output power

Slope efficiency data True — — True, False

Defines whether to use slope efficiency or power


to estimate the LI curve

Slope efficiency 0.3 mW/mA — [1e-100, 1e100]

The measured slope efficiency of the laser

Power at reference current 1.5 mW W, mW, dBm [1e-100, 1e100]


The laser power at the reference current

Linewidth data False — — True, False

Determines whether the linewidth will be part of


the parameter extraction procedure

Linewidth 10 MHz — [1,200]


Specifies the laser linewidth for the steady-state
condition

Turn-on delay data False — — True, False

Determines whether the turn-on delay will be part


of the parameter extraction procedure

Turn-on delay 0.5 ns — [1e-5, 100]

Specifies the laser turn-on delay

98
LASER MEASURED

Name and description Default Default unit Units Value


value range
Average RIN data False — — True, False

Determines whether the average RIN in a


specified bandwidth will be part of the parameter
extraction procedure

RIN start 0.2 GHz — [0.01,20]

Specifies the initial frequency of the frequency


range where the average RIN is calculated

RIN stop 15 GHz — [0.01,20]

Specifies the final frequency of the frequency


range where the average RIN is calculated

Average RIN -140 dB/Hz — [-500, -50]


Specifies the average RIN value for the steady-
state condition over the frequency bandwidth
defined by the values of RIN start and stop.

Initial estimate

Name and description Default value Default unit Value range


Group velocity 8.5e+009 cm/s 0, 100e9

Calculate parameters True —

Defines whether to optimize the laser physical parameters to


achieve the target measurement or not.

Linewidth enhancement factor 5 — –20, 20

Active layer volume estimation 2e-011 cm3 0, 1e-3

Quantum efficiency estimation 0.2 — 0, 1

Carrier density at transparency estimation 1e+018 cm-3 0, 100e18

Differential gain coefficient estimation 1.765e-016 cm2 0, 50e-16

Mode confinement factor estimation 0.2 — 0, 1

Recombination model Lifetime — Lifetime,


Coefficients

Recombination coefficient A estimation 1e-009 s 0, 50e-9

Linear recombination coefficient

Recombination coefficient B estimation 100000000 1/s 0, 50e-9

Bimolecular recombination coefficient

Recombination coefficient C estimation 3e-029 cm^3/s 0, 50e-9

Auger recombination coefficient

99
LASER MEASURED

Name and description Default value Default unit Value range


Auger recombination coefficient estimation 1e-009 cm^6/s 0, 50e-9

Photon lifetime estimation 1e-012 s 0, 50e-9

Spontaneous emission factor estimation 0.0001 — 2e-5, 20e-5

Gain compression coefficient estimation 1.5e-017 cm3 0.5e-17, 10e-17

Numerical

Name and description Default Units Value


value range
Adaptive step False — True, False

Defines whether to use adaptive step or not

Max. number of steps 1000000 — [1e3,10e6]

The maximum number of steps

Relative error 0.0001 — —

Relative integration error

Graphs

Name and description Default Units Value


value range
Calculate graphs False True, False

Defines whether to calculate graphs or not

Number of points 20 [5, 100e6]

Number of points for the graphs

From 0 mA [0, +INF]

Current lower limit for the graphs

To 40 mA [0, +INF]

Current upper limit for the graphs

Simulation

Name and description Default value Units Value range


Enabled True — True, False

Determines whether or not the component is enabled

Parameterized Parameterized — —

100
LASER MEASURED

Noise

Name and description Default value Units Value range


Include noise True — True, False

Include phase noise True — True, False

Random numbers

Name and description Default value Units Value range


Generate random seed True — True, False

Determines if the seed is automatically defined and unique

Random seed index 0 — [0,4999]

User-defined seed index for noise generation

Technical background
The laser measured model extracts values of the rate equation parameters using
measurements of the threshold current, optical power, resonance frequency, and
damping factor to simulate a DFB laser.

Based on the results featured in [1], the values of the rate equation parameters are
calculated in a way that parameters simultaneously yield the measured values of Y
(damping factor), Z (resonance frequency factor), Ith (threshold current), and P
(Power bias). The parameter extraction procedure is based on minimization of the
sum of squared errors between the measured values of (Y, Z, Ith, P) and values
calculated from rate equation parameters. The minimization is over the values of the
rate equation parameters which are:

Damping factor

S 1 1 1
Y = g 0 ------------------------ + ----- – Γ ⋅ g 0 ( N – N t ) --------------------------2 + -----
( 1 + ε ⋅ S ) τn (1 + ε ⋅ S) τp

Resonance frequency factor

S 1 g0 1 1
Z = g 0 ------------------------ ⋅ ----- + ( β – 1 ) ⋅ Γ ⋅ ----- ( N – N t ) --------------------------2 + --------------
( 1 + ε ⋅ S ) τp τn (1 + ε ⋅ S) τp ⋅ τn

Threshold current

q ⋅ V 1 + Nt ⋅ Γ ⋅ go ⋅ τp
I th = ----------- ⋅ ------------------------------------------
τn Γ ⋅ go ⋅ τp

101
LASER MEASURED

Power bias
S ⋅ V ⋅ η0 ⋅ h ⋅ v
P = ------------------------------------
2 ⋅ Γτ p

where go is the gain slope constant, g o = v g ⋅ a o

a0 is the active layer coefficient

ε is the gain compression factor

Nt is the carrier density at transparency

β is the fraction of spontaneous emission coupled into the lasing


mode

Γ is the mode confinement factor

η0 is the differential quantum efficiency

V is the active layer volume

τp is the photon lifetime

τn is the electron lifetime

NandS are the steady-state values of the carrier and photon densities
corresponding to the bias current of the laser

v is the unmodulated optical frequency

vg is the group velocity

h is the Planck’s constant

The minimization routine finds a local minimum for the equation


2 2 2 2
Func = ( Y mea – Y cal ) + ( z mea – z cal ) + ( P mea – P cal ) + ( I mea – I cal )

where ( Y mea, Z mea ,P mea ,I mea ) are the measured values and ( Y cal, Z cal ,P cal ,I cal ) are the
calculated values using the initial estimates of the rate equation parameters.

The parameters available in the main tab allow the user to enter the values for current,
or for power in steady state. Using these numbers, the model will estimate the values
of the current.

Note: It is recommended to enter the values for current, rather than power, when
using the measured laser (as this is the realistic case).

The parameters in the measured tab are used to extract the physical/geometrical
properties of the laser. This extraction is completely independent of the parameters in
the main tab (current/power).

After finding the rate equation parameters, the laser measured works similarly to the
laser rate equations model. RIN is calculated according to [2][3].

102
LASER MEASURED

The internal current I ( t ) is given by:

I ( t ) = I DC + I in ( t ) × I Pk (1)

Where I in ( t ) is the input signal current, I DC is the parameter Bias Current and
I Pk is the parameter Modulation peak current. If parameter Bias Current and
Modulation peak current have zero values, the internal current is given by I in ( t ) only.

The user can also calculate the subtracted IM response from the measured IM
response curves (Figure1) and load a file with this information into the component.
This will allow a pre-optimization step, where the component fits the parameters Z and
Y to the measured results.

Figure 1 Measured IM responses

The file format for the subtracted IM response data is the following:

Frequency0 SubtractedIM0

Frequency1 SubtractedIM1

Frequency2 SubtractedIM2

103
LASER MEASURED

...

FrequencyN SubtractedIMN

The units are GHz and dB respectively.

The laser measured can also include the turn-on delay parameter in the optimization
process. In this case, the turn-on delay value specified defines the time needed for
the carrier density to reach the threshold carrier density when the laser current rises
to the reference current. The calculation of the turn-on delay is based on the definition
find in [1].The laser linewidth parameter can be included in the optimization process
by defining the linewidth value for the laser when the bias current is the reference
current parameter [4]. The RIN is calculated according to [2][3] and the user has to
define the average RIN value in the defined frequency range.

If parameter Include noise is enabled, the Langevin noise terms for photon and
electron densities are included in the model[4]. If Include phase noise is enabled, the
Langevin noise term for the phase is included in the model. The Laser Measured
supports individual samples for time-driven simulation.

References
[1] Cartledge, J. C. and Srinivasan, R. C. “Extraction of DFB laser rate equation parameters for
system simulation purposes”, J. Light. Techn., 15, 852-860, (1997).
[2] Yamada, M. "Variation of intensity noise and frequency noise with the spontaneous emission
factor in semiconductor lasers". IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics. Volume 30, Issue 7, July
1994 Page(s):1511 - 1519.
[3] Agrawal, G.P., Fiber-Optic Communication Systems, Second edition. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.,
N.Y., (1997).
[4] Agrawal GP, Dutta NK. Semiconductor lasers, 2nd ed. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold,
1993.
[5] K.Petermann, Laser Diode Modulation and Noise, Kluwer Academic Publishers,1988

104
FABRY PEROT LASER

Fabry Perot Laser

This component simulates the modulation dynamics of a Fabry-Perot laser using


multimode rate equations.

Ports

Name and description Port type Signal type


Modulation Input Electrical

Input Input Optical

Output Output Optical

Parameters
Main

Name and description Default Default unit Unit Value


value range
Frequency 193.1 THz Hz, THz, nm [30,3e5]

Emission frequency of the laser

Bias current 27 mA — [0, 1000]

Input bias current

Modulation peak current 10 mA — [0, 1000]

Input modulation peak current

Front facet reflectivity 0.01 — — [0, 1]


The threshold current, calculated from the laser
physical parameters

Rear facet reflectivity 0.3 — — [0, 1]

The threshold power, calculated from the laser


physical parameters

105
FABRY PEROT LASER

Physical

Name and description Default Default unit Value


value range
Active length 0.06 cm3 ]0, 1000]

Active layer width 0.00015 cm3 ]0,1000]

Active layer depth 20e-006 cm3 ]0, 1000]

Group index 3.5 — [1, 5]

Quantum efficiency 0.4 — [0, 1]

Gain constant 1e-016 cm2 [0, 50e-16]

Gain bandwidth 5 THz [0.1, 20]

Carrier density at transparency 1e+018 cm-3 [0, 100e18]

Mode confinement factor 0.4 — [0, 1]

Recombination model Lifetime — Lifetime,


Coefficients

Carrier lifetime 1.86e-009 s [0, 50e-9]

Recombination coefficient A 100e+006 1/s [0, 1e15]

Linear recombination coefficient

Recombination coefficient B 0.2e-009 cm3/s [0, 1e-7]

Bimolecular recombination coefficient

Recombination coefficient C 40e-030 cm6/s [0, 1e-7]

Auger recombination coefficient

Spontaneous emission factor 0.004 — [2e-5, 20e-5]

Gain compression coefficient 36e-018 cm3 [0.5e-17, 10e-


17]

Linewidth enhancement factor 5 — [–20, 20]

Loss 10 cm-1 [0, 1e10]

Side Mode

Name and description Default Units Value


value range
Number of side modes 1 [1,10]

Defines whether to calculate graphs or not

Separation 71.4 GHz [0.01, 500]

Number of points for the graphs

106
FABRY PEROT LASER

Numerical

Name and description Default Units Value


value range
Adaptive step False — True, False

Defines whether to use adaptive step or not

Max. number of steps 100000 — [1e3,10e6]


The maximum number of steps

Relative error 0.001 — —

Relative integration error

Simulation

Name and description Default Units Value


value range
Enabled True — True, False

Parameterized Parameterized — —

Noise

Name and description Default Units Value


value range
Include noise True — True, False

Include phase noise True — True, False

Random numbers

Name and description Default Units Value


value range
Generate random seed True — True, False

Determines if the seed is automatically defined and unique

Random seed index 0 — [0,4999]


User-defined seed index for noise generation

Technical background
The modulation dynamics of the FP laser are modeled by the coupled rate equations
which describe the relation between the carrier density N(t), photon densities Si(t),
and optical phases φi(t):

107
FABRY PEROT LASER

dN ( t )- I(t) N(t) ⎛ 1 ⎞ (1)


------------- = ----------- – ---------- – ⎜ G i ⋅ ( N ( t ) – N t ) ⋅ --------------------------------------- ⋅ S i ( t )⎟
dt q⋅V τn ⎝ (1 + ε ⋅ S (t)) ∑ i

dS i ( t ) 1 ΓβN ( t ) (2)
-------------- = G i ⋅ ( N ( t ) – N t ) ⋅ --------------------------------------- ⋅ S i ( t ) – ( γ p ⋅ S i ( t ) ) + ------------------
dt τn
(1 + ε ⋅ S (t)) ∑ i

dφ i ( t ) (3)
-------------- = 1--- ⋅ α [ Γ ⋅ G i ⋅ ( N ( t ) – N t ) – γ p ]
dt 2

where Gi is the gain of mode i, defined by

1
G i = v g ⋅ a o ⋅ ---------------------------------------------
-
⎛ 1 + ⎛ 2i ( f i – f o )⎞ 2⎞
-----------------------
⎝ ⎝ Δf ⎠ ⎠

a0 is the active layer gain coefficient

vg is the group velocity

fi is the frequency of the ith laser mode

fo is the laser central frequency

Δf is the 3dB gain bandwidth

ε is the gain compression factor

Nt is the carrier density at transparency

is the fraction of spontaneous emission coupled into the lasing


β mode

Γ is the mode confinement factor

V is the active layer volume

γp is the cavity loss

τn is the carrier lifetime

α is the linewidth enhancement factor

108
FABRY PEROT LASER

The response of the multimode laser to a current waveform I ( t ) is determined by


the above equations. Parameters Bias current and Modulation peak current are scale
factors applied to the input electrical signal.

The internal current I ( t ) is given by:

I ( t ) = I DC + I in ( t ) × I Pk (6)

Where I in ( t ) is the input signal current, I DC is the parameter Bias Current and
I Pk is the parameter Modulation peak current. If parameter Bias Current and
Modulation peak current have zero values, the internal current is given by I in ( t ) only.

A Runge-Kutta algorithm is used to numerically integrate the coupled first order


differential equations (2-4). If parameters Include noise and Include phase noise are
disabled, these equations apply to a noiseless laser oscillating in a multi longitudinal
modes above threshold. The photon and carrier densities within the active region of
the laser are assumed to be uniform. If parameter Include noise is enabled, the
Langevin noise terms for photon and carrier densities are included in the model[2]. If
Include phase noise is enabled, the Langevin noise term for the phase is included in
the model. The linewidth enhancement factor and the nonlinear gain compression
parameter are taken to be constant for a given structure.

The number of longitudinal modes considered in the simulation is defined by the


parameter Number of side modes (number of modes = 2*Number of side modes + 1)

The electrical field at the laser output is given by:

E(t ) = ∑ P i exp ( j ⋅ Δω i ⋅ t + φ i )
i

with

ηo ⋅ h ⋅ vi ⋅ αm ⋅ V ⋅ Si
P i = ---------------------------------------------------
Γ

where η o is the differential quantum efficiency

v is the optical frequency

αm is the mirror loss

109
FABRY PEROT LASER

h is the Planck’s constant

The component also allows injection of external light coupled to the longitudinal
modes. The coupling constant is given by:

vg
K c = -----------------
L ⋅ Rf

where L is the cavity length.

References
[1] Agrawal GP, Dutta NK. Semiconductor lasers, 2nd ed. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1993.

110
LED

LED

Simulates a modulated LED.

Ports

Name and description Port type Signal type


Modulation Input Electrical

Output Output Optical

Parameters
Main

Name and description Default Default unit Units Value


value range
Frequency 193.1 THz Hz, THz, nm [30,3e5]

Electron lifetime 1e-009 s — ]0, 1]

RC constant 1e-009 s — ]0, 1]

Quantum efficiency 0.05 — — ]0, 1]

Bandwidth 6 THz Hz, THz, nm ]0, INF]

Simulation

Name and description Default Units Value


value range
Enabled True — True, False

Determines whether or not the component is enabled

Parameterized Parameterized — —

Iterations Iterations — [1, 1e+009]

111
LED

Random numbers

Name and description Default Units Value


value range
Generate random seed Yes — True, False

Determines if the seed is automatically defined and unique

Random seed index 0 — [0,4999]


User-defined seed index for noise generation

Technical background
In this model, the mean of the optical power is a function of the modulation current
(input signal). The conversion of the current into optical power is described by the
responsivity of the LED:
i(t)
P = η ⋅ h ⋅ f ⋅ --------
q
where η is the quantum efficiency

h is the Planck’s constant

f is the emission frequency

q is the electron charge

i( t) is the modulation current signal

The modulated characteristics depend of the electron lifetime and the device of the
diode, and are modeled by the transfer function applied to the current:

1
H ( f ) = ------------------------------------------------------------
1 + j ⋅ 2 ⋅ π ⋅ f ⋅ ( τ n + τ rc )

where τ n is the Electron life time and τ rc is the RC constant.

If the parameter Parameterized is selected, the output consist of a single value


representing the average LED output at the frequency output.

Note: The noise bins signals are not produced by this modulator.

112
WHITE LIGHT SOURCE

White Light Source

Generates a gaussian distributed optical white noise.

Ports

Name and description Port type Signal type


Output Output Optical

Parameters
Main

Name and description Default Default unit Units Value


value range
Frequency 193.1 THz Hz, THz, nm [0,+INF[

Emission frequency

PSD True — — True, False

Determines whether the Power is the PSD (/Hz)


or the average power

Power –30 dBm W, mW, dBm ]-INF,+INF[

Average output powers

Simulation

Name and description Default Default unit Units Value


value range
Enabled True — — True, False

Determines whether or not the component is


enabled

Iterations Iterations — — [1,+INF[

Number of times to repeat the calculation

Sample rate Sample rate Hz Hz, GHz, THz ]0,+INF[

Frequency simulation window

113
WHITE LIGHT SOURCE

Noise

Name and description Default Default unit Units Value


value range
Noise bins spacing 10 GHz Hz, GHz, THz, [1, 100000]
nm

Convert noise bins Convert noise — — —


bins
Determines if the generated noise bins are
incorporated into the signal

Random numbers

Name and description Default Units Value


value range
Generate random seed True — True, False

Determines if the seed is automatically defined and unique

Random seed index 0 — [0,4999]

User-defined seed index for noise generation

Technical background
The average output Power or Power spectral density and Frequency are parameters
that you specify. This model generates noise bins or sampled signals at the output
according to:

·
Ex ( t ) x x ( t ) + j·y x ( t )
= ⋅ P⁄4
Ey ( t ) r v
x y ( t ) + j yy ( t )

A Gaussian distribution has been assumed to describe the probability density function
for the real and imaginary part of Ex and Ey. P is the average power when PSD
parameter is false. If PSD is true, then P is calculated from the power spectral density
multiplied by the Sample rate.

114
PUMP LASER

Pump Laser

Generates an optical parameterized signal to be used for optical amplifier pumping.

Ports

Name and description Port type Signal type


Output Output Optical

Parameters
Main

Name and description Default Default unit Units Value


value range
Frequency 980 nm Hz, THz, nm [0,+INF[

Emission frequency

Power 100 mW W, mW, dBm [0,+INF[

Average output powers

Polarization

Name and description Default Units Value


value range
Azimuth 0 deg ]-90,90]
Azimuth angle of output polarization

Ellipticity 0 deg [-45,45]

Ellipticity angle of output polarization

115
PUMP LASER

Simulation

Name and description Default Units Value


value range
Enabled True — True, False

Determines whether or not the component is enabled

Iterations Iterations — [1, 1e+009]


Number of times to repeat the calculation

Technical background
In the CW Laser case, average output Power is a parameter that you specify. This
model generates only parameterized signal at the output.

The output is multiplied with a complex vector considering the state of polarization:

⎛ E X ( t )⎞ = ⎛⎜ 1 – k⎞⎟ ⋅ P
⎝ E Y ( t )⎠ ⎝ ke jθ ⎠

where the power splitting k and the phase difference θ are related to the parameters
Azimuth α and Ellipticity ε as follows:
2 k ( 1 – k ) cos ( θ )
tan ( 2α ) = --------------------------------------------
1 – 2.k

sin ( 2ε ) = 2 k ( 1 – k ) sin ( θ )

116
PUMP LASER ARRAY

Pump Laser Array

An array of pump lasers.

Ports

Name and description Port type Signal type


Output 1 Output Optical

Output 2 Output Optical

Output 3 Output Optical

Output 4 Output Optical

Output 5 Output Optical

Output 6 Output Optical

Output 7 Output Optical

Output 8 Output Optical

Parameters
Main

Name and description Default value Units Value range


Number of output ports 8 — [1, 1000]

Frequency

Name and description Default Default unit Units Value


value range
Frequency[0] 1405 nm Hz, THz, nm [100, 2000]
Center frequency for pump 0

Frequency[1] 1412.5 nm Hz, THz, nm [100, 2000]

Center frequency for pump 1

117
PUMP LASER ARRAY

Name and description Default Default unit Units Value


value range
Frequency[2] 1420 nm Hz, THz, nm [100, 2000]

Center frequency for pump 2

Frequency[3] 1427.5 nm Hz, THz, nm [100, 2000]


Center frequency for pump 3

Frequency[4] 1435 nm Hz, THz, nm [100, 2000]

Center frequency for pump 4

Frequency[5] 1442.5 nm Hz, THz, nm [100, 2000]

Center frequency for pump 5

Frequency[6] 1450 nm Hz, THz, nm [100, 2000]


Center frequency for pump 6

Frequency[7] 1457.5 nm Hz, THz, nm [100, 2000]

Center frequency for pump 7

Power

Name and description Default Default unit Units Value


value range
Power[0] 100 mW W, mW, dBm [0,+INF[

Output power for pump 0

Power[1] 100 mW W, mW, dBm [0,+INF[

Output power for pump 1

Power[2] 100 mW W, mW, dBm [0,+INF[

Output power for pump 2

Power[3] 100 mW W, mW, dBm [0,+INF[


Output power for pump 3

Power[4] 100 mW W, mW, dBm [0,+INF[

Output power for pump 4

Power[5] 100 mW W, mW, dBm [0,+INF[

Output power for pump 5

Power[6] 100 mW W, mW, dBm [0,+INF[


Output power for pump 6

Power[7] 100 mW W, mW, dBm [0,+INF[

Output power for pump 7

118
PUMP LASER ARRAY

Polarization

Name and description Default value Units Value range


Azimuth 0 deg ]-90,90]

Azimuth angle of output polarization

Ellipticity 0 deg [-45,45]


Ellipticity angle of output polarization

Simulation

Name and description Default value Units Value range


Enabled True — True, False

Determines whether or not the component is enabled

Iterations Iterations — [1, 1e+009]

Number of times to repeat the calculation

119
PUMP LASER ARRAY

Notes:

120
CONTROLLED PUMP LASER

Controlled Pump Laser

This component is a pump laser that can be controlled by an electrical analog signal.
It allows the design and simulation of automatic gain control schemes for optical
amplifiers, such as control loops for the pump laser current.

Ports

Name and description Port type Signal type


Input Input Electrical

Output Output Optical

Parameters
Main

Name and description Default Default unit Units Value


value range
Frequency 980 nm Hz, THz, nm [0,+INF[

Emission frequency

Threshold current 20 mA — [0,+INF[


Lasing begins and optical output sharply rises
when current supplied exceeds the threshold
current

Slope efficiency 0.5 W/A — [0,+INF[


The increase in optical output power divided by
the increase in electrical input current

Maximum current 300 mA — [0,1000]

If the input current is above this value the output


power is constant

Initial phase 0 deg — ]-INF,+INF[

Laser initial phase

121
CONTROLLED PUMP LASER

Control

Name and description Default Units Value


value range
Gain 1 — ]-INF,+INF[

The electrical signal is multiplied by this parameter before the laser


stage

Bias 0 — ]-INF,+INF[

The electrical signal is biased by this parameter before the laser


stage

Polarization

Name and description Default Units Value


value range
Azimuth 0 deg ]-90,90]

Azimuth angle of output polarization

Ellipticity 0 deg [-45,45]

Ellipticity angle of output polarization

Simulation

Name and description Default Units Value


value range
Enabled True — True, False

Determines whether or not the component is enabled

Parameterized Parameterized — True, False

Determines whether the output signal is parameterized or not

Technical background
The controlled pump laser designed for analog control of the output pump power. The
input signal is first scaled by the parameters Gain and Bias. If the value of the scaled
signal is less than the Maximum input current and greater than the Threshold current
the current is multiplied by the Slope efficiency. The model supports individual
samples for time driven simulation

122
CW LASER ARRAY

CW Laser Array

This component is an array of CW lasers.

Ports

Name and description Port type Signal type


Output 1 Output Optical

Output 2 Output Optical

Output 3 Output Optical

Output 4 Output Optical

Output 5 Output Optical

Output 6 Output Optical

Output 7 Output Optical

Output 8 Output Optical

Parameters
Main

Name and description Default value Default Unit Value range


Number of output ports 8 — [1, 1000]

Linewidth 10 MHz [0, 1e+009[

Initial phase 0 deg [-1e+100,1e+100]

123
CW LASER ARRAY

Frequency

Name and description Default Default unit Units Value


value range
Frequency[0] 193.1 THz Hz, THz, nm [30, 300000]

Center frequency for laser 0

Frequency[1] 193.2 THz Hz, THz, nm [30, 300000]


Center frequency for laser 1

Frequency[2] 193.3 THz Hz, THz, nm [30, 300000]

Center frequency for laser 2

Frequency[3] 193.4 THz Hz, THz, nm [30, 300000]

Center frequency for laser 3

Frequency[4] 193.5 THz Hz, THz, nm [30, 300000]

Center frequency for laser 4

Frequency[5] 193.6 THz Hz, THz, nm [30, 300000]

Center frequency for laser 5

Frequency[6] 193.7 THz Hz, THz, nm [30, 300000]

Center frequency for laser 6

Frequency[7] 193.8 THz Hz, THz, nm [30, 300000]

Center frequency for laser 7

Power

Name and description Default Default unit Units Value


value range
Power[0] 0 dBm W, mW, dBm ]-INF,+INF[
Output power for laser 0

Power[1] 0 dBm W, mW, dBm ]-INF,+INF[

Output power for laser 1

Power[2] 0 dBm W, mW, dBm ]-INF,+INF[

Output power for laser 2

Power[3] 0 dBm W, mW, dBm ]-INF,+INF[


Output power for laser 3

Power[4] 0 dBm W, mW, dBm ]-INF,+INF[

Output power for laser 4

Power[5] 0 dBm W, mW, dBm ]-INF,+INF[

Output power for laser 5

124
CW LASER ARRAY

Name and description Default Default unit Units Value


value range
Power[6] 0 dBm W, mW, dBm ]-INF,+INF[

Output power for laser 6

Power[7] 0 dBm W, mW, dBm ]-INF,+INF[


Output power for laser 7

Polarization

Name and description Default Units Value


value range
Azimuth 0 deg ]-90,90]
Azimuth angle of output polarization

Ellipticity 0 deg [-45,45]

Ellipticity angle of output polarization

Simulation

Name and description Default Default unit Units Value


value range
Enabled True — — True, False

Determines whether or not the component is


enabled

Iterations Iterations — — [1,+INF[

Number of times to repeat the calculation

Parameterized Parameterized — — —

Sample rate Sample rate Hz Hz, GHz, THz ]0,+INF[

Frequency simulation window

Noise

Name and description Default Default unit Units Value


value range
Noise bandwidth 0 THz Hz, THz, nm [0,+INF[

Bandwidth to create noise bins

Noise threshold –100 dB — ]-INF,+INF[


Minimum value for adaptation of noise bins

Noise dynamic 3 dB — ]-INF,+INF[

Threshold ratio for adaptation of noise bins

125
CW LASER ARRAY

Random numbers

Name and description Default Units Value


value range
Generate random seed True — True, False

Determines if the seed is automatically defined and unique

Random seed index 0 — [0,4999]


User-defined seed index for noise generation

126
CW LASER ARRAY ES

CW Laser Array ES

This component is an array of CW lasers. The emission frequencies are equally


spaced (ES).

Ports

Name and description Port type Signal type


Output 1 Output Optical

Output 2 Output Optical

Output 3 Output Optical

Output 4 Output Optical

Output 5 Output Optical

Output 6 Output Optical

Output 7 Output Optical

Output 8 Output Optical

Parameters
Main

Name and description Default value Default Unit Value range


Number of output ports 8 — [1, 1000]

Frequency 193.1 THz, Hz, nm [30,+INF[


Emission frequency of the first laser

Frequency spacing 100 GHz, THZ, Hz, ]-INF,+INF[


nm
Frequency spacing between adjacent lasers

Linewidth 10 MHz [0, 1e+009[

Initial phase 0 deg [-1e+100,1e+100]

127
CW LASER ARRAY ES

Power

Name and description Default Default unit Units Value


value range
Power[0] 0 dBm W, mW, dBm ]-INF,+INF[

Output power for laser 0

Power[1] 0 dBm W, mW, dBm ]-INF,+INF[


Output power for laser 1

Power[2] 0 dBm W, mW, dBm ]-INF,+INF[

Output power for laser 2

Power[3] 0 dBm W, mW, dBm ]-INF,+INF[

Output power for laser 3

Power[4] 0 dBm W, mW, dBm ]-INF,+INF[

Output power for laser 4

Power[5] 0 dBm W, mW, dBm ]-INF,+INF[

Output power for laser 5

Power[6] 0 dBm W, mW, dBm ]-INF,+INF[

Output power for laser 6

Power[7] 0 dBm W, mW, dBm ]-INF,+INF[

Output power for laser 7

Polarization

Name and description Default Units Value


value range
Azimuth 0 deg ]-90,90]
Azimuth angle of output polarization

Ellipticity 0 deg [-45,45]

Ellipticity angle of output polarization

128
CW LASER ARRAY ES

Simulation

Name and description Default Default unit Units Value


value range
Enabled True — — True, False

Determines whether or not the component is


enabled

Iterations Iterations — — [1,+INF[

Number of times to repeat the calculation

Parameterized Parameterized — — —

Sample rate Sample rate Hz Hz, GHz, THz ]0,+INF[

Frequency simulation window

Noise

Name and description Default Default unit Units Value


value range
Noise bandwidth 0 THz Hz, THz, nm [0,+INF[

Bandwidth to create noise bins

Noise threshold –100 dB — ]-INF,+INF[

Minimum value for adaptation of noise bins

Noise dynamic 3 dB — ]-INF,+INF[

Threshold ratio for adaptation of noise bins

Random numbers

Name and description Default Units Value


value range
Generate random seed True — True, False

Determines if the seed is automatically defined and unique

Random seed index 0 — [0,4999]


User-defined seed index for noise generation

Technical background
The CW Laser Array ES is equivalent to the conventional CW Laser Array
component. However, The CW Laser Array ES model is easier to set up for WDM
systems, because it only requires the initial laser emission frequency and the spacing.
The signal output power is the same for all the output signals.

129
CW LASER ARRAY ES

Notes:

130
CW LASER MEASURED

CW Laser Measured

Generates a continuous wave (CW) optical signal based on measurements. You can
enter parameters such as linewidth, side mode suppression, and relative intensity
noise (RIN).

Ports

Name and description Port type Signal type


Output Output Optical

Parameters
Main

Name and description Default Default unit Units Value


value range
Frequency 193.1 THz Hz,THz, nm [0,+INF[

Emission frequency

Power 0 dBm W, mW, dBm ]-INF,+INF[

Linewidth 10 MHz — [0,+INF[

Initial phase 0 deg — ]-INF,+INF[

131
CW LASER MEASURED

Side Mode

Name and description Default Default unit Units Value


value range
Calculate side mode False — — —

Determines if the signal output will have one side


mode

Number of side modes 1 — — [1, 100000]

Number of side modes if running as a Fabry-Perot


laser.

Separation 75 GHz Hz, GHz, THz, [0,+INF[


nm
Mode frequency separation from the laser center
frequency

Suppression ratio 30 dB — [0,+INF[

Attenuation of the side mode relative to the output


power

Independent side mode False — — —

When enabled, the side mode has an


independent power value that can change the
total average power

RIN

Name and description Default Default unit Units Value


value range
RIN –130 dB/Hz — ]-INF,+INF[

Relative intensity noise value

Include RIN False — — True, False

Determines if the RIN will be added to the output


signal

Measured power 10 dBm W. mW, dBm ]-INF,+INF[

Value of the power during the measurement of


RIN

132
CW LASER MEASURED

Polarization

Name and description Default Units Value


value range
Azimuth 0 deg ]-90,90]

Azimuth angle of output polarization

Ellipticity 0 deg [-45,45]


Ellipticity angle of output polarization

Polarization filter None — None,


Polarization X,
Determines the polarization of the filter
Polarization Y

Simulation

Name and description Default Default unit Units Value


value range
Enabled True — — True, False

Determines whether or not the component is


enabled

Iterations Iterations — — [1,+INF[

Number of times to repeat the calculation

Parameterized Parameterized — — —

Sample rate Sample rate Hz Hz, GHz, THz ]0,+INF[

Frequency simulation window

Noise

Name and description Default Default unit Units Value


value range
Noise bandwidth 1 THz Hz, THz, nm [1e-100, 1e-
100]
Bandwidth to increase noise bins

Noise bins spacing 100 GHz Hz, GHz, THz, [1, 1000]
nm
Determines noise bins spacing

Convert noise bins Convert noise — — [0, 0]


bins
Determines if the generated noise bins are
incorporated into the signal

133
CW LASER MEASURED

Random numbers

Name and description Default Units Value


value range
Generate random seed True — True, False

Determines if the seed is automatically defined and unique

Random seed index 0 — [0,4999]


User-defined seed index for noise generation

134
CW LASER MEASURED

Technical background
This model is similar to the CW Laser — however, it includes additional effects, such
as multiple side modes and RIN.

If the you enable the parameter Calculate side mode, the side mode will be generated
according to:

E out ( t ) = P [ 1 + s cos ( 2πΔ f t ) + s cos ( – 2πΔ f t )e ]

where P is laser output power, s is the parameter Suppression ratio in linear scale,
and Δ f is defined by the parameter Separation.

If the parameter Independent side mode is enabled, the average signal power will be
greater than P, since it includes the contribution from the side mode. If this parameter
is disabled, the output power will be P. This means that the signal will be scaled in
order to give the same average power. The signal phase and polarization is calculated
in the same way as the CW laser.

The model can also works as a Fabry-Perot laser; in this case, the parameter Number
of side modes defines the number of modes of the laser. The normalized power for
each mode is calculated based on the power of the central mode and the power of the
first side mode [1], according to:
1
P n = ------------------------------------------2-
1 n
1 + ⎛ ----- – 1⎞ ⎛ -----⎞
⎝ P s ⎠ ⎝ M⎠
where M is the parameter Number of side modes, n is the index of each side mode
pair, and P s is calculated from the power of the first side mode:
1
P s = ----------------------------------
⎛ 1--- – 1⎞ M 2 + 1
⎝s ⎠

If the parameter Include RIN is enabled, the model generates noise bins with
bandwidth and spacing that you define. The parameter RIN is the ratio of the mean-
square optical intensity noise to the square of the average power [2][3]:
2
〈 ΔP 〉
RIN = ---------------
2
dB ⁄ Hz
Pm
2
where 〈 ΔP 〉 is the mean-square optical intensity fluctuation at a specific frequency
2 2
and P m is the parameter Measured power. This models estimates 〈 ΔP 〉 based on the
parameters RIN and Measured power.

The signal phase and polarization is calculated in the same way as the CW laser,
where the laser phase noise is modeled using a Gaussian random variable for the

135
CW LASER MEASURED

phase difference between two successive time instants with zero mean and a
variance equal to 2π Δf , where Δf is the laser Linewidth.

The probability density function is:


2
Δϕ
1 – ------------------
4πΔfdt
f ( Δϕ ) = ---------------------- ⋅ e
2π Δfdt
where Δϕ is the phase difference between two successive time instants and dt is the
time discretization.

The output is multiplied with a complex vector considering the state of polarization:

⎛ E X ( t )⎞ = ⎛ 1 – k⎞ ⋅ P ( t )
⎝ E Y ( t )⎠ ⎝ ke jθ ⎠

The power splitting k and the phase difference θ are calculated from the parameters
Azimuth α and Ellipticity ε :

k ( 1 – k ) cos ( θ )
tan ( 2α ) = 2 -----------------------------------------
1 – 2.k
sin ( 2ε ) = 2 k ( 1 – k ) sin ( θ )

References
[1] Agrawal, G.P. and Dutta, N.K., “Semiconductor Laser”, 2nd Edition, Van Nostrand Reinhold,
New York, N.Y., (1993).
[2] Lau, K. Y. and Yariv, A., "Ultra-High Speed Semiconductor Laser", J. Quant. Elect., 21, 121-136,
(1985).
[3] Agrawal, G.P., Fiber-Optic Communication Systems, Second edition. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.,
N.Y., (1997).

136
DIRECTLY MODULATED LASER MEASURED

Directly Modulated Laser Measured

Directly modulated laser that allows you to specify the dynamic of the laser based on
measured parameters. You can also enter parameters such as linewidth, chirp, side
mode, suppression and relative intensity noise (RIN).

Ports

Name and description Port type Signal type


Modulation Input Electrical

Output Output Optical

Parameters
Main

Name and description Default Default unit Units Value


value range
Frequency 193.1 THz Hz,THz, nm [0,+INF[

Emission frequency

Configuration Digital — — Digital, Analog


Defines whether the laser will work in analog or
digital configuration

Power 10 dBm W, mW, dBm ]-INF,+INF[

Laser output power

Extinction ratio 10 dB — [0,+INF[


Steady state power ratio between marks and
spaces

Threshold current 20 mA — [0,+INF[

Lasing begins and optical output sharply rises


when current supplied exceeds the threshold
current

137
DIRECTLY MODULATED LASER MEASURED

Name and description Default Default unit Units Value


value range
Slope efficiency 0.4 W/A — [0,+INF[

The increase in optical output power divided by


the increase in electrical input current

Linewidth 10 MHz — [0,+INF[

Initial phase 0 deg — ]-INF,+INF[

Measurements

Name and description Default Default Units Value


value unit range
Overshoot 30 % — [0,+INF[

Percentage of overshoot during the transition


from 0 to 1 relative to the steady state power

Undershoot 30 % — [0,+INF[

Percentage of undershoot during the transition


from 0 to 1 relative to the steady state power

Rise time 1/(Bit rate) * 0.05 s s, ms, ns, ps [0,+INF[

Defined as the time from when the rising edges


reaches 0% of the amplitude to the time it reaches
100% of the amplitude

Fall time 1/(Bit rate) * 0.05 s s, ms, ns, ps [0,+INF[

Defined as the time from when the falling edges


reaches 100% of the amplitude to the time it
reaches 0% of the amplitude

Damping time leading edge 1/(Bit rate) * 0.5 s s, ms, ns, ps [0,+INF[

Relaxation time when the signal overshoot


reaches 1/e of the max value during the transition
from 0 to 1

Damping time trailing edge 1/(Bit rate) * 0.5 s s, ms, ns, ps [0,+INF[

Relaxation time when the signal undershoot


reaches 1/e of the min value during the transition
from 1 to 0

Resonant frequency leading edge (Bit rate) * 5 Hz Hz, MHz, GHz, [0,+INF[
THz
Frequency of the oscillations in the transition from
0 to 1

Resonant frequency trailing edge (Bit rate) * 5 Hz Hz, MHz, GHz, [0,+INF[
THz
Frequency of the oscillations in the transition from
1 to 0

138
DIRECTLY MODULATED LASER MEASURED

Side Mode

Name and description Default Default unit Units Value


value range
Calculate side mode False — — True, False

Determines if the signal output will have one side


mode

Number of side modes 1 — — [1, 100000]

Number of side modes if running as a Fabry-Perot


laser.

Separation 75 GHz Hz, GHz, THz, [0,+INF[


nm
Mode frequency separation from the laser center
frequency

Suppression ratio 30 dB — [0,+INF[

Attenuation of the side mode relative to the output


power

RIN

Name and description Default Default unit Units Value


value range
RIN –130 dB/Hz — ]-INF,+INF[

Relative intensity noise value

Include RIN False — — —

Determines if the RIN will be added to the output


signal

Measured power 10 dBm W, mW, dBm ]-INF,+INF[


Value of the power during the measurement of
RIN

Chirp

Name and description Default Default unit Value


value range
Alpha parameter 0 — [-100, 100]

Adiabatic chirp 0 1/(W.s) ]-INF,+INF[


Results from changes in the steady state carrier densities

139
DIRECTLY MODULATED LASER MEASURED

Polarization

Name and description Default Units Value


value range
Azimuth 0 deg ]-90,90]

Azimuth angle of output polarization

Ellipticity 0 deg [-45,45]


Ellipticity angle of output polarization

Polarization filter None — None,


Polarization X,
Determines the polarization of the filter
Polarization Y

Simulation

Name and description Default Units Value


value range
Enabled True — True, False

Determines whether or not the component is enabled

Parameterized Parameterized — [1,+INF[

Noise

Name and description Default Default unit Units Value


value range
Noise bandwidth 1 THz Hz, THz, nm [1e-100, 1e-
100]
Bandwidth to increase noise bins

Noise bins spacing 100 GHz Hz, GHz, THz, [1, 1000]
nm
Determines noise bins spacing

Convert noise bins Convert noise — — [0, 0]


bins
Determines if the generated noise bins are
incorporated into the signal

Random numbers

Name and description Default Units Value


value range
Generate random seed True — True, False

Determines if the seed is automatically defined and unique

Random seed index 0 — [0,4999]


User-defined seed index for noise generation

140
DIRECTLY MODULATED LASER MEASURED

Technical background
This model is a different from the Laser Measured, where you can enter measured
parameters and the model calculates the rate equation parameter by using
sophisticated optimization routines. Here you can enter measured parameters that
describe the laser dynamics by building the laser output signal.

If the parameter Configuration is Digital, the range of the amplitude of the signal input
is normalized between 0 and 1. This means that this model converts the input signal
to a sequence of squared pulses.

The parameter Power is the steady state value of the output power at the 1 level. The
steady-state value for the power at the 0 level is calculated from the parameter
Extinction ratio:

Er = 10 log ( P 1 ⁄ P 0 )

where P1 is the parameter Power, Er is the parameter Extinction ratio, and P0 is the
steady-state power at the 0 level.

The measured parameters will be used to build P(t) (see Figure 1).

Figure 1 Measured parameters used to build P(t)

141
DIRECTLY MODULATED LASER MEASURED

If you enable the parameter Calculate side mode, the side mode is generated
according to:

E out ( t ) = P ( t ) [ 1 + s cos ( 2πΔ f t ) + s cos ( – 2πΔ f t )e ]

where P is laser output power, s is the parameter Suppression ratio in linear scale,
and Δf is defined by the parameter Separation.

The model can also works as a Fabry-Perot laser; in this case, the parameter Number
of side modes defines the number of modes of the laser. The normalized power for
each mode is calculated based on the power of the central mode and the power of the
first side mode [1], according to:
1
P n = ------------------------------------------2-
1 n
1 + ⎛ ----- – 1⎞ ⎛ -----⎞
⎝ P s ⎠ ⎝ M⎠
where M is the parameter Number of side modes, n is the index of each side mode
pair, and P s is calculated from the power of the first side mode:
1
P s = ----------------------------------
⎛ 1--- – 1⎞ M 2 + 1
⎝s ⎠

If the parameter Configuration is Analog, the model will use the parameters Threshold
current and Slope efficiency to scale the input signal, without normalization.Different
from the Digital, the Analog configuration supports individual samples for time driven
simulation.

If the parameter Include RIN is enabled, the model will generate noise bins with
bandwidth and spacing that you define. The parameter RIN is the ratio of the mean-
square optical intensity noise to the square of the average power [2][3]:

2
〈 ΔP 〉
RIN = ---------------
2
dB ⁄ Hz
Pm

2
where 〈 ΔP 〉 is the mean-square optical intensity fluctuation at a specific frequency
2
and P m is the parameter Measured power.
2
This model estimates 〈 ΔP 〉 based on the parameters RIN and Measured power.

142
DIRECTLY MODULATED LASER MEASURED

The chirp is modeled using:

dϕ α d
------ = -----e- ----- InP ( t ) + κP ( t )
dt 2 dt

where ϕ is the signal phase, α e is the parameter Alpha parameter or linewidth


enhancement factor, and κ is the parameter Adiabatic chirp.

The signal phase and polarization is calculated in the same way as the CW laser,
where the laser phase noise is modeled using a Gaussian random variable for the
phase difference between two successive time instants with zero mean and a
variance equal to 2π Δf , where Δf is the laser Linewidth. The probability density
function is:
2
Δϕ
1 – ------------------
4πΔfdt
f ( Δϕ ) = ---------------------- ⋅ e
2π Δfdt
where Δϕ is the phase difference between two successive time instants and dt is the
time discretization.

The output is multiplied with a complex vector considering the state of polarization:

⎛ E X ( t )⎞ = ⎛ 1 – k⎞ ⋅ P ( t )
⎝ E Y ( t )⎠ ⎝ ke jθ ⎠

The power splitting k and the phase difference θ is calculated from the parameters
Azimuth α and Ellipticity ε :
k ( 1 – k ) cos ( θ )
tan ( 2α ) = 2 -----------------------------------------
1 – 2.k
sin ( 2ε ) = 2 k ( 1 – k ) sin ( θ )

References
[1] Agrawal, G.P. and Dutta, N.K., “Semiconductor Laser”, 2nd Edition, Van Nostrand Reinhold,
New York, N.Y., (1993).
[2] Lau, K. Y. and Yariv, A., "Ultra-High Speed Semiconductor Laser", J. Quant. Elect., 21, 121-136,
(1985).
[3] Agrawal, G.P., Fiber-Optic Communication Systems, Second edition. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.,
N.Y., (1997).

143
DIRECTLY MODULATED LASER MEASURED

Notes:

144
VCSEL LASER

VCSEL Laser

This component is a vertical-cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL). It includes thermal


effects and parameter fitting based on measured LI and IV curves.

Ports

Name and description Port type Signal type


Input Input Electrical

Output Output Optical

Parameters
Main

Name and description Default Default unit Unit Value


value range
Frequency 193.1 THz Hz, THz, nm [30, 3e5]
Laser emission frequency

Bias current 38 mA [0, 1000]

Input bias current

Modulation peak current 28 mA [0, 1000]

Input modulation peak current

Thermal

Name and description Default value Units Value range


Thermal effects True [True, False]
Defines whether thermal effects are included in the calculation

Temperature 20 C, K [-INF, +INF]

The ambient temperature

Thermal impedance 2600 C/W [0, +INF]

Related to the temperature changes to the power dissipated


as heat

145
VCSEL LASER

Name and description Default value Units Value range


Thermal time constant 1e-6 s [0, +INF]

Response time of the device temperature

Physical

Name and description Default value Units Value range


Reduce parameters True [True, False]

Defines if the user can enter a reduced number of physical


parameters

Active layer volume 1.5e-010 cm3 [0, 1e-3]

Group velocity 8.5e+009 cm/s [0, 100e9]

Quantum efficiency 0.4 [0, 1]

Differential gain coefficient 2.5e-016 cm2 [0, 50e-16]

Carrier density at transparency 1e+018 cm-3 [0, 100e18]

Mode confinement factor 0.4 [0, 1]

Scaling factor 2.6e-008 W [0, +INF]

Factor accounting for the output coupling efficiency

Gain coefficient 16000 1/s [0, +INF]

Coefficient in 1/s

Carrier number at transparency 19400000 [0, +INF]

Carrier lifetime 1e-009 s [0, 50e-9]

Photon lifetime 3e-012 s [0, 50e-9]

Spontaneous emission factor 3e-005 [2e-5, 20e-5]

Gain compression coefficient 1e-017 cm3 [0.5e-17, 10e-17]

Linewidth enhancement factor 5 [-20, 20]

Injection efficiency 1 [0, +INF]


Current injection efficiency

Meaurements

Name and description Default value Units Value range


Max input current 40 mA [0, +INF]

The maximum value for the signal input current. It should


match the maximum value of the measurements

146
VCSEL LASER

Name and description Default value Units Value range


a- Ioff(T) 1.246e-3 - a0=A, [-INF, +INF]

Coefficients for the polynomial function of temperature for the 2.545e-5 a1=A/C,
offset current curve
2.908e-7 - a2=A/C2,

2.531e-10 a3=A/C3…

1.022e-12

b- V(T) 1 b0=V1/2, [-INF, +INF]

Coefficients for the polynomial function of temperature for the b1= V1/2/C,
current-voltage curve
b2= V1/2/C2,

b3= V1/2/C3…

c- V(I) 1.721 275 - c0=V1/2, [-INF, +INF]


1/2
Coefficients for the polynomial function of current for the 2.439e4 c1= V /A,
current-voltage curve
1.338e6 - c2= V1/2/A2,

4.154e7 c3= V1/2/A3…

6.683e8 -

4.296e9

Parameter fitting True [True, False]

Defines if the component will fit the parameters using the


measurements

LI curves filename LI
Temperature.dat
The filename with the measurements of the LI curves,
including the temperature dependence

IV curves filename IV
Temperature.dat
The filename with the measurements of the IV curves,
including the temperature dependence

LI curves at different temperatures (ACW) 183x3 array Col 1: A Col 1: [0,+INF]

The values loaded from the LI curves filename Col 2: C Col 2: [-INF,+INF]

Col 3: W Col 3: [0,+INF]

IV curves at different temperatures (ACV) 78x3 array Col 1: A Col 1: [0,+INF]

The values loaded from the IV curves filename Col 2: C Col 2: [-INF,+INF]

Col 3: V Col 3: [0,+INF]

147
VCSEL LASER

Numerical

Name and description Default Units Value


value range
Adaptive step False — True, False

Defines whether to use adaptive step or not

Max. number of steps 1000000 — [1e3,10e6]


The maximum number of steps

Relative error 0.0001 — —

Relative integration error

Graphs

Name and description Default value Units Value range


Calculate graphs False True, False

Defines whether to calculate graphs or not

Number of points 20 [5, 100e6]

Number of points for the graphs

From 0 mA [0, +INF]

Current lower limit for the graphs

To 40 mA [0, +INF]

Current upper limit for the graphs

Simulation

Name and description Default Units Value


value range
Enabled True [True, False]

Parameterized Parameterized

Noise

Name and description Default Units Value


value range
Include noise True [True, False]

Include phase noise True [True, False]

148
VCSEL LASER

Random numbers

Name and description Default Units Value


value range
Generate random seed True [True, False]

Determines if the seed is automatically defined and unique

Random seed index 0 [0, 4999]


User-defined seed index for noise generation

149
VCSEL LASER

Graphs

Name and description X Title Y Title


IV curve Current (A) Voltage (V)

LI curve Current (A) Power (W)

Measured IV curve Current (A) Voltage (V)

Measured LI curve Current (A) Power (W)

Results

Name and description Units


Output power W

Voltage V

Thermal impedance C/W

Active layer volume cm^3

Quantum efficiency

Gain coefficient 1/s

Scaling factor W

Carrier number at transparency

Current at max. voltage A

a0 A

a1 A/C

a2 A/C^2

a3 A/C^3

a4 A/C^4

a5 A/C^5

a6 A/C^6

a7 A/C^7

a8 A/C^8

a9 A/C^9

b0 V^.5

b1 V^.5/C

b2 V^.5/C^2

150
VCSEL LASER

Name and description Units


b3 V^.5/C^3

b4 V^.5/C^4

b5 V^.5/C^5

b6 V^.5/C^6

b7 V^.5/C^7

b8 V^.5/C^8

b9 V^.5/C^9

c0 V^.5

c1 V^.5/A

c2 V^.5/A^2

c3 V^.5/A^3

c4 V^.5/A^4

c5 V^.5/A^5

c6 V^.5/A^6

c7 V^.5/A^7

c8 V^.5/A^8

c9 V^.5/A^9

Technical Background
The modulation dynamics of the laser are modeled by coupled rate equations that
describe the relationship between the carrier density N(t), photon density S(t), and
between the optical phase Φ ( t ) and temperature T(t)[1][2].

dN ( t )- η i ( I ( t ) – I off ( t ) ) N ( t ) 1
------------- = ------------------------------------- – ---------- – g 0 ⋅ ( N ( t ) – N t ) ⋅ ------------------------------- ⋅ S ( t ) (1)
dt q⋅V τn (1 + ε ⋅ S(t))

dS ( t )- 1 S(t) Γ ⋅ β ⋅ N(t)
------------ = Γ ⋅ g 0 ⋅ ( N ( t ) – N t ) ⋅ ------------------------------- ⋅ S ( t ) – --------- + -------------------------- (2)
dt (1 + ε ⋅ S(t)) τp τn

dφ ( t )- 1 1
------------ = --- ⋅ α ⋅ Γ ⋅ g 0 ⋅ ( Nt – N t ) – ----- (3)
dt 2 τp

dT ( t )- 1
------------ = ------ ( T 0 + ( IV (I,T) – P 0 )R th – T ) (4)
dt τ th

151
VCSEL LASER

where g 0 is the gain slope constant, g 0 = v g × a 0 ,


a 0 is the active layer gain coefficient
v g is the group velocity
ε is the gain compression factor
N t is the carrier density at transparency
β is the fraction of spontaneous emission coupled into the lasing mode

Γ is the mode confinement factor

V is the active layer volume

τ p is the photon lifetime


τ n is the electron lifetime
α is the linewidth enhancement factor
η i is the injection efficiency
T 0 is the ambient temperature
P O is the output power
R th is the thermal impedance
τ th is the thermal time constant
The time variations for the optical and laser chips are given by [1]

S ⋅ V ⋅ η0 ⋅ h ⋅ v
P 0 = ------------------------------------ (5)
2 ⋅ Γτ p

1 dφ
Δv = ---------- ⋅ ------ (6)
2 ⋅ π dt

where

η o is the differential quantum efficiency


v is the optical frequency
h is Planck’s constant

152
VCSEL LASER

By enabling the parameter Reduce parameters, the user can enter the alternative
parameters that will be used to calculate N t , η o and a o according to:

N0
N t = ------ (7)
V

G0 V
a 0 = ---------- (8)
vg

2kτ p
η o = ----------- (9)
hv

where

N o is the carrier number at transparency


G 0 is the gain coefficient
k is the scaling factor, with P O = kSV
The offset current is given by a polynomial function of temperature [2].

2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
I off ( T ) = a 0 + a 1 T + a 2 T + a 3 T + a 4 T + a 5 T + a 6 T + a 7 T + a 8 T + a 9 T

where the coefficients a 0 to a 9 are given by the parameter a – Ioff ( T ) .


The current-voltage (IV) relationship is modeled using a polynomial function of
temperature and current [2]:
· 9 9
V (T,I) = ( b 0 + b 1 T + … + b 9 T ) ⋅ ( c 0 + c 1 I + … + c 9 I )
where
· 9
( b 0 + b 1 T + … + b 9 T ) is
2 3 4
· 5 6 7 8 9
( b0 + b1 T + b2 T + b3 T + b4 T + b5 T + b6 T + b7 T + b8 T + b9 T )
9
( c 0 + c 1 I + … + c 9 I ) is
2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
( c0 + c1 I + c2 I + c3 I + c4 I + c5 I + c6 I + c7 I + c8 I + c9 I )
where the coefficients b 0 to b 9 and c 0 to c 9 are given by the parameter b – V ( T )
and c – V ( I ) .

When the parameter Parameter fitting is disabled, the component will calculate using
user-defined parameters. In this case, the user should provide all the parameters,
including the coefficient for the polynomial functions. The measured LI and IV curves
will not be used in the calculation.

153
VCSEL LASER

When the parameter Parameter fitting is enabled, the component will calculate new
parameters using the current parameters as a first guess, including the number and
the initial values for the polynomial coefficients.

The new parameters can be seen in the component results.

First the component will calculate the coefficients for the IV curve, and then it will
calculate the coefficients for the offset current, the thermal impedance and the new
slope efficiency.

The maximum value of the input current is calculated from the current derivative of
the IV curve. However, the user should provide this value as an input parameter.

The parameters will be adjusted to reflect the new slope efficiency. The affected
parameters are the active layer volume and the quantum efficiency.

For each calculation, the component will also generate the peak power and voltage
results based on the bias and modulation peak current. These values can be used for
external parameter fitting if the user intends to use a different fitting engine.

The file format for the LI curve data is the following:

Current0 Temperature0 Power0

Current1 Temperature1 Power1

Current2 Temperature2 Power2

The units are ampere, Celsius and watt.

The file format for the IV curve data is the following:

Current0 Temperature0 Voltage0

Current1 Temperature1 Voltage 1

Current2 Temperature2 Voltage 2

The units are ampere, Celsius and volt.

The range for the current value should be the same for both files. If the range is not
the same, the parameter-fitting engine will not converge to an optimum fitting.

For example, if the LI curve is provided from 0 to 40 mA, the IV curve must be also
provided from 0 to 40 mA.

The default parameters of the VCSEL are the same as in [2]. If the parameter Thermal
effects is disabled, the calculation will perform using the same equations as in [1],
without the thermal effects and the parameter fitting.

Parameters Bias current and Modulation peak current are scale factors applied to the
input electrical signal.

154
VCSEL LASER

The internal current I ( t ) is given by:

I ( t ) = I DC + I in ( t ) × I Pk (4)

Where I in ( t ) is the input signal current, I DC is the parameter Bias Current and
I Pk is the parameter Modulation peak current. If parameter Bias Current and
Modulation peak current have zero values, the internal current is given by I in ( t ) only.

The VCSEL Laser supports individual samples for time-driven simulation.

References
[1] J. C. Cartledge and G. S. Burley, "The Effect of the Laser Chirping on Lightwave System
Performance", J. Lightwave Technology, vol. 7, pp. 568-573, March 1989.
[2] P. V. Mena, J. J. Morikuni, S. M. Kang, A. V. Harton and K. W. Wyatt, "A Simple Rate-Equation-
Based Thermal VCSEL Model", J. Lightwave Technology, vol. 17, pp. 865-872, May 1999.

155
VCSEL LASER

Notes:

156
SPATIAL CW LASER

Spatial CW Laser

This component is CW laser that includes transverse mode profiles in the optical
output. It is a subsystem built using the CW Laser and the Multimode Generator.

Ports

Name and description Port type Signal type


Output Output Optical

Parameters
Main

Name and description Default value Default unit Units Value range
Frequency 850 nm Hz, THZ, nm [10, 10000]

Emission frequency

Power 0 dBm W, mW, dBm [-1000, 1000]

Output power

Linewidth 10 MHz [0, 1e+009]

Laser linewidth

Initial phase 0 deg [-1E+100,


1E+100]
Defines the initial phase of the output
signal

Polarization

Name and description Default value Default unit Units Value range
Azimuth 0 deg [-90, 90]

Azimuth angle of output polarization

Ellipticity 0 deg [-45, 45]

Ellipticity angle of output polarization

157
SPATIAL CW LASER

Spatial effects

Name and description Default value Default unit Units Value range
Power ratio array 1

List of power values which describe the


power distribution between multiple
modes

Mode type Laguerre- Laguerre-


Gaussian Gaussian,
Defines the output signal mode types Hermite-
Gaussian

Mode polarization X=Y X = Y, X and Y, X,


Y
Defines how the spatial modes are
attached to the output signal

Pol. X m,n index array 00

List of mode indexes 'm,n' for X


polarization

Pol. X spot size 5 um [1e-100, 1e+100]

Spot size for X polarization

Pol. X inv. radius of curvature 0 1/um [0, 1e+100]

Inverse radius of curvature for X


polarization

Pol. Y m,n index array 00

List of mode indexes 'm,n' for Y


polarization

Pol. Y spot size 5 um [1e-100, 1e+100]

Spot size for Y polarization

Pol. Y inv. radius of curvature 0 1/um [0, 1e+100]

Inverse radius of curvature for


polarization

Simulation

Name and description Default value Default unit Units Value range
Enabled YES [YES, NO]

Determines whether or not the


component is enabled

Iterations Iterations [1, 1e+009]

Number of times to repeat the


calculation

158
SPATIAL CW LASER

Name and description Default value Default unit Units Value range
Sample rate Sample rate Hz Hz, GHz, THz [1, 1e+100]

Frequency simulation window

Space width X Space width X um [1e-100, 1e+100]

Horizontal spatial simulation window

Space width Y Space width Y um [1e-100, 1e+100]

Vertical spatial simulation window

Random Numbers

Name and description Default Units Value


value range
Generate random seed YES [YES, NO]

Determines if the seed is automatically defined and unique

Random seed index 0 [0, 4999]

User-defined seed index for noise generation

Technical Background
The layout of the Spatial CW Laser is presented in Figure 1. Refer to CW Laser and
Multimode Generator component documentation for the technical background of the
models.

Figure 1 Spatial CW Laser subsystem

159
SPATIAL CW LASER

Notes:

160
SPATIOTEMPORAL VCSEL

Spatiotemporal VCSEL

This component is VCSEL laser model based on 2D spatially-dependent rate


equations that account dynamically for the spatial interactions between the optical
field and carrier distributions in the active layer.

Ports

Name and description Port type Signal type Supported


Modes
Modulation Input Electrical Sample signals

Output Output Optical

Parameters
Main

Name and description Default value Default unit Units Value range
Frequency 850 nm Hz, THZ, nm [10, 10000]
Laser emission frequency

Bias current 5 mA [0, 1000]

Input bias current

Modulation peak current 10 mA [0, 1000]

Input modulation peak current

161
SPATIOTEMPORAL VCSEL

Thermal

Name and description Default value Default unit Units Value range
Thermal effects NO [YES, NO]

Define whether thermal effects are


included in the calculation

Temperature 300 K K, C [-1000, 1000]

The ambient temperature

Diode voltage 2600 [0, 1e+100]

Thermal impedance 3000 K/W K/W, C/W [0, 1e+100]

Thermal capacitance 9.053e-012 J/K J/K, J/C [0, 1e+100]

Coefficient of emission 0.06 nm/K nm/K,nm/C [0, 1e+100]


wavelength

Gain peak wavelength 848 nm [0, 1e+100]

Reference temperature 250 K K, C [-1000, 1000]

Coefficient of gain peak 0.27 nm/K nm/K, nm/C [0, 1e+100]


wavelength

Gain profile FWHM 40 nm [0, 1e+100]

Reference leakage current 0.0006 A [0, 1e+100]

Leakage current coefficients -700 5.4e-17 S [-1e+100,


2.4e-19 -3.4e21 1e+100]

162
SPATIOTEMPORAL VCSEL

Geometrical

Name and description Default value Default unit Units Value range
Cavity length 9e-005 cm [0, 1e+100]

Single QW thickness 0.008 um [0, 1e+100]

Number of quantum wells 3 [0, 1e+06]

SCH thickness 0.04 um [0, 1e+100]

Cavity radius 8 um [0, 1e+100]

Oxide aperture radius 2.25 um [0, 1e+100]

Core radius 2.25 um [0, 1e+100]

Core refractive index 3.6 [0, 1e+100]

Refractive index change 0.6944 % [0, 1e+100]

Physical

Name and description Default value Default unit Units Value range
Group velocity 7137915666.667 cm/s [0, 1e+100]

Gain coefficient 1500 1/cm [0, 1e+100]

Carrier number at transparency 1.85e+018 [0, 1e+100]

Optical confinement factor 0.03, 0.03, 0.03, [0, 1]


0.03, 0.03, 0.03,
0.03

Carrier lifetime 2.5e-009 s [0, 1e+100]

Gain compression coefficient 3e-017 cm^3 [1e-050, 1

Linewidth enhancement factor 2 [-1e+100, 1e+100]

Top mirror reflectivity for cosine 0.997, 0.997, [0, 1]


modes 0.997, 0.997,
0.997, 0.997,
0.997

Top mirror reflectivity for sine 0.997, 0.997, [0, 1]


modes 0.997, 0.997,
0.997, 0.997,
0.997

Bottom mirror reflectivity for 0.9985, 0.9985, [0, 1]


cosine modes 0.9985, 0.9985,
0.9985, 0.9985,
0.9985

163
SPATIOTEMPORAL VCSEL

Name and description Default value Default unit Units Value range
Bottom mirror reflectivity for sine 0.9985, 0.9985, [0, 1]
modes 0.9985, 0.9985,
0.9985, 0.9985,
0.9985

Internal loss for cosine modes 40, 40, 40, 40, 40, 1/cm [0, 1e+100]
40, 40

Internal loss for sine modes 40, 40, 40, 40, 40, 1/cm [0, 1e+100]
40, 40

Thermionic emission lifetime 5e-010 s [0, 1e+100]

Ambipolar diffusion time 2.5e-011 s [0, 1e+100]

Current spreading coefficient 0.0001 cm [0, 1e+100]

Ambipolar diffusion coefficient 12 cm^2 [0, 1e+100]

Injection efficiency 1 [0, 1]

Current injection efficiency

Enhanced

Name and description Default value Default unit Units Value range
Parasitic effects NO [YES, NO]

Current source resistance 1 Ohm Ohm, kOhm, [0, 1e+100]


MOhm

Current source capacitance 0.5 pF F, tF, pF, nF [0, 1e+100]

Bond wire resistance 0.4 Ohm Ohm, kOhm, [0, 1e+100]


MOhm

Bond wire inductance 1 nH H, nH, uH, mH [0, 1e+100]

Pad source capacitance 0.5 pF F, tF, pF, nF [0, 1e+100]

Bragg reflector resistance 20 Ohm Ohm, kOhm, [0, 1e+100]


MOhm

Cavity resistance 30 Ohm Ohm, kOhm, [0, 1e+100]


MOhm

Cavity capacitance 0.5 pF F, tF, pF, nF [0, 1e+100]

Feedback effects NO [YES, NO]

External cavity length 30 cm [0, 1e+100]

External power reflectance 0.03496595941 [0, 1]

164
SPATIOTEMPORAL VCSEL

Numerical

Name and description Default Units Value


value range
Minimum time step 1e-012 s [1e-100, 1]
If this value is lower than the sampling period, the signal is resampled
using the minimum time step as the new sampling period.

Radial steps 7 — [4, 1e+10]


Resolution along the radial direction (finite differences parameter)

Mode solver tolerance 1e-014 — [1e-100, 0.1]


The LP mode solver error tolerance

Maximum number of modes 9 — [1, 28]


The upper limit for the number of modes to be used in the calculation

Time to reach steady state 4e-009 s [0, 1]


User estimation of the time required to reach steady-state. Steady-
state values are used to initialize the internal state of the model before
calculation starts.

Graphs

Name and description Default value Default unit Units Value range
Calculate graphs NO [YES, NO]

Define whether to calculate graphs or


not

Number of points 20 [5, 1e+008]

Number of points for the graphs

From 0 mA [0, 1e+100]

Lower limit value for the graphs

To 40 mA [0, 1e+100]

Upper limit value for the graphs

Simulation

Name and description Default value Default unit Units Value range
Enabled YES [YES, NO]

Determines whether or not the


component is enabled

Parameterized Parameterized [YES, NO]

Determines whether or not the signal


output is parameterized

165
SPATIOTEMPORAL VCSEL

Name and description Default value Default unit Units Value range
Space width X Space width X um [1e-100, 1e+100]

Horizontal spatial simulation window

Space width Y Space width Y um [1e-100, 1e+100]

Vertical spatial simulation window

Noise

Name and description Default value Default unit Units Value range
Include noise YES [YES, NO]

Defines whether RIN will be included in


the signal

Random Numbers

Name and description Default Units Value


value range
Generate random seed YES [YES, NO]

Determines if the seed is automatically defined and unique

Random seed index 0 [0, 4999]

User-defined seed index for noise generation

Graphs

Name and description X Title Y Title


LI curve Current (A) Power (W)

Technical Background
This module simulates a spatiotemporal model of a VCSEL and is based on the
publications of Jungo et al [1][2][3][4]. It is an improved version, since it includes an
LP mode solver and parameters to control whether temperature, parasitic and
feedback effects are included in the calculation or not.

Parameters Bias current and Modulation peak current are scale factors applied to the
input electrical signal.

The internal current I ( t ) is given by:

166
SPATIOTEMPORAL VCSEL

I ( t ) = I DC + I in ( t ) × I Pk (3)

Where I in ( t ) is the input signal current, I DC is the parameter Bias Current and
I Pk is the parameter Modulation peak current. If parameter Bias Current and
Modulation peak current have zero values, the internal current is given by I in ( t ) only.

Due to the complexity of this component, we only give the list of parameters. For
further information about the spatiotemporal model refer to the work of Jungo [1],
where the exact mathematical derivation and formulation of the core model as well as
of the advanced mechanisms can be found.

References
[1] Jungo, M., "Spatiotemporal VCSEL Model for Advanced Simulations of Optical Links,"in Series
in Quantum Electronics, vol. 30, edited by H. Baltes, P. Günter, U. Keller, F. K. Kneubühl, W.
Lukosz, H. Mechior, and M. W. Sigrist, 1st ed.Konstanz: Hartung-Gorre Verlag, 2003
[2] Jungo, M.X.; Erni, D.; Bachtold, W., "VISTAS: a comprehensive system-oriented
spatiotemporal VCSEL model", IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics, pp.
939 - 948. Volume 9, Issue 3, May-June 2003
[3] G. Sialm, D. Lenz, D. Erni, G. -L. Bona, C. Kromer, M. X. Jungo, T. Morf, F. Ellinger, and H.
Jäckel, "Comparison of Simulation and Measurement of Dynamic Fiber-Coupling Effects for
High-Speed Multimode VCSELs," J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 2318- (2005)
[4] M. Jungo; D. Erni; W. Baechtold, "-D VCSEL model for investigation of dynamic fiber coupling
and spatially filtered noise”, IEEE Photonics Technology Letters, pp. 3 - 5, Volume 15, Issue 1,
Jan. 2003

167
SPATIOTEMPORAL VCSEL

Notes:

168
SPATIAL VCSEL

Spatial VCSEL

This component is VCSEL laser that includes transverse mode profiles in the optical
output. It is a subsystem built using the VCSEL laser and the Multimode Generator.

Ports

Name and description Port type Signal type Supported


Modes
Modulation Input Electrical Sample signals

Output Output Optical

Parameters
Main

Name and description Default value Default unit Units Value range
Frequency 850 nm Hz, THZ, nm [10, 10000]

Emission frequency

Bias current 5 mA [0, 1000]

Modulation peak current 10 mA [0, 1000]

Thermal

Name and description Default value Default unit Units Value range
Thermal effects YES [YES, NO]

Define whether thermal effects are


included in the calculation

Temperature 20 C C, K [-1000, 1000]

The ambient temperature

Thermal impedance 2600 C/W [0, 1e+100]

Related to the temperature changes to


the power dissipated as heat

169
SPATIAL VCSEL

Name and description Default value Default unit Units Value range
Thermal time constant 1e-006 S [0, 1e+100]

Response time of the device


temperature

Physical

Name and description Default value Default unit Units Value range
Reduce parameters YES [YES, NO]

Active layer volume 1e-011 cm^3 [[0, 0.001]

Group velocity 8.5e+009 cm/s [0, 1e+011]

Quantum efficiency 0.4 [0, 1]

Differential gain coefficient 2.5e-016 cm^2 [0, 5e-015]

Carrier density at transparency 1e+018 cm^3 [0, 1e+020

Mode confinement factor 1 [0, 1]

Scaling factor 2.6e-008 W [0, 1e+100]

Gain coefficient 16000 1/s [0, 1e+100]

Carrier number at transparency 1.94e+007 [0, 1e+100]

Carrier lifetime 5e-009 s [0, 5e-008]

Photon lifetime 2.28e-012 s [0, 5e-008]

Spontaneous emission factor 1e-006 [1e-100, 1]

Gain compression coefficient 1e-017 cm^3 [1e-050, 1

Linewidth enhancement factor 5 [-20, 20]

Injection efficiency 1 [0, 1]

Current injection efficiency

Measurements

Name and description Default value Default unit Units Value range
Max input current 40 mA [0, 1e+100]
The maximum value for the signal input
current, it should match the maximum
value of the measurements

170
SPATIAL VCSEL

Name and description Default value Default unit Units Value range
a - Ioff(T) 1.246e-3

Coefficients for the polynomial function -2.545e-5


of temperature for the offset current
curve 2.908e-7

-2.531e-10

1.022e-12

b - V(T) 1

Coefficients for the polynomial function


of temperature for the current-voltage
curve

c - V(I) 1.721 275

Coefficients for the polynomial function -2.439e4


of current for the current-voltage curve
1.338e6

-4.154e7

6.683e8

-4.296e9

Parameter fitting YES [YES, NO]

Defines whether the component will fit


the parameters using the
measurements

LI curves filename LI
Temperature.dat
The filename with the measurements of
the LI curves, including the temperature
dependence

IV curves filename IV
Temperature.dat
The filename with the measurements of
the IV curves, including the temperature
dependence

LI curves at different
temperatures (A C W)
The values loaded from the LI curves
filename

IV curves at different
temperatures (A C V)
The values loaded from the IV curves
filename

171
SPATIAL VCSEL

Spatial Effects

Name and description Default value Default unit Units Value range
Power ratio array 1

List of power values which describe the


power distribution between multiple
modes

Mode type Laguerre- Laguerre-


Gaussian Gaussian,
Defines the output signal mode types Hermite-
Gaussian

Mode polarization X=Y X = Y, X and Y, X,


Y
Defines how the spatial modes are
attached to the output signal

Pol. X m,n index array 00

List of mode indexes 'm,n' for X


polarization

Pol. X spot size 5 um [1e-100, 1e+100]

Spot size for X polarization

Pol. X inv. radius of curvature 0 1/um [0, 1e+100]

Inverse radius of curvature for X


polarization

Pol. Y m,n index array 00

List of mode indexes 'm,n' for Y


polarization

Pol. Y spot size 5 um [1e-100, 1e+100]

Spot size for Y polarization

Pol. Y inv. radius of curvature 0 1/um [0, 1e+100]

Inverse radius of curvature for


polarization

172
SPATIAL VCSEL

Numerical

Name and description Default Units Value


value range
Adaptive step False — True, False

Defines whether to use adaptive step or not

Max. number of steps 1000000 — [1e3,10e6]


The maximum number of steps

Relative error 0.0001 — —

Relative integration error

Graphs

Name and description Default value Default unit Units Value range
Calculate graphs NO [YES, NO]

Define whether to calculate graphs or


not

Number of points 20 [5, 1e+008]

Number of points for the graphs

From 0 mA [0, 1e+100]

Lower limit value for the graphs

To 40 mA [0, 1e+100]

Upper limit value for the graphs

Simulation

Name and description Default value Default unit Units Value range
Enabled YES [YES, NO]

Determines whether or not the


component is enabled

Space width X Space width X um [1e-100, 1e+100]

Horizontal spatial simulation window

Space width Y Space width Y um [1e-100, 1e+100]

Vertical spatial simulation window

173
SPATIAL VCSEL

Noise

Name and description Default value Default unit Units Value range
Include noise YES [YES, NO]

Defines whether RIN will be included in


the signal

Include phase noise YES [YES, NO]

Defines whether the laser linewidth will


be affected by the noise

Random Numbers

Name and description Default Units Value


value range
Generate random seed YES [YES, NO]

Determines if the seed is automatically defined and unique

Random seed index 0 [0, 4999]

User-defined seed index for noise generation

Graphs

Name and description X Title Y Title


LI curve Current (A) Power (W)

IV curve Current (A) Voltage (V)

Measure LI curve Current (A) Power (W)

Measured IV curve Current (A) Voltage (V)

Results

Name and description


Output power (W)

Voltage (V)

Thermal impedance (C/W)

Active layer volume (cm^3)

Quantum efficiency

Scaling factor (W)

Gain coefficient (1/s)

174
SPATIAL VCSEL

Name and description


Carrier number at transparency

Current at max. voltage (A)

a0 (A)

a1 (A/C)

a2 (A/C^2)

a3 (A/C^3)

a4 (A/C^4

a5 (A/C^5)

a6 (A/C^6)

a7 (A/C^7)

a8 (A/C^8)

a9 (A/C^9)

b0 (V^0.5)

b1 (V^0.5/C)

b2 (V^0.5/C^2)

b3 (V^0.5/C^3)

b4 (V^0.5/C^4)

b5 (V^0.5/C^5)

b6 (V^0.5/C^6)

b7 (V^0.5/C^7)

b8 (V^0.5/C^8)

b9 (V^0.5/C^9)

c0 (V^0.5)

c1 (V^0.5/A)

c2 (V^0.5/A^2)

c3 (V^0.5/A^3)

c4 (V^0.5/A^4)

c5 (V^0.5/A^5)

c6 (V^0.5/A^6)

c7 (V^0.5/A^7)

c8 (V^0.5/A^8)

175
SPATIAL VCSEL

Name and description


c9 (V^0.5/A^9)

Technical Background
The layout of the Spatial VCSEL is presented in Figure 1. Refer to VCSEL Laser and
Multimode Generator component documentation for the technical background of the
models.

Figure 1 Spatial VCSEL subsystem

176
SPATIAL LASER RATE EQUATIONS

Spatial Laser Rate Equations

This component is laser based on rate equations that includes transverse mode
profiles in the optical output. It is a subsystem built using the Laser Rate Equations
component and the Multimode Generator.

Ports

Name and description Port type Signal type Supported


Modes
Modulation Input Electrical Sample signals,
Individual
samples

Output Output Optical

Parameters
Main

Name and description Default value Default unit Units Value range
Frequency 850 nm Hz, THz, nm [10,10000]
Emission frequency of the laser

Calculate current True — — True, False

Defines whether to estimate the input


bias and peak current to achieve the
user defined steady

Power 10 dBm W, mW, dBm [-1e100, 1e100]

Steady state power at the peak current

Power at bias current 0 dBm W, mW, dBm [-1e100, 1e100]

Steady state power at the bias current

Bias current 38 mA — [0, 1000]


Input bias current

Modulation peak current 23 mA — [0, 1000]

Input modulation peak current

177
SPATIAL LASER RATE EQUATIONS

Name and description Default value Default unit Units Value range
Threshold current 33.4572 mA — [0, 1000]

The threshold current, calculated from


the laser physical parameters

Threshold power 0.02841 mW — [0, 1000]

The threshold power, calculated from


the laser physical parameters

Physical

Name and description Default value Default unit Units Value range
Active layer volume 1.5e-010 cm^3 [0, 0.001]

Quantum efficiency 0.4 [0, 1]

Spontaneous emission factor 3e-005 [2e-005, 0.0002]

Gain compression coefficient 1e-017 cm^3 [5e-018, 1e-016]

Carrier density at transparency 1e+018 cm^-3 [0, 1e+020]

Differential gain coefficient 2.5e-016 cm^2 [0, 5e-015]

Group velocity 8.5e+009 cm/s [0, 1e+011]

Linewidth enhancement factor 5 [-20, 20]

Mode confinement factor 0.4 [0, 1]

Carrier lifetime 1e-009 s [0, 5e-008]

Photon lifetime 3e-012 s [0, 5e-008]

Spatial effects

Name and description Default value Default unit Units Value range
Power ratio array 1

List of power values that describe the


power distribution between multiple
modes

Mode type Laguerre- Laguerre-


Gaussian Gaussian,
Defines the output signal mode types Hermite-
Gaussian

Mode polarization X=Y X = Y, X and Y, X,


Y
Defines how the spatial modes are
attached to the output signal

178
SPATIAL LASER RATE EQUATIONS

Name and description Default value Default unit Units Value range
Pol. X m,n index array 00

List of mode indexes 'm,n' for X


polarization

Pol. X spot size 5 um [1e-100, 1e+100]

Spot size for X polarization

Pol. X inv. radius of curvature 0 1/um [0, 1e+100]

Inverse radius of curvature for X


polarization

Pol. Y m,n index array 00

List of mode indexes 'm,n' for Y


polarization

Pol. Y spot size 5 um [1e-100, 1e+100]

Spot size for Y polarization

Pol. Y inv. radius of curvature 0 1/um [0, 1e+100]

Inverse radius of curvature for Y


polarization

Numerical

Name and description Default Units Value


value range
Adaptive step False — True, False

Defines whether to use adaptive step or not

Max. number of steps 1000000 — [1e3,10e6]

The maximum number of steps

Relative error 0.0001 — —

Relative integration error

Simulation

Name and description Default value Default unit Units Value range
Enabled YES [YES, NO]

Determines whether or not the


component is enabled

Space width X Space width X um [1e-100, 1e+100]

Horizontal spatial simulation window

179
SPATIAL LASER RATE EQUATIONS

Name and description Default value Default unit Units Value range
Space width Y Space width Y um [1e-100, 1e+100]

Vertical spatial simulation window

Noise

Name and description Default value Default unit Units Value range
Include noise YES [YES, NO]

Defines whether RIN will be included in


the signal

Include phase noise YES [YES, NO]

Defines whether the laser linewidth will


be affected by the noise

Random Numbers

Name and description Default Units Value


value range
Generate random seed YES [YES, NO]

Determines if the seed is automatically defined and unique

Random seed index 0 [0, 4999]

User-defined seed index for noise generation

Technical Background
The layout of the Spatial Laser Rate Equations is presented in Figure 1. Refer to Laser
Rate Equations and Multimode Generator component documentation for the technical
background of the models.

Figure 1 Spatial Laser Rate Equations subsystem

180
SPATIAL LED

Spatial LED

This component is an LED that includes transverse mode profiles in the optical output.
It is a subsystem built using the LED component and the Multimode Generator.

Ports

Name and description Port type Signal type Supported


Modes
Modulation Input Electrical Sample signals

Output Output Optical

Parameters
Main

Name and description Default value Default unit Units Value range
Frequency 850 nm Hz, THz, nm [10, 10000]

Emission frequency

Electron lifetime 1e-009 s [0, 1]

RC constant 1e-009 s [0, 1]

Quantum efficiency 0.05 [0, 1]

Bandwidth 6 THz Hz, THz, nm [0, 1e+100]

Spatial Effects

Name and description Default value Default unit Units Value range
Power ratio array 1

List of power values that describe the


power distribution between multiple
modes

181
SPATIAL LED

Name and description Default value Default unit Units Value range
Mode type Laguerre- Laguerre-
Gaussian Gaussian,
Defines the output signal mode types Hermite-
Gaussian

Mode polarization X=Y X = Y, X and Y, X,


Y
Defines how the spatial modes are
attached to the output signal

Pol. X m,n index array 00

List of mode indexes 'm,n' for X


polarization

Pol. X spot size 5 um [1e-100, 1e+100]

Spot size for X polarization

Pol. X inv. radius of curvature 0 1/um [0, 1e+100]

Inverse radius of curvature for X


polarization

Pol. Y m,n index array 00

List of mode indexes 'm,n' for Y


polarization

Pol. Y spot size 5 um [1e-100, 1e+100]

Spot size for Y polarization

Pol. Y inv. radius of curvature 0 1/um [0, 1e+100]

Inverse radius of curvature for Y


polarization

Simulation

Name and description Default value Default unit Units Value range
Enabled YES [YES, NO]

Determines whether or not the


component is enabled

Space width X Space width X um [1e-100, 1e+100]

Horizontal spatial simulation window

Space width Y Space width Y um [1e-100, 1e+100]

Vertical spatial simulation window

182
SPATIAL LED

Random numbers

Name and description Default Units Value


value range
Generate random seed YES [YES, NO]

Determines if the seed is automatically defined and unique

Random seed index 0 [0, 4999]


User-defined seed index for noise generation

Technical Background
The layout of the Spatial LED is presented in Figure 1. Refer to LED and Multimode
Generator component documentation for the technical background of the models.

Figure 1 Spatial LED subsystem

183
SPATIAL LED

Notes:

184
SPATIAL LED

Transmitters Library
Optical Transmitters
• WDM Transmitter
• Optical Transmitter
• Optical Duobinary Transmitter
• Optical DPSK Transmitter
• Optical CSRZ Transmitter
• Optical QPSK Transmitter
• Optical DP-QPSK Transmitter
• Spatial Optical Transmitter

185
SPATIAL LED

Notes:

186
WDM TRANSMITTER

WDM Transmitter

This component is a WDM transmitter.

Ports

Name and description Port type Signal type


Output 1 Output Optical

Output 2 Output Optical

Output 3 Output Optical

Output 4 Output Optical

Output 5 Output Optical

Output 6 Output Optical

Output 7 Output Optical

Output 8 Output Optical

Parameters
Main

Name and description Default value Default Unit Value range


Number of output ports 8 — [1, 1000]

Frequency 193.1 THz, Hz, nm [30,+INF[


Emission frequency of the first laser

Frequency spacing 100 GHz, THZ, Hz, ]-INF,+INF[


nm
Frequency spacing between adjacent lasers

Power 0 dBm W, mW, dBm

Extinction ratio 10 dB [0,1000]

Linewidth 10 MHz [0, 1e+009[

Initial phase 0 deg [-1e+100,1e+100]

187
WDM TRANSMITTER

PRBS

Name and description Default value Default unit Value range


Bit rate Bit rate Bits/s [0, 1e+012]

MBits/s

GBits/s

Order log(Sequence length)/log(2) - [2,30]


Order of the PRBS generator

Number of leading zeros 1 - [0,+INF[

Number of trailing zeros 1 - [0,+INF[

Coding

Name and description Default value Default unit Value range


Modulation type NRZ - Off, NRZ, RZ

Defines the signal modulation type

Duty cycle 0.5 bit [0, 1]

Duration of the high level bit

Position 0 bit [-1, 1]

The relative position of the bit

Rise time 1 / (Bit rate) * 0.05 s, ms, ns, ps [0, 1e100]

Defined as the time from when the rising


edge reaches 10% of the amplitude to the
time it reaches 90% of the amplitude

Fall time 1 / (Bit rate) * 0.05 s, ms, ns, ps [0, 1e100]

Defined as the time from when the falling


edge reaches 90% of the amplitude to the
time it reaches 10% of the amplitude

188
WDM TRANSMITTER

Enhanced

Name and description Default value Default unit Value range


Transmitter type EML - EML, DML

Overshoot 30 % -
Percentage of overshoot during the
transition from 0 to 1 relative to the steady
state power

Undershoot 30 % -
Percentage of undershoot during the
transition from 1 to 0 relative to the steady
state power

Damping time leading edge 1/(Bit rate) * 0.5 s s, ms, ns, ps


Relaxation time when the signal overshoot
reaches 1/e of the max value during the
transition from 0 to 1

Damping time trailing edge 1/(Bit rate) * 0.5 s s, ms, ns, ps

Relaxation time when the signal undershoot


reaches 1/e of the min value during the
transition from 1 to 0

Resonant frequency leading edge (Bit rate) * 5 Hz Hz, MHz, GHz,


THz
Frequency of the oscillations in the transition
from 0 to 1

Resonant frequency trailing edge (Bit rate) * 5 Hz Hz, MHz, GHz,


THz
Frequency of the oscillations in the transition
from 1 to 0

Side Mode

Name and description Default Default unit Units Value


value range
Calculate side mode False - - True, False
Determines if the signal output will have one side
mode

Number of side modes 1 - - [1, 100000]

Number of side modes if running as a Fabry-Perot


laser.

Separation 75 GHz Hz, GHz, THz, [0,+INF[


nm
Mode frequency separation from the laser center
frequency

Suppression ratio 30 dB - [0,+INF[


Attenuation of the side mode relative to the output
power

189
WDM TRANSMITTER

RIN

Name and description Default Default unit Units Value


value range
RIN -130 dB/Hz - ]-INF,+INF[

Relative intensity noise value

Include RIN False - - True, False


Determines if the RIN will be added to the output
signal

Measured power 10 dBm W, mW, dBm ]-INF,+INF[

Value of the power during the measurement of


RIN

Chirp

Name and description Default Default unit Value


value range
Alpha parameter 0 rad/W [-1000, 1000]

Adiabatic chirp 0 1/(W.s) [-1000, 1000]

Results from changes in the steady state carrier densities

Polarization

Name and description Default Units Value


value range
Azimuth 0 deg [-90,90]

Azimuth angle of output polarization

Ellipticity 0 deg [-45,45]


Ellipticity angle of output polarization

Polarization filter None - None,


Polarization X,
Determines the polarization of the filter
Polarization Y

190
WDM TRANSMITTER

Simulation

Name and description Default Default unit Units Value


value range
Enabled True - - True, False

Determines whether or not the component is


enabled

Iterations Iterations - - [1, +INF[

Number of times to repeat the calculation

Parameterized Parameterized - - True, False

Sample rate Sample rate Hz Hz, GHz, THz ]0, +INF[


Frequency simulation window

Noise

Name and description Default Units Value


value range
Noise bandwidth Sample rate Hz, GHz, THz, -
nm
Bandwidth of the noise bins

Noise bins spacing Sample rate Hz, GHz, THz, -


nm
Determines noise bins spacing

Convert noise bins Convert noise - True, False


bins
Determines if the generated noise bins are incorporated into the
signal

Random numbers

Name and description Default Units Value


value range
Generate random seed True - True, False

Determines if the seed is automatically defined and unique

Random seed index 0 - [0,4999]

User-defined seed index for noise generation

Different each iteration False - True, False


Determines if the seed is automatically defined and unique for each
calculation iteration

191
WDM TRANSMITTER

Technical background
WDM systems require multiple transmitters and different parameters for each one of
them. In addition, they also require different modulation schemes and formats. By
using multiple components, users can customize designs, but it is time consuming.
The WDM Transmitter encapsulates different components, allowing users to select
different modulation formats and schemes for multiple channels in one single
component. It is a transmitter array that allows for different modulation types and
schemes.

The block diagram for each WDM channel transmitter is shown below:

The first stage is the PRBS; the same engine used in the Pseudo-Random Bit
Sequence Generator component is used in this stage. Parameters Bit rate, Order,
Number of leading and trailing zeros are used in the internal Pseudo-Random Bit
Sequence Generator. A different seed will be used for each bit sequence for each
WDM channel. The operation and parameters of the PRBS component is described
in the technical background of the Pseudo-Random Bit Sequence Generator.

The second stage is the Coding/Modulation; the parameter Modulation type has three
options: RZ, NRZ and Off. RZ and NRZ coding is generated by the engines of the RZ
Pulse Generator and NRZ Pulse Generator respectively. A CW operation of the

192
WDM TRANSMITTER

transmitter is possible by selecting Off as modulation type. The Duty cycle parameter
is used when modulation type RZ is selected. The operations and parameters of the
electrical pulse generators are described in the technical background of the RZ and
NRZ Pulse Generators.

The last stage is the optical source and modulation scheme; by using the parameter
Transmitter type the user can select between a external modulated laser scheme
(EML) or a directly modulated laser scheme (DML). The laser engine used in this
stage is the same used in the Directly Modulated Laser Measured component. The
operation and parameters of this component are described in the technical
background of the Directly Modulated Laser Measured.

By using 3R regenerators, it is possible to recover the original bit sequence and


electrical signals for all the WDM channels:

193
WDM TRANSMITTER

Notes:

194
OPTICAL TRANSMITTER

Optical Transmitter

The optical transmitter is a single channel version of the WDM Transmitter


component.

Ports

Name and description Port type Signal type


Output Output Optical

Parameters
Main

Name and description Default value Default unit Units Value range
Frequency 193.1 THz Hz, THz, nm [1, 10000]

Emission frequency

Power 0 dBm W, mW, dBm [-1000, 1000]

Output power

Extinction ratio 10 dB - [0, 1000]

Steady-state power ratio between high


and low level bits

Linewidth 10 MHz - [0, 1e+009]

Laser linewidth

Initial phase 0 deg [-1e+100,


1e+100]
Defines the initial phase of the output
signal

195
OPTICAL TRANSMITTER

PRBS

Name and description Default value Default unit Units Value range
External PRBS False - - True, False

Determines whether or not the PRBS


signal is defined by an external PRBS
generator.

Bit rate Bit rate Bits/s Bits/s, MBits/s, [0, 1e+012]


GBits/s

Order log(Sequence - - [0, 30]


length)/log(2)
Order of the PRBS

Number of leading zeros 1 - - [0, 1000]

Number of trailing zeros 1 - - [0, 1000]

Coding

Name and description Default value Default unit Units Value range
Modulation type NRZ - - [Off, NRZ, RZ]

Defines the modulation type

Duty cycle 0.5 bit - [0, 1]

Duration of the high level bit

Position 0 bit - [-1, 1]

The relative position of the bit

Rise time 1/(Bit rate)*0.05 s s, ms, ns, ps [0, 1e+100]

Defined as the time from when the rising


edge reaches 10% of the amplitude to
the time it reaches 90% of the amplitude

Fall time 1/(Bit rate)*0.05 - s, ms, ns, ps [0, 1e+100]

Defined as the time from when the falling


edge reaches 90% of the amplitude to
the time it reaches 10% of the amplitude

Enhanced

Name and description Default value Default unit Units Value range
Transmitter type EML - - EML, DML

Defines whether the transmitter uses an


external modulated laser (EML) or a
directly modulated laser (DML)

196
OPTICAL TRANSMITTER

Name and description Default value Default unit Units Value range
Overshoot 30 % - [0, 100]

Percentage of overshoot during the


transition from low level to high level
relative to the steady-state power

Undershoot 30 % - [0, 100]

Percentage of undershoot during the


transition from high level to low level
relative to the steady-state power

Damping time leading edge 1/(Bit rate)*0.5 s s, ms, ns, ps [0, 1e+100]

Relaxation time when the signal


overshoot reaches 1/e of the max. value
during the transition from low level to
high level

Damping time trailing edge 1/(Bit rate)*0.5 s s, ms, ns, ps [0, 1e+100]

Relaxation time when the signal


undershoot reaches 1/e of the max.
value during the transition from high
level to low level

Resonant frequency leading (Bit rate)*5 Hz Hz, MHz, GHz, [0, 3e+015]
edge THz

Frequency of the oscillations in the


transition from low level to high level

Resonant frequency trailing edge (Bit rate)*5 Hz Hz, MHz, GHz, [0, 3e+015]
THz
Frequency of the oscillations in the
transition from high level to low level

Side Mode

Name and description Default value Default unit Units Value range
Calculate side mode False - - True, False

Determines if the signal output will have


side modes

Number of side modes 1 - - [1, 100000]

Number of side modes if running as a


Fabry-Perot laser

Separation 75 GHz Hz, GHz, THz, nm [0, 3e+012]

Mode frequency separation from the


laser center frequency

Suppression ratio 30 dB - [0, 1e+009]

Attenuation of the side modes relative to


the output power

197
OPTICAL TRANSMITTER

RIN

Name and description Default value Default unit Units Value range
Include RIN False - - True, False

Determines if RIN will be added to the


output signal

RIN -130 dB/Hz - [-1e+100, 0]

Relative intensity noise value

Measured power 10 dBm W, mW, dBm [-1000, 1000]

Value of power during the measurement


of RIN

Chirp

Name and description Default value Default unit Units Value range
Alpha parameter 0 - - [-100, 100]

Adiabatic chirp 0 1/(W.s) - [-1e+100,


1e+100]
Results from changes in the steady-
state carrier densities

Polarization

Name and description Default value Default unit Units Value range
Azimuth 0 deg - [-90, 90]

Azimuth angle of output polarization

Ellipticity 0 deg - [-45, 45]

Ellipticity angle of output polarization

Polarization filter None - - [None,


Polarization X,
Determines the type of polarization filter Polarization Y]

Simulation

Name and description Default value Default unit Units Value range
Enabled True - - True, False

Determines whether or not the


component is enabled

Iterations Iterations - - [1, 1e+009]

Number of times to repeat the


calculation

198
OPTICAL TRANSMITTER

Name and description Default value Default unit Units Value range
Parameterized Parameterized - - True, False

Defines whether or not the output signal


is parameterized

Sample rate Sample rate Hz Hz, GHz, THz [1, 1e+100]

Frequency simulation window

Noise

Name and description Default value Default unit Units Value range
Noise bandwidth Sample rate Hz Hz, GHz, THz, nm [0, 1e+100]

Determines the noise bandwidth

Noise bins spacing Sample rate Hz Hz, GHz, THz, nm [0, 1e+100]

Convert noise bins Convert noise - - -


bins
Determines if the generated noise bins
are incorporated into the signal

Random numbers

Name and description Default Units Value


value range
Generate random seed True - True, False

Determines if the seed is automatically defined and unique

Random seed index 0 - [0, 4999]

User-defined seed index for noise generation

Random seed index PRBS 0 - [0, 4999]

User-defined seed index for the internal PRBS generator

Different each iteration False - True, False

Determines if the seed is automatically defined and unique for each


calculation iteration

Technical Background
Refer to WDM Transmitter for the technical background.

199
OPTICAL TRANSMITTER

Notes:

200
OPTICAL DUOBINARY TRANSMITTER

Optical Duobinary Transmitter

This component simulates a single channel optical transmitter with a duobinary


modulated signal.

Ports

Name and description Port type Signal type


Output Output Optical

Parameters
Main

Name and description Default value Default unit Units Value range
Frequency 193.1 THz Hz, THz, nm [1, 10000]

Emission frequency

Power 0 dBm W, mW, dBm [-1000, 1000]

Output power

Linewidth 10 MHz - [0, 1e+009]

Laser linewidth

Initial phase 0 deg - [-1e+100,


1e+100]
Defines the initial phase of the output
signal

PRBS

Name and description Default value Default unit Units Value range
External PRBS False - - True, False

Determines whether or not the PRBS


signal is defined by an external PRBS
generator.

Bit rate Bit rate Bits/s Bits/s, MBits/s, [0, 1e+012]


GBits/s

201
OPTICAL DUOBINARY TRANSMITTER

Name and description Default value Default unit Units Value range
Order log(Sequence - - [0, 30]
length)/log(2)
Order of the PRBS

Number of leading zeros 1 - - [0, 1000]

Number of trailing zeros 3 - - [0, 1000]

Coding

Name and description Default value Default unit Units Value range
Amplitude 2 a.u. - [-1e+100,
1e+100]
Peak-to-peak amplitude of the NRZ
pulse generator

Bias -2 a.u. - [-1e+100,


1e+100]
DC offset of the NRZ pulse generator

Position 0 bit - [-1, 1]

The relative position of the bit

Rise time 0.05 bit - [0, 1]

Defined as the time from when the rising


edge reaches 10% of the amplitude to
the time it reaches 90% of the amplitude

Fall time 0.05 bit - [0, 1]

Defined as the time from when the falling


edge reaches 90% of the amplitude to
the time it reaches 10% of the amplitude

Filter

Name and description Default value Default unit Units Value range
Filter type Bessel - - [Butterworth,
Bessel]
Defines the filter type

Cutoff frequency 0.25 * Bit rate Hz - -

3 dB cutoff frequency of the filter

Filter insertion loss 0 dB - [0, 1e+100]

Insertion loss of the filter

Depth 100 dB - [0, 1e+100]

Maximum attenuation value of the filter

202
OPTICAL DUOBINARY TRANSMITTER

Name and description Default value Default unit Units Value range
Order 4 - - [1, 100]

Order of the function

Modulator

Name and description Default value Default unit Value range


Extinction ratio 20 dB [0,+INF[

Switching bias voltage 4 V [0,+INF[

DC voltage required to turn the modulator from the OFF state


to the ON state, or vice versa

Switching RF voltage 4 V ]-INF,+INF[

RF voltage required to turn the modulator from the OFF state


to the ON state, or vice versa

Insertion loss 0 dB [0,+INF[

Bias voltage1 0 V ]-INF,+INF[

Bias voltage2 4 V ]-INF,+INF[

Polarization

Name and description Default value Default unit Units Value range
Azimuth 0 deg - [-90, 90]

Azimuth angle of output polarization

Ellipticity 0 deg - [-45, 45]

Ellipticity angle of output polarization

Simulation

Name and description Default value Default unit Units Value range
Enabled True - True, False

Determines whether or not the


component is enabled

Iterations Iterations - - [1, 1e+009]

Number of times to repeat the


calculation

Parameterized Parameterized - - True, False

Determines whether the output signal is


parameterized or not

203
OPTICAL DUOBINARY TRANSMITTER

Name and description Default value Default unit Units Value range
Sample rate Sample rate Hz Hz, GHz, THz [1, 1e+100]

Frequency simulation window

Random numbers

Name and description Default Units Value


value range
Generate random seed True - True, False

Determines if the seed is automatically defined and unique

Random seed index 0 - [0, 4999]

User-defined seed index for noise generation

Random seed index PRBS 0 - [0, 4999]

User-defined seed index for the internal PRBS generator

Different each iteration False - True, False

Determines if the seed is automatically defined and unique for each


calculation iteration

Technical Background
The layout representing the duobinary transmitter component is shown in Figure 1.
To generate the optical duobinary signal a CW laser source, a Mach-Zehnder
modulator driven in a push-pull configuration to get a chirp free transmission, and a
NRZ pulse pattern generator were used. The NRZ duobinary signal was created
using a low pass Bessel/Butterworth filter; this signal then drives the MZ modulator.
In order to avoid recursive decoding in the receiver, a duobinary precoder was also
used. The duobinary precoder was composed of an exclusive-or gate with a delayed
feedback path.

204
OPTICAL DUOBINARY TRANSMITTER

Figure 1 Duobinary optical transmitter equivalent layout.

205
OPTICAL DUOBINARY TRANSMITTER

Notes:

206
OPTICAL DPSK TRANSMITTER

Optical DPSK Transmitter

This component simulates a single channel optical transmitter with Differential Phase-
Shift Keying modulation.

Ports

Name and description Port type Signal type


Bit Sequence Output Binary

Output Output Optical

Parameters
Main

Name and description Default value Default unit Units Value range
Frequency 193.1 THz Hz, THz, nm [1, 10000]

Emission frequency

Power 0 dBm W, mW, dBm [-1000, 1000]

Output power

Extinction ratio 20 dB - [0, 1000]

Steady-state power ratio between high


and low level bits

Linewidth 10 MHz - [0, 1e+009]

Laser linewidth

Initial phase 0 deg - [-1e+100,


1e+100]
Defines the initial phase of the output
signal

207
OPTICAL DPSK TRANSMITTER

PRBS

Name and description Default value Default unit Units Value range
External PRBS False - - True, False

Determines whether or not the PRBS


signal is defined by an external PRBS
generator.

Bit rate Bit rate Bits/s Bits/s, MBits/s, [0, 1e+012]


GBits/s

Order log(Sequence - - [0, 30]


length)/log(2)
Order of the PRBS

Number of leading zeros 1 - - [0, 1000]

Number of trailing zeros 1 - - [0, 1000]

Coding

Name and description Default value Default unit Units Value range
Duty cycle RZ-33% - - RZ-33%, RZ-
50%, RZ-66%,
Duration of the high level bit NRZ

Polarization

Name and description Default value Default unit Units Value range
Azimuth 0 deg - [-90, 90]

Azimuth angle of output polarization

Ellipticity 0 deg - [-45, 45]

Ellipticity angle of output polarization

Simulation

Name and description Default value Default unit Units Value range
Enabled True - - True, False

Determines whether or not the


component is enabled

Iterations Iterations - - [1, 1e+009]

Number of times to repeat the


calculation

208
OPTICAL DPSK TRANSMITTER

Name and description Default value Default unit Units Value range
Parameterized Parameterized - - True, False

Determines whether the output signal is


parameterized or not

Sample rate Sample rate Hz Hz, GHz, THz [1, 1e+100]

Frequency simulation window

Random numbers

Name and description Default Units Value


value range
Generate random seed True - True, False

Determines if the seed is automatically defined and unique

Random seed index 0 - [0, 4999]

User-defined seed index for noise generation

Random seed index PRBS 0 - [0, 4999]

User-defined seed index for the internal PRBS generator

Different each iteration False - True, False

Determines if the seed is automatically defined and unique for each


calculation iteration

Technical Background
The layout representing the Differential Phase-Shift Keying transmitter component is
shown at Figure 1. The RZ-DPSK transmitter includes two modulators: one for phase
modulation of the data and one for amplitude modulation of the clock for RZ pulse
carving.

209
OPTICAL DPSK TRANSMITTER

Figure 1 DPSK optical transmitter equivalent layout.

The transmitter can simulate 3 DPSK signals: with 33%-duty-cycle RZ pulses, with
50%-duty-cycle RZ pulses, and with 66%-duty-cycle RZ pulses. Figure 2 (a), (b) and
(c) shows the correspondent spectra and time domain pulses respectively.

Figure 2 Spectra and time domain DPSK signals for (a) 33%-duty-cycle, (b) 50%-duty-cycle and (c)
66%duty-cycle.

(a)

210
OPTICAL DPSK TRANSMITTER

(b)

(c)

211
OPTICAL DPSK TRANSMITTER

Notes:

212
OPTICAL CSRZ TRANSMITTER

Optical CSRZ Transmitter

This component simulates a single channel optical transmitter with an optical carrier-
suppressed RZ signal.

Ports

Name and description Port type Signal type


Output Output Optical

Parameters
Main

Name and description Default value Default unit Units Value range
Frequency 193.1 THz Hz, THz, nm [1, 10000]

Emission frequency

Power 0 dBm W, mW, dBm [-1000, 1000]

Output power

Linewidth 10 MHz - [0, 1e+009]

Laser linewidth

Initial phase 0 deg - [-1e+100,


1e+100]
Defines the initial phase of the output
signal

PRBS

Name and description Default value Default unit Units Value range
External PRBS False - - True, False

Determines whether or not the PRBS


signal is defined by an external PRBS
generator.

Bit rate Bit rate Bits/s Bits/s, MBits/s, [0, 1e+012]


GBits/s

213
OPTICAL CSRZ TRANSMITTER

Name and description Default value Default unit Units Value range
Order log(Sequence - - [0, 30]
length)/log(2)
Order of the PRBS

Number of leading zeros 1 - - [0, 1000]

Number of trailing zeros 1 - - [0, 1000]

Coding

Name and description Default value Default unit Units Value range
Amplitude 1 a.u. - [-1e+100,
1e+100]
Peak-to-peak amplitude of the RZ pulse
generator

Bias -1 a.u. - [-1e+100,


1e+100]
DC offset of the RZ pulse generator

Duty cycle 0.5 bit - [0, 1]

Duration of the high level bit

Position 0.25 bit - [-1, 1]

The relative position of the bit

Rise time 0.05 bit - [0, 1]

Defined as the time from when the rising


edge reaches 10% of the amplitude to
the time it reaches 90% of the amplitude

Fall time 0.05 bit - [0, 1]

Defined as the time from when the falling


edge reaches 90% of the amplitude to
the time it reaches 10% of the amplitude

Modulator

Name and description Default value Default unit Value range


Extinction ratio 30 dB [0,+INF[

Switching bias voltage 4 V [0,+INF[

DC voltage required to turn the modulator from the OFF state


to the ON state, or vice versa

Switching RF voltage 4 V ]-INF,+INF[

RF voltage required to turn the modulator from the OFF state


to the ON state, or vice versa

214
OPTICAL CSRZ TRANSMITTER

Name and description Default value Default unit Value range


Insertion loss 0 dB [0,+INF[

Modulator insertion loss

Bias voltage1 0 V ]-INF,+INF[

Bias voltage2 2 V ]-INF,+INF[

Polarization

Name and description Default value Default unit Units Value range
Azimuth 0 deg - [-90, 90]

Azimuth angle of output polarization

Ellipticity 0 deg - [-45, 45]

Ellipticity angle of output polarization

Simulation

Name and description Default value Default unit Units Value range
Enabled True - - True, False

Determines whether or not the


component is enabled

Iterations Iterations - - [1, 1e+009]

Number of times to repeat the


calculation

Parameterized Parameterized - - True, False

Determines whether the output signal is


parameterized or not

Sample rate Sample rate Hz Hz, GHz, THz [1, 1e+100]

Frequency simulation window

Random numbers

Name and description Default Units Value


value range
Generate random seed True - True, False
Determines if the seed is automatically defined and unique

Random seed index 0 - [0, 4999]

User-defined seed index for noise generation

215
OPTICAL CSRZ TRANSMITTER

Name and description Default Units Value


value range
Random seed index PRBS 0 - [0, 4999]

User-defined seed index for the internal PRBS generator

Different each iteration False - True, False


Determines if the seed is automatically defined and unique for each
calculation iteration

Technical Background
The layout representing the CSRZ transmitter component is shown at the figure
below. The CSRZ signal is generated using a MZ modulator concatenated with a
phase modulator. The first modulator generates a RZ optical signal, and then a NRZ
electrical signal is applied to the phase modulator to generate an alternated phase in
the RZ signal.

Figure 1 CSRZ optical transmitter equivalent layout.

216
OPTICAL QPSK TRANSMITTER

Optical QPSK Transmitter

This component simulates a single channel optical coherent transmitter with an


optical QPSK signal.

Ports

Name and description Port type Signal type


Bit sequence Output Binary

Output Output Optical

Parameters
Main

Name and description Default value Default unit Units Value range
External laser False - - True, False

Determines whether or not the local


oscillator laser is defined by an external
source

Frequency 193.1 THz Hz, THz, nm [1, 10000]

Emission frequency

Power 0 dBm W, mW, dBm [-1000, 1000]

Output power

Linewidth 0.01 MHz [0, 1e+009]

Laser linewidth

Initial phase 0 deg [-1e+100,


1e+100]
Defines the initial phase of the output
signal

217
OPTICAL QPSK TRANSMITTER

PRBS

Name and description Default value Default unit Units Value range
External PRBS False - - True, False

Determines whether or not the PRBS


signal is defined by an external PRBS
generator.

Bit rate Bit rate Bits/s Bits/s, MBits/s, [0, 1e+012]


GBits/s

Order log(Sequence - - [0, 30]


length)/log(2)
Order of the PRBS

Number of leading zeros 1 - - [0, 1000]

Number of trailing zeros 1 - - [0, 1000]

Coding

Name and description Default value Default unit Units Value range
Gray code False - - True, False

Defines whether or not to use Gray code

Polarization

Name and description Default value Default unit Units Value range
Azimuth 0 deg - [-90, 90]

Azimuth angle of output polarization

Ellipticity 0 deg - [-45, 45]

Ellipticity angle of output polarization

Simulation

Name and description Default value Default unit Units Value range
Enabled True - - True, False

Determines whether or not the


component is enabled

Iterations Iterations - - [1, 1e+009]

Number of times to repeat the


calculation

218
OPTICAL QPSK TRANSMITTER

Name and description Default value Default unit Units Value range
Parameterized Parameterized - - True, False

Determines whether the output signal is


parameterized or not

Sample rate Sample rate Hz Hz, GHz, THz [1, 1e+100]

Frequency simulation window

Random numbers

Name and description Default Units Value


value range
Generate random seed True True, False

Determines if the seed is automatically defined and unique

Random seed index 0 - [0, 4999]

User-defined seed index for noise generation

Random seed index PRBS 0 - [0, 4999]

User-defined seed index for the internal PRBS generator

Different each iteration False - True, False

Determines if the seed is automatically defined and unique for each


calculation iteration

Technical Background
The layout representing the optical coherent QPSK transmitter component is shown
in the figure below. The QPSK signal is generated by using MZ modulators to encode
the QPSK symbols onto an optical carrier. Each modulator branch modulates the in-
phase (I) and quadrature components (Q) of a carrier.

219
OPTICAL QPSK TRANSMITTER

Figure 1 Coherent optical QPSK transmitter equivalent layout.

220
OPTICAL DP-QPSK TRANSMITTER

Optical DP-QPSK Transmitter

This component simulates a single channel optical coherent transmitter with an


optical dual-polarization QPSK signal.

Ports

Name and description Port type Signal type


Bit sequence Output Binary

Output Output Optical

Parameters
Main

Name and description Default value Default unit Units Value range
External laser False - - True, False

Determines whether or not the local


oscillator laser is defined by an external
source

Frequency 193.1 THz Hz, THz, nm [1, 10000]

Emission frequency

Power 0 dBm W, mW, dBm [-1000, 1000]

Output power

Linewidth 0.01 MHz - [0, 1e+009]

Laser linewidth

Initial phase 0 deg - [-1e+100,


1e+100]
Defines the initial phase of the output
signal

221
OPTICAL DP-QPSK TRANSMITTER

PRBS

Name and description Default value Default unit Units Value range
External PRBS False - - True, False

Determines whether or not the PRBS


signal is defined by an external PRBS
generator.

Bit rate Bit rate Bits/s Bits/s, MBits/s, [0, 1e+012]


GBits/s

Order log(Sequence - - [0, 30]


length)/log(2)
Order of the PRBS

Number of leading zeros 1 - - [0, 1000]

Number of trailing zeros 1 - - [0, 1000]

Coding

Name and description Default value Default unit Units Value range
Gray code False - - True, False

Defines whether or not to use Gray code

Simulation

Name and description Default value Default unit Units Value range
Enabled True - - True, False

Determines whether or not the


component is enabled

Iterations Iterations - - [1, 1e+009]

Number of times to repeat the


calculation

Parameterized Parameterized - - True, False

Determines whether the output signal is


parameterized or not

Sample rate Sample rate Hz Hz, GHz, THz [1, 1e+100]

Frequency simulation window

222
OPTICAL DP-QPSK TRANSMITTER

Random numbers

Name and description Default Units Value


value range
Generate random seed True - [True, False]

Determines if the seed is automatically defined and unique

Random seed index 0 - [0, 4999]


User-defined seed index for noise generation

Random seed index PRBS 0 - [0, 4999]

User-defined seed index for the internal PRBS generator

Different each iteration False - True, False

Determines if the seed is automatically defined and unique for each


calculation iteration

Technical Background
The layout representing the optical coherent dual-polarization QPSK transmitter
component is shown in the figure below. In this case, polarization multiplexing is used,
the laser output is split into two othogonal polarization components, which are
modulated separately by QPSK modulators (similar to the one shown in the QPSK
transmitter layout) and then combined using a polarization beam splitter (PBS).

223
OPTICAL DP-QPSK TRANSMITTER

Figure 1 Optical dual-polarization QPSK transmitter equivalent layout.

224
SPATIAL OPTICAL TRANSMITTER

Spatial Optical Transmitter

This component is Optical transmitter that includes transverse mode profiles in the
optical output. It is a subsystem built using the WDM Transmitter Optical and the
Multimode Generator.

Ports

Name and description Port type Signal type


Output Output Optical

Parameters
Main

Name and description Default value Default unit Units Value range
Frequency 850 nm Hz, THz, nm [1, 10000]

Emission frequency

Power 0 dBm W, mW, dBm [-1000, 1000]

Output power

Extinction ratio 10 dB - [0, 1000]

Steady-state power ratio between high


and low level bits

Linewidth 10 MHz - [0, 1e+009]

Laser linewidth

Initial phase 0 deg - [-1e+100,


1e+100]
Defines the initial phase of the output
signal

225
SPATIAL OPTICAL TRANSMITTER

PRBS

Name and description Default value Default unit Units Value range
External PRBS False - - True, False

Determines whether or not the PRBS


signal is defined by an external PRBS
generator.

Bit rate Bit rate Bits/s Bits/s, MBits/s, [0, 1e+012]


GBits/s

Order log(Sequence - - [0, 30]


length)/log(2)
Order of the PRBS

Number of leading zeros 1 - - [0, 1000]

Number of trailing zeros 1 - - [0, 1000]

Coding

Name and description Default value Default unit Units Value range
Modulation type NRZ - - [Off, NRZ, RZ]

Defines the modulation type

Duty cycle 0.5 bit - [0, 1]

Duration of the high level bit

Position 0 bit - [-1, 1]

The relative position of the bit

Rise time 1/(Bit rate)*0.05 s s, ms, ns, ps [0, 1e+100]

Defined as the time from when the rising


edge reaches 10% of the amplitude to
the time it reaches 90% of the amplitude

Fall time 1/(Bit rate)*0.05 s s, ms, ns, ps [0, 1e+100]

Defined as the time from when the falling


edge reaches 90% of the amplitude to
the time it reaches 10% of the amplitude

Enhanced

Name and description Default value Default unit Units Value range
Transmitter type EML - - EML, DML

Defines whether the transmitter uses an


external modulated laser (EML) or a
directly modulated laser (DML)

226
SPATIAL OPTICAL TRANSMITTER

Name and description Default value Default unit Units Value range
Overshoot 30 % - [0, 100]

Percentage of overshoot during the


transition from low level to high level
relative to the steady-state power

Undershoot 30 % - [0, 100]

Percentage of undershoot during the


transition from high level to low level
relative to the steady-state power

Damping time leading edge 1/(Bit rate)*0.5 s s, ms, ns, ps [0, 1e+100]

Relaxation time when the signal


overshoot reaches 1/e of the max. value
during the transition from low level to
high level

Damping time trailing edge 1/(Bit rate)*0.5 s s, ms, ns, ps [0, 1e+100]

Relaxation time when the signal


undershoot reaches 1/e of the max.
value during the transition from high
level to low level

Resonant frequency leading (Bit rate)*5 Hz Hz, MHz, GHz, [0, 3e+015]
edge THz

Frequency of the oscillations in the


transition from low level to high level

Resonant frequency trailing edge (Bit rate)*5 Hz Hz, MHz, GHz, [0, 3e+015]
THz
Frequency of the oscillations in the
transition from high level to low level

Side Mode

Name and description Default value Default unit Units Value range
Calculate side mode False - - True, False

Determines if the signal output will have


side modes

Number of side modes 1 - - [1, 100000]

Number of side modes if running as a


Fabry-Perot laser

Separation 75 GHz Hz, GHz, THz, nm [0, 3e+012]

Mode frequency separation from the


laser center frequency

Suppression ratio 30 dB - [0, 1e+009]

Attenuation of the side modes relative to


the output power

227
SPATIAL OPTICAL TRANSMITTER

RIN

Name and description Default value Default unit Units Value range
Include RIN False - - True, False

Determines if RIN will be added to the


output signal

RIN -130 dB/Hz - [-1e+100, 0]

The relative intensity noise value

Measured power 10 dBm W, mW, dBm [-1000, 1000]

Value of power during the measurement


of RIN

Chirp

Name and description Default value Default unit Units Value range
Alpha parameter 0 - - [-100, 100]

Adiabatic chirp 0 1/(W.s) - [-1e+100,


1e+100]
Results from changes in the steady-
state carrier densities

Polarization

Name and description Default value Default unit Units Value range
Azimuth 0 deg - [-90, 90]

Azimuth angle of output polarization

Ellipticity 0 deg - [-45, 45]

Ellipticity angle of output polarization

Polarization filter None - - [None,


Polarization X,
Determines the type of polarization filter Polarization Y]

Spatial Effects

Name and description Default value Default unit Units Value range
Power ratio array 1 - -

List of power values that describe the


power distribution between multiple
modes

228
SPATIAL OPTICAL TRANSMITTER

Name and description Default value Default unit Units Value range
Mode type Laguerre- - - Laguerre-
Gaussian Gaussian,
Defines the output signal mode types Hermite-
Gaussian

Mode polarization X=Y - - X = Y, X and Y, X,


Y
Defines how the spatial modes are
attached to the output signal

Pol. X m,n index array 00 - - -

List of mode indexes 'm,n' for X


polarization

Pol. X spot size 5 um - [1e-100, 1e+100]

Spot size for X polarization

Pol. X inv. radius of curvature 0 1/um - [0, 1e+100]

Inverse radius of curvature for X


polarization

Pol. Y m,n index array 00 - - -

List of mode indexes 'm,n' for Y


polarization

Pol. Y spot size 5 um - [1e-100, 1e+100]

Spot size for Y polarization

Pol. Y inv. radius of curvature 0 1/um - [0, 1e+100]

Inverse radius of curvature for Y


polarization

Simulation

Name and description Default value Default unit Units Value range
Enabled True - - True, False

Determines whether or not the


component is enabled

Iterations Iterations - - [1, 1e+009]

Number of times to repeat the


calculation

Sample rate Sample rate Hz Hz, GHz, THz [1, 1e+100]

Frequency simulation window

Space width X Space width X um - [1e-100, 1e+100]

Horizontal spatial simulation window

229
SPATIAL OPTICAL TRANSMITTER

Name and description Default value Default unit Units Value range
Space width Y Space width Y um - [1e-100, 1e+100]

Vertical spatial simulation window

Noise

Name and description Default value Default unit Units Value range
Noise bandwidth Sample rate Hz Hz, GHz, THz, nm [0, 1e+100]

Determines the noise bandwidth

Random numbers

Name and description Default Units Value


value range
Generate random seed True - True, False

Determines if the seed is automatically defined and unique

Random seed index 0 - [0, 4999]

User-defined seed index for noise generation

Random seed index PRBS 0 - [0, 4999]

User-defined seed index for the internal PRBS generator

Different each iteration False - True, False

Determines if the seed is automatically defined and unique for each


calculation iteration

Technical Background
The layout of the Spatial Optical Transmitter is presented in Figure 1. Refer to WDM
Transmitter and Multimode Generator component documentation for the Technical
Background of the models.

230
SPATIAL OPTICAL TRANSMITTER

Figure 1 Spatial Optical Transmitter subsystem

231
SPATIAL OPTICAL TRANSMITTER

Notes:

232
SPATIAL OPTICAL TRANSMITTER

Transmitters Library
Modulators
Optical

• Mach-Zehnder Modulator
• Electroabsorption Modulator
• Amplitude Modulator
• Phase Modulator
• Frequency Modulator
• Dual Drive Mach-Zehnder Modulator Measured
• Electroabsorption Modulator Measured
• Single Drive Mach-Zehnder Modulator Measured
• Dual Port Dual Drive Mach-Zehnder Modulator Measured
• Lithium Niobate Mach-Zehnder Modulator

233
SPATIAL OPTICAL TRANSMITTER

Notes:

234
MACH-ZEHNDER MODULATOR

Mach-Zehnder Modulator

Simulates a Mach-Zehnder modulator using an analytical model.

Ports

Name and description Port type Signal type


Modulation Input Electrical

Carrier Input Optical

Output Output Optical

Parameters
Main

Name and description Default value Default unit Value range


Extinction ratio 30 dB [0,+INF[

Negative signal chirp False — True, False

Symmetry factor –1 — [-1,1[

Simulation

Name and description Default value Units Value range


Enabled True — True, False
Determines whether or not the component is enabled

Technical background
The Mach-Zehnder modulator is an intensity modulator based on an interferometric
principle. It consists of two 3 dB couplers which are connected by two waveguides of
equal length (see Figure 1). By means of an electro-optic effect, an externally applied
voltage can be used to vary the refractive indices in the waveguide branches.

235
MACH-ZEHNDER MODULATOR

The different paths can lead to constructive and destructive interference at the output,
depending on the applied voltage. Then the output intensity can be modulated
according to the voltage.

Figure 1 Mach-Zehnder modulator

The equations that describe the behavior of the MZ modulator are:

E out ( t ) = E in ( t ) ⋅ cos ( Δθ ( t ) ) ⋅ exp ( j ⋅ Δφ ( t ) )

where Δθ is the phase difference between the two branches and is defined as:
π
Δθ ( t ) = --- ⋅ ( 0.5 – ER ⋅ ( Modulation ( t ) – 0.5 ) )
2

with
4 1
ER = 1 – --- ⋅ arc tan ⎛ -------------------⎞
π ⎝ extrat⎠

and

Δφ is the signal phase change defined as:


Δφ ( t ) = SC ⋅ Δθ ( t ) ⋅ ( 1 + SF ) ⁄ ( 1 – SF )
where the parameter SC is –1 if negative signal chirp is true, or 1 if negative signal
chirp is false. extract is the extinction ratio, SF is the symmetry factor, and
modulation(t) is the electrical input signal. The electrical input signal is normalized
between 0 and 1.

For parameterized and noise bins signals, the average power is calculated according
to the above.

236
ELECTROABSORPTION MODULATOR

Electroabsorption Modulator

Simulates an Electro-absorption modulator using an analytical model.

Ports

Name and description Port type Signal type


Modulation Input Electrical

Carrier Input Optical

Output Output Optical

Parameters
Main

Name and description Default value Units Value range


Modulation index 0.95 — [0,1[

Chirp factor 0 — ]-INF, +INF[

Simulation

Name and description Default value Units Value range


Enabled True — True, False

Determines whether or not the component is enabled

237
ELECTROABSORPTION MODULATOR

Technical background
In this model, the optical carrier is modulated externally by the electrical modulation
signal, (see Figure 1).

Figure 1 EA modulator

Assuming that the optical input signal is Ein, the following equation describes the
behavior of the model:

α
E out ( t ) = E in ( t ) ⋅ Mod ( t ) ⋅ exp ⎛ j --- ⋅ ln ( Mod ( t ) )⎞
⎝ 2 ⎠

where Eout(t) is the output optical signal, α is the chirp factor, and Mod(t) is defined as
Mod ( t ) = ( 1 – MI ) + MI ⋅ modulation ( t )

where MI is the modulation index and modulation(t) is the electrical input signal. The
electrical input signal is normalized between 0 and 1.

For parameterized and noise bins signals, the average power is calculated according
to the above.

238
AMPLITUDE MODULATOR

Amplitude Modulator

Simulates an ideal amplitude modulator.

Ports

Name and description Port type Signal type


Modulation Input Electrical

Carrier Input Optical

Output Output Optical

Parameters
Main

Name and description Default value Units Value range


Modulation index 1 — [0,1]

Simulation

Name and description Default value Units Value range


Enabled Yes — True, False

Determines whether or not the component is enabled

239
AMPLITUDE MODULATOR

Technical background
In this model, the optical carrier is modulated externally by the electrical modulation
signal. Assuming that the optical input signal is Ein, the following equations describe
the behavior of the model:

E out ( t ) = E in ( t ) ⋅ Mod ( t )

where Eout(t) is the output optical signal and Mod(t) is defined as

Mod ( t ) = ( 1 – MI ) + MI ⋅ modulation ( t )

where MI is the modulation index and modulation(t) is the electrical input signal. The
electrical input signal is normalized between 0 and 1.

For parameterized and noise bins signals, the average power is calculated according
to the above.

240
PHASE MODULATOR

Phase Modulator

Simulates an ideal phase modulator.

Ports

Name and description Port type Signal type


Modulation Input Electrical

Carrier Input Optical

Output Output Optical

Parameters
Main

Name and description Default value Units Value range


Normalize electrical signal True — True, False

Defines if the electrical input signal will be normalized


between 0 and 1

Phase deviation 90 deg ]-INF,+INF[

Simulation

Name and description Default value Units Value range


Enabled True — True, False
Determines whether or not the component is enabled

241
PHASE MODULATOR

Technical background
In this model, the electrical modulation signal imposes a phase modulation on an
optical carrier. Assuming that the optical input signal is Ein, the following equation
describes the behavior of the model.

E out ( t ) = E in ( t ) ⋅ exp ( j ⋅ Δφ ⋅ modulation ( t ) )

where Eout(t) is the output optical signal, Δφ is the phase deviation, and modulation(t)
is the electrical input signal. The electrical input signal is normalized between 0 and 1.

The parameterized and noise bins signals are not affected by this modulator.

242
FREQUENCY MODULATOR

Frequency Modulator

Simulates an ideal frequency modulator.

Ports

Name and description Port type Signal type


Modulation Input Electrical

Carrier Input Optical

Output Output Optical

Parameters
Main

Name and description Default Default unit Unit Value


value range
Frequency deviation 10 GHz Hz, GHz, THz [0,+INF[

Simulation

Name and description Default Units Value


value range
Enabled True — True, False

Determines whether or not the component is enabled

243
FREQUENCY MODULATOR

Technical background
In this model, the electrical modulation signal imposes a frequency modulation on an
optical carrier. Assuming that the optical input signal is Ein, the following equation
describes the behavior of the model:

t
⎛ ⎞
E out ( t ) = E in ( t ) ⋅ exp ⎜ j ⋅ 2π ∫ Δf ⋅ ( modulation ( τ ) – 0.5 ) dτ⎟
⎝ ⎠
0

where Eout(t) is the output optical signal, Δf is the frequency deviation, and
modulation ( τ ) is the electrical input signal. The electrical input signal is normalized
between 0 and 1.

The parameterized and noise bins signals are not affected by this modulator.

244
DUAL DRIVE MACH-ZEHNDER MODULATOR MEASURED

Dual Drive Mach-Zehnder Modulator Measured

Simulates a Mach-Zehnder modulator with dual-drive modulation using measured


parameters.

Ports

Name and description Port type Signal type


Modulation Input Electrical

Carrier Input Optical

Output Output Optical

Parameters
Main

Name and description Default value Default unit Value range


Splitting Ratio 1.3 — [0,10000]

Modulator Type Phase-Shift — Conventional,


Phase-Shift

Bias Voltage 1 –2.8 V ]-INF, +INF[

Bias Voltage 2 –1.1 V ]-INF, +INF[

Normalize electrical signal True — True, False

Modulation Voltage12 1.2 V [0, +INF[

Absorption / Phase Filename AbsorptionPhase. — —


dat
File with the measured absorption and phase

Simulation

Name and description Default value Units Value range


Enabled True — True, False

Determines whether or not the component is enabled

245
DUAL DRIVE MACH-ZEHNDER MODULATOR MEASURED

Graphs

Name and description X Title Y Title


Measured absorption Voltage (V) Absorption (dB)

Measured phase Voltage (V) Phase (radians)

Technical background
In this model, you can specify the dependence of the measured absorption and phase
on applied voltage for a Mach-Zehnder modulator. You can use the default
characteristics curves or choose to load from Filename.

For a modulator with the same input and output Y-branch splitting ratios, the output
signal is:
E0 Δα a ( V 1 ) Δα a ( V 2 )
E ( V 1 ,V 2 ) = ---------------- SR ⋅ exp ⎛⎝ – ⎛⎝ --------------------- + j ⋅ Δβ ( V 1 )⎞⎠ L⎞⎠ + exp ⎛⎝ – ⎛⎝ --------------------- + j ⋅ Δβ ( V 2 )⎞⎠ L – j ⋅ φ 0⎞⎠
1 + SR 2 2
E ( V 1 ,V 2 ) ≡ I ( V 1 ,V 2 ) ⋅ exp ( j ⋅ Φ ( V 1 ,V 2 ) )

where SR = P1/P2 is the Y-branch power splitting ratio

Δα a ⁄ 2 is the attenuation constant

Δβ is the phase constant

L is the interaction length of the modulator arm

φ0 is 0 radians for a conventional modulator and π radians for


phase-shift modulator

V1 , V2 are voltages applied to arms 1 and 2, respectively

I is the intensity of the optical signal

Φ is the phase

V i ( i = 1, 2 ) is defined as:

V i ( t ) = V bi + V mod12 ⋅ v ( t ) for the normalized case

where V bi is the bias voltage, V mod12 is the peak-to-peak voltage, and v ( t ) is the
normalized modulation waveform with a peak-to-peak amplitude of 1 and an average
value of 0. The electrical input signal can be normalized between 0.5 and -0.5.

V i ( t ) = V bi ± V mod ( t ) for the non-normalized case.


The model utilizes a Dual drive (push and pull) modulation ( ΔV 1 = – ΔV 2 .

246
DUAL DRIVE MACH-ZEHNDER MODULATOR MEASURED

The model has stored default curves characteristics of a Mach-Zehnder modulator.


The dependence of the measured absorption and phase of the optical signal on
applied voltage for each arm of a modulator is illustrated in Figure 1.

Figure 1 Default characteristics of absorption and phase in the Dual Mach-Zehnder model

247
DUAL DRIVE MACH-ZEHNDER MODULATOR MEASURED

References
[1] Cartledge, J. C., “Combining self-phase modulation and optimum modulation conditions to
improve performance of 10 Gb/s transmission systems using MQW Mach-Zehnder
modulators”, J. Light. Techn., 18, 647-654, (2000).

248
ELECTROABSORPTION MODULATOR MEASURED

Electroabsorption Modulator Measured

Simulates an Electro-absorption modulator using measured parameters.

Ports

Name and description Port type Signal type


Modulation Input Electrical

Carrier Input Optical

Output Output Optical

Parameters
Main

Name and description Default value Default unit Value range


Bias voltage –1 V ]-INF, +INF[

Normalize electrical signal True — True, False

Modulation voltage (peak-to-peak) 2 V [0, +INF[

Absorption / Alpha Filename AbsorptionAlpha.dat — —


File with the measured absorption and α-parameter αm

Simulation

Name and description Default value Units Value range


Enabled True — True, False

Determines whether or not the component is enabled

249
ELECTROABSORPTION MODULATOR MEASURED

Graphs

Name and description X Title Y Title


Measured absorption Voltage (V) Absorption (dB)

Measured alpha-parameter Voltage (V) Alpha-parameter

Calculated alpha-parameter Voltage (V) Alpha-parameter

Technical background
In this model, you can specify the dependence of the measured absorption and α -
parameter- α m on the applied voltage for an EA modulator. You can use the default
characteristic curves or choose to load from file. In this case, the parameter Filename
is enabled.

In the case of the EA modulator, the output signal response to an applied voltage is:

1
E( V) = I ( V ) exp ⎛⎝ j --- ∫ α m ( V ) d ln ( I ( V ) )⎞⎠ (1)
2

where IV is the voltage-dependent intensity of the signal.

While Equation 1 is an accurate result, it is not in the most convenient form for
simulation purposes when empirical equations for α m ( V ) and I ( V ) are obtained
from a fitting to measured results. The determination of the argument of the
exponential function in Equation 1 requires function evaluation and integration.

The modulator output signal given by Equation 1 can also be written in the convenient
( 1 + jα ) ⁄ 2
form I using a voltage-dependent parameter α r ( V ) as:

( 1 + jα r ( V ) ) ⁄ 2 (2)
E(V ) = I(V)

A comparison of the phase terms in Equation and Equation 2 yields

1
α r ( V ) = ----------- ∫ α m ( V ) ⋅ dγ ( V ) (3)
γ(V)

Equation 3 shows how the attenuation constant γ ( V ) and α-parameter- α m ( V )


jointly combine to determine α r ( V ) . Using Equation 2, with α r ( V ) determined from
measurements of α m ( V ) and I ( V ) , the evaluation of the argument of the exponent
only requires function evaluation.

250
ELECTROABSORPTION MODULATOR MEASURED

The default characteristics curves stored in the component, the dependence of the
measured absorption, and α-parameter- α m ( V ) on applied voltage, is illustrated in
Figure 1.

Figure 1 Dependence of the absorption and αm on the applied voltage for an MQW-EAM

For this component, the electrical input signal can be normalized between 0.5 and
-0.5. Then, the voltage applied to the modulator is given by:

(4)
V ( t ) = V b + V mod ⋅ v ( t )

where Vb is the bias voltage, Vmod is the peak-to-peak voltage, and v(t) is the
normalized modulation waveform (electrical input signal) with a peak-to-peak
amplitude of 1 and an average value of 0.

251
ELECTROABSORPTION MODULATOR MEASURED

Notes:

252
SINGLE DRIVE MACH-ZEHNDER MODULATOR MEASURED

Single Drive Mach-Zehnder Modulator Measured

Simulates a Mach-Zehnder modulator with single drive modulation using measured


parameters.

Ports

Name and description Port type Signal type


Modulation Input Electrical

Carrier Input Optical

Output Output Optical

Parameters
Main

Name and description Default value Default unit Value range


Splitting Ratio 1.3 — [0,10000]

Modulator Type Phase-Shift — Conventional,


Phase-Shift

Bias Voltage 1 –2.8 V ]-INF, +INF[

Bias Voltage 2 –1.1 V ]-INF, +INF[

Normalize electrical signal True — True, False

Modulation Voltage 1.5 V [0, +INF[

Operation mode Change in V2 = 0 — Change in V1 = 0,


Change in V2 = 0

Absorption / Phase Filename AbsorptionPhase.dat — —

File with the measured absorption and phase

253
SINGLE DRIVE MACH-ZEHNDER MODULATOR MEASURED

Simulation

Name and description Default value Units Value range


Enabled True — True, False

Determines whether or not the component is enabled

Graphs

Name and description X Title Y Title


Measured absorption Voltage (V) Absorption (dB)

Measured phase Voltage (V) Phase (radians)

Technical background
In this model, you can specify the dependence of the measured absorption and phase
on applied voltage for a Mach-Zehnder modulator. You can use the default
characteristics curves or choose to load from Filename.

For a modulator with the same input and output Y-branch splitting ratios, the output
signal is:
E0 Δα a ( V 1 ) Δα a ( V 2 )
E ( V 1 ,V 2 ) = ---------------- SR ⋅ exp ⎛⎝ – ⎛⎝ --------------------- + j ⋅ Δβ ( V 1 )⎞⎠ L⎞⎠ + exp ⎛⎝ – ⎛⎝ --------------------- + j ⋅ Δβ ( V 2 )⎞⎠ L – j ⋅ φ 0⎞⎠
1 + SR 2 2
E ( V 1 ,V 2 ) ≡ I ( V 1 ,V 2 ) ⋅ exp ( j ⋅ Φ ( V 1 ,V 2 ) )

where SR = P1/P2 is the Y-branch power splitting ratio

Δα a ⁄ 2 is the attenuation constant

Δβ is the phase constant

L is the interaction length of the modulator arm

φ0 is 0 radians for a conventional modulator and π radians for


phase-shift modulator

V1 , V2 are voltages applied to arms 1 and 2, respectively

I is the intensity of the optical signal

Φ is the phase

Vi(i=1,2) is defined as:

V i ( t ) = V bi + V modi ⋅ v ( t ) for the normalized case


where Vbi is the bias voltage, Vmodi is the peak-to-peak voltage, v(t) is the normalized
modulation waveform with a peak-to-peak amplitude of 1 and an average value of 0.
The electrical input signal is normalized between 0.5 and -0.5.

254
SINGLE DRIVE MACH-ZEHNDER MODULATOR MEASURED

V i ( t ) = V bi ± V mod ( t ) for the non-normalized case


The model utilizes a single drive modulation, i.e., V mod is 0 in one of the arms.
The model has stored default curves characteristics of a Mach-Zehnder modulator.
The dependence of the measured absorption and phase of the optical signal on
applied voltage for each arm of a modulator is illustrated in Figure 1.

Figure 1 Default characteristics of absorption and phase in the Single Mach-Zehnder mode

255
SINGLE DRIVE MACH-ZEHNDER MODULATOR MEASURED

References
[1] Cartledge, J. C., “Combining self-phase modulation and optimum modulation conditions to
improve performance of 10 Gb/s transmission systems using MQW Mach-Zehnder
modulators”, J. Light. Techn., 18, 647-654, (2000).

256
DUAL PORT DUAL DRIVE MACH-ZEHNDER MODULATOR MEASURED

Dual Port Dual Drive Mach-Zehnder Modulator


Measured
Simulates a Mach-Zehnder modulator with dual-drive modulation using two ports with
measured parameters.

Ports

Name and description Port type Signal type


Modulation 1 Input Electrical

Modulation 1 Input Electrical

Carrier Input Optical

Output Output Optical

Parameters
Main

Name and description Default value Default unit Value range


Splitting Ratio 1.3 — [0,10000]

Modulator Type Phase-Shift — Conventional,


Phase-Shift,

Bias Voltage 1 –2.8 V ]-INF, +INF[

Bias Voltage 2 –1.1 V ]-INF, +INF[

Normalize electrical signal True — True, False

Modulation Voltage12 1.2 V [0, +INF[

Absorption / Phase Filename AbsorptionPhase.dat — —


File with the measured absorption and phase

257
DUAL PORT DUAL DRIVE MACH-ZEHNDER MODULATOR MEASURED

Simulation

Name and description Default value Units Value range


Enabled True — True, False

Determines whether or not the component is enabled

Graphs

Name and description X Title Y Title


Measured absorption Voltage (V) Absorption (dB)

Measured phase Voltage (V) Phase (radians)

Technical background
In this model, you can specify the dependence of the measured absorption and phase
on applied voltage for a Mach-Zehnder modulator. You can use the default
characteristics curves or choose to load from Filename.

For a modulator with the same input and output Y-branch splitting ratios, the output
signal is:
E0 Δα a ( V 1 ) Δα a ( V 2 )
E ( V 1 ,V 2 ) = ---------------- SR ⋅ exp ⎛ – ⎛ --------------------- + j ⋅ Δβ ( V 1 )⎞ L⎞ + exp ⎛ – ⎛ --------------------- + j ⋅ Δβ ( V 2 )⎞ L – j ⋅ φ 0⎞
1 + SR ⎝ ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎠ ⎝ ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎠
E ( V 1 ,V 2 ) ≡ I ( V 1 ,V 2 ) ⋅ exp ( j ⋅ Φ ( V 1 ,V 2 ) )

where SR = P 1 ⁄ P 2 is the Y-branch power splitting ratio

Δα a ⁄ 2 is the attenuation constant

Δβ is the phase constant

L is the interaction length of the modulator arm

φ0 is 0 radians for a conventional modulator and π radians for


phase-shift modulator

V1 , V2 are voltages applied to arms 1 and 2, respectively

I is the intensity of the optical signal

Φ is the phase

V i ( i = 1, 2 ) is defined as:
V i ( t ) = V bi ± V modi ⋅ v ( t ) for the normalized case
where V bi is the bias voltage, V modi is the peak-to-peak voltage, and v ( t ) is the
normalized modulation waveform with a peak-to-peak amplitude of 1 and an average
value of 0. The electrical input signal is normalized between 0.5 and -0.5.

258
DUAL PORT DUAL DRIVE MACH-ZEHNDER MODULATOR MEASURED

V i ( t ) = V bi ± V modi ( t ) for the non-normalized case.


The model utilizes a Dual drive (push and pull) modulation ( ΔV 1 = – ΔV 2 .

The model has stored default curves characteristics of a Mach-Zehnder modulator.


The dependence of the measured absorption and phase of the optical signal on
applied voltage for each arm of a modulator is illustrated in Figure 1.

Figure 1 Default characteristics of absorption and phase in the Dual Mach-Zehnder model

259
DUAL PORT DUAL DRIVE MACH-ZEHNDER MODULATOR MEASURED

References
[1] Cartledge, J. C., “Combining self-phase modulation and optimum modulation conditions to
improve performance of 10 Gb/s transmission systems using MQW Mach-Zehnder
modulators”, J. Light. Techn., 18, 647-654, (2000).

260
LITHIUM NIOBATE MACH-ZEHNDER MODULATOR

Lithium Niobate Mach-Zehnder Modulator

This component simulates a Lithium Niobate Mach-Zehnder modulator based on


measured parameters.

Ports

Name and description Port type Signal type


Input 1 Input Optical

Input 2 Input Electrical

Input 3 Input Electrical

Output 1 Output Optical

Parameters
Main

Name and description Default value Default unit Value range


Extinction ratio 20 dB [0,+INF[

Switching bias voltage 4 V [0,+INF[

DC voltage required to turn the modulator from the OFF state


to the ON state, or vice versa

Switching RF voltage 4 V ]-INF,+INF[

RF voltage required to turn the modulator from the OFF state


to the ON state, or vice versa

Bias voltage1 0 V ]-INF,+INF[

Bias voltage2 4 V ]-INF,+INF[

Insertion loss 5 dB [0,+INF[

Normalize electrical signal True — True, False

Modulation voltage1 0 V ]-INF,+INF[

Modulation voltage2 4 V ]-INF,+INF[

261
LITHIUM NIOBATE MACH-ZEHNDER MODULATOR

Bandwidth Response

Name and description Default value Units Value range


Load transfer function False — True, False

Determines whether you want to load a modulator transfer


function or use an ideal one.

File frequency unit Hz — Hz, THz

Determines the frequency unit of the file.

File format Power — Power; Phase;


Power Phase;
Determines the format of the file. Real, Imag.

Linear scale True — True, False

Determines whether or not the data is in linear scale.

HF filename Filter.dat — —

File with the transfer function (S21)

Simulation

Name and description Default value Units Value range


Enabled True — True, False

Determines whether or not the component is enabled

Technical background
The Mach-Zehnder structure consists of an input optical branch, which splits the
incoming light into two arms, followed by two independent optical arms, which are
subsequently recombined by the output optical branch. Application of an electrical
signal to one of the optical arms controls the degree of interference at the output
optical branch and therefore controls the output intensity.

The optical field at the output of the modulator is given by:

E in ( t ) ( j ⋅ π ⋅ v 2 ( t ) ⁄ V πRF + j ⋅ π ⋅ v bias2 ⁄ V πDC ) ( j ⋅ π ⋅ v 1 ( t ) ⁄ V πRF + j ⋅ π ⋅ v bias1 ⁄ V πDC )


E O ( t ) = ---------------------------------------------
( insertionloss ⁄ 20 )
⋅ (γ ⋅ e + (1 – γ) ⋅ e )
10

where E in ( t ) is the input signal


v 1 ( t ) and v 2 ( t ) are the RF modulating electrical voltage
v bias1 and v bias2 are the DC bias voltage applied to arm one and two, respectively

262
LITHIUM NIOBATE MACH-ZEHNDER MODULATOR

γ denotes the power splinting (combining) ration of arm two for the input (output,
respectively) Y-branch waveguide, and is given by:

1
γ = ⎛ 1 – --------⎞ ⁄ 2
⎝ ε⎠ r

ExtRatio ⁄ 10
where ε r = 10 .

v bias1 and v bias2 , the DC bias voltages, are included separately as parameters due
to the possibility of the V πDC (Switching Bias Voltage) to be different from the
Switching RF Voltage.

If the Switching Bias Voltage is equal to the Switching RF Voltage, and the
Normalize Electrical Signal parameter is False, the bias voltage can be included in
the electrical signal.

The optical power and phase of the modulator output are determined in response to
the modulating voltage waveforms. The modulator transfer function relates the
effective drive voltage to the applied drive voltage. This component can also load the
modulator transfer function data from file or consider an ideal transfer function.

The file is formatted containing two items per line, the frequency and filter
measurement. The parameter File frequency unit determines the frequency unit of
the first item; it can be Hz or THz.

According to the parameter File format, the second item can be one value (Power or
Phase) or two values (Power and Phase or Real and Imag):

Power (Phase is set to zero, assuming frequency units THz)

193.10 0

193.11 0.5

193.12 0.5

193.13 0

Power Phase

193.14 0 0

193.15 0.5 3.14

193.16 0.5 3.14

193.17 0 0

263
LITHIUM NIOBATE MACH-ZEHNDER MODULATOR

Real Imag

193.18 0 0

193.19 -0.5 7.9-e-4

193.20 -0.5 7.9-e-4

193.21 0 0

Phase (Power is set to one)

193.22 0

193.23 3.14

193.24 3.14

193.253 0

When the Normalize electrical signal parameter is True, the electrical signals of
port1 and port2 are normalized between -0.5 and 0.5. In this case, the amplitude of
each RF electrical signal considered in v 1 ( t ) and v 2 ( t ) will be the values in the
modulation voltage parameters divided by 2.

References
[1] Cartledge, J. C., Rolland, C., Lemerle, S., and Solheim, A., “Theoretical performance of 10 Gb/s
lightwave systems using a III-V semiconductor Mach-Zehnder modulator.”, IEEE Phot. Techn.
Letters., 6, 282-284, (1994).
[2] Cartledge, J.C., "Performance of 10 Gb/s lightwave systems based on lithium niobate Mach-
Zehnder modulators with asymmetric Y-branch waveguides". IEEE Phot. Techn. Letters., 7,
1090 -1092, (1995).

264
LITHIUM NIOBATE MACH-ZEHNDER MODULATOR

Transmitters Library
Bit Sequence Generators
• Pseudo-Random Bit Sequence Generator
• User-Defined Bit Sequence Generator

265
LITHIUM NIOBATE MACH-ZEHNDER MODULATOR

Notes:

266
PSEUDO-RANDOM BIT SEQUENCE GENERATOR

Pseudo-Random Bit Sequence Generator

Generates a Pseudo Random Binary Sequence (PRBS) according to different


operation modes. The bit sequence is designed to approximate the characteristics of
random data.

Ports

Name and description Port type Signal type


Bit sequence Output Binary

Parameters
Main

Name and description Default value Default unit Value range


Bit rate Bit rate Bits/s [0, 1e+012]

MBits/s

GBits/s

Operation mode Order — Probability, Order,


Alternate, Ones,
Zeros

Order log(Sequence length)/log(2) — [2,30]

Order of the PRBS generator

Mark probability 0.5 — [0,1]

Probability of ones in the sequence

Number of leading zeros (Time window * 3 / 100) * Bit rate — [0,+INF[

Number of trailing zeros (Time window * 3 / 100) * Bit rate — [0,+INF[

267
PSEUDO-RANDOM BIT SEQUENCE GENERATOR

Simulation

Name and description Default Units Value range


value
Enabled True — True, False

Determines whether or not the component is enabled

Iterations Iterations — [1, 1e+009]


Number of times to repeat the calculation

Random numbers

Name and description Default Units Value range


value
Generate random seed True — True, False

Determines if the seed is automatically defined and unique

Random seed index 0 — [0,4999]

User-defined seed index for bit generation

Different each iteration False — True, False

Determines if the seed is automatically defined and unique for


each calculation iteration

Technical background
This model generates a sequence of N bits:

where N = T w B r
NG = N – nl – nt
Tw is the global parameter Time window and Br is the parameter Bit rate.

The number of bits generated is N G . n l and n t are the Number of leading zeros and
the Number of trailing zeros.

Operation mode controls the algorithm used to generate the bit sequence:
• Probability: Random number generator is used, with parameter Mark probability
specifying the probability of ones in the sequence
• Order: PRBS generator[1] with Order k is used to generate a sequence with
period of 2k-1
• Alternate: Alternate sequence of ones and zeros is generated
• Ones: A sequence of ones is generated
• Zeros: A sequence of zeros is generated

268
PSEUDO-RANDOM BIT SEQUENCE GENERATOR

References
[1] Press, W. H., Flannery, B. P., Teukolsky, S. A., and Vetterling, W. T., Numerical Recipes in C.
Cambridge University Press, (1991).

269
PSEUDO-RANDOM BIT SEQUENCE GENERATOR

Notes:

270
USER-DEFINED BIT SEQUENCE GENERATOR

User-Defined Bit Sequence Generator

Generates a bit sequence that is user-defined.

Ports

Name and description Port type Signal type


Bit sequence Output Binary

Parameters
Main

Name and description Default value Units Value range


Bit rate Bit rate Bits/s [0,+INF[

MBits/s

GBits/s

Load from file False — True, False

Determines whether or not the component


will load the bit sequence from the file

Filename Sequence.dat — Filename

File with the bit sequence

Bit sequence 0101101110 — String

User-defined bit sequence

Number of leading zeros (Time window * 3 / 100) * Bit rate — [0, 1000]

Number of trailing zeros (Time window * 3 / 100) * Bit rate — [0, 1000]

271
USER-DEFINED BIT SEQUENCE GENERATOR

Simulation

Name and description Default Units Value range


value
Enabled True — True, False

Determines whether or not the component is enabled

Iterations 1 — [1, 1e+009]


Number of times to repeat the calculation

Technical background
You can enter the string Bit sequence or choose Load from file. In this, case the
parameter Filename is enabled.

All bit files are formatted containing one bit per line, e.g. the bit file representing the
sequence "01011..." has the following form:

The sequence length is defined by:

N = TwBr

Tw is the global parameter Time window and Br is the parameter Bit rate. If the user-
defined sequence is shorter than the N, the sequence will be repeated until the length
is equal to N.

272
Multimode Library
• Donut Transverse Mode Generator
• Hermite Transverse Mode Generator
• Laguerre Transverse Mode Generator
• Multimode Generator
• Measured Transverse Mode
• Mode ID Modifier

273
Notes:

274
DONUT TRANSVERSE MODE GENERATOR

Donut Transverse Mode Generator

This component attaches Donut transverse mode profiles to the input signal. It also
converts single-mode signals into multimode signals.

Ports

Name and description Port type Signal type Supported


Modes
Input Input Optical Sample signals

Output Output Optical

Parameters
Main

Name and description Default value Default unit Units Value range
Power ratio array 1

List of power values that describe the


power distribution between multiple
modes

Mode polarization X=Y X = Y, X and Y, X,


Y
Defines how the spatial modes are
attached to the output signal

Pol. X m index array 0

List of mode indexes ‘m’ for X


polarization

Pol. X outer radius 5 um [1e-100, 1e+100]

Outer radius for X polarized mode

Pol. X inner radius 0 um [0, 1e+100]

Inner radius for X polarized mode

Pol. Y m index array 0

List of mode indexes ‘m’ for Y


polarization

275
DONUT TRANSVERSE MODE GENERATOR

Name and description Default value Default unit Units Value range
Pol. Y outer radius 5 um [1e-100, 1e+100]

Outer radius for Y polarized mode

Pol. Y inner radius 0 um [0, 1e+100]

Inner radius for Y polarized mode

Simulation

Name and description Default value Default unit Units Value range
Enabled YES [YES, NO]

Determines whether or not the


component is enabled

Space width X Space width X um [1e-100, 1e+100]

Horizontal spatial simulation window

Space width Y Space width Y um [1e-100, 1e+100]

Vertical spatial simulation window

Technical Background
The Donut [1] Transverse Mode Generator attaches mode profiles to the input signal
X and Y polarizations. A donut profile is attached to each polarization. Additionally,
single-mode inputs can be converted to a multimode signal scaled by a user-defined
power distribution.

The parameter Power ratio array is used to convert a single-mode signal into a
multimode signal. The size of the list is the number of signal modes, with time-domain
waveforms identical except for the power ratio factor. The sum of the power values is
normalized to “1” and used to scale the time-domain signals.

A Power ratio parameter of “1 2 3” will generate “3” modes. Each mode will have
power ratio equal to 1/6, 2/6 and 3/6, respectively.

The parameter Mode polarization defines how the spatial modes are attached to the
signal polarization. The user can select whether the mode profile is attached to only
one polarization (X or Y), or to both polarizations. If attached to both polarizations, it
can be the same for both (X=Y) or unique (X and Y).

The user can provide the list of mode indexes for each polarization, as well as the
inner and outer radius for the modes.

276
DONUT TRANSVERSE MODE GENERATOR

The donut modes is described as:

⎧ ⎧ cos ( m φ ), n ≥ 0
⎪⎨ r inner ≤ r ≤ r outer
ψ m ( r, φ ) = ⎨ ⎩ sin ( m φ ), n < 0 (1)

⎩ 0, r < r inner, r > r outer

where m is the azimuthal index, rinner is the inner radius and router is the outer radius
for each mode.

References
[1] Mahmoud, S.W.Z.; Wiedenmann, D.; Kicherer, M.; Unold, H.; Jager, R.; Michalzik, R.; Ebeling,
K.J. "Spatial investigation of transverse mode turn-on dynamics in VCSELs", IEEE Photonics
Technology Letters, Volume: 13, Issue: 11, Nov. 2001 Pages: 1152 - 1154.

277
DONUT TRANSVERSE MODE GENERATOR

Notes:

278
HERMITE TRANSVERSE MODE GENERATOR

Hermite Transverse Mode Generator

This component attaches Hermite-Gaussian transverse mode profiles to the input


signal. It also converts single-mode signals into multimode signals.

Ports

Name and description Port type Signal type Supported


Modes
Input Input Optical Sample signals

Output Output Optical

Parameters
Main

Name and description Default value Default unit Units Value range
Power ratio array 1

List of power values which describe the


power distribution between multiple
modes

Mode polarization X=Y X = Y, X and Y, X,


Y
Defines how the spatial modes are
attached to the output signal

Pol. X m,n index array 00

List of mode indexes ‘m,n’ for X


polarization

Pol. X spot size X 5 um [1e-100, 1e+100]

X-axis spot size for X polarization

Pol. X spot size Y 5 um [1e-100, 1e+100]

Y-axis spot size for X polarization

Pol. X inv. radius of curvature X 0 1/um [0, 1e+100]

X-axis inverse radius of curvature for X


polarization

279
HERMITE TRANSVERSE MODE GENERATOR

Name and description Default value Default unit Units Value range
Pol. X inv. radius of curvature Y 0 1/um [0, 1e+100]

Y-axis inverse radius of curvature for X


polarization

Pol. Y m,n index array 00

List of mode indexes ‘m,n’ for Y


polarization

Pol. Y spot size X 5 um [1e-100, 1e+100]

X-axis spot size for Y polarization

Pol. Y spot size Y 1 um [1e-100, 1e+100]

Y-axis spot size for Y polarization

Pol. Y inv. radius of curvature X 0 1/um [0, 1e+100]

X-axis inverse radius of curvature for Y


polarization

Pol. Y inv. radius of curvature Y 0 1/um [0, 1e+100]

Y-axis inverse radius of curvature for Y


polarization

Simulation

Name and description Default value Default unit Units Value range
Enabled YES [YES, NO]

Determines whether or not the


component is enabled

Space width X Space width X um [1e-100, 1e+100]

Horizontal spatial simulation window

Space width Y Space width Y um [1e-100, 1e+100]

Vertical spatial simulation window

Technical Background
The Hermite Transverse Mode Generator attaches mode profiles to the input signal X
and Y polarizations. A Hermite-Gaussian profile [1][2] is attached to each polarization.
Additionally, single-mode inputs can be converted to a multimode signal scaled by a
user-defined power distribution.

The parameter Power ratio array is used to convert a single-mode signal into a
multimode signal. The size of the list is the number of signal modes, with time-domain
waveforms identical except for the power ratio factor. The sum of the power values is
normalized to “1” and used to scale the time-domain signals.

280
HERMITE TRANSVERSE MODE GENERATOR

A Power ratio parameter of “1 2 3” will generate “3” modes. Each mode will have
power ratio equal to 1/6, 2/6 and 3/6, respectively.

The parameter Mode polarization defines how the spatial modes are attached to the
signal polarization. The user can select whether the mode profile is attached to only
one polarization (X or Y), or to both polarizations. If attached to both polarizations, it
can be the same for both (X=Y) or unique (X and Y).

The user can provide the list of mode indexes for each polarization, as well as the spot
size and the inverse of the radius of curvature for each mode for both X and Y-axis.

The Hermite-Gaussian mode is described as:

2x ⎛ x2 ⎞ ⎛ πx 2 ⎞ 2y ⎛ y2 ⎞ ⎛ πy 2 ⎞
ψ m, n ( r, ϕ ) = H m ⎛ ----------⎞ exp ⎜ – ----------2-⎟ exp ⎜ j ------------⎟ H n ⎛ ----------⎞ exp ⎜ – ----------2-⎟ exp ⎜ j ------------⎟
(1)
⎝ w ox ⎠ ⎝ w ox ⎠ ⎝ λR ox⎠ ⎝ w oy ⎠ ⎝ w oy ⎠ ⎝ λR oy⎠

where m and n represent the X and Y index that describe the mode dependencies for
the X and Y-axis. R is the radius of curvature and w0 is the spot size. Hm and Hn are
the Hermite polynomials.

References
[1] A. E. Siegman, Lasers, University Science Books, Sausalito, CA, 1986.
[2] A. Ghatak, K. Thyagarajan, Introduction to Fiber Optics, Cambridge University Press, New
York, NY, 1998.

281
HERMITE TRANSVERSE MODE GENERATOR

Notes:

282
LAGUERRE TRANSVERSE MODE GENERATOR

Laguerre Transverse Mode Generator

This component attaches Laguerre-Gaussian transverse mode profiles to the input


signal. It also converts single-mode signals into multimode signals.

Ports

Name and description Port type Signal type Supported


Modes
Input Input Optical Sample signals

Output Output Optical

Parameters
Main

Name and description Default value Default unit Units Value range
Power ratio array 1

List of power values which describe the


power distribution between multiple
modes

Complex No [YES, NO]

Determines whether to generate


complex or real modes

Mode polarization X=Y X = Y, X and Y, X,


Y
Defines how the spatial modes are
attached to the output signal

Pol. X m,n index array 00

List of mode indexes ‘m,n’ for X


polarization

Pol. X spot size 5 um [1e-100, 1e+100]

Spot size for X polarization

283
LAGUERRE TRANSVERSE MODE GENERATOR

Name and description Default value Default unit Units Value range
Pol. X inv. radius of curvature 0 1/um [0, 1e+100]

Inverse radius of curvature for X


polarization

Pol. Y m,n index array 00

List of mode indexes ‘m,n’ for Y


polarization

Pol. Y spot size 5 um [1e-100, 1e+100]

Spot size for Y polarization

Pol. Y inv. radius of curvature 0 1/um [0, 1e+100]

Inverse radius of curvature for Y


polarization

Simulation

Name and description Default value Default unit Units Value range
Enabled YES [YES, NO]

Determines whether or not the


component is enabled

Space width X Space width X um [1e-100, 1e+100]

Horizontal spatial simulation window

Space width Y Space width Y um [1e-100, 1e+100]

Vertical spatial simulation window

Technical Background
The Laguerre Transverse Mode Generator attaches mode profiles to the input signal
X and Y polarizations. A Laguerre-Gaussian profile [1][2] is attached to each
polarization. Additionally, single-mode inputs can be converted to a multimode signal
scaled by a user-defined power distribution.

The parameter Power ratio array is used to convert a single-mode signal into a
multimode signal. The size of the list is the number of signal modes, with time-domain
waveforms identical except for the power ratio factor. The sum of the power values is
normalized to “1” and used to scale the time-domain signals.

A Power ratio parameter of “1 2 3” will generate “3” modes, each mode will have
power ratio equal to 1/6, 2/6 and 3/6, respectively.

The parameter Mode polarization defines how the spatial modes are attached to the
signal polarization. The user can select whether the mode profile is attached to only
one polarization (X or Y), or to both polarizations. If attached to both polarizations, it
can be the same for both (X=Y) or unique (X and Y).

284
LAGUERRE TRANSVERSE MODE GENERATOR

The user can provide the list of mode indexes for each polarization, as well as the spot
size and the inverse of the radius of curvature for each mode.

The Laguerre-Gaussian mode is described as:

n---
⎛ 2r 2 ⎞ 2 n ⎛ 2r 2 ⎞ ⎛ r2 ⎞ ⎛ πr 2 ⎞ ⎧ sin ( n ϕ ), n ≥ 0 (1)
ψ m, n ( r, ϕ ) = ⎜ --------2⎟ L m ⎜ --------2⎟ exp ⎜ --------2⎟ exp ⎜ j ---------⎟ ⎨
⎝ wo ⎠ ⎝ wo ⎠ ⎝ wo ⎠ ⎝ λR o⎠ ⎩ cos ( n ϕ ), n < 0

where m and n represent the X and Y index that describe the azimuthal and radial
indexes, respectively. R is the radius of curvature and w0 is the spot size. Ln,m is the
Laguerre polynomial. If parameter Complex is enabled, a complex mode with sin and
cos terms will be created, otherwise the output is real and depends on the signal of
parameter n.

References
[1] A. E. Siegman, Lasers, University Science Books, Sausalito, CA, 1986.
[2] A. Ghatak, K. Thyagarajan, “Introduction to Fiber Optics”, Cambridge University Press, New
York, NY, 1998.

285
LAGUERRE TRANSVERSE MODE GENERATOR

Notes:

286
MULTIMODE GENERATOR

Multimode Generator

This component attaches transverse mode profiles to the input signal. It also converts
single-mode signals into multimode signals.

Ports

Name and description Port type Signal type Supported


Modes
Input Input Optical Sample signals

Output Output Optical

Parameters
Spatial effects

Name and description Default value Default unit Units Value range
Power ratio array 1

List of power values which describe the


power distribution between multiple
modes

Mode type Laguerre- Laguerre-


Gaussian Gaussian,
Defines the output signal mode types Hermite-
Gaussian

Mode polarization X=Y X = Y, X and Y, X,


Y
Defines how the spatial modes are
attached to the output signal

Pol. X m,n index array 00

List of mode indexes ‘m,n’ for X


polarization

Pol. X spot size 5 um [1e-100], 1e+100]

Spot size for X polarization

287
MULTIMODE GENERATOR

Name and description Default value Default unit Units Value range
Pol. X inv. radius of curvature 0 1/um [0, 1e+100]

Inverse radius of curvature for X


polarization

Pol. Y m,n index array 00

List of mode indexes 'm,n' for Y


polarization

Pol. Y spot size 5 um [1e-100, 1e+100]

Spot size for Y polarization

Pol. Y inv. radius of curvature 0 1/um [0, 1e+100]

Inverse radius of curvature for Y


polarization

Simulation

Name and description Default value Default unit Units Value range
Enabled YES [YES, NO]

Determines whether or not the


component is enabled

Space width X Space width X um [1e-100, 1e+100]

Horizontal spatial simulation window

Space width Y Space width Y um [1e-100, 1e+100]

Vertical spatial simulation window

Technical Background
The Multimode Generator attaches mode profiles to the input signal X and Y
polarizations. A Hermite-Gaussian or a Laguerre-Gaussian profile [1][2] is attached to
each polarization. Additionally, single-mode inputs can be converted to a multimode
signal scaled by a user-defined power distribution.

The parameter Power ratio array is used to convert a single-mode signal into a
multimode signal. The size of the list is the number of signal modes, with time-domain
waveforms identical except for the power ratio factor. The sum of the power values is
normalized to “1” and used to scale the time-domain signals.

A Power ratio parameter of “1 2 3” will generate “3” modes, each mode will have
power ratio equal to 1/6, 2/6 and 3/6, respectively.

The parameter Mode polarization defines how the spatial modes are attached to the
signal polarization. The user can select whether the mode profile is attached to only
one polarization (X or Y), or to both polarizations. If attached to both polarizations, it
can be the same for both (X=Y) or unique (X and Y).

288
MULTIMODE GENERATOR

The user can provide the list of mode indexes for each polarization, as well as the spot
size and the inverse of the radius of curvature for each mode.

Refer to the Laguerre Transverse Mode Generator component for the analytical
representation of the Laguerre-Gaussian profile.

For the Hermite-Gaussian profile, the Multimode Generator assumes the same
values for the spot size and radius of curvature for the X and Y-axis.

Refer to the Hermite Transverse Mode Generator component for the analytical
representation of the Hermite-Gaussian profile.

References
[1] A. E. Siegman, “Lasers”, University Science Books, Sausalito, CA, 1986.
[2] A. Ghatak, K. Thyagarajan, “Introduction to Fiber Optics”, Cambridge University Press, New
York, NY, 1998.

289
MULTIMODE GENERATOR

Notes:

290
MEASURED TRANSVERSE MODE

Measured Transverse Mode

This component attaches measured transverse mode profiles to the input signal. The
measured profiles are loaded from a file using the BCF3DCX format. It also converts
single-mode signals into multimode signals

Ports

Name and description Port type Signal type Supported


Modes
Input Input Optical Sample signals

Output Output Optical

Parameters
Spatial effects

Name and description Default value Default unit Units Value range
Power ratio array 1

List of power values which describe the


power distribution between multiple
modes

Mode polarization X=Y X = Y, X and Y, X,


Y
Defines how the spatial modes are
attached to the output signal

Pol. X files ““

List of files for X polarization

Pol. Y files ““

List of files for Y polarization

291
MEASURED TRANSVERSE MODE

Simulation

Name and description Default value Default unit Units Value range
Enabled YES [YES, NO]

Determines whether or not the


component is enabled

Space width X Space width X um [1e-100, 1e+100]

Horizontal spatial simulation window

Space width Y Space width Y um [1e-100, 1e+100]

Vertical spatial simulation window

Technical Background
The measured transverse mode generator attaches mode profiles to the input signal
X and Y polarizations. A transverse mesh from a file is attached to each polarization,
additionally; single-mode inputs can be converted to a multimode signal scaled by a
user defined power distribution.

The parameter Power ratio array is used to convert a single-mode signal into a
multimode signal. The size of the list is the number of signal modes, with time-domain
waveforms identical except for the power ratio factor. The sum of the power values is
normalized to “1” and used to scale the time-domain signals.

A Power ratio parameter of “1 2 3” will generate “3” modes, each mode will have
power ratio equal to 1/6, 2/6 and 3/6, respectively.

The parameter Mode polarization defines how the spatial modes are attached to the
signal polarization. The user can select whether the mode profile is attached to only
one polarization (X or Y), or to both polarizations. If attached to both polarizations, it
can be the same for both (X=Y) or unique (X and Y).

The user can provide the list of filed for each polarization using the parameters Pol. X
files and Pol. Y files. For each power ratio a filename must be provided. Different from
other OptiSystem components, the measured transverse mode generator will reload
the files every time it calculates. This means the files must exist or an error message
will be generated during loading.

A Power ratio parameter of '1 2 3' will generate '3' modes and the parameter Pol. X
files should have three lines; each line will have the file name of a mode. For example:

Mode_X_1_1.f3d

Mode_X_2_1.f3d

Mode_X_3_1.f3d

The files should have the complex data file format BCF3DCX. Files that follow this
format are generated from the Save Transverse Mode component from OptiSystem
or the output files in BPM 3D.

292
MEASURED TRANSVERSE MODE

Complex Data 3D File Format: BCF3DCX


This format applies to input and output files that contain complex data as text. The file
contains the file header, number of x and y data points, mesh widths in x and y, and
the complex z (x,y) data points. The data points are presented in one column with the
order determined by scanning the x and y coordinates.

BCF3DCX - file header

NX NY - number of x and y data points

WX WY - mesh widths in x and y

Z1 - complex number z data point with coordinates (xmin, ymin)

Z2 - complex number z data point with coordinates (xmin+dx,


ymin)

Z3 - complex number z data point with coordinates (xmin+2dx,


ymin)

. . .

ZNX - complex number z data point with coordinates (xmax, ymin)

ZNX+1 - complex number z data point with coordinates (xmin,


ymin+dy)

. . .

ZN - last complex number z data point with coordinates (xmax,


ymax), N=NXxNY

where dx = (xmax-xmin)/(nx-1) and dy = (ymax-ymin)/(ny-1).

293
MEASURED TRANSVERSE MODE

Example: Complex field (end of propagation) in BPM 3D [*.f3d]


In this example, the number of data points is 100 and equals to the number of mesh
points. The transverse mesh extends from -5.000000E+000 to 5.000000E+000
microns giving the mesh width 1.000000E+001 microns.

BCF3DCX

100 100

1.000000E+001 1.100000E+001

-4.582487025358980E-004, -2.411965546811583E-002

1.813879122411751E-004, -2.322439514101689E-002

8.864140535377826E-004, -2.245463661588051E-002

. . .

-1.004141897700716E-002, 7.709994296904761E-003

-9.736326254112302E-003, 8.732395427319460E-003

-9.270032367315658E-003, 9.686774052240091E-003

294
MODE ID MODIFIER

Mode ID Modifier

This component changes the label identifier of a transverse mode. Transverse modes
with different labels identifiers are considered orthogonal.

Ports

Name and description Port type Signal type Supported


Modes
Input Input Optical Sample signals

Output Output Optical

Parameters
Main

Name and description Default value Default unit Units Value range
User defined label NO [YES, NO]

Defines whether to attach to the label ID


a user defined string or generate a
unique ID automatically

Label ID ““

The user defined string to be attached to


the current label ID.

Simulation

Name and description Default value Default unit Units Value range
Enabled YES [YES, NO]

Determines whether or not the


component is enabled

Technical Background
This component changes the label identifier of a transverse mode. Transverse modes
with different labels identifiers are considered orthogonal. Multimode signals with

295
MODE ID MODIFIER

transverse modes with the same label identifier are not considered orthogonal. By
using this component to change the label identifier the modes are then considered
orthogonal.

296
Optical Fibers Library
• Optical fiber
• Optical fiber CWDM
• Bidirectional Optical Fiber
• Nonlinear Dispersive Fiber (Obsolete)
• Linear Multimode Fiber
• Parabolic-Index Multimode Fiber
• Measured-Index Multimode Fiber

297
Notes:

298
OPTICAL FIBER

Optical fiber

The optical fiber component simulates the propagation of an optical field in a single-
mode fiber with the dispersive and nonlinear effects taken into account by a direct
numerical integration of the modified nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) equation (when the
scalar case is considered) and a system of two, coupled NLS equations when the
polarization state of the signal is arbitrary. The optical sampled signals reside in a
single frequency band, hence the name total field [1]. The parameterized signals and
noise bins are only attenuated.

Ports

Name and description Port type Signal type


Input Input Optical

Output Output Optical

Parameters
Main

Name and description Symbol Default value Default Value range


unit
User defined reference wavelength TRUE — TRUE/FALSE

If TRUE, frequency value of “Reference wavelength” is


used internally as ‘zero’ (or reference) frequency in
spectrum of signal envelope. Values of parameters
(attenuation, dispersion) are assumed to correspond to
this frequency. If parameters are wavelength-
dependent (from files), they are evaluated at this
frequency. If FALSE, central frequency of simulated
band is used.

Reference wavelength λ0 1550 nm [100, 2000]

Value of user defined/specified reference wavelength.

Length L 50 km [0, 100,000]

Fiber length

Attenuation effect — TRUE — TRUE/FALSE


If TRUE, attenuation effect is enabled.

299
OPTICAL FIBER

Name and description Symbol Default value Default Value range


unit
Attenuation data type — Constant — Constant/ From
File
Defines the attenuation as a fixed constant value or as
a wavelength dependent curve taken from a file. If
‘constant’, value from “Attenuation” tab in component is
used.

Attenuation α 0.2 dB/km [0, 1010]


Specified value is used if “Attenuation data type” is set
to ‘constant’. If ‘from file’, the value is ignored.

Attenuation vs. wavelength — — — —

Defines the attenuation as a wavelength dependent


curve in a file.

Dispersion

Name and description Symbol Default value Default Value range


unit
Group velocity dispersion — TRUE — TRUE/FALSE

If TRUE, the GVD effect is enabled.

Third order dispersion — TRUE — TRUE/FALSE

If TRUE, the TOD effect is enabled.

Frequency domain parameters


Defines domain in which dispersion parameters are
specified. If TRUE, frequency domain is used and
dispersion effect is specified in terms of β 2 and β 3 .
Otherwise, wavelength domain is used ( D and S ).

Dispersion data type Constant — Constant/ From


File
Defines if dispersion parameter values are read from
component tabs, or taken from a file

Beta 2 β2 -20 ps2/km [-10100, 10100]

Value of the GVD parameter in the frequency domain

Beta 3 β3 -20 ps3/km [-10100, 10100]

Value of the GVD parameter in the frequency domain

Dispersion D 16.75 — [-10100, 10100]


ps -
Value of the GVD parameter in the wavelength ------------------------
( nm ) ( km )
domain

Dispersion slope — 0.075 [-10100, 10100]


ps
--------------------------
-
Value of dispersion slope parameter. 2
( nm ) ( km )

300
OPTICAL FIBER

Name and description Symbol Default value Default Value range


unit
Dispersion file format — Dispersion vs — Dispersion vs
wavelengtht wavelength/
Determines contents of dispersion file: group delay or Group delay vs
dispersion vs. wavelength. If “Dispersion vs.
wavelength
wavelength” and “Frequency domain parameters” are
selected, it is assumed that file contains β 2 ( λ ) . If
“Frequency domain parameters” is disabled,
component assumes that file contains D ( λ ) . If
“Group delay vs wavelength”, the file contains
β1 ( λ ) .
Dispersion file name — — — —

Specifies file containing dispersion data

The parameter “Frequency domain parameters” refers to the alternative definitions:

∂β 1 ∂D
D = ---------, S = ------- (wavelength domain definition)
∂λ ∂λ

and
∂β 1 ∂β 2
β 2 = ---------, β 3 = --------- (frequency domain definition)
∂ω ∂ω

of the dispersion parameters, but not to the argument of these functions, which is
always assumed to be the wavelength. All the parameters in the component
(including β 2 and β 3 ) are given as functions of wavelength (not frequency). This is
also the case when β 1 or β 2 are specified from a file - the first column of the file
contains wavelength values ( λ ) and the second column - the corresponding values
of β 1 ( λ ) or β 2 ( λ ) .

PMD

Name and description Symbol Default value Default Value range


unit
Birefringence type — Deterministic — Deterministic/
Stochastic
Defines the birefringence. If “Deterministic”, both the
strength of birefringence and principal axes are assumed
constant, hence random mode coupling is disabled. If
“Stochastic”, random mode coupling is enabled.

Differential group delay 0.2 ps- [-10100, 10100]


d- ------
------ ( Δβ )
If Birefringence type is “Deterministic”, this is the value of dω km
the differential group delay. If “Stochastic”, parameter is
disabled.

301
OPTICAL FIBER

Name and description Symbol Default value Default Value range


unit
PMD coefficient 0.5 ps - [0,10100]
Dp ----------
Polarization mode dispersion coefficient. If Birefringence
type is “Stochastic”, this is the value of the PMD
km
parameter. If “Deterministic”, parameter is disabled.

Mean scattering section length 500 [0,10100]


L scatt m
Averaged value of fiber length at which the polarization
state of the signal is randomized by applying the
scattering matrix.

Scattering section dispersion σ scatt 100 [0,10100]


m
Dispersion of the scattering section length.

Nonlinearities

Name and description Symbol Default value Default Value range


unit
Self-phase modulation — TRUE — TRUE/FALSE

Determines if the self-phase modulation (SPM) effect will


be taken into account. If FALSE all the nonlinear effects -
self-steepening, SRS - are disabled. In the vector case
enabling this effect enables also the cross-phase
modulation between the orthogonal polarization
components.

Effective area data type Constant — Constant/ From


File
Defines is effective area parameter value is read from the
component tab or from a file. If “Constant”, the value from
the component is used.

Effective area 80 [0,1010]


A eff μm
2
Defines the value of the effective area parameter. This
value is used if “Effective area data type” is set to
“Constant”. Otherwise, the value is ignored.

Effective area vs. wavelength — — — —

If “Effective area data type” is “From file”, this tab specifies


the file containing the effective area data.

n2 data type — Constant — Constant/ From


File
Determines if n 2 parameter (nonlinear index of refraction) value
is read from the component tab or from a file. If “Constant”, value
is taken from component.

n2 2.6 X 10-20 [0,10100]


n2 m
2
------
The value of the n 2 parameter (nonlinear index of refraction). If W
data type is set to “Constant”, this value is used, otherwise the
value is ignored.

302
OPTICAL FIBER

Name and description Symbol Default value Default Value range


unit
Self-steepening — FALSE — FALSE/TRUE

Specifies whether self-steepening effect is taken into


account. Can be enabled only after enabling the SPM, and
is taken into account only in the scalar case (if Model type
is set to Scalar), and if Full Raman response parameter is
FALSE.

Full Raman response — FALSE — FALSE/TRUE

Defines the stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) effect


representation in the model. If TRUE, SRS is represented
through the convolution integrals of the fields with the
Raman susceptibilities [6, 18-21]. Intrapulse Raman
scattering is disabled.

Intrapulse Raman scattering — FALSE — FALSE/TRUE

Defines the stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) for [19-


21]. Can be enabled if Full Raman response is FALSE. If
both Full Raman response and Intrapulse Raman
scattering are FALSE, SRS effect is not taken into account
in the simulation.

Raman self-shift time 1 [0,10100]


τ R1 14.2
fs
Value of the Raman self-shift time parameter associated
with the parallel SRS effect

t
τ R1 = ( dImχ 1111 ( ω ) ⁄ dω ) ω = 0

Units are such that Re ( χ 1111 ( ω = 0 ) ) = 1 [19-21].

Raman self-shift time 2 [0,10100]


τ R2 3
fs
τ R2 = ( dImχ 1122 ( ω ) ⁄ dω ) ω = 0

Units are such that Re ( χ 1111 ( ω = 0 ) ) = 1 [18, 20, 21].

Fractional Raman contribution ρ 0.18 — [0, 1]

Fraction of the nonlinear polarization, related to the


stimulated Raman scattering effect [2].

Orthogonal Raman factor αf 0.75 — [0, 1]

α f = Re ( χ 1122 ( ω = 0 ) )

Units are such that Re ( χ 1111 ( ω = 0 ) ) = 1 .

303
OPTICAL FIBER

Numerical

Name and description Symbol Default value Default Value


unit range
Model type — Scalar — Scalar/Vect
or
Defines model type used for simulation. Depends on
polarization state of signal. If “Vector” selected, signal can
have arbitrary polarization state and a system of two
coupled equations (17) is solved. If “Scalar” selected, the
signal preserves its polarization state and a single equation
is solved (1). In the following cases, vector simulation is
performed regardless of value of model type parameter:
• Two polarization components are detected at fiber input
• PMD effect is “Stochastic”.

Propagator type Exponential — Exponential


Runge-
Method used to apply nonlinear propagator in the split-step
Kutta 4th
Fourier method. “Exponential” corresponds to standard order
implementation [2], “Runge-Kutta 4th (2nd) order” uses
Runge-Kutta 4th (2nd) order (see [3]) to apply nonlinearity Exponential
operator. Exponential cannot be used when Model type is Runge-
set to Vector, and SRS effect is enabled. The default Kutta 2nd
selection is Runge-Kutta 2nd order. order

Calculation type — Iterative — Iterative/


Noniterative
Specifies implementation of split-step Fourier method [2, 4]
when Propagator type is “Exponential”.

Number of iterations 2 — [2, 1010]

Switch On/Off the dispersion slope (the third-order


dispersion)

Step Size — Variable — Variable/


Constant
Specifies whether variable or fixed step-size simulation is
used. If “Variable”, step size is adaptively changed
depending on value of “Max. nonlinear phase shift”
parameter, and solution itself. If “Constant”, step size is
evaluated once at the beginning of simulation. In some
cases, the fixed step size calculation executes faster, due to
the smaller number of calculations per step, but the variable
step size calculation is more flexible and can be faster if the
peak power of the waveform varies considerably in z (for
example, in the presence of strong attenuation).

Max. Nonlinear phase shift 3.14 [0,10100]


NL
ϕ max mrad
Maximum (over the time window) phase shift induced by the
self-phase modulation effect per step.

304
OPTICAL FIBER

Name and description Symbol Default value Default Value


unit range
Boundary conditions — Periodic — Periodic/
Absorbing
Specifies type of boundary conditions used in simulation.

Filter steepness — 0.5 — [0,10100]


If “Boundary conditions” option is set to “Absorbing”, the
“Filter steepness” parameter determines the
absorption/reflection properties of the time window
boundaries.

Lower/Upper calculation limit — [1400, 1700]


nm [100, 2000]

Set the spectral range in which the simulation is performed.


Any spectral components outside the range is ignored.

Graphs

Name and description Symbol Default value Default unit Value


range
Calculate graph — FALSE — FALSE/TRUE

Enables/disables 3D graphs. If disabled, no graphs


are plotted and no data are stored.

Number of distance steps — 200 — [1, 100000000]

Number of snapshots used to construct a 3D plot. If


this value is increased, the fidelity of the plot is
improved only if the value is below the number of
actual steps in z . The number of snapshots stored
cannot be bigger than the number of steps in z
taken by the simulation to obtain the solution. The
latter is determined by the maximum nonlinear
phase-shift parameter (numerical tab).

Number of wavelength/time steps — 200 — [1, 100000000]

Number of stored points per snapshot. If this value


is increased, the fidelity of the plot is improved only
if the value is below the actual number of points in
the time (frequency) domain used by the simulation
to obtain the solution. The latter is related to the
number of samples, which is a global parameter.

Linear scale — TRUE — TRUE/FALSE

Determines axis type (linear or logarithmic) for the


dependent variable. If TRUE, the axis type is linear.

Note: The rest of the parameters in the Graphs tab of the component determine
which graphs are plotted after the simulation is complete.

305
OPTICAL FIBER

Simulation

Name and description Symbol Default value Default unit Value


range
Enabled — TRUE — TRUE/FALSE

Determines whether or not the component is


enabled. If FALSE, all input signals reach the output
port of the component without any changes.

Noise

Name and description Symbol Default value Default unit Value


range
Convert noise bins — FALSE — FALSE/TRUE

If TRUE, each noise bin within the bandwidth of the


signal is converted to a Gaussian white noise, with
the correct power spectral density, and the noise is
added to the signal.

Random numbers

Name and description Symbol Default value Default unit Value


range
Generate random seed — TRUE — TRUE/FALSE

Determines how random number generator is


initialized (seeded). If TRUE, the seed index used
for the initialization is the random number itself.
Otherwise, a user specified number is used.

Random seed index — 0 — [0, 4999]

If “Generate random seed” is FALSE, this value


specifies the seed index. The generated pseudo-
random sequence is the same if the seed index is
not changed. The value of the “Random seed index”
is ignored if “Generate random seed” is TRUE.

306
OPTICAL FIBER

Technical Background
Scalar approach
Basic equation
When the optical field is assumed to maintain its polarization along the fiber length,
the evolution of a slowly varying electric field envelope can be described by a single
nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) [2] equation (the scalar approach, Model type parameter
from the "Numerical" tab is set to "Scalar") of the form:

∂E β2 ( ω0 ) ∂2 E β3 ( ω0 ) ∂3 E ⎛ i ∂ ∂E ⎞
2
- --------- – ----------------- --------- = iγ ⎜ E 2 E + ------ ------ ( E 2 E ) – ρτ R1 E ------------⎟
(1)
------ + αE + i ----------------
∂z 2 ∂T 2 6 ∂T 3 ⎝ ω 0 ∂T ∂T ⎠

In Equation 2, E = E ( z, T ) is the electric field envelope. A frame moving at the


group velocity ( T = t – z ⁄ v g ≡ t – β 1 z ) is assumed.

The derivatives of the propagation constant of the fiber mode β ( ω ) , ( ( β ( ω )c ) ⁄ ω


is the mode effective index), with respect to frequency
n
∂ β (ω 0 )
β n = --------------------
n
, n = 1, 2, 3 .
∂ω
( β 2 ) and ( β 3 ) are the first and the second group velocity dispersion (GVD)
parameters, respectively, and ω 0 is the reference frequency of the signal, related to
the parameter "Reference wavelength" ("Main" category of the components tool-box)
2πc
through ω 0 = --------- with c being the light speed in vacuum.
λ0
The physical meaning of the terms in Equation 2 is the following. The first term takes
into account the slow changes of the electric field along the fiber length. The second
term takes into account the linear losses of optical fiber. The third term represents the
(first-order) group velocity dispersion. This is the effect responsible for the pulse
broadening. (See "Group velocity dispersion" in the Tutorials). The next term is the
second-order GVD, known also as third-order dispersion (TOD). This effect becomes
important for a signal with a broad spectrum (e.g. femtosecond pulses or WDM
systems with many channels). The pulse shape becomes asymmetric due to the
effect of TOD. (See "Third order dispersion" from the Tutorials). The parameters ( β2 )
and ( β 3 ) are denoted as "frequency domain parameters" in the interface of the
component (see the "Dispersion" category in the Parameters table). The following

307
OPTICAL FIBER

relations are used internally to convert between them and the commonly used
wavelength domain parameters D (dispersion) and S (dispersion slope).

dβ 1 2πc-
D = --------- = – --------
2 2
β
dλ λ (2)

λ 2 2 dD
β 3 = ⎛ ---------⎞ ( λ S + 2λD ), S = -------
⎝ 2πc⎠ dλ

The parameter γ is given by:

ω0 n2
γ = ------------ (3)
cA eff

In Equation 3, n 2 is the nonlinear refractive index coefficient and A eff is the fiber
effective area. The first term in the right-hand side in Equation 1 accounts for the self-
phase modulation effect. It is responsible for the broadening of the pulse spectra and,
in the presence of anomalous GVD, for the formation of optical solitons (See "Self-
phase modulation" and "Self-phase modulation and group velocity dispersion" from
the Tutorials). The second term in the right-hand side of Equation 1 takes into account
the self-steepening effect. It leads to an asymmetry in the SPM-broadened spectra of
ultrashort (femtosecond) pulses [2] and is responsible for the formation of optical
shocks (see "Self-steepening" in the Tutorials). This effect will be taken into account
only if the "Full Raman response" parameter is set to False. The last term in
Equation 1 accounts for the intra-pulse Raman scattering effect with the parameter
τ R1 being the parallel Raman self-shift time. The intra-pulse Raman scattering is an
approximation to the actual Raman response of the material which is valid provided
that signal spectrum is narrow compared to the Raman-gain spectrum. The τ R
parameter is related to the slope of the imaginary part of the Raman susceptibility
Im ( χ 1111 ( ω ) ) at zero frequency offset [2]. The parameter ρ is the fractional
contribution of the delayed response of the material to the total nonlinearity [2]. The
intra-pulse Raman scattering effect is responsible for the self-frequency shift i.e.
energy transfer from higher to lower spectral components. It leads to a decay of higher
order solitons into its constituents (see "Intrapulse Raman scattering" in the Tutorials).
The intra-pulse Raman scattering plays the most important role among the higher
order nonlinear effects [2].

In a WDM system, the stimulated Raman scattering is responsible for an energy


transfer from higher to lower frequency channels (crosstalk). The Raman induced
crosstalk can be neglected when the following relation is satisfied [5]:

(4)
P TOT B TOT L E < 9mWTHzMm ,

308
OPTICAL FIBER

where L E ≈ z ⁄ ( L amp α ) is the total effective length, α is the fiber loss, L amp is the
amplifier spacing, z the link length, P TOT is the total optical power, and B TOT is the
total optical bandwidth.

Full Raman response


By selecting the option "Full Raman response" from the Numerical tab, the
component can simulate the SRS effect even if the signal spectrum is much narrower
than the Raman gain spectrum. In this case Equation 1 is replaced by:

⎛ ∞ ⎞
∂E iβ 2 ( ω 0 ) ∂ 2 E β 3 ( ω 0 ) ∂ 3 E ⎜ 2 2 ⎟ (4a)
------ + αE + ------------------- --------- – ----------------- --------- = iγ ( 1 – ρ ) E E + ρE ∫ h 1111 ( s ) E ( T – s ) ds
∂z 2 2 6 ∂T 3 ⎜ ⎟
∂T ⎝ ⎠
0

Contained within Equation (4a) is h 1111 ( t ) which is the (time-domain) Raman


response function [2], [20]. It is the Fourier-transform of the of the Raman
susceptibility χ 1111 ( ω ) . In this case the self-steeping effect is neglected.

Numerical solution
In dimensionless form, Equation 1 reduces to:

2 3 2
∂U ∂ U- 2 ∂ U- ∂U ∂ 2 (5)
i ------- + D 2 --------- + N 1 U U = iD 3 --------- + N 2 U ------------- – iN 3 ---- ( U U ) – iAU ,
∂ξ ∂t
2
∂t
3 ∂t ∂t

where the coefficients are given by:

sign ( β 2 ) L D sign ( β 3 ) LD LD LD (6)


D 2 = ----------------------, D 3 = -----------------------------, N 1 = ------ , N 2 = ------ τ R' , N 3 = --------- s .
2 L D' L NL L NL L NL

The new quantities are introduced according to:

2 3
T0 1 T0 1 τR (7)
LD = --------, L NL = --------, L D' = --------, s = ------------, τ R' = -----, E = P 0 U, T = T 0 t, z = ξL D
β2 γP 0 β3 ω0 T0 To

In Equation 7,T 0 is the time window size and P 0 is the maximum (over the time
2
window) of the electric field intensity E ( z = 0, T ) .

309
OPTICAL FIBER

The symmetrized split-step Fourier method [2, 4] is used to solve Equation 5. The
solution is advanced from ξ to ξ + h ( h is the step-size, related to the value of the
NL 2
Max. nonlinear phase shift parameter ϕ max = max ( U h ) ) according to:

⎛ (ξ + h) ⎞
h--- ⎞ h

U ( ξ + h, t ) = exp ⎝ D̂⎠ exp ∫ N̂ ( ξ' ) dξ'⎟ exp ⎛ --- D̂⎞ U ( ξ, t ) ,
⎜ (8)
2 ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 2 ⎠
⎝ ξ ⎠

where the dispersion D̂ and nonlinearity N̂ operators are given by:

2 3
∂ ∂ (9)
D̂ = iD 2 ------2- + D 3 ------3- – A
∂t ∂t

and

2 2
∂U ∂U ∂U
N̂ = iN 1 U – iN 2 ------------- – N 3 ⎛ ------------- + U∗ ------- ⎞
2 (10)
∂t ⎝ ∂t ∂t ⎠

The different options available from the "Numerical" tab specify the details of the
implementation of Equation 8 and Equation 10 (see Figure 1). The simplest (and the
fastest) implementation corresponds to "Propagator type" set to "Exponential" and
"Calculation type" set to "Noniterative". In this case, the following approximation is
used:

ξ+h


(11)
N̂ ( ξ' ) dz' ≈ hN̂ ( exp [ ( h ⁄ 2 )D̂ ] U ( ξ, t ) ) .
ξ

310
OPTICAL FIBER

Figure 1 Component “Numerical" tab

According to Equation 11, the half-step propagated field, with the nonlinear effects
ignored, is used in turn to evaluate the nonlinearity operator. The dispersion operator
is evaluated in the frequency domain according to:

h h
Ũ D ⎛ ξ + ---⎞ = FFT exp ⎛ --- D̂ ( iω )⎞ FFT [ U ( ξ, t ) ] ,
–1 (12)
⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎠

where FFT means fast Fourier transform. If, in addition the "Step size" option is set
to "Constant" ("Propagator type", "Exponential", and "Calculation type" are set to
"Noniterative"), the number of operations per step decreases because the first and
the last Fourier transform for each step cancels each other out (dispersion operators
combine) (see Equation 13).

⎛(ξ + h) ⎞ ⎛ (ξ + h) ⎞
h h h h
U ( ξ + 2h, t ) = exp ⎛ --- D̂⎞ exp ⎜ ∫ N̂ ( ξ' ) dξ'⎟ exp ⎛ --- D̂⎞ exp ⎛ --- D̂⎞ exp ⎜ ∫ N̂ ( ξ' ) dξ'⎟ exp ⎛ --- D̂⎞ U ( ξ, t ) =
⎝2 ⎠ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝2 ⎠ ⎝2 ⎠ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝2 ⎠
⎝ ξ ⎠ ⎝ ξ ⎠
(13)
(ξ + h) (ξ + h)
⎛ ⎞ ⎛ ⎞
h h
exp ⎛ --- D̂⎞ exp ⎜⎜ ∫ N̂ ( ξ' ) dξ'⎟⎟ exp ( hD̂ ) exp ⎜⎜ ∫ N̂ ( ξ' ) dξ'⎟⎟ exp ⎛⎝ --- D̂⎞⎠ U ( ξ, t )
⎝2 ⎠ 2
⎝ ξ ⎠ ⎝ ξ ⎠

311
OPTICAL FIBER

When the "Propagator Type" is set to "Runge-Kutta 4th order" (or "Runge-Kutta 2nd
order") (RK4 or RK2), the exponent with the nonlinearity operator in Equation 8 is
replaced by the direct integration of the following system of coupled ordinary
differential equations:

⎛ ∂U
-------⎞ = N̂U (14)
⎝ ∂z ⎠ NL

by means of the standard RK4 (or RK2) routine (see example in [3]). The application
of the dispersion operator is the same.

Note: The Runge-Kutta (2nd or 4th order) implementations in the fiber


component enable modeling the stimulated Raman scattering effect with the
optical signal having an arbitrary polarization ("Model type" parameter set to
"Vector"). However, due to the larger number of operations per step, they are
executed slower and are not recommended otherwise (in "scalar" simulations or
when the Raman effect is not included in a vector simulation) because the
"Exponential" implementation of the nonlinearity provides faster execution.

If the "Propagator type" is set to "Exponential" and "Calculation type" to "Iterative",


Equation 11 is replaced by [2], [4]:

ξ+h
h

(15)
N̂ ( ξ' ) dξ' ≈ --- ( N ( ξ ) + N ( ξ + h ) )
2
ξ

The symbol N̂ ( ξ ) means N̂ ( E ( ξ ) ) . Since N̂ ( ξ + h ) is unknown at ξ + h ⁄ 2 , it is


necessary to follow an iterative procedure that is initiated by replacing N̂ ( ξ + h ) by
N̂ ( ξ ) (see [2], [4] for the details). Working with two iterations gives a reasonable
combination between accuracy and speed, as recommended in [2].

312
OPTICAL FIBER

2
Figure 2 Evolution of E ( ξ, t = 0 ) for N=3 soliton over 15 soliton periods with different calculation
modes

NL
Note: In the three cases presented, ϕ max = 27.6mrad , constant step size.
A comparison between the "Iterative" and "Noniterative" approaches is presented in
Figure 2. Evolution of N=3 soliton over 15 soliton periods is presented. The "Step
size" is kept "Constant" with the "Max. nonlinear phase shift" parameter is equal to
27.6. mrad. The noniterative approach is the fastest but not accurate enough at this
step size. The development of spurious, numerical instability, which breaks the
periodicity of the soliton evolution [2], is evident at the end of the run. For the same
step size the iterative implementation of the split-step Fourier method suppresses the
instability, thus improving the quality of the results, however this improvement is at the
expense of increased computation time.

The step size h in the component is determined through the value of the parameter
NL 2
ϕ max = γmax ( E )h . In the case of the constant step size calculation, it is
calculated once, using the input signal to obtain the maximum value of the intensity.
In the case of variable step size calculation such an evaluation is performed at each
step.

313
OPTICAL FIBER

NL NL
Figure 3 Variable step size, value of ϕ max is ϕ max = 50mrad

In Figure 3, the calculation presented in Figure 2 is repeated using variable step size.
This calculation takes longer in comparison to the "Noniterative" case presented in
Figure 2, but less than in the case where two iterations are used. Depending on the
behavior of the solution, variable step size calculation can take less time compared to
the constant step size, although the fixed step size calculation performs a smaller
number of operations per step (see Equation 13). In the presence of considerable
attenuation, the importance of nonlinear effects decreases along the fiber length,
which would permit the use of a larger step size. In this case, the use of variable step
size will reduce the computation time. The variable step size calculation is more
NL
flexible, because different tasks can be handled keeping the value of ϕ max constant.
For the case presented in Figure 3, this value is double the size of the one used in
Figure 2, but the results are even better (refer to compare with Figure 2,
"Noniterative").

The split-step scheme used in the model is locally second order accurate which
3
means that the local error is proportional to the h . However, the global error (after N
3 2
steps) is proportional to Nh = Lh [22]. Thus, increasing the fiber length might
require decrease of the step size to maintain the same accuracy.

The use of FFT implies periodic boundary conditions. In some cases a part of the
pulse energy may spread eventually hitting the time window boundaries. When the
energy reaches one of the edges of the time window it automatically reenters from the
other edge perturbing the solution. This can be avoided using the absorbing type of
boundary conditions. To achieve this at each step the optical field is multiplied in the
time domain [10] by:

Γ ( t ) = 1 – sech ( FilterSteepnes ( t – t edge ) ) , (16)

where t edge indicates the nearest edge. The effect of periodic and absorbing
boundary conditions is shown in Figure 4 where the results presented in Figure 3 from

314
OPTICAL FIBER

"Birefringence and solitons" (propagation distance is equal to 1262.34km) are


displayed. However here the time window is reduced to show the effect of the periodic
boundary conditions. The oscillatory tail developed by the solution in the case when
periodic boundary conditions are used is an unphysical effect, resulting from the
interference of the radiation that has reentered the time window and the solution. In
the case when absorbing boundary conditions are used the radiation that has
separated from the solution is removed. The smaller the value of the filter steepness
parameter the better the time window boundaries absorb (and do not reflect),
however the larger part of the time window becomes absorbing (see Equation 16.

Figure 4 Periodic (left plot) and absorbing with filter steepness 0.05 (right plot) boundary conditions

315
OPTICAL FIBER

Vector approach
When the polarization state of the incident light is not preserved during its propagation
inside an optical fiber the scalar approach is no longer applicable and Equation 1 is
replaced by [2], [6] - [10]:

2 3
∂E X ∂E iβ ∂ E β ∂ E
--------- + β 1X ---------X + ------2- -----------X- – ----3- -----------X- = iγ ( 1 – ρ ) ⎛ E X 2 + 2--- E Y 2⎞ E X
∂z ∂t 2 ∂t 2 6 ∂t 3 ⎝ 3 ⎠
∞ ∞
2 2
+ iγρE X ∫ h1111 ( s ) EX ( t – s ) ds + ∫ h 1122 ( s ) E Y ( t – s ) ds
0 0

+ iγρE Y ∫ h 1212 ( s )E X ( t – s )E Y∗ ( t – s )ds


0 (17)

2 3
∂E Y ∂E iβ ∂ E β ∂ E
--------- + β 1X --------Y- + -------2 -----------Y- – ----3- -----------Y- = iγ ( 1 – ρ ) ⎛ E Y 2 + 2--- E X 2⎞ E Y
∂z ∂t 2 ∂t 2 6 ∂t 3 ⎝ 3 ⎠
∞ ∞
2 2
+ iγρE Y ∫ h1111 ( s ) Eγ ( t – s ) ds + ∫ h 1122 ( s ) E X ( t – s ) ds
0 0

+ iγρE X ∫ h 1212 ( s )E γ t – s E∗ X ( t – s ) ds
0

Equation 17, h ijkl ( t ) contains the Raman response functions [6], [18]. Their Fourier
transformations and Raman susceptibilities χ ijkl ( v ) , are shown in Figure 4.1. The
convolution integrals in Equation 17 are evaluated in the frequency domain, by
multiplying the spectra of the electric fields with the Raman susceptibilities and then
performing the inverse FFT.

316
OPTICAL FIBER

Figure 4.1 Raman susceptibilities for fused quartz [6, 18]

The SRS effect is represented by "Intrapulse Raman scattering" (Equation 17) is


replaced by [20]:

2 3
∂E ∂E iβ ∂ E β ∂ E
---------X + β 1X ---------X + -------2 -----------X- – ----3- -----------X- =
∂z ∂t 2 ∂t 2 6 ∂t 3
2 2
2 1 + αf ∂ EX ∂ EY
+ ⎛⎝ ---( 1 – ρ ) + ρ --------------⎞⎠ E Y – ρτ R1 --------------- – ρτ R2 --------------- E X
2 2
iγ E X
3 2 ∂t ∂t
τ R1 – τ R2 ∂ ( E X E Y∗ )
– iγρ ---------------------- ------------------------ E Y
2 ∂t
(17a)

2 3
∂E ∂E iβ ∂ E β ∂ E
--------Y- + β 1Y --------Y- + ------2- -----------Y- – ----3- -----------Y- =
∂z ∂t 2 ∂t 2 6 ∂t 3
2 2
2 1 + αf 2 ∂ EY ∂ EX
+ ⎛⎝ ---( 1 – ρ ) + σ --------------⎞⎠ E X – στ R1 --------------- – ρ τ R2 --------------- E Y
2
iγ E Y
3 2 ∂t ∂t
τ R1 – τ R2 ∂ ( E Y E X∗ )
– iγρ ---------------------- ------------------------ E X
2 ∂t

Note: In the case of Equation 17 or Equation 17a, due to the orthogonal Raman
gain terms (the last sections in Equation 17 or Equation 17a), the "Exponential"
option for the "Propagator type" is not applicable. The component automatically
selects "Runge Kutta 2nd order" when the model type is set to "Vector", and the
Raman effect ("Intrapulse Raman scattering" or "Full Raman response" options

317
OPTICAL FIBER

are selected. Due to the increased number of convolutions performed at each


step the fiber component can be slow when solving Equation 17.

In normalized units and when the SRS effect is neglected ( ρ = 0 ) Equation 17


reads as:

2 3
∂u ∂u ∂ u ∂ u 2 2 2
i ⎛⎝ ------ + δ ------⎞⎠ + D 2 --------2 – iD 3 -------3- + N 1 ⎛⎝ u + --- v ⎞⎠ u = 0
∂ξ ∂t ∂τ ∂τ 3
(18)
2 3
∂v ∂v ∂ v ∂ v 2 2 2
i ⎛⎝ ------ + δ -----⎞⎠ + D 2 -------2- – iD 3 -------3- + N 1 ⎛⎝ v + --- u ⎞⎠ v = 0
∂ξ ∂t ∂τ ∂τ 3

The quantities β 1X and β 1Y are the inverse group velocities for the X and Y
polarization components respectively.

Figure 5 Optical fiber as a concatenation of trunks

Note: The arrows represent the principal axes.

The parameter δ is given by δ = ( β 1X – β 1Y )T 0 ⁄ ( 2 β 2 ), where β 1X – β 1Y is the


value of the differential group delay parameter entered from the "PMD" tab, in the
case where "Deterministic" mode is selected for the birefringence effect (see
"Birefringence and solitons" from the Tutorials). The effects of four-wave mixing
between the orthogonal polarization components are not taken into account due to
their negligible contribution for typical values of the birefringence [9], [10]. The
normalized time τ is introduced according to τ = ( t – β 1 z ) ⁄ T 0 where
β 1 = ( β 1X + β 1Y ) ⁄ 2 . All the other parameters have the same meaning as in the
scalar case.

The "coarse-step method" [11] is used to simulate the PMD effects in the "Stochastic"
mode. The fiber is represented by a concatenation of trunks and the propagation of
light in each trunk is simulated by the split-step Fourier method described in the
previous section. The lengths of the trunks are random numbers with a Gaussian

318
OPTICAL FIBER

distribution [12]. The average and the dispersion of this distribution are the "Scattering
section length" L scatt and "Scattering section dispersion" σ scatt parameters:

i 2
i 1 – ( L scatt – L scatt ) (19)
f ( L scatt ) = ------------------------ exp ------------------------------------------
2πσ scatt 2
2σ scatt

It is recommended [12] that the dispersion is 20% of the average value. The
birefringence of each trunk is given by [11] (see the related PMD examples in the
tutorials):

d- DP
------ ( Δβ ) = ----------------- (20)
dω i
L scatt

where D PMD is the PMD coefficient. The principal axes of the trunks are randomly
oriented with respect to each other (see Figure 4). To simulate the random mode
coupling at the end of each trunk the following transformation is applied [11], [13]:

E X' cos α sin α exp ( iϕ ) E X (21)


=
E Y' – sin α exp ( – i ϕ ) cosα EY

In Equation 20, α and ϕ are random numbers uniformly distributed in the interval
[ 0, 2π ] .
Wavelength dependent parameters
The file that specifies the wavelength dependence of the parameters consists of two
columns with the left column being the wavelength in nanometers and the right
column containing the corresponding values of the parameters (see Table 1 ). The
sampling interval is not necessarily be constant. The parameter values must be given
in the units specified in the "Units" tab of the table.

319
OPTICAL FIBER

Table 1 Wavelength dependence of the attenuation parameter

λ [ nm ] α [ dB ⁄ km ]
1400 0.31405

1402.5 0.30246

1405 0.29276

1407.5 0.28457

1410 0.27757

1412.5 0.27153

The values of the parameters in Equation 1 and Equation 17 are evaluated at the
reference wavelength.

Note: The reference wavelength must be within the wavelength interval covered
by the files for all the wavelength dependent parameters specified.

The reference wavelength can be either user-specified or "automatic". In the last case
the wavelength corresponding to the central frequency of the spectrum of the signal
is assumed by the component to be the reference wavelength. Linear interpolation is
used to calculate the values of the attenuation, effective area and n 2 parameters at
this wavelength. For the dispersion parameters the following procedure is used. The
wavelength dependence specified by the file is fitted internally using the five-term
Sellmeier formula [14]. The higher-order dispersion parameters are then obtained by
analytically differentiating this expression. If the option frequency domain parameter
is unchecked, the file may give either the group delay β 1 ( λ ) or dispersion D ( λ )
(depending on the choice made in the "Dispersion file format" tab), and if the
frequency domain parameters option is selected, either β 1 ( λ ) or β 2 ( λ ) can be
supplied, again determined by the value of the "Dispersion file format" parameter. If
the wavelength dependence of the group delay is given by the user, two successive
differentiations are applied to its Sellmeier fit. Differentiating the analytical fit instead
of using a direct numerical differentiation of the data provides the advantage of being
able to produce reasonable results even in the case where the supplied data is noisy
(see Appendix 1).

Note: The accuracy of the Sellmeier fit depends on the type of the fiber. This is
shown in Figure 6, where the results obtained for dispersion flattened and
dispersion shifted fibers are shown.

320
OPTICAL FIBER

Figure 6 Comparison between the original dispersion data and their fits for two fiber types

Guidelines for using the component for WDM simulations


Periodic boundary conditions are required for simulating the propagation of long bit
sequences at different carrier wavelengths, which is the case when WDM systems are
designed.

To avoid the aliasing phenomena (see e.g. [3]), the sample rate is chosen to be at
least three times bigger (Figure 7) than the bandwidth occupied by the simulated
channels (see e.g. [15]).

Figure 7 WDM channels and their four-wave mixing products

Any frequency component outside the frequency range (Fc-SR/2, Fc+SR/2), where
SR is the sample rate and Fc is the reference frequency is falsely translated (aliased)
into that range by the very act of discrete sampling [3]. If the sample rate is bigger than
the bandwidth occupied by the WDM channels (so it can accommodate all the
channels) but less than three times that value in the presence of nonlinear effect the
four-wave mixing products resulting from the nonlinear interaction between the
channels (spurious waves [16]) will be aliased. In [16], to minimize the amount of

321
OPTICAL FIBER

aliased power the requirement that the value of the power spectrum at the boundary
of the available spectral range be -40 dB of its peak value is used.

The longitudinal step size depends on the importance of the nonlinear effects for the
particular simulation. If all the nonlinear effects are disabled step size equal to the
fiber length will be used. The increase of the impact of nonlinearity will require
decrease of the step size (decrease of the value of the max. nonlinear phase shift
parameter) to maintain the same accuracy.

NL NL
Figure 8 Output spectra corresponding to ϕ max = 50mrad and ϕ max = 3mrad

Note: The propagation distance is 100km. Input configuration is given in "Cross-


phase modulation" in the Tutorials.

Values in the order of a few milliradians (one [15] and three [17])) are used with this
parameter in a WDM system simulation. The effect of an improperly chosen step size
is shown in Figure 8, where the output spectra corresponding to an interaction of two
Gaussian pulses with carrier wavelengths one nm spaced are shown (see "Cross-
phase modulation" from the Tutorials). While the correct result that the four-wave
mixing products (or spurious waves) should disappear when the pulses are no longer
over-lapped (in the absence of any loss and gain [16]) is reached when the step-size
is small enough, in the opposite case, the spurious frequencies present in the output
spectra are still evident. The improperly chosen step size (too big) tends to
exaggerate the four wave mixing products (see [22] and references therein).

To increase the accuracy, you can switch from a "Noniterative" to an "Iterative"


calculation type, keeping the step size the same (with the same step size, the
"Iterative" implementation is more accurate, (see Figure 2), or alternatively, to keep
working in the "Noniterative" mode and decrease the step size, or the value of the
"Max. nonlinear phase shift" parameter. With respect to saving computational time,
the latter strategy is better. It should be noted that computational time will not be
saved by simultaneously increasing the number of iterations and the step size.

322
OPTICAL FIBER

Appendix 1
Dispersion fitting according to the Sellmeier formula
When the option "Dispersion from file” is selected, the dispersion data are internally
fitted according to the five-term Sellmeier formula [14], namely:

–4 –2 2 4 (1)A
τ = c1 λ + c2 λ + c3 + c4 λ + c5 λ

where τ is the group delay (per unit fiber length) or, respectively:

dτ –5 –3 3 (2)A
D = ------ = c 1'λ + c 2'λ + c 4'λ + c 5'λ

where D is the dispersion [ps/nm/km]. The user supplies data either for the
dispersion or the group delay that are then fitted according to Equation 2A or
Equation 1A, and the slope and/or dispersion are calculated by differentiating
Equation 1A and Equation 2A analytically.

The least-square fitting associated with Equation 2A amounts to minimizing:

N
–5 –3 3 2
∑ ( c1λ i + c 2λ i + c 4λ i + c 5λ i – D i ) = min (3)A
Q =
i=1

where N is the number of points. Using:

∂Q
------- = 0, i = 1…4 , (4)A
∂c i

323
OPTICAL FIBER

the following linear system is obtained:

– 10 –8 –4 –2 –5
∑ λi ∑ λi ∑ λi ∑ λi C1 ∑ Diλ i
–8 –6 –2 –3
∑ λi ∑ λi ∑ λi N C2
=
∑ Diλ i (5)A
–4 –2 2 4 C4
∑ λi ∑ λi ∑ λi ∑ λi ∑ Diλ i
–2 4 6 C5 3
∑ λi N ∑ λi ∑ λi ∑ Diλ i

which is solved by LU-decomposition [3].

In the case when the user supplies a group delay data file, Equation 1A is used and
Equation 5A transforms into Equation 6A.

The fitting procedure is useful when/if noisy data is supplied by the user, as the
following example shows. Figure 1A shows dispersion-versus-wavelength
dependence of SMF-28 and the corresponding "exact" results for dispersion
parameters are displayed below the graph.

–8 –6 –4 –2 –4
∑ λi ∑ λi ∑ λi ∑ λi N
C1
∑ τiλ i
–6 –4 –2 2 –2
∑ λi ∑ λi ∑ λi N ∑ λi C2 ∑ τiλ i
–4 –2 2 4 (6)A
∑ λi ∑ λi N ∑ λi ∑ λi C3 = ∑ τi
–2 2 4 6 C4 2
∑ λi N ∑ λi ∑ λi ∑ λi C5
∑ τiλ i
2 4 6 8 4
N ∑ λi ∑ λi ∑ λi ∑ λi ∑ τiλ i

324
OPTICAL FIBER

Figure 1A Lambda = 1550.75nm beta2=-2.08625e-026 s2/m beta3=1.27246e-040 s3/m

D= 1.63411e-005 s/m2 S= 56.9931 s/m3

To assess the influence of noise on the results from the calculation some noise is
added to the data presented in Figure 1A with the resulting graph presented in Figure
2A. Supplying the data from Figure 2A to the Nonlinear Dispersive Fiber Total Field
component gives the results for the dispersion parameters presented under Figure
2A.

325
OPTICAL FIBER

Figure 2A Lambda = 1550.75nm beta2=-2.10115e-026 s2/m beta3=1.32966e-040 s3/m

D= 1.64578e-005 s/m2 S= 60.3521 s/m3

326
OPTICAL FIBER

Appendix 2
Optical fiber data

SMF-28
The SMF-28 model used in OptiSystem has the following characteristics:

Figure 1 Attenuation

Figure 2 Group Velocity Dispersion

327
OPTICAL FIBER

Figure 3 Effective Area

Figure 4 Group Delay

Attenuation curve shows a minimum of 0.185 dBm for a wavelength of 1550 nm .


GVD curve reveals a dispersion of
2
16.5 ps/nm/km at 1550 nm with a dispersion
slope of 0.05 ps/nm ⁄ km .
2
Effective area at 1550 nm is 76.5 μm .
Group delay is 4897650 ps/km .
This model can be varied in any way because you have the ability to change any
particular parameter. Create a new file and then load it into the appropriate section,
or just set the parameter to 'Constant' and enter a value. The Nonlinear Fiber model
is very flexible, because it has the ability to model practically every manufactured fiber
that exists on the market today.

328
OPTICAL FIBER

+D NZDSF model
The +D NZDSF model used in OptiSystem has the following characteristics:

Figure 5 Attenuation

Figure 6 Group Velocity Dispersion

329
OPTICAL FIBER

Figure 7 Effective Area

Figure 8 Group Delay

Attenuation curve shows a minimum of 0.185 dBm for a wavelength of 1550 nm .


GVD curve reveals a dispersion of
2
4.5 ps/nm/km at 1550 nm with a dispersion
slope of 0.01 ps/nm ⁄ km .
2
The effective area at 1550 nm is 71.5 μm .
Group delay is 4895870 ps/km .

330
OPTICAL FIBER

-D NZDSF model
The -D NZDSF model used in OptiSystem has the following characteristics:

Figure 9 Attenuation

Figure 10 Group Velocity Dispersion

331
OPTICAL FIBER

Figure 11 Effective Area

Figure 12 Group Delay

Attenuation curve shows a minimum of 0.185 dBm for a wavelength of 1550 nm .


GVD curve reveals a dispersion of
2
– 7.5 ps/nm/km at 1550 nm with a dispersion
slope of 0.18 ps/nm ⁄ km .
2
Effective area at 1550 nm is 92 μm .
Group delay is 4890750 ps/km .

332
OPTICAL FIBER

CDF (Standard)
The DCF model used in OptiSystem has the following characteristics:

Figure 13 Attenuation

Figure 14 Group Velocity Dispersion

333
OPTICAL FIBER

Figure 15 Effective Area

Figure 16 Group Delay

Attenuation curve shows a minimum of 0.3 dBm for a wavelength of 1600 nm .


GVD curve reveals a dispersion of
2
– 82 ps/nm/km at 1550 nm with a dispersion
slope of 4.5 ps/nm ⁄ km .
2
Effective area at 1550 nm is 32 μm .
Group delay is 4914000 ps/km .

334
OPTICAL FIBER

References
[1] G. P. Agrawal, "Applications of nonlinear fiber optics", Academic press, 3rd edition, 2001.
[2] G. P. Agrawal, "Nonlinear fiber optics", Academic press, 3rd edition, 2001.
[3] W. H. Press, et al., "Numerical Recipes: The Art of Scientific Computing", 2nd Edition,
Cambridge University Press, 1992.
[4] M. Lax, J. H. Batteh and G. P. Agrawal, Journ. Appl. Phys. 52 , 109, (1981).
[5] F. Matera and M. Settembre, Journ. Lightwave Technol. 14, 1 (1996).
[6] R. W. Hellwarth, Prog. Quant. Electr. 5, 1 (1977).
[7] E. A. Golovchenko and A. N. Pilipetskii, JOSA B, 11, 92 (1994).
[8] P. T. Dinda, G. Millot, and S. Wabnitz JOSA B, 15, 1433 (1998).
[9] C. R. Menyuk, Opt. Lett., 12, p. 614 (1987).
[10] C. R. Menyuk, JOSA B, 5, p. 392(1988).
[11] D. Marcuse, C. R. Menyuk and P. K. A. Wai JLT, vol. 15, No. 9, pp. 1735 (1997).
[12] C. H. Prola Jr., J. A. Pereira da Silva, A. O. Dal Forno, R. Passy, J. P. Von der Weid, and N.
Gisin IEEE Phot. Technol. Letters, 9, No. 6, 842 (1997).
[13] P. K. A. Wai, C. R. Menyuk, and H. H. Chen , Opt. Lett. 16 1231 (1991).
[14] L. G. Cohen, Journ. Lightwave Technol. 3, 958, (1985).
[15] M. I. Hayee and A. E. Willner, IEEE Phot. Technol. Lett. 11, No. 8, (1999).
[16] D. Marcuse, A. R. Chraplyvy, and R. W. Tkach, Journ. Lightwave Technol, 9, 121 (1991).
[17] R. W. Tkach, A. R. Chraplyvy, F. Forghieri, A. H. Gnauck, and R. M. Derosier, Journ. Lightwave
Technol, 13, 841 (1995).
[18] P. Tchofo Dinda, G. Millot, and S. Wabnitz, JOSA B, 15, 1433, (1998).
[19] R.H.Stolen, J.P.Gordon, W.J. Tomlinson and H.A. Haus, JOSA B, 6, 1159 (1989).
[20] C.R.Menyuk, M.N.Islam and J.P.Gordon, Optics Letters, 16 566, (1991).
[21] K.J. Blow and D. Wood, IEEE J. Quant. Electr., 25, 2665, (1989).
[22] O. Sinkin, R. Holzlohner, J. Zweck and C. R. Menyuk, Journ Lightwave Technol. 21, 61 (2003).

335
OPTICAL FIBER

Notes:

336
OPTICAL FIBER CWDM

Optical fiber CWDM

The component simulates the propagation of arbitrary configuration of optical signals


in a single-mode fiber. Dispersive - first and second order group velocity dispersion
(GVD) effects - and non- self-phase modulation (SPM), cross-phase modulation
(XPM) and stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) effects - are taken into account. The
evolution of each sampled signal is governed by a modified nonlinear Schrödinger
(NLS) equation (when the signal is assumed to maintain its state of polarizing) or a
system of two, coupled NLS equations (arbitrary polarization state of the signal).

Raman interaction for an arbitrary configuration of sampled and parameterized


signals is also considered. Noise bins also participate in the SRS effects, however
their power is assumed much smaller than that of the parameterized and sampled
signals, which means that the SRS interaction between noise bins and
parameterized/sampled signals is considered as a pump-probe interaction. The
component provides most of the functionality of the total field approach fiber model
(excepting the simulation of the Raman effect in birefringent fibers) while at the same
time, it can handle different signal representation to give more flexibility and speed up
the calculations.

Ports

Name and description Port type Signal type


Input Input Optical

Output Output Optical

337
OPTICAL FIBER CWDM

Parameters
Main

Name and description Symbol Default Units Value


value range
Merge sample bands — False — False, True

If TRUE all the sampled signals will be re-sampled


and a single frequency band confining all the
sampled signals will be formed. As a result the
"Total field approach" (see the technical
description of the total field fiber model for the
details) will be implemented in the simulation. This
will include the effects of four-wave mixing in the
simulation and, besides the SRS effect will be
represented through the convolution integral of
the Raman response function and the field
intensity. If FALSE all the channels will be treated
separately - FWM effects will be disabled and
SRS effects will be approximated through inter
band Raman scattering [1, 2].

User defined reference wavelength — True — True, False

If TRUE the frequency corresponding to the value


entered under "Reference wavelength" is used
internally as reference frequency.. The system of
modified NLS equations governing the evolution
of the signals is solved in a frame moving with the
group velocity corresponding to that frequency. If
FALSE the value of the reference frequency is
calculated as the averaged of the central
frequencies of all the sampled and parameterized
signals.

Reference wavelength λ0 1550 nm [100, 2000]

The value of the user specified reference


wavelength.

Length L 50 km [0, 100 000]

Fiber length

Attenuation effect — True — True, False


If TRUE the attenuation effect is enabled, and vice
versa.

Attenuation data type — Constant — Constant, From


File
Defines if the attenuation value will be read from
the "Attenuation" tab or from a file. If "Constant"
the value specified in the "attenuation" tab will be
used for all sampled, parameterized signals and
noise bins. If "From file" a separate value will be
calculated for each noise bin, parameterized or
sampled signal by interpolating the data file.

338
OPTICAL FIBER CWDM

Name and description Symbol Default Units Value


value range
Attenuation α 0.2 dB/km [0, 1010]

The specified value will be used for all signals if


"Attenuation data type" is set to "Constant". If
"Attenuation data type" is set to "From file" the
value will be ignored.

Attenuation vs wavelength — — — —
If "Attenuation data type" is set to "From file" this
field specifies the file containing the attenuation
data. In this case the attenuation effect is
wavelength dependent for all types of signals -
values corresponding to the central frequency of
each signal will be calculated by linear
interpolation and used internally.

Dispersion

Name and description Symbol Default Units Value


value range
Group velocity dispersion — True — True, False

If TRUE the GVD effect is enabled.

Third order dispersion — True — True, False

If TRUE the TOD effect is enabled.

Dispersion data type — False — True, False

Defines if the dispersion parameter values will be


read from the tabs or from a file. If "Constant" the
values from the tabs will be used to calculate the
relative group delay, and first order GVD for each
sampled signal by Taylor expansion around the
reference wavelength. Otherwise (parameter set
to "From file") group delay, first- and second order
GVD parameters corresponding to each sampled
signal will be calculated from the user-specified
file by Sellmeier fitting. While "Frequency domain
parameters" is TRUE, "Dispersion data type" will
remain "Constant" and cannot be changed. This is
done since the only acceptable format for the file
specifying the dispersion is group delay vs.
wavelength.

Frequency domain parameters — Constant — Constant /


FromFile
Defines the domain in which the dispersion
parameters are specified. If TRUE frequency
domain is used and the dispersion effect is
specified in terms of Beta2 and Beta3. Otherwise
the wavelength domain is used (D and S). This
parameter is meaningful (and, hence, enabled)
only if "Dispersion data type" is set to "Constant".

339
OPTICAL FIBER CWDM

Name and description Symbol Default Units Value


value range
Dispersion β2 -20 2 [-10100, 10100]
ps
--------
The value of the GVD parameter in the
wavelength domain. km
Dispersion slope β3 0 3 [-10100, 10100]
ps
The value of the dispersion slope parameter in the --------
wavelength. km
Beta 2 D 16.75 [-10100, 10100]
ps -
The value of the GVD parameter in the frequency ------------------------
domain. ( nm ) ( km )
Beta 3 0.075 ps - [-10100, 10100]
--------------------------
The value of the TOD parameter in the frequency 2
domain. ( nm ) ( km )
Dispersion file name — — — —

Specifies the file with the dispersion data.

PMD
The notation "Frequency domain parameters" refers to the alternative definitions
∂β 1 ∂D
D = ---------, S = ------- (wavelength domain definition) and
∂λ ∂λ

∂β 1 ∂β 2
β 2 = ---------, β 3 = --------- (frequency domain definition).
∂ω ∂ω
However, the format of the file specifying the wavelength dependence of the
dispersion is the following: the first column of the file contains wavelength values (λ) ,
and the second column, the corresponding values of β 1 ( λ ) . Consequently,
"Frequency domain parameters" is meaningless when the dispersion is specified
from a file.

Name and description Symbol Default Units Value


value range
Birefringence type — Deterministic — Deterministic
/Stochastic
Determines the type of birefringence. If
"Deterministic" is selected both the strength of
birefringence and principal axes are assumed
constant, hence random mode coupling is
disabled. If "Stochastic" is selected the random
mode coupling is enabled.

340
OPTICAL FIBER CWDM

Name and description Symbol Default Units Value


value range
Differential group delay 0.2 [-10100, 10100]
d- ps-
If "Birefringence type" is set to "Deterministic" this ------ ( Δβ ) ------
is the value of the differential group delay. If dω km
"Birefringence type" is set to "Stochastic" the
parameter is disabled.

PMD Coefficient 0.5 [0, 10100]


Dp
ps -
----------
km
Mean scattering section length 500 [0, 10100]
L scatt
The averaged value of the fiber length at which m
the polarization state of the signal is randomized
by applying the scattering matrix.

Scattering section dispersion [0, 10100]


σ scatt 100
The dispersion of the scattering section length. m

In the case when more than one sampled signal (separated channels) is propagating
in the fiber, the PMD-induced penalties will be the same for all channels. Different
penalties (and Q-factors) will be obtained if all the channels are merged (total field
approach). Birefringence and random mode coupling does not affect parameterized
signals and noise bins.

Nonlinearities

Name and description Symbol Default Units Value


value range
Self-phase modulation — True — True, False

Determines if the self-phase modulation (SPM) effect


will be taken into account. If FALSE, all the nonlinear
effects - XPM, SRS - will be disabled.

Cross-phase modulation — True — True, False

Determines if the XPM effects are taken into account.


The parameter is active provided that the SPM effects
are enabled. In the scalar case XPM includes the
interactions among all parameterized and sampled
signals. In the vector case only interactions between
sampled signals are considered and the XPM
between orthogonal polarization components is also
included.

341
OPTICAL FIBER CWDM

Name and description Symbol Default Units Value


value range
Effective area data type — Constant — Constant/
FromFile
Defines if the effective area parameter value will be
read from the tab or from a file. If "Constant" the value
from the tab will be used. Otherwise the parameter is
treated as wavelength dependent and a separate
value corresponding to the center frequency of each
sampled signal, parameterized signal and noise bin is
calculated and used.

Effective area 80 [0, 1010]


A eff μm
2
The value of the effective area parameter. This value
will be used if "Effective area data type" is set to
"Constant". Otherwise the value will be ignored.

Effective area vs wavelength — — — —

If the "Effective area data type" is set to "From file"


then this tab specifies the file containing the effective
area data.

n2 data type — — — Constant/


FromFile
Defines if the n2 parameter (nonlinear index of
refraction) value will be read from the tab or from a
file. If "Constant" the value from the tab will be used.

n2 2.6x10-20 2 [0, 10100]


n2 m
The value of the n2 parameter. If "n2 data type" is set ------
to "Constant" this value will be used. Otherwise it will
W
be ignored.

n2 vs wavelength — — — —

If the "n2 data type" is set to "From file" then this tab
specifies the file containing the nonlinear index of
refraction wavelength data.

Inter-band Raman scattering — False — True/False

One of the two possible alternative representations of


the SRS effect in the model that leads to energy
exchange between different frequency bands.
Interactions among all sampled signals,
parameterized signals and noise bins are considered.
Noise bins are treated as a weak probe with respect
to the sampled signals and parameterized signals -
the latter are treated as pumps. Inter-band Raman
scattering [1-7] is an approximation to the full
expression of the Raman polarization valid provided
that the frequency separation of the interacting
signals is much larger than their individual spectral
bandwidths. SRS effect can be enabled only in the
scalar case (fixed polarization state, "Model type"
from the numerical tab should be set to "Scalar" to
enable SRS). If this representation for the SRS effect
is used the model runs faster.

342
OPTICAL FIBER CWDM

Name and description Symbol Default Units Value


value range
Complete Raman response — False — True/False

The other alternative representations for the SRS


effect, leading to coupling of signals occupying
different frequency bands. In this case no assumption
about the ratio between the bandwidth of the sampled
signals and their frequency separation is made.
Convolution integrals are calculated to represent the
interaction of sampled signals with sampled signals,
with noise bins and parameterized signals and vice
versa. This is a more accurate description however
the speed of the calculations in this case is lower. The
interaction of noise bins with parameterized signals is
always represented through inter-band Raman
scattering i.e. the individual bandwidth of noise bins
and parameterized signals is always considered zero.
The parameter "Complete Raman response" is
responsible only for this part of the Raman
polarization that leads to energy exchange between
different frequency bands. It does not include the
Raman contribution to XPM and SPM. In case only
one sampled signal and zero noise bins and
parameterized signals propagate in the fiber, the two
alternative descriptions of the SRS effect become
completely equivalent. This is the case when the
model works in the "Total filed approach" mode.
However if "Complete Raman response" is selected,
the "Molecular SPM and XPM" should be set to TRUE
to achieve this equivalence while this is done
automatically if "Inter-band Raman scattering" is
selected to represent the SRS effect and only one
sampled signal propagates in the fiber. Both
parameters "Molecular XPM and SPM" and
"Complete Raman response" are enabled if "Model
type" is set to Scalar.

Molecular XPM and SPM — False True/False

The contribution to SPM and XPM stemming from the


delayed (Raman) nonlinear response. This effect is
meaningful for sampled signals only, since no phase
is considered for Noise bins and Parameterized
signals. In the presence of one sampled signal only
molecular XPM is zero and the effect is reduced to
molecular SPM. Molecular SPM might me important
(and should not be neglected) despite that the energy
transfer between different frequency components of
the only sampled band present due to SRS is
negligible. The parameter "Molecular XPM and SPM"
is disabled if "Inter-band Raman scattering" is
selected to represent the SRS, since the delayed part
of the SPM and XPM is automatically included in this
case. Both parameters "Molecular XPM and SPM"
and "Complete Raman response" are enabled if
"Model type" is set to Scalar.

343
OPTICAL FIBER CWDM

Name and description Symbol Default Units Value


value range
Fractional Raman contribution 0.18 — [0,1]

The fraction of the nonlinear polarization, related to ρ


the stimulated Raman scattering effect [1].

Numerical

Name and description Symbol Default Units Value


value range
Model type — Scalar — Scalar/Vector
Defines the model type used for the simulation
depending on the polarization state of the signal. If
"Vector" is selected the signal can have arbitrary
polarization state and a system of two coupled
equations, corresponding to each polarization
component (x or y) of every sampled signal is solved.
If "Scalar" is selected it means that all the signals
preserve their polarization state and a single equation
(1) is solved for each sampled band. Vector simulation
will be performed, regardless of the value of the model
type parameter, in the following two cases1)Two
polarization components are detected at the fiber
input. This will work for sampled noise, since the noise
is unpolarized and x- and y-polarization components
are stored independently in the memory. Sampled
signals with well defined polarization state however
might use a different method of storage in the memory
and, consequently, this parameter should be set to
"Vector" manually if the polarization evolution is to be
considered. 2)The PMD effect is set to
stochastic.Turning the "vector" on will disable SRS.

Step size — Variable — Variable/


Constant
Specifies whether variable or fixed step-size
simulation will be used. If "Variable" is selected the
step size is adaptively changed depending on the
value of the "Max. nonlinear phase shift" parameter
and the behavior of solutions itself. Otherwise the step
size is evaluated only once, at the beginning of the
simulation. In some cases the fixed step size
calculation executes faster, due to the smaller number
of calculations per step, but the variable step size
calculation is more flexible and can be faster in the
presence of strong attenuation.

344
OPTICAL FIBER CWDM

Name and description Symbol Default Units Value


value range
Max. nonlinear phase shift NL 3 [0,10100]
ϕ max mrad
Maximum (over the time window) phase shift induced
by the self-phase modulation effect per step is
calculated for each sampled signal. SPM induced
phase shifts are then calculated for each
parameterized signal. Then the step size is calculated
in such a way that the maximum (over the entire set of
signals) SPM-induced phase shift is equal to the
specified value.

Boundary conditions — Periodic — Periodic/


Absorbing
Specifies the type of boundary conditions used for the
simulation.

Filter steepness — 0.5 — [0,10100]

In case "Boundary conditions" option is set to


"Absorbing" the "Filter steepness" parameter
determines the absorption/reflection properties of the
time window boundaries. The same absorbing
boundary conditions are used for all sampled signals.

Graphs.

Name and description Symbol Default Units Value


value range
Calculate graphs — False — True/False

Enable / disable the 3D graphs. If disabled, no graphs


will be plotted and no data is stored. Graphs are
plotted for sampled signals only.

Number of distance steps — 200 — [1, 100000000]


The number of longitudinal (or in z) snapshots (slices)
that will be used to construct a 3D plot. Increasing this
value will make the 3D graph to look better. The
number of snapshots that are stored cannot be bigger
than the number of steps in z taken by the simulation
to obtain the solution. The latter is determined by the
maximum nonlinear phase-shift parameter (numerical
tab).

Number of wavelength/time steps — 200 — [1, 100000000]

The number of stored points (in t) per snapshot.


Increasing this value will make the 3D graph to look
better.

Linear scale — False — True/False

Determines the axis-type (linear or logarithmic) for the


dependent variable. If TRUE the axis type is linear.

345
OPTICAL FIBER CWDM

Name and description Symbol Default Units Value


value range
The next six parameters in this tab
determine which graphs will be plotted after
the simulation is finished.

Plot type — Wavelength — Wavelength


range range/One
Determines the type of the plot that will be created in
sampled signal
either frequency or time domain. If the parameter is
set to "Wavelength range" than a copy of each
sampled signal residing in the specified wavelength
range will be created, this copies will be up-sampled
and merged in a single frequency band. This single
frequency band, containing all the signals will be
plotted in either frequency or time domain. The
merging does not affect the signals but their copies
only, so multiple sampled signals will be involved in
the simulation. If the parameter is set to "Plot one
sampled signal" a 3D graph presenting the sampled
signal with central frequency given by "Signal center
frequency" will be created.

Simulation

Name and description Symbol Default Units Value


value range
Enabled — True — True/False

Determines whether the component is enabled. If


FALSE, all the input signals reach the output port of the
component without any change.

Noise

Name and description Symbol Default Units Value


value range
Convert noise bins — False — True/False

If TRUE each noise bin within the bandwidth of the


signal will be converted to a Gaussian white noise,
with the correct power spectral density, and this noise
will be added to the signal.

346
OPTICAL FIBER CWDM

Random numbers

Name and description Symbol Default Units Value


value range
Generate random seed — False — True/False

Determines how the random number generator is


initialized (seeded). If TRUE the seed index used for
this initialization is a random number itself. Otherwise
user specified number is used for this purpose.

Random seed index — 0 — [0, 4999]


If "Generate random seed" is set to TRUE this value
specifies the seed index. The generated pseudo-
random sequence is one and same provided the seed
index is not changed. The value of "Random seed
index" will be ignored if "Generate random seed" is set
to TRUE.

Technical Background
Scalar approach
Signal propagation equations with Inter-band Raman scattering
When the optical field is assumed to maintain its polarization along the fiber length (so
called scalar approach, Model type parameter from the "Numerical" tab is set to
"Scalar") the evolution of the slowly varying electric field envelopes { E i } of a set of
sampled signals (SS), powers { P l } of another set of parameterized signals (PS) and
powers { N m } of a third set of noise bins (NB) is governed by the set (1) of equations.
The subsystem (1a) consists of Number of SS (the total count of sampled signals)
coupled nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) [1], [2], (1b) contains Number of PS equations
(the total count of PS) and (1c) - Number of NB (the total count of NB) equations.

347
OPTICAL FIBER CWDM

2 3
∂E i ∂E iβ 2 ( ω i ) ∂ E i β 3 ( ω i ) ∂ E i
-------- + ( β l ( ω i ) – β l ( ω 0 ) ) --------i + α ( ω i )E i + -----------------
- ---------- – ---------------- ---------- =
∂z ∂T 2 ∂T
2 6 ∂T 3

Number of SS Number of PS
2 2
∑ ∑
(1a)
(2 – ρ) Ek – ( 1 – ρ ) Ei + ( 2 – ρ ) +
iγ i k=1 l=1 Ei
Number of SS Number of PS
( SS ) 2 ( PS )
ρ ∑ R ik Ek + ρ ∑ R il Pl
k=1 l=1

⎛ Number of PS ⎞
⎜ ( PP ) ⎟
⎜ ∑ Rlh Ph + ⎟
dP l ⎜ h=1 ⎟ (1b)
-------- = – 2α l P l + 2ργ l P l Im ⎜ ⎟
dz ⎜ Number of SS Time window

1
⎜ -------------------------------- ( SP ) 2 ⎟
⎜ Time window
- ∑ Rli ∫ Ei t dt⎟
⎝ i=l 0 ⎠

⎛ Number of PS ⎞
⎜ ( PP ) ⎟
⎜ ∑ Rmh Ph + ⎟
dN m ⎜ h=1 ⎟ (1c)
--------- = – 2α m N m + 2ργ m N m Im ⎜ ⎟
dz ⎜ Number of SS Time window

1
⎜ --------------------------------- ( SN ) 2 ⎟
⎜ Time window ∑ R mi ∫ i E t d t

⎝ i=l 0 ⎠

348
OPTICAL FIBER CWDM

The Raman matrices are defined according to:


⎪ R
= ⎨ χ 1111 ( f i – f k ), i ≠ k 1 ≤ i ≤ Number of SS, 1 ≤ k ≤ Number of SS
( SS ) (2a)
R ik
⎪ 0, i=k

⎧ R
( PS ) ⎪ χ ( f – f ), f ≠ f
R il = ⎨ 1111 i l i l 1 ≤ i ≤ Number of SS, 1 ≤ l ≤ Number of PS (2b)

⎪ 0, fi = fl


⎪ R
= ⎨ χ 1111 ( f l – f h ), l ≠ h 1 ≤ l ≤ Number of PS, 1 ≤ h ≤ Number of PS
( PP ) (2c)
R lh
⎪ 0, l=h

⎧ R
( SP ) ⎪ χ ( f – f ), f ≠ f
R li = ⎨ 1111 l i l i 1 ≤ l ≤ Number of PS, 1 ≤ i ≤ Number of SS (2d)

⎪ 0, fl = fi

⎧ R
( PN ) ⎪ χ ( f – f ), f m ≠ f h
R mh = ⎨ 1111 m h 1 ≤ m ≤ Number of NB, 1 ≤ h ≤ Number of PS (2e)
⎪ 0, fm = fh

349
OPTICAL FIBER CWDM

⎧ R
( SN ) ⎪ χ ( f – f ), f ≠ f
R mi = ⎨ 1111 m i m i 1 ≤ m ≤ Number of NB, 1 ≤ h ≤ Number of SS (2f)
⎪ 0, fm = fi

Raman susceptibility for fused quartz is shown in Figure 1. It should be noted that
R R ∗
χ 1111 ( – ω ) = ( χ 1111 ( ω ) ) , where "*" means complex conjugation.

Figure 1 Raman susceptibilities for fused silica [3, 4]

In Equation (1a), E i = E i ( z, T ) is the electric field envelope of the i -th sampled


signal. A frame moving at the group velocity ( T = t – z ⁄ v g ≡ t – β 1 ( ω 0 )z )
corresponding to the reference frequency ω 0 is assumed.

The reference frequency is related to the parameter "Reference wavelength" ("Main"


category of the component tool-box) through
2πc
ω 0 = --------- with c being the light speed in vacuum.
λ0
The derivatives of the propagation constant of the fiber mode β ( ω ) ( ( β ( ω )c ) ⁄ ω
is the mode effective index).
n
∂ β(ω)
With respect to frequency, β n = ------------------ n = 1, 2
n
∂ω
are the first ( β 2 ) and second order ( β 3 ) group velocity dispersion (GVD) parameters
and are evaluated at the center frequencies { ω i } of the sampled signals.

350
OPTICAL FIBER CWDM

The nonlinear coefficients for every SS, NB, or PS in (1) are defined according to:

ωj n2 ( ωj )
γ j = ---------------------- (3)
cA eff ( ω j )

The meaning of the terms on the left-hand side of the subsystem (1a) is the same as
in the total field approach fiber model (see the technical description of this
component). The first two terms in the right hand side of (1a) give the SPM and XPM
contributions of the remaining sampled signals. The third term is the XPM contribution
of the PS. The fourth and the fifth term describe the SRS induced interactions
between the i -th sampled signal and rest of the sampled signals and with the
parameterized signals, respectively.

Subsystems (1b) and (1c) describe the power balance of the set of PS and NB
respectively. These are obtained by replacing the NLS equations for NB and PS with
the time-averaged versions of their power conservation laws. In the absence of
attenuation the total number of photons is conserved as (1) shows. The first terms in
the right-hand sides of (1b) and (1c) take into account the attenuation effects. The
second and the third terms in the right-hand side of (1b) describe the SRS induced
power transfer between the l -th PS and the rest of the PS and between the l -th PS
and the SS respectively. The second and the third terms in the right-hand side of (1c)
are responsible for the SRS-induced interactions between noise bins and PS and
noise bins and SS. Note that in describing the interactions through SRS between NB
and SS and NB and PS the power of the noise bins is neglected with respect to that
of PS and SS - i.e. all the NB are treated as a weak "probe". They change their power
due to the interactions with SS and PS, however the amount of power transferred from
SS and PS to NB is neglected with respect to the power of SS and NB. This
approximation is valid, provided the power of NB remains much smaller compared to
that of SS and NB. With multiple SS present in the fiber the SRS effect is represented
through inter-band Raman scattering. This is an approximation to the full expression
for the Raman polarization [1],[2] that is valid provided that the frequency separation
between the interacting signals is large enough compared to their individual
bandwidths.

In the opposite case (frequency separation between the signals comparable with their
individual spectral bandwidth) total field approach can be implemented by turning on
the option "Merge sampled bands". In this case the system (1a) is replaced by the
following single NLS Equation 4 and (1b) and (1c) remain unchanged. In Equation 4,
the Raman response function h 1111 ( t ) is the Fourier transform of the Raman
susceptibilities shown in Figure 1. Total field approach however should be used with
some care. At first, in this case, (single sampled band) XPM and four wave mixing

351
OPTICAL FIBER CWDM

effects are included automatically in the simulation and turning on or off the "XPM"
parameter in the "Nonlinearities" tab will have no effect on the results.

2
∂E iβ 2 ( ω 0 ) ∂ E i β 3 ( ω 0 ) ∂ 3 E
------ + αE + ------------------
- ---------- – ----------------- --------- =
∂z 2 ∂T
2 6 ∂T 3

⎛ ∞ ⎞
⎜(1 – ρ) E + ρ h
2 2
+⎟⎟
⎜ ∫ 1111 ( s ) E ( T – τ ) ds (4)

⎜ 0 ⎟
iγ ⎜ ⎟E
Number of PS
⎜ ⎟
⎜ ( PS ) ⎟

+ρ ∑ R 1l Pl ⎟
⎝ l=1 ⎠

Figure 2

352
OPTICAL FIBER CWDM

Figure 3 Total field approach implemented with improper choice of sample rate. The output probe power is
0.931 mW.

Figure 4 The correct result is obtained when the bandwidth is high enough. Output probe power is
1.377mW. The slight difference in the output probe power could be attributed to FWM.

The following example shows the importance of the proper choice of numerical
parameters. Figure 2 shows the layout. The input consists of a strong (1 W power)
pump wave at 193 THz and a weak (1 mW) probe wave at 192.5 THz. "Merge
sampled bands" parameter of the optical fiber component is enabled, which means
that total field approach will be used. Attenuation effect is disabled and we use
"Constant" step size with the "Maximum nonlinear phase shift" parameter equal to
5 mrad. Raman effect is enabled The rest of the set-up of the optical fiber component
is the default one. Since total field approach will be used enabling or disabling the
"XPM" parameter will have no effect on the results.

Figure 3 and Figure 4 show the obtained results together with the global parameters
of the layout in each case. Figure 5 gives the result treating the two waves as
separated channels - "Merge sampled bands" parameter is set to FALSE in the optical
fiber component. In the case presented in Figure 3 the simulated bandwidth is too

353
OPTICAL FIBER CWDM

small to accommodate the FWM mixing products of both waves and hence they are
aliased (see e.g. [8]). This false translation of the frequency of the wave (known as
aliasing) can put the a weak FWM product in the closed spectral vicinity of the pump
which will trigger a strong FWM (or modulation instability since the signal wavelengths
are in the anomalous GVD regime, which is also a kind of FWM) if the frequency
separation is small, and consequently, the coherence length is large. The result is an
entirely unphysical generation of new frequency components. Note that probe
attenuation is obtained instead of probe amplification. Figure 4 gives the correct result
since no aliasing occurs. This is achieved by having the simulated bandwidth (or
equivalently the sample rate) high enough to accommodate the three times the input
signal bandwidth.

Figure 5 Simulation in which both signals are treated as separated channels. Output probe power is
1.371 mW.

A comparison with Figure 5 (obtained treating the pump and the probe wave as two
separate sampled bands) which gives the same output power for the probe wave as
the total field approach with the sample rate correctly chosen shows that in this case
FWM effects are quite small. Besides, treating the signals as separate frequency
bands leads a significant reduction of the simulation time.

It should be kept in mind however that while in the case of total field approach, all the
parameters (dispersion, attenuation, etc.) are evaluated just once - at the reference
frequency, here (when multiple SS are considered) a set of parameters is evaluated
for each sampled signal - at the center frequency of the corresponding signal. The
meaning of the reference frequency (and reference wavelength) is the following: The
subsystem (1a) is written in a frame moving with group velocity corresponding to the
reference wavelength - no other signal parameters are evaluated at this frequency.
The reference wavelength can be either user-specified or "automatic", which
corresponds to the averaged frequency of the center frequencies of all SS and PS.

354
OPTICAL FIBER CWDM

If "Dispersion data type" is set to "Constant" the dispersion parameters specified in


the tabs (D and S) or, respectively, β 2 and β 3 , are assumed to correspond to the
reference wavelength. Hence, Taylor expansion is used in this case:

1 2 (5)
β 1 ( ω ) – β 1 ( ω 0 ) = β 2 ( ω 0 ) ( ω – ω 0 ) + --- β 3 ( ω 0 ) ( ω – ω 0 )
2
Evaluating Equation 5 and its first and second derivatives with respect to ω at the
signal frequencies { ω 1 } gives the sets of parameters:
{ β 2 ( ω 1 ) – β 1 ( ω 0 ) }, { β 2 ( ω i ) } and { β 3 ( ω i ) } .

It should be kept in mind however that with multiple sampled signals present,
specifying nonzero β 2 and β 3 (or D and S) and disabling in the same time the
"Group velocity dispersion" and "Third order dispersion" will result in
{ β 2 ( ω i ) = 0, ∀i }, { β 3 ( ω i ) = 0, ∀i } , but { β 1 ( ω i ) ≠ β 1 ( ω j ), if i ≠ j } ,

which means that no GVD induced pulse broadening will be observed but pulses with
different center frequencies will propagate with different group velocities. In contrary,
if all the sampled signals are merged to form a single frequency band disabling the
GVD effects will not only disable pulse broadening, but also will set the group velocity
constant for the entire sampled band considered.

If "Dispersion data type" is set to "From file" the data set specified by the file is
Sellmeier fitted than dispersion parameters are calculated by analytically
differentiating the fit. The file specifying the dispersion data must provide the
dependence of group delay [ps/km] on the wavelength [nm]. For this reason
"Frequency domain parameters" is disabled when "Dispersion data type" is set to
"From file".

355
OPTICAL FIBER CWDM

Signal propagation equations with "Complete Raman response"


When the SRS effect is represented through "Complete Raman response" the system
(1) is replaced by:
2 3
∂E i ∂E iβ 2 ( ω i ) ∂ E i β 3 ( ω i ) ∂ E i
-------- + ( β l ( ω i ) – β l ( ω 0 ) ) --------i + α ( ω i )E i + -----------------
- ---------- – ---------------- ---------- =
∂z ∂T 2 ∂T
2 6 ∂T 3
Number of SS Number of PS
2 2
i (2 – ρ) ∑ Ek – ( 1 – ρ ) Ei + ( 2 – ρ ) ∑ Pl Ei
k=1 l=1
Number of SS ∞
– i ( ω i – ω k )τ
+ iγ i ρ ∑ E k ( T ) ∫ h 1111 ( τ )E i ( T – τ )E k∗ ( T – τ )e dτ (6a)

k = 1, k ≠ i 0

Number of PS ∞
– i ( ω i – ω l )τ
+ iγ i ρ ∑ ∫ h1111 ( τ )Ei ( T – τ )e dτ
l=1 0

∞ Number of SS
2
+ iγ i ρE i ( T ) ∫ h 1111 ( τ ) ∑ E k ( T – τ ) dτ
0 k=1

dP l ⎛ Number of PS ⎞
-------- = – 2α l P l + 2ργ l P l Im ⎜ ∑ R
( PP ) ⎟
P h⎟ +
dz ⎜ lh
⎝ h=1 ⎠
(6b)
Number of SS T.W. ⎧ ∞ ∗⎫
2ργ l P l ⎪ – i ( ω i – ω l )τ ⎪
---------------
T.W.
- ∑ ∫ Im ⎨ E i ( t )

∫ h1111 ( τ )Ei ( t – τ ) ( e dτ ) ⎬dt

i=1 0 ⎩ 0 ⎭

356
OPTICAL FIBER CWDM

dN m ⎛ Number of PS ⎞
---------- = – 2α m N m + 2ργ m N m Im ⎜ ( PN ) ⎟
∑ Rmh Ph⎟ +
dz ⎜
⎝ h=1 ⎠
(6c)
Number of SS T.W. ⎧ ∞ ∗⎫
2ργ m N m ⎪ – i ( ω i – ω m )τ ⎪
--------------------
T.W. ∑ ∫ Im ⎨⎪ Ei ( t ) ∫ h1111 ( τ )Ei ( t – τ ) ( e dτ ) ⎬dt

i=1 0 ⎩ 0 ⎭

In Equation (6), the time window size is denoted by T.W., and the star symbol means
complex conjugation. The first three terms in the R.H.S of Equation (6a) are the SPM
and XPM caused by the rest of the sampled signals and the parameterized signals on
the i -th sampled signal. The fourth term is responsible for the SRS induced energy
exchange between the i -th sampled signal and all the other sampled signals. The
fifth term takes into account the energy exchange between the i -th sampled signal
and all the parameterized signals. The last (sixth) term describes the SPM and XPM
stemming from the delayed nonlinear response of the material. This effects can be
turned on and off by the "Molecular SPM and XPM" parameter. The fourth and fifth
terms (responsible for the SRS induced energy exchange between the sampled
signals and the parameterized signals, respectively, are simultaneously switched on
by setting the "Complete Raman response" parameter to TRUE.

The sets contained in Equations (6b) and (6c) describe the evolution with propagation
of the parameterized signals powers and noise bins powers respectively. The physical
meaning of the terms in the RHS of Equations (6b) and (6c) is the following: The first
terms take into account the attenuation. The second terms describe the energy
exchange with parameterized signals due to SRS effect. These two terms are
included in the simulation by switching on the "Complete Raman response"
parameter. The last terms in the sets of Equations (6b) and (6c) describe the
interaction of parameterized signals with sampled signals and of that of noise bins
with sampled signals respectively.

{ E i } do not change significantly over the characteristic


In case the field envelopes
Raman response time of the medium, E i ( t – τ ) can be replaced with E i ( t ) in the
integrands in Equations (6a), (6b) and (6c).

Using

– i 〈 ω i – ω m〉 τ
h 1111 ( ω i – ω m ) = ∫ h1111 ( τ )e dτ ,
0
the set of Equations (6) reduces to its simplified version, the set of Equations (1).

357
OPTICAL FIBER CWDM

Vector approach
Signal propagation equations
When the polarization state of the incident sampled signals is not preserved during its
propagation inside the optical fiber the scalar approach is no longer applicable and (1)
is replaced by ("Model type" parameter must set to "Vector").

2
∂E iX ∂E iX iβ 2 ( ω i ) ∂ E iX _
----------- + ( β 1X ( ω i ) – β 1 ( ω 0 ) ) ----------
- + α ( ω i )E iX + -----------------
- -------------
∂z ∂T 2 ∂T
2
(7a)
Number of SS Number of SS
β 3 ( ω i ) ∂ 3 E iX 2 2 2 2
6
- ------------- = iγ i 2
---------------
∂T
3 ∑ E kX – E iX + ---
3 ∑ E kY E iX
k=1 k=1

2
∂E iY ∂E iY iβ 2 ( ω i ) ∂ E iY _
- + ( β 1Y ( ω i ) – β 1 ( ω 0 ) ) ----------
---------- - + α ( ω i )E iY + -----------------
- -------------
∂z ∂T 2 ∂T
2
(7b)
3 Number of SS Number of SS
β 3 ( ω i ) ∂ E iY 2 2 2 2
---------------
6
- ------------- = iγ i 2
∂T
3 ∑ E kY – E iY + ---
3 ∑ E kX E iY
k=1 k=1

SRS is disabled automatically when the vector model is selected and noise bins and
PS are just attenuated. The nonlinear terms in (7a) and (7b) contain SPM, XPM
between parallel polarization components, and XPM between orthogonal polarization
components. If the parameter "XPM" is set to TRUE, both XPM contributions
(between parallel and between orthogonal polarization components) will be included.
If "XPM" is set to FALSE, only the nonlinear contributions of SPM will included in the
model. Note that the group delays are different for the two polarization components of
the same sampled band which takes into account the birefringence. The birefringence
can be two types: "Deterministic" and "Stochastic". In the first case, the birefringence
is assumed constant and no energy exchange between the two polarization
components occurs. In the second case, ("Stochastic" birefringence) random mode
coupling is also enabled, which gives the possibility to simulate PMD (see the
technical description of Nonlinear Dispersive Fiber Total Field for the details of the

358
OPTICAL FIBER CWDM

PMD simulator). It should be kept in mind however that when the signals are
represented as multiple sampled bands PMD impairments will be identical for all
WDM channels. To obtain the frequency dependence of the penalties (or Q-factors)
total field approach must be implemented by setting "Merge sample bands" to true.

Numerical solution
The symmetrized non-iterative split-step Fourier method [1] (see the technical
description of Nonlinear Dispersive Fiber Total Field) is used to solve Equations (1a),
(6a), and (7a, b).

These equations are first rewritten in normalized (dimensionless) quantities in the


following way: The time variable is divided by the time window size. "Averaged" GVD
coefficient is introduced by averaging over the entire set of sampled signals. This
averaged GVD coefficient and the actual time window size are then used to define the
characteristic dispersion length [1] and this value normalizes the longitudinal variable
(z). The maximum peak power for SS is determined as the global maximum over the
time window and the entire set of SS. This value is compared with the maximum
power over the set of PS. The quantity that is bigger is used to normalize the
waveforms of the SS and the powers of the PS. The characteristic nonlinear length is
defined by the averaging the nonlinear lengths of all PS and SS.

The solution is advanced from z to z + h . h is the step-size, determined from the


value of the Max. nonlinear phase shift parameter according to:

⎛z + h ⎞
h--- ⎞ h
E ( z + h, T ) = exp D̂ exp ⎜ ∫ N̂ ( z' ) dz'⎟ exp ⎛ --- D̂⎞ E ( z, t )
⎛ (8)
⎝2 ⎠ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝2 ⎠
⎝ z ⎠

where the D̂ is the dispersion and N̂ are the nonlinearity operators [1],[9]. Dispersion
operator is applied in the frequency domain using FFT. The approximation:

z+h


(9)
N̂ ( z' ) dz' ≈ hN̂ ( exp [ ( h ⁄ 2 )D̂ ]E ( z, t ) )
z

359
OPTICAL FIBER CWDM

is used. When the "Step size" parameter is set to "Constant" (7) can be simplified
according to:

⎛z + h ⎞ ⎛z + h ⎞
h--- ⎞ h--- ⎞ h--- ⎞ ⎜ h
E ( z + 2h, t ) = exp ⎝ D̂⎠ exp ⎜ ∫ N̂ ( z' ) dz'⎟ exp ⎝ D̂⎠ exp ⎝ D̂⎠ ⎜ ∫ N̂ ( z' ) dz'⎟⎟ exp ⎛⎝ --- D̂⎞⎠ E ( z, t ) =
⎛ ⎜ ⎟ ⎛ ⎛
2 2 2 2
⎝ z ⎠ ⎝ z ⎠
(10)
z+h z+h
⎛ ⎞ ⎛ ⎞
h h
exp ⎛⎝ --- D̂⎞⎠ exp ⎜⎜ ∫ N̂ ( z' ) dz'⎟ exp ( hD̂ ) exp ⎜ ∫ N̂ ( z' ) dz'⎟⎟ exp ⎛⎝ --- D̂⎞⎠ E ( z, t )
2 ⎟ ⎜ 2
⎝ z ⎠ ⎝ z ⎠

which is executed faster. In the presence of attenuation, however, the role of


nonlinearity will decrease along the fiber length and "Variable" step size will be
advantageous.

When the system (6) is solved (the parameter "Complete Raman response" is set to
TRUE), the second order Runge-Kutta scheme is used to apply the nonlinearity
operator.

References
[1] G. P. Agrawal, "Applications of nonlinear fiber optics", Academic press, 3rd edition, 2001.
[2] G. P. Agrawal, "Nonlinear fiber optics", Academic press, 3rd edition, 2001.
[3] R. W. Hellwarth, Prog. Quant. Electr. 5, 1 (1977).
[4] P. Tchofo Dinda, G. Millot, and S. Wabnitz, JOSA B, 15, 1433, (1998).
[5] R.H.Stolen, J.P.Gordon, W.J. Tomlinson and H.A. Haus, JOSA B, 6, 1159 (1989).
[6] C.R.Menyuk, M.N.Islam and J.P.Gordon, Optics Letters, 16 566, (1991).
[7] K.J. Blow and D. Wood, IEEE J. Quant. Electr., 25, 2665, (1989).
[8] W. H. Press, et al., "Numerical Recipes: The Art of Scientific Computing", 2nd Edition,
Cambridge University Press, 1992.
[9] M. Lax, J. H. Batteh and G. P. Agrawal, Journ. Appl. Phys. 52 , 109, (1981).

360
BIDIRECTIONAL OPTICAL FIBER

Bidirectional Optical Fiber

The component simulates the bidirectional propagation of arbitrary configuration of


optical signals in a single-mode fiber. Dispersive and nonlinear - self-phase
modulation (SPM), cross-phase modulation (XPM), stimulated Raman (SRS) and
Brillouin (SBS) scattering effects - are taken into account.

Raman interaction for an arbitrary configuration of sampled and parameterized


signals is also considered. The component provides most of the functionality of the
total field approach fiber model (except for the simulation of the Raman effect in
birefringent fibers). The four-wave mixing effect between multiple sampled signals is
not considered.

361
BIDIRECTIONAL OPTICAL FIBER

Ports

Name and description Port type Signal type


Input1 Input Optical

Output 1 Output Optical

Input 2 Input Optical

Output 2 Output Optical

Parameters
Main

Name and description Symbol Default value Units Value range


User-defined reference True [True, False]
wavelength
If True, the frequency corresponding to
the value entered under "Reference
wavelength" is used internally as
reference frequency. The system of
modified NLS equations governing the
evolution of the signals is solved in a
frame moving with the group velocity
corresponding to that frequency. If
False, the value of the reference
frequency is calculated as the averaged
of the central frequencies of all the
sampled and parameterized signals.

Reference wavelength λ0 1550 nm [100, 2000]

The value of the user-specified


reference wavelength

Length L 50 km [0, 100000]

Fiber length

Attenuation effect True [True, False]

If True, the attenuation effect is enabled

Attenuation data type Constant [Constant, From


file]
Defines if the attenuation value will be
read from the "Attenuation" tab or from a
file. If "Constant", the value specified in
the "attenuation" tab will be used for all
sampled, parameterized signals and
noise bins. If "From file", a separate
value will be calculated for each noise
bin, parameterized or sampled signal by
interpolating the data file.

362
BIDIRECTIONAL OPTICAL FIBER

Name and description Symbol Default value Units Value range


Attenuation α 0.2 dB/km [0, 1010]

The specified value will be used for all


signals if "Attenuation data type" is set to
"Constant". If "Attenuation data type" is
set to "From file", the value will be
ignored.

Attenuation vs. wavelength


If "Attenuation data type" is set to "From
file", this field specifies the file
containing the attenuation data. In this
case the attenuation effect is
wavelength dependent for all types of
signals. Values corresponding to the
central frequency of each signal will be
calculated by linear interpolation and
used internally.

Dispersion

Name and description Symbol Default value Units Value range


Group velocity dispersion True [True, False]

If True, the GVD effect is enabled

Third order dispersion True [True, False]

If True, the TOD effect is enabled

Dispersion data type Constant [Constant, From


file]
Defines if the dispersion parameter
values will be read from the tabs or from
a file. If "Constant", the values from the
tabs will be used to calculate the relative
group delay and the first-order GVD for
each sampled signal by Taylor
expansion around the reference
wavelength. If the parameter is set to
"From file", the group delay, and the
first- and second-order GVD parameters
corresponding to each sampled signal
will be calculated from the user-
specified file by Sellmeier fitting. When
"Frequency domain parameters" is
True, "Dispersion data type" will remain
"Constant" and cannot be changed. This
is done because the only acceptable
format for the file specifying the
dispersion is group delay vs.
wavelength.

363
BIDIRECTIONAL OPTICAL FIBER

Name and description Symbol Default value Units Value range


Frequency domain parameters False [True, False]

Defines the domain in which the


dispersion parameters are specified. If
True, the frequency domain is used and
the dispersion effect is specified in terms
of β 2 and β 3 . Otherwise the
wavelength domain is used (D and S).
This parameter is meaningful (that is,
enabled) only if "Dispersion data type" is
set to "Constant".

Beta 2 D 16.75 ps/[(nm)(km)] [-10100, 10100]

The value of the GVD parameter in the


frequency domain

Beta 3 0.75 ps/[(nm)2(km)] [-10100, 10100]

The value of the TOD parameter in the


frequency domain

Dispersion β2 -20 ps2/km [-10100, 10100]

The value of the GVD parameter in the


wavelength domain

Dispersion slope β3 0 ps3/km [-10100, 10100]

The value of the dispersion slope


parameter in the wavelength

Dispersion file name


Specifies the file with the dispersion
data

Note: The notation "Frequency domain parameters" refers to these alternative


definitions:

Wavelength domain definition:


∂β 1 ∂D
D = --------- , S = -------
∂λ ∂λ
Frequency domain definition:
∂β 1 ∂β 2
β 2 = --------- , β 3 = ---------
∂ω ∂ω
However, the format of the file specifying the wavelength dependence of the
dispersion is the following:
• (λ)
the first column of the file contains wavelength values
• the second column contains the corresponding values of ( λ )

Consequently, the "Frequency domain parameters" is meaningless when the


dispersion is specified from a file.

364
BIDIRECTIONAL OPTICAL FIBER

PMD

Name and description Symbol Default value Units Value range


Birefringence type Deterministic [Deterministic,
Stochastic]
Determines the type of birefringence. If
"Deterministic" is selected, both the
strength of birefringence and principal
axes are assumed constant. Therefore,
the random mode coupling is disabled. If
"Stochastic" is selected, the random
mode coupling is enabled.

Differential group delay 0 ps/km [-10100, 10100]


d-
------ ( Δβ )
If "Birefringence type" is set to dω
"Deterministic", this is the value of the
differential group delay. If "Birefringence
type" is set to "Stochastic", the
parameter is disabled.

PMD coefficient DP 0, 5 ps - [0, 10100]


----------
If "Birefringence type" is set to km
"Stochastic", this is the value of the PMD
parameter. If "Birefringence type" is set
to "Deterministic", the parameter is
disabled.

Mean scattering section length L scatt 500 m [0, 10100]

The averaged value of the fiber length at


which the polarization states of the
signal is randomized by applying the
scattering matrix.

Scattering section dispersion σ scatt 100 m [0, 10100]

The dispersion of the scattering section


length

In the case when more than one sampled signal (separated channels) is propagating
in the fiber, the PMD-induced penalties will be the same for all channels.

Different penalties (and Q-factors) will be obtained if all the channels are merged (total
filed approach). Birefringence and random mode coupling do not affect parameterized
signals and noise bins.

Nonlinearities

Name and description Symbol Default value Units Value range


Self-phase modulation True [True, False]

Determines if the self-phase modulation


(SPM) effect will be taken into account.
If False, all the nonlinear effects (XPM,
SRS) will be disabled.

365
BIDIRECTIONAL OPTICAL FIBER

Name and description Symbol Default value Units Value range


Cross-phase modulation True [True, False]

Determines if the XPM effects are taken


into account. The parameter is active if
the SPM effects are enabled. In the
scalar case, XPM includes the
interactions among all parameterized
and sampled signals. In the vector case,
only interactions between sampled
signals are considered. The XPM
between orthogonal polarization
components is included.

Effective area data type Constant [Constant, From


file]
Defines if the effective area parameter
value will be read from the tab or from a
file. If "Constant", the value from the tab
will be used. Otherwise, the parameter
is treated as wavelength dependent and
a separate value corresponding to the
center frequency of each sampled
signal. The parameterized signal and
noise bin are calculated and used.

Effective area A eff 80 2 [0, 1010]


μm
The value of the effective area
parameter. This value will be used if
"Effective area data type" is set to
"Constant". Otherwise the value will be
ignored.

Effective area vs. wavelength


If the "Effective area data type" is set to
"From file", this tab specifies the file
containing the effective area data.

n2 data type Constant [Constant, From


file]
Defines if the n2 parameter value
(nonlinear index of refraction) will be
read from the tab or from a file. If
"Constant", the value from the tab will be
used.

n2 n2 2.6 x 10-20 m2/W [0, 10100]

The value of the n2 parameter. If "n2


data type" is set to "Constant", this value
will be used. Otherwise it will be ignored.

n2 vs. wavelength
If the "n2 data type" is set to "From file",
this tab specifies the file containing the
nonlinear index of refraction wavelength
data.

366
BIDIRECTIONAL OPTICAL FIBER

Name and description Symbol Default value Units Value range


Raman scattering False [True, False]

Interactions among all sampled signals,


parameterized signals and noise bins
are considered. Noise bins are treated
as a weak probe with respect to the
sampled signals and parameterized
signals - the latter are treated as pumps.
Inter-band Raman scattering [1-7] is an
approximation to the full expression of
the Raman polarization valid provided
that the frequency separation of the
interacting signals is much larger than
their individual spectral bandwidths.
SRS effect can be enabled only in the
scalar case (fixed polarization state,
"Model type" from the numerical tab
should be set to "Scalar" to enable SRS)

Fractional Raman contribution ρ 0.18 [0, 1]

The fraction of the nonlinear


polarization, related to the stimulated
Raman scattering effect [1]

Raman gain type Raman gain [Raman gain,


Raman gain
Defines type of Raman gain. If Raman efficiency,
gain efficiency is selected, then its value Calculate]
is gr/Aeff, otherwise, it is normalized gr
multiplied by Raman gain peak. There is
the option to calculated the Raman gain
based on fiber parameters

Raman gain peak 1e-013 [0, +INF]

Normalized Raman gain is multiplied by


Raman gain peak.

Raman gain reference pump 1000 nm [0, +INF]

Value used in the Raman gain


calculation

Gain X frequency gr RG.dat THz - normalized


Raman Gain or
File that defines the Raman gain or the THz - Raman
Raman gain efficiency. Gain

Temperature T 300 K [0, 500]

Absolute temperature at which the fiber


is operating. Used for noise
consideration.

367
BIDIRECTIONAL OPTICAL FIBER

Name and description Symbol Default value Units Value range


Polarization factor Keff 2 [1, 2]

The value depends on the relative


polarization of the fields. The value is 1
if the fields have aligned polarizations,
and 2 if they have scrambled
polarization.

Enhanced

Name and description Symbol Default value Units Value range


Rayleigh scattering False True, False

Defines if the Rayleigh scattering effect


is enabled

Rayleigh data type Constant [Constant, From


file]
Defines if the Rayleigh parameter value
will be read from the tab or from a file. If
"Constant", the value from the tab will be
used

Rayleigh backscattering γ 5.0e-005 1/km [0, +INF]

The value of the γ parameter. If


"Rayleigh data type" is set to "Constant",
this value will be used. Otherwise it will
be ignored

Rayleigh vs. wavelength Rayleigh.dat nm - 1/km

If the "Rayleigh data type" is set to "From


file", this tab specifies the file containing
the Rayleigh wavelength data

Include Brillouin scattering False True, False

Determines if the Brillouin scattering


effect will be taken into account

Brillouin gain data type Constant [Constant, From


file]
Defines if the Brillouin gain is constant or
loaded from a file

Brillouin gain constant gB 4.6e-11 m/W [0, 1e10]

Brillouin gain value

Brillouin gain file name Brillouin.dat

Specifies the Brillouin gain file name

Brillouin linewidth Δv 31.7 MHz [-INF, +INF]

Specifies the Brillouin linewidth

368
BIDIRECTIONAL OPTICAL FIBER

Name and description Symbol Default value Units Value range


Frequency shift vs 11 GHz [-INF, +INF]

Specifies the Brillouin frequency shift

Numerical

Name and description Symbol Default value Units Value range


Model type Scalar [Scalar, Vector]

Defines the model type used for the


simulation depending on the polarization
state of the signal. If "Vector" is selected,
the signal can have arbitrary polarization
state and a system of two coupled
equations, corresponding to each
polarization component (x or y) of every
sampled signal that is solved. If "Scalar"
is selected, all the signals preserve their
polarization state and a single equation
(1) is solved for each sampled band.
Vector simulation will be performed,
regardless of the value of the model type
parameter, in the following two cases

1)Two polarization components are


detected at the fiber input. This will work
for sampled noise because the noise is
unpolarized and x- and y-polarization
components are stored independently in
the memory. However, sampled signals
with well defined polarization state might
use a different method of storage in the
memory. Consequently, this parameter
should be manually set to "Vector" if the
polarization evolution is to be
considered.

2)The PMD effect is set to Stochastic.


Turning the "vector" on will disable SRS.

Step size Variable [Variable,


Constant]
Specifies whether variable or fixed step-
size simulation will be used. If "Variable"
is selected, the step size is adaptively
changed depending on the value of the
"Max. nonlinear phase shift" parameter
and the behavior of solutions itself.
Otherwise the step size is evaluated
only once, at the beginning of the
simulation. In some cases, the fixed step
size calculation executes faster, due to
the smaller number of calculations per
step. However, the variable step size
calculation is more flexible and can be
faster in the presence of strong
attenuation.

369
BIDIRECTIONAL OPTICAL FIBER

Name and description Symbol Default value Units Value range


Max. nonlinear phase shift 3 [0, 10100]
NL
Maximum phase shift (over the time ϕ max
window) induced by the self-phase
modulation effect per step is calculated
for each sampled signal. SPM-induced
phase shifts are then calculated for each
parameterized signal. Next, the step
size is calculated in such a way that the
maximum SPM-induced phase shift
(over the entire set of signals) is equal to
the specified value.

Boundary conditions Periodic [Periodic,


Absorbing]
Specifies the type of boundary
conditions used for the simulation

Filter steepness 0.5 [0, 10100]

When "Boundary conditions" option is


set to "Absorbing", the "Filter steepness"
parameter determines the absorption
and reflection properties of the time
window boundaries. The same
absorbing boundary conditions are used
for all sampled signals.

P. A. number of iterations 50 [1, 1000]

Maximum number of iterations executed


in the Power Analysis. If convergence is
not reached in this number of iterations,
model returns the calculated values
anyway

P. A. number of steps 40 [1, 1000]

Number of divisions (in space) of the


fiber

P. A. relative tolerance 1e-3 [1e-10, 1]

Used to check the convergence of the


signal

Discretize sampled signal False — — True, False

Defines whether to use a user defined


discretization for sampled signals or not

Frequency resolution 100 GHz Hz, GHz, THz [1e9,1e12]

Frequency spacing that will discretize


the sampled signal

P. A. step accuracy 0.001 — — [1e-100, 1e100]

370
BIDIRECTIONAL OPTICAL FIBER

Graphs

Name and description Symbol Default value Units Value


range
Calculate graphs False [True, False]

Defines whether to enable the 3D graphs. If


disabled, no graphs will be plotted and no data is
stored. Graphs are plotted for sampled signals
only.

Number of distance steps 200 [1, 100000000]

The number of longitudinal (or in z) snapshots


(slices) that will be used to construct a 3D plot.
Increasing this value will make the 3D graph look
better. The number of snapshots that are stored
cannot be larger than the number of steps in z
taken by the simulation to obtain the solution. The
latter is determined by the maximum nonlinear
phase-shift parameter (numerical tab).

Number of wavelength/time steps 200 [1, 100000000]

The number of stored points (in t) per snapshot.


Increasing this value will make the 3D graph look
better.

Linear scale True [True, False]

Determines the axis-type (linear or logarithmic) for


the dependent variable. If True, the axis type is
linear.

The next six parameters in this tab


determine which graphs will be plotted
after the simulation is finished.

Plot type Wavelength [Wavelength


range range, One
Determines the type of the plot that will be created sampled signal]
in either frequency or time domain. If the
parameter is set to "Wavelength range", a copy of
each sampled signal residing in the specified
wavelength range will be created. These copies
will be up-sampled and merged in a single
frequency band. This single frequency band,
containing all the signals, will be plotted in either
frequency or time domain. The merging does not
affect the original signals but affects their copies.
Therefore, multiple sampled signals will be
involved in the simulation. If the parameter is set
to "Plot one sampled signal", a 3D graph
presenting the sampled signal with central
frequency given by "Signal center frequency" will
be created.

371
BIDIRECTIONAL OPTICAL FIBER

Simulation

Name and description Default Default value Units Value


value range
Enabled True [True, False]

Determines whether the component is enabled. If


False, all the input signals reach the output port of
the component without any change.

Noise

Name and description Default value Default value Units Value range
Convert noise bins False [True, False]

If True, each noise bin in the bandwidth


of the signal will be converted to a
Gaussian white noise, with the correct
power spectral density, This noise will
be added to the signal.

Random numbers

Name and description Default value Default value Units Value range
Generate random seed True [True, False]

Determines how the random number


generator is initialized (seeded). If True,
the seed index used for this initialization
is a random number. Otherwise, a user-
specified number is used for this
purpose.

Random seed index 0 [0, 4999]

If "Generate random seed" is set to


True, this value specifies the seed
index. The generated pseudo-random
sequence is the same one if the seed
index is not changed. The value of
"Random seed index" will be ignored if
"Generate random seed" is set to True.

Technical Background
Numerical Solution
To model the bidirectional signal propagation in a fiber, an algorithm that takes two
numerical steps is used [1].
• In the first step, the equations describing the signal propagation in the forward
and backward direction are solved by an iterative method (Power analysis) and
the power distribution along the fiber is calculated.

372
BIDIRECTIONAL OPTICAL FIBER

• In the second step, the signals are propagated using the nonlinear Schrödinger
equation to describe the dynamic interactions between the co-propagating
signals.

Power Analysis
The equations that describe the interactions between signals propagating in the
forward direction and backward direction and describe the generation of optical noise
due the Raman and Rayleigh scattering are defined by [2]:

373
BIDIRECTIONAL OPTICAL FIBER

where

v i, v j are frequencies

α( v) is the fiber attenuation

γ(v) is the Rayleigh backscattering coefficient

g γ ( v i – v j ) is the Raman gain coefficient for frequency difference ( v i – v j )


P b (Z,v) is the backward propagating power. It includes sampled, parameterized,
and noise bins signals.

A eff is the effective core area

K eff is the polarization factor

Δv is the frequency interval

h is Plank's constant

k is the Boltzmann’s constant

T is the absolute temperature.

In these equations, the following physical effects were taken into account:
a) pump-to-pump, signal-to-signal and pump-to-signal Raman interactions
b) spontaneous Raman emission and its temperature dependency
c) stimulated Raman scattering
d) pump depletions due to Raman energy transfer
e) high-order stokes generation
f) multiple Rayleigh backscattering
g) fiber loss
h) spontaneous emission noise
In the first solution step in this component, the equations (1) (forward and backward)
are solved through direct integration. In direct integration, the signal launch
configuration defines the boundary conditions in both ends of the fiber.

The convergence of the model is checked in two directions: forward and backward.

An iterative forward and backward integration of propagation equations must be used


due to the backward propagating ASE powers and counter-directional pumping
scheme that may be defined, as well as the possibility of counter directional signal
propagation [2].

The forward direction is from input port 1 to output port 1. The backward direction is
from input port 2 to output port 2.

The convergence is checked after the integration in both directions is performed. If


the variance in the gain is lesser than the tolerance desired ("Numerical" tab page),
the simulation is considered finished. Otherwise, the component runs for the
maximum number of iterations set by the user.

374
BIDIRECTIONAL OPTICAL FIBER

When a file with the normalized Raman gain is entered, it must be given values for
the Raman gain peak and Raman gain reference pump. These values are used to
calculate the Raman gain used in the simulation according the following formula:

where

gR is the Raman gain

pR is the Raman gain peak

λP is the gain reference pump

gN is the normalized Raman Gain.

The unit of Raman Gain is given in m⁄W .


If the user chooses the option to let the component calculate the Raman gain, the
component will calculate the coefficients using the following equation:

where

γ is the nonlinear coefficient (6)

ρ is the fractional Raman contribution


R
X 1111 ( ω P – ω S ) is the Raman susceptibility for fused silica

Stimulated Brillouin scattering


When the stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) effect is included in the simulation.
New terms and equations are added to the set of coupled equations, and they are
related to the stokes signals introduced in the system.

The modeling of SBS used here is based on reference [7] and it can not be used
together with Raman amplification.

After the calculation of the power distribution along the fiber for the signals,
spontaneous emission and Rayleigh scattering, the dynamic interaction between the
co-propagating signals are analyzed using the nonlinear Schrödinger equations

375
BIDIRECTIONAL OPTICAL FIBER

Nonlinear Schrödinger Equation


In this step, the coupled nonlinear Schrödinger equations are solved by using the
symmetrized non-iterative split-step Fourier method. See the Optical Fiber WDM
Technical Background.

Scalar approach
Signal propagation equations with Raman scattering
In the scalar approach, the optical field maintains its polarization along the fiber
length. The Model type parameter from the "Numerical" tab is set to Scalar.

In this case, the following set (4) of equations governs the evolution of the slowly
varying electric field envelopes (Ei).

These envelopes are a set of sampled signals (SS), powers (Pl) of another set of
parameterized signals (PS), and powers (Nm) of a third set of noise bins (NB).

The subsystem (4a) consists of


• Number of SS, the total count of sampled signals
• coupled nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) [3, 4],

The subsystem (4b) contains


• Number of PS equations (the total count of PS)

376
BIDIRECTIONAL OPTICAL FIBER

The subsystem (4c) contains


• Number of NB (the total count of NB) equations.

The Raman matrices are defined according to:

377
BIDIRECTIONAL OPTICAL FIBER

Raman susceptibility for fused quartz is shown in Figure 1. It should be noted that "*"
means complex conjugation.

Figure 1 Raman susceptibilities for fused silica [5, 6]

In Equation (4a), E i = E i (z,T) is the electric field envelope of the i-th sampled
signal.

A frame moving at the group velocity ( T = t – z ⁄ v g ≡ t – β 1 ( ω 0 )z ) corresponding to


the reference frequency ω 0 is assumed.

378
BIDIRECTIONAL OPTICAL FIBER

The reference frequency is related to the parameter Reference wavelength through


ω 0 = 2πc ⁄ λ 0 , with c being the light speed in vacuum. The parameter Reference
wavelength is in the "Main" category of the component tool-box.

The derivatives of the propagation constant of the fiber mode β ( ω ) , with respect to
n n
frequency β n = ∂ β ( ω ) ⁄ ( ∂ω ) n = 1, 2 are the first order β 2 and second order
β 3 group velocity dispersion (GVD) parameters and are evaluated at the center
frequencies { ω i } of the sampled signals.

The nonlinear coefficients for every SS, NB or PS in (4) are defined according to

The meaning of the terms in the left-hand side of the subsystem (4a) is the same as
in the total field approach fiber model (see the technical description of this
component).

The first two terms in the right side of (4a) give the SPM and XPM contributions of the
remaining sampled signals. The third term is the XPM contribution of the PS. The
fourth and the fifth terms describe the SRS-induced interactions between the i-th
sampled signal and rest of the sampled signals and with the parameterized signals,
respectively.

Subsystems (4b) and (4c) describe the power balance of the set of PS and NB,
respectively. These are obtained by replacing the NLS equations for NB and PS with
the time-averaged versions of their power conservation laws.

In the absence of attenuation, the total number of photons is conserved as (4) shows.

The first terms in the right sides of (4b) and (4c) take into account the attenuation
effects. The second and the third terms in the right side of (4b) describe the SRS
induced power transfer between the l-th PS and the rest of the PS and between the l-
th PS and the SS, respectively.

The second and the third terms in the right side of (4c) are responsible for the SRS-
induced interactions between noise bins and PS and noise bins and SS. With multiple
SS present in the fiber, the SRS effect is represented through inter-band Raman
scattering.

This is an approximation of the full expression for the Raman polarization [3,4] that is
valid if the frequency separation between the interacting signals is large enough
compared to their individual bandwidths.

When the frequency separation between the signals is comparable with their
individual spectral bandwidth, the total field approach can be implemented by turning
on the option "Merge sampled bands".

In this case, the system (4a) is replaced by the following single NLS equation (7) and
(4b) and (4c) remain unchanged.

379
BIDIRECTIONAL OPTICAL FIBER

In equation (7), the Raman response function h 1111 ( t ) is the Fourier transform of
the Raman susceptibilities shown in Figure 1.

Total field approach however should be used with some care. At first in this case
(single sampled band), XPM and four wave mixing effects are included automatically
in the simulation and turning on or off the XPM parameter in the "Nonlinearities" tab
will have no effect on the results.

Keep in mind that in the total field approach, all the parameters (such as dispersion
and attenuation) are evaluated just once - at the reference frequency.

In this case, when multiple SS are considered, a set of parameters is evaluated for
each sampled signal - at the center frequency of the corresponding signal.

The meaning of the reference frequency (and reference wavelength) is the following:

The subsystem (4a) is written in a frame moving with group velocity corresponding to
the reference wavelength. That is, no other signal parameters are evaluated at this
frequency.

The reference wavelength can be either user specified or automatic, which


corresponds to the averaged frequency of the center frequencies of all SS and PS.

If "Dispersion data type" is set to "Constant", the dispersion parameters specified in


the tabs (D and S) or, respectively, β 2 and β 3 , are assumed to correspond to the
reference wavelength. Hence, Taylor expansion is used in this case

Evaluating (8) and its first and second derivatives with respect to ω at the signal
frequencies { ω i } gives the sets of parameters β 1 ( ω ) – β 1 ( ω 0 ) }, { β 2 ( ω i ) }
and { β 3 ( ω i ) } .

It should be kept in mind, however, that with multiple sampled signals present,
specifying nonzero β 2 and β 3 (or D and S) and at the same time disabling the
"Group velocity dispersion" and "Third order dispersion", will result in
{ β 2 ( ω i ) = 0 ,∀i } , { β 3 ( ω i ) = 0 ,∀i } but { β 1 ( ω i ) ≠ β 1 ( ω j ), ifi ≠ j } .
This means that no GVD-induced pulse broadening will be observed but pulses with
different center frequencies will propagate with different group velocities.

380
BIDIRECTIONAL OPTICAL FIBER

To the contrary, if all the sampled signals are merged to form a single frequency band,
disabling the GVD effects will not only disable pulse broadening, but it also will set the
group velocity constant for the entire sampled band considered.

If "Dispersion data type" is set to "From file", the data set specified by the file is
Sellmeier fitted. The dispersion parameters are calculated by analytically
differentiating the fit.

The file specifying the dispersion data must provide the dependence of group delay
[ps/km] on the wavelength [nm]. For this reason, "Frequency domain parameters" is
disabled when "Dispersion data type" is set to "From file".

Vector approach
When the polarization state of the incident sampled signals is not preserved during its
propagation inside the optical fiber, the scalar approach is no longer applicable. A
vector model is then selected and solved.

The vector model is similar to the model presented in the Optical Fiber WDM (see
Optical Fiber WDM Technical Background). In the same way, Raman scattering is not
applied.

References
[1] J. Ko; S. Kim; J. Lee; S. Won; Y. S. Kim; J. Jeong, "Estimation of performance degradation of
bidirectional WDM transmission systems due to Rayleigh backscattering and ASE noises using
numerical and analytical models", IEEE J. of Lightwave Technology, Vol.: 21 , Issue: 4 , April
2003, Pag.:938 - 946
[2] M. Karasek, M. Menif, "Protection of surviving channels in pump-controlled gain-locked Raman
fibre amplifier", Optics Communications 210 (2002) 57-65.
[3] G. P. Agrawal, "Applications of nonlinear fiber optics", Academic press, 3rd edition, 2001.
[4] G. P. Agrawal, "Nonlinear fiber optics", Academic press, 3rd edition, 2001.
[5] R. W. Hellwarth, Prog. Quant. Electr. 5, 1 (1977).
[6] P. Tchofo Dinda, G. Millot, and S. Wabnitz, JOSA B, 15, 1433, (1998).
[7] A. backa, G. Jacobsen, and B. Tromborg, "Dynamic Stimulated Brillouin Scattering Analysis,"
J. Lightwave Technol. 18, 416- (2000)

381
BIDIRECTIONAL OPTICAL FIBER

Notes:

382
NONLINEAR DISPERSIVE FIBER (OBSOLETE)

Nonlinear Dispersive Fiber (Obsolete)

This component is an obsolete version that is included with OptiSystem for backwards
compatibility purposes - It was replaced by the Optical Fiber component.

Ports

Name and description Port type Signal type


Input Input Optical

Output Output Optical

Parameters
Main

Name and description Default value Default unit Value range


Length 50 km [0, INF]

Fiber length

Attenuation data type Constant — Constant,


Wavelength
Defines the attenuation as a fixed constant value or as a
Dependent/ From
wavelength dependent curve taken from a file
File

Attenuation – constant 0.25 dB/km [0, INF]


Defines the attenuation as a fixed constant value, the same for
all channels

Attenuation vs. wavelength AtnVsLambda.dat — [0, INF]

Defines the attenuation as a wavelength dependent curve in a


file

Input coupling loss -1 dB [-INF,0]

Overall input coupling loss resulting from mode mismatch,


Fresnel reflections, etc.

Output coupling loss -0.022 dB [-INF,0]


Overall output coupling loss resulting from mode mismatch,
Fresnel reflections, etc.

383
NONLINEAR DISPERSIVE FIBER (OBSOLETE)

Dispersion

Name and description Default value Default unit Value range


Group delay data type Constant — Constant,
Wavelength
Defines the group delay as a fixed constant value, or as a Dependent/ From
wavelength dependent curve taken from a file
File

Group delay – constant 4.9e+006 ps/km [-INF,INF]

Defines the group delay as a fixed constant value, the


same for all channels

Group delay vs. wavelength GroupVs Lambda.dat — [-INF,INF]

Defines the group delay as a wavelength dependent curve


in a file

GVD data type Constant — Constant,


Wavelength
Defines the group-velocity dispersion as a fixed constant
Dependent/ From
value, or as a wavelength dependent curve taken from a
File
file

GVD – constant 4.5 ps/nm/km [-INF,INF]

Defines the group-velocity dispersion as a fixed constant


value, the same for all channels

GVD vs. wavelength GVDvsLambda.dat — [-INF,INF]

Defines the group-velocity dispersion as a wavelength


dependent curve in a file

Dispersion slope data type Constant — Constant,


Wavelength
Defines the dispersion slope as a fixed constant value, or
Dependent/ From
as a wavelength dependent curve taken from a file
File

Dispersion slope – constant 0.11 ps/nm2/km [-INF,INF]

Defines the dispersion slope as a fixed constant value, the


same for all channels

Dispersion slope vs. wavelength DispSlope vs. — [-INF,INF]


Lambda.dat
Defines the dispersion slope as a wavelength dependent
curve in a file

Effective refractive index vs. wavelength EffRIVsLambda.dat — [0,INF]

Defines the effective refractive index as a dispersive curve


vs. the wavelength in a file

384
NONLINEAR DISPERSIVE FIBER (OBSOLETE)

Birefringence

Name and description Default value Default unit Value range


Birefringence data type Constant — Constant,
Wavelength
Defines the birefringence (the mismatch between the Dependent/ From
propagation constants of the two orthogonal polarization
File
modes) as a fixed constant value, or as a wavelength
dependent curve taken from a file

Birefringence – constant 6.2832e-005 rad/m [-1,1]


Defines the birefringence as a fixed constant value, the
same for all channels

Birefringence vs. wavelength BirefringenceVs — [-1,1]


Lambda.dat
Defines the birefringence as a wavelength dependent
curve in a file

Coupling length of polarization mixing 0.1 km [0,INF]

Coupling length of polarization scrambling

PMD coefficient 0.07 ps/km1/2 [0,INF]

Polarization mode dispersion coefficient

DGD data type Constant — Constant,


Wavelength
Defines the differential group delay between the two Dependent/ From
orthogonal polarization modes as a fixed constant value,
File
or as a wavelength dependent curve taken from a file

DGD – constant 3 ps/km [-INF,INF]

Defines the differential group delay as a fixed constant


value, the same for all channels

DGD vs. wavelength DGDVsLambda.dat — [-INF,INF]

Defines the differential group delay as a wavelength


dependent curve in a file

385
NONLINEAR DISPERSIVE FIBER (OBSOLETE)

Nonlinearities

Name and description Default value Default unit Value range


Effective area data type Constant — Constant,
Wavelength
Defines the effective area of the fiber as a fixed constant Dependent/ From
value, or as a wavelength dependent curve taken from a
File
file.

Effective area – constant 72 μ2 [0,INF]

Defines the effective area as a fixed constant value, the


same for all channels.

Effective area vs. wavelength EffAreaVsLambda.dat — [0,INF]

Defines the effective area as a wavelength dependent


curve in a file.

n2 data type Constant — Constant,


Wavelength
Defines the nonlinear refractive index as a fixed constant
Dependent/ From
value, or as a wavelength dependent curve taken from a
File
file.

n2 – constant 2.6e-020 m2/W [-INF,INF]

Define the nonlinear refractive index as a fixed constant


value, the same for all channels.

n2 vs. wavelength N2VsLambda.dat — [-INF,INF]

Defines the nonlinear refractive index as a fixed constant


value, or as a wavelength dependent curve taken from a
file.

Raman-resonant n2 dispersion RamanResN2Vs — [-INF,INF]


Freq.dat
Defines the Raman-resonant dispersion of the third-
order nonlinear susceptibility as a frequency dependent
curve in a file

Peak Raman gain coeff 9.9e-014 m/W [0,INF]

The peak Raman gain coefficient at certain pump


wavelength

Pump Wavelength of Peak Raman gain coeff 1000 nm [0,INF]


The pump wavelength corresponding to the above peak
Raman gain coefficient

Raman Gain Spectrum RamanGainVsFreq.dat — [0,INF]

Defines the Raman gain spectrum vs. frequency in a file

Raman self-shift Time 5 fsec [0,INF]

The characteristic Raman self-frequency shifting time

386
NONLINEAR DISPERSIVE FIBER (OBSOLETE)

Effects On/Off; Model Details

Name and description Default value Default unit Value range


Attenuation ON — [ON, OFF]

Switch On/Off the attenuation

Group velocities mismatch ON — [ON, OFF]


Switch On/Off the group velocities mismatch

GVD (Group velocity dispersion) ON — [ON, OFF]

Switch On/Off the group velocity dispersion

GVD Slope (third-order dispersion) ON — [ON, OFF]

Switch On/Off the dispersion slope (the third-order dispersion)

Polarization evolution Hi-Bi PM fiber, no — Hi-Bi PM fiber, no


PMD, fixed DGD PMD, fixed DGD,
Specify the polarization maintaining capabilities of the fiber
Non-PM fiber,
and the polarization evolution models to use
PMD, stochastic
DGD, Averaged
polarizations

Independent pol. mode mixing of WDM channels OFF [ON, OFF]

In the case of non-PM fiber, determines whether the


polarization scrambling follows the same pattern for all the
channels or is completely independent

n2 polarization factor 1 dimensionless [0.5, 1]

Raman Gain polarization factor 1 dimensionless [0.5, 1]

Birefringence ON — [ON, OFF]

Switch On/Off the birefringence

SPM (Self-phase modulation) ON — [ON, OFF]

Switch On/Off the SPM (Self-phase modulation)

XPM (Cross-phase modulation) ON — [ON, OFF]

Switch On/Off the XPM (Cross-phase modulation)

XPM of orthogonally polarized modes ON — [ON, OFF]


Switch On/Off the XPM of orthogonally polarized modes

FWM (four-wave mixing) OFF — [ON, OFF]

Switch On/Off the FWM (four-wave mixing)

FWM of orthogonally polarized modes OFF — [ON, OFF]

Switch On/Off the XPM of orthogonally polarized modes

Maximal phase-mismatch 100 radian [-1e+100,


1e+100]
FWM generated waves with phase-mismatches larger than
this value are neglected

387
NONLINEAR DISPERSIVE FIBER (OBSOLETE)

Name and description Default value Default unit Value range


SRS (stimulated Raman scattering) ON — [ON, OFF]

SRS with pump wave depletion ON — [ON, OFF]


Switch On/Off the effect of pump wave depletion in SRS

RSFS (Raman self-frequency shifting) OFF — [ON, OFF]

Switch On/Off the RSFS (Raman self-frequency shifting)

Simulation

Name and description Default value Default unit Value range


Enabled ON — [ON, OFF]

Enable the calculations

Number of steps 25 — [0,INF]

Number of longitudinal steps

Step defined as: Fixed = Main — Fixed = Full


Channel Initial length/Number of
Choose one of the three alternative ways of defining the step Nonlinear Steps
size
length/Number of
Steps Fixed = Main
Channel Initial
Nonlinear
length/Number of
Steps

Variable = Main
Channel Current
Nonlinear
length/Number of
Steps

Time-window boundaries Absorbing — Periodic,


Absorbing
Choose the type of the time-window boundary conditions

Random Phases OFF — [ON,OFF]

Randomize the phase offsets of the channels at input

Random Phases Seed 1 — [0, 65535]


The seed of the random phases

388
NONLINEAR DISPERSIVE FIBER (OBSOLETE)

3D graphics selection

Name and description Default value Default unit Value range


Power spectrum of channels OFF — [ON,OFF]

Displays the average power spectrum of the channels

Unit of power spectra dBm — mW, dBm


Displays the average power spectrum of channels or the
PSD of a selected channel in [mW] or [dBm]

Bandwidth spectrum of channels OFF — [ON,OFF]

Displays the rms bandwidths of the channels

Monitor central sampled channel ON — [ON,OFF]


Monitors the center most channel if described as a sampled
waveform

Wavelength of sampled channel to monitor 0 nm [0,INF]

Monitors an arbitrary sampled channel, defined by its


central wavelength

Waveform ON — [ON,OFF]

Displays the waveform of the selected sampled channel

Chirp OFF — [ON,OFF]

Displays the chirp of the selected sampled channel

PSD OFF — [ON,OFF]

Displays the PSD of the selected sampled channel

Spectral Delay OFF — [ON,OFF]

Displays the spectral delay of the selected sampled channel

Number of 2D snapshots in the 3D graphics 50 — [2, 1000]

Defines the number of 2D snapshots forming the selected


3D graphics

Graphs

Name and description X Title Y Title


Fiber 3D Graph EmptyX EmptyY

389
NONLINEAR DISPERSIVE FIBER (OBSOLETE)

Parameters—Detailed descriptions
In the following section, the parameters descriptions are further elaborated. There are
descriptions of features pertaining to multiple parameters, and also extended
descriptions of individual parameters.

Note: Many parameters pertaining to the NDF can be defined as either constant
or wavelength dependent/from file values. The first option is used usually for rapid
development of simple designs. If a parameter is wavelength dependent
(arb. curve ) you have to prepare a text file with (Wavelength
ParameterValue) data pairs, and create the parameter in the appropriate
Component properties dialog box. This option is recommended for detailed,
quantitatively precise designs. Many parameters of the NDF, such as losses,
dispersion, and effective fiber area, can be defined in both ways - as constants or
curves loaded from a file. When a parameter is defined as a curve, the format of
the text file is as follows:

Wavelength_1 ParameterValue_1

Wavelength_2 ParameterValue_2

Wavelength_3 ParameterValue_3

......

Wavelength_N ParameterValue_N

The units of wavelength are nanometers ( nm ). The units and the value ranges of the
parameter values are the same as those of the respective 'constant' parameters.

For example, when a loss spectrum is loaded from file it might look like:

1500 1.99E-01

1525 1.92E-01

1550 1.89E-01

1575 1.93E-01

1600 2.05E-01

or:

1500 0.199

1525 0.192

1550 0.189

1575 0.193

1600 0.205

390
NONLINEAR DISPERSIVE FIBER (OBSOLETE)

An arbitrary number of points (file lines) are permitted, except 0 (empty file). The
column separator can be an arbitrary number (except 0) of either spaces or tabs. The
files are opened using the standard Windows "File Open" dialog box.

Technical background
Origin of the nonlinearity
At high optical intensities for intense electromagnetic fields, the dielectric medium
behaves as a nonlinear medium. This is also the case for the fiber material. Under the
influence of intense electromagnetic fields, the motion of bound electrons becomes
an harmonic and, as a result, the induced polarization P from the electric dipoles
becomes nonlinear function of the electric field E:

(1) (2) (3)


P = ε0 [ x .E+x :EE+x :EEE+... ]
where χ(j) (j =1,2,3, …) denotes the jth order of susceptibility. The lowest order nonlinearity
in optical fibers originates from the third order susceptibility χ(3).

Nonlinear effects in optical fibers


The following nonlinear effects in optical fibers are caused by the third-order nonlinear
susceptibility and are included in the numerical engine of the component:
• Self-phase modulation (SPM)
• Cross-phase modulation (XPM)
• Cross-phase modulation between the orthogonal modes of a birefringent fiber
(PXPM)
• Four-wave mixing (FWM)
• Four-wave mixing between the orthogonal modes of a birefringent fiber (PFWM)
• Interchannel Stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) and intrachannel Raman self-
shifting (RSS)

OptiSystem currently supports several different models specialized for different signal
representations and/or combinations of parameters.

Model Ia
This model has been derived for the separated channels signal representation. It
also accounts explicitly for the nonlinear interactions and mixing of the orthogonal
polarization modes in an SM fiber. It is a system of 2N coupled modified nonlinear
Schrödinger equations (NLSE).

This model accounts for:


• background loss and linear dispersion up to third order
• birefringence and PMD
• nonlinearities — SPM, XPM, FWM, SRS, RSS, PXPM, and PFWM

391
NONLINEAR DISPERSIVE FIBER (OBSOLETE)

For Sampled signals, the following effects are accounted for: XPM, XPM of
orthogonally polarized modes, Raman, FWM, and SSFS.

Whereas, for Parameterized signals and ASE noise bins, we account for Raman and
FWM.

There are 3 types of polarization evolution that could be taken into account:

Hi-Bi PM fiber, no PMD, fixed DGD


In the case of polarization maintaining fiber, we have to specify the birefringence and
DGD of the fiber.

Non PM fiber, PMD, stochastic DGD


In this case the correlation length Lcorr and PMD coefficient have to be specified. The
component allows the calculation for PMD of any order. To see the effect of PMD, the
following effects must also be selected under the Effects tab: Birefringence and Group
velocity mismatch

Averaged polarizations
In this case, the effect of the Kerr nonlinearity is averaged over the Poincaré sphere,
and is taken into account with a coefficient value of 8/9. The effect of nonlinear PMD
[2] is not taken into account.

The intrapulse Raman scattering (or Raman Self Shifting) effect, which leads to
soliton self frequency shift, has to be considered for very short optical pulses with
duration ~ picosecond or smaller.

The model has the following form:

2 3
∂A ix ∂A ∂ A ix 1 ∂ A ix 1
---------- ± β 1 ---------ix- + --i- β 2 ------------
- – --- β 3 ------------- + --- α i A ix =
∂z ix ∂t 2 i ∂t 2 6 i ∂t 3 2
N
f ijkl
i ∑ Mγ x, μ, v, ρ δ ( ω k + ω l – ω j – ω i ) -------- A jμ∗ A kv A lρ exp ( iΔβz ) +
f ii
j, k, l = 1
j, k, l ≠i
μ = x
v, ρ = x , y
1
--- iγA iy 2 A ix∗ exp ( – 2iΔβ xy z ) –
3
N N
j n f ij 2 i n f ij 2
i ∑ gR gR ( ωj – ω i ) ---- A jx A ix – ig R
f ii ∑ g R ( ω i – ω j ) ---- A jx A ix
f ii
j = 1 j = 1
j ≠1 j ≠1
ωj > ωi ωj < ωi

392
NONLINEAR DISPERSIVE FIBER (OBSOLETE)

N
2 f ij 2
iγ A ix A ix + 21γ ∑ ---fii- Ajx Aix +
j = 1
j ≠1

N
1--- 2 2 f ij 2
3
iγ A iy A ix + --- iγ
3 ∑ ---fii- Ajy A ix +
j = 1
j ≠1
2
∂ A ix
iγT R ---------------- A ix
∂t
(1)
where Aix, Aiy are the slowly varying complex electric field amplitudes of the radiation in the
respective x/y polarization mode of the i’th WDM channel,

β 1 = ( 1 ⁄ v g ) ix and β 1 = ( 1 ⁄ v g ) iy are the inverses of the group velocities of the pol.


ix iy
modes,

evaluated at the respective carrier frequency of the channels. β 2i is the GVD


coefficient, related to the dispersion parameter as:

2πcβ 2i
D = – ----------------
2
-
λ

β 3i is the third-order dispersion coefficient, related to the dispersion slope as:


2πc⎞ 2
- β 3i + ⎛ 4πc
S = ⎛ -------- ---------⎞
⎝ 2⎠ ⎝ 3 ⎠ β 2i
λ λ
(2)

αi is the loss coefficient for the respective carrier frequency of the channel
n
g R is the normalized Raman gain function taken from reference [1], Figure 8.1 on
page 300.

γ = ωi n2 / c Aeff is the nonlinear coefficient ( ≈ 1-10 W-1km-1 )

393
NONLINEAR DISPERSIVE FIBER (OBSOLETE)

n2 is the nonlinear refractive index equal to 3 χxxxx / 8 neff ( ≈ 3.10-16 cm2/ W )


γ xμνρ = ωi (3 χxμνρ /8 neff )/ (c Aeff ) is the nonlinear coefficient of the four-wave
interactions and is proportional to the relevant component of the χ tensor.

Aeff is the effective area:

∞ ∞
2
∫ ∫ ( F ( x ,y ) ) dx dy
–∞ –∞
-------------------------------------------------------
∞ ∞
-
Aeff =
4
∫ ∫ F ( x ,y ) dx dy
–∞ –∞

(3)
where F(x,y) is the modal field distribution of the fiber mode.

The overlap integrals fij are defined by:

∞ ∞
2 2
∫ ∫ F i ( x ,y ) F j ( x ,y ) dx dy
–∞ –∞
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-
fii = ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞
2 2
∫ ∫ F i ( x ,y ) dx dy ∫ ∫ F j ( x ,y ) dx dy
–∞ –∞ –∞ –∞

(4)

M is the multiplicity factor. Its value is 2 if all three waves are different — otherwise,
its value is 1.

The overlap integral fijkl is:

〈 F i∗ F j∗ F k F l〉
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-
2 2 2 2 1⁄2
[ 〈 Fi 〉 〈 Fj 〉 〈 Fk 〉 〈 Fl 〉 ]
fijkl=

394
NONLINEAR DISPERSIVE FIBER (OBSOLETE)

(5)
where the angle brackets denote integration over the transverse coordinates x and y.

Also
Δβ = ( ω k n k + ω l n l – ω j n j – ω i n i ) ⁄ c
(6)
where
Δβ xy = β y – β x

(7)
are the propagation constant mismatches of the processes of FWM and (PFWM) and TR ~ 5
fsec is the slope of the Raman gain curve.

Model Ib
Similar to Model Ia, but disregards the polarization evolution of the signal and uses
the average power of the two polarization modes. It consists of a system of only N
coupled modified nonlinear Schrödinger equations (NLSE) with correspondingly
adjusted nonlinear coefficients.

Model I
Derived for the case of the total field signal representation. All sampled signals are
in a single frequency band. This is the basic method used for modeling WDM
systems.

It also accounts explicitly for the mixing of the orthogonal polarization modes in an SM
fiber. It is a system of two coupled modified nonlinear Schrödinger equations (NLSE).

This model accounts for:


• background loss and linear dispersion up to third order
• birefringence and PMD
• nonlinearities - SPM, XPM, FWM, SRS, RSS, PXPM

It works with all types of signals: Sampled, Parameterized and ASE noise bins. For
parameterized and ASE noise bins, only linear losses are taken into account.

'Total field approach' automatically accounts the XPM and FWM effects. There is no
possibility to switch off these effects.

'Total field approach for both polarizations' will additionally account for PXPM of
orthogonally polarized signals' and PFWM of orthogonally polarized signals'.

The model for the case of one polarization has the following form:

2 3 2
∂A
------ ± β 1 ∂A
------ + --i- β 2 ∂--------
A- 1--- ∂--------
A 1 2 ∂A
– β 3 3- + --- αA x = iγ A A – iγT R ------------ A
∂z ∂t 2 ∂t 2 6 ∂t 2 ∂t
(8)

395
NONLINEAR DISPERSIVE FIBER (OBSOLETE)

All the parameters in the above equation have been explained, along with the
Model Ia.

Numerical Methods
The three models (Model la, Model lb, and Model l) are solved by a scalar or
vectorial version of the split-step Fourier transform method:
∂A
------ = [ D + N ]A
∂z
(9)

with symmetrized step size [1].

In addition, the step size can be controlled along the propagation.

Step size selection rules


The user can choose one of the following three ways to calculate the step size:
• Fixed
• Initial Nonlinear Length / Number of Steps
• Current Nonlinear Length / Number of Steps

Fixed
In this case the step size is simply Δz = L ⁄ N , where L is the length of the fiber
and N is the user defined number of steps.

Initial Nonlinear Length / Number of Steps


One of the well known strategies for guaranteeing accurate split-step calculations is
to limit the value of the accumulated nonlinear phase-shift per step.

This is equivalent to set Δz = L NL ⁄ N LNL


where L NL = 1 ⁄ γP ( 0 ) is the nonlinear length at the input of the fiber (a measure
of the distance needed for considerable nonlinear distortions to occur), and

N LNL is the user specified number of steps per L NL .


Another limitation imposed is that the maximum temporal displacement of the
channels due to group-velocity mismatch per step is less than 1% of the bit period.

396
NONLINEAR DISPERSIVE FIBER (OBSOLETE)

Current Nonlinear Length / Number of Steps


In this case, the nonlinear length is periodically recalculated along the fiber:

L NL ( z ) = 1 ⁄ γP ( z ) .
In this way, the possible changes in L NL ( z ) due to loss or gain are taken into
account.

The term indicates the channel used in the calculations above. When the separate
channels signal representation is used, it is either the channel with the highest power
or the central channel. If we use only one continuous spectral band, as in the total field
signal representation, there can be only one main channel.

References
[1] Agrawal, G.P., “Nonlinear Fiber Optics, 3rd Edition”, Academic Press, 2001.
[2] Marcuse, D., Menyuk, C.R., and Wai, P.K.H., "Application of the Manakov - PMD Equation to
Studies of Signal Propagation in Optical Fibers with Randomly Varying Birefringence", Journ.
Light. Technol.,15, 1735-1746 (1997).
[3] Tchofo Dinda, P., Milot, G., and Wabnitz, S. "Polarization Switching and Suppression of
Stimulated Raman Scattering in Birefringent Optical Fibers", JOSA B, 15, 1433-1441 (1998).

397
NONLINEAR DISPERSIVE FIBER (OBSOLETE)

Notes:

398
LINEAR MULTIMODE FIBER

Linear Multimode Fiber

This component is a multimode fiber. The component has two modes of operation.
The fist one assumes the fiber has sufficient mode mixing due to imperfections or
splices; in this case the modal transfer function approaches a Gaussian function. The
second one allows the user to load measured modal delays and power-coupling
coefficients. The component also includes first- and second-order chromatic
dispersion.

Ports

Name and description Port type Signal type


Input Input Optical

Output Output Optical

Parameters
Main

Name and description Default value Default unit Value range


Frequency 850 nm, Hz, THz [100, 2000]

Reference center frequency

Length 1 km,m [0,+INF[


Fiber length

Attenuation 2.61 dB/km [0,+INF[

Fiber attenuation

Measured modal delays False - True, False

Defines whether to use measured modal delays (Cambridge


Model) or not

Modal bandwidth 1324 MHz.km [0,+INF[

Fiber modal bandwidth

Cutback factor 1 - [0,+INF[

Cutback factor

399
LINEAR MULTIMODE FIBER

Name and description Default value Default unit Value range


Filename CamMMFi.txt - -

The name of the file that containing the measured power


coupling coefficients and modal delays

Reference length 300 m, km ]0,+INF[

The fiber length used for the measurement

Frequency response False - True, False

Defines whether to use the calculated frequency response


from the measurement or not

Propagation delay 0 s/km [0,+INF[

Propagation delay

Delay skew 0 s/km [0,+INF[

Delay skew

Chromatic dispersion

Name and description Default value Default unit Value range


Include chromatic dispersion False nmHz, THz True, False

Defines whether the model includes chromatic dispersion


effects

Use Sellmeier approximations True — True, False

Defines whether the user enters data sheet parameters for


zero dispersion wavelength or at the reference wavelength

Zero dispersion wavelength 1354 nm [100, 2000]

Wavelength at zero dispersion

Zero dispersion slope 0.097 ps / (nm2.km) ]-INF,+INF[


Dispersion slope at zero dispersion

Dispersion –100 ps / (nm.km) ]-INF,+INF[

Dispersion at reference frequency

Dispersion slope 0.5 ps / (nm2.km) ]-INF,+INF[

Dispersion slope at reference frequency

Spectral width 0.4 nm [0, 2000]


Source spectral width

400
LINEAR MULTIMODE FIBER

Simulation

Name and description Default Default unit Units Value


value range
Enabled True — — True, False

Determines whether or not the component is


enabled

Resample False — — True, False

Determines if the filter will down sample the signal


bandwidth to the filter sample rate

Sample rate 500 GHz Hz, GHz, THz ]0,+INF[


New output signal sample rate

Discrete delay True — — True, False

If the parameter Discrete delay is true, the delay


is rounded to a multiple of the sampling period,
otherwise the time shift property of the Fourier
transform is applied using the exact delay value

Noise

Name and description Default Units Value


value range
Noise threshold –100 dB ]-INF,+INF[

Minimum value for adaptation of noise bins

Noise dynamic 3 dB ]-INF,+INF[

Threshold ratio for adaptation of noise bins

Technical background
The optical fiber has three dominant dispersion mechanisms, modal, and first-order
chromatic and second-order chromatic. We can assume that modal dispersion and
chromatic dispersion mechanisms act independently and can be treated
separately[1][2]. Propagation delay and Delay skew parameters are applied to the
signal output after the dispersion effects.

Modal dispersion
Personick has shown that if a multimode fiber has sufficient mode mixing due to
imperfections or splices, in this case the modal transfer function approaches a
Gaussian function [3][4][5]

2 2
ω σ
– ------------ (1)
2
HM ( ω ) = e

401
LINEAR MULTIMODE FIBER

where ω is the angular baseband frequency and σ is the RMS impulse response
width.

In this model, the modal dispersion is characterized by the 6 dB half of the optical
power frequency:

2 ⋅ 1n ( 2 ) 1 γ
B 6dB = -------------------------- = B M ⎛ ---⎞
(2)
2⋅π⋅σ ⎝ L⎠

where B M is defined by the parameter Modal bandwidth and L is the fiber parameter
Length. γ is the cutback factor, that takes into account the mode coupling, mixing and
concatenation effects.

Rewriting Equation 1 and Equation 2 in terms of frequency and bandwidth:

⎛ ⎞
⎜ 1n ( 2 ) ⋅ f
2 ⎟
⎜ – -------------------------------
γ 2⎟
- (3)
⎜ ⎛ B ⋅ ⎛ --1-⎞ ⎞ ⎟
⎝ ⎝ M ⎝ L⎠ ⎠ ⎠
HM ( f ) = e

If the Measured modal delays is enable, the modal dispersion is calculated from
measured modal delays and power coupling coefficients from parameter Filename.
The file format for the modal delay and power coupling coefficients file is the following:
Each file contains three columns. The first column contains the order of each mode
group supported by the fiber. The second column contains the average modal delay
of each mode group, in ns. The third column contains the power-coupling coefficients,
which indicate the relative excitation of each mode group. The modal delay is relative
to the parameter Reference length. The output signal is calculated from the impulse
response of the fiber in time domain. If the parameter Frequency response is enabled,
the output signal will be calculated in the frequency domain, in this case, the transfer
function of the fiber is calculated according to

– j2πfτ m (4)
HM ( f ) = ∑ ( Pm e )
m

Where P m is the power coupling coefficient and the τ m is the modal delay for mode
m. The principle of this model is described in detail in [8].

402
LINEAR MULTIMODE FIBER

Chromatic dispersion
Since most of the injection-lasers used in optical fiber communications have a
Gaussian line shape [1][2][6][7], we can use the solution for the chromatic transfer
function for a perfect Gaussian linewidth case:

2
( ω ⁄ ω1 )
– ---------------------------------
-
1 2 ( 1 + iω ⁄ ω 2 ) (5)
H D ( ω ) = -------------------------------------
1⁄2
-e
( 1 + iω ⁄ ω 2 )

where ω 1 and ω 2 are abbreviations for

2 –1
ω 1 = [ σ λ ( S + 2 D ⁄ λ r )L ]
(6)
–1
ω1 = –( σλ D L )

where the parameter σ λ is defined by Spectral width, S is the parameter Dispersion


slope, D is the Dispersion, λr is the reference center wavelength calculated from the
parameter Frequency, and L is the fiber length.

The parameter Use Sellmeier approximations defines whether you will enter D and
S directly, or if they will be calculated from the Sellmeier approximations [2]:

4
S0 ⎛ λ 0⎞
D = ----- ⎜ λ r – ----3-⎟
4⎝ λ ⎠ r (7)
4
S0 ⎛ λ 0⎞
S = ----- ⎜ 1 + 3 ----4-⎟
4⎝ λr ⎠

403
LINEAR MULTIMODE FIBER

References
[1] C. Yabre, "Comprehensive Theory of Dispersion in Graded-Index Optical Fibers", Journal of
Lightwave Technology, Vol. 18, No. 2, pp. 166-176, February 2000.
[2] G.D. Brown, "Bandwidth and Rise Time Calculations for Digital multimode Fiber-Optical Data
Links", Journal of Lightwave Technology, Vol. 10, No. 5, pp. 672-678, May 1992.
[3] S.D.Personick "Baseband Linearity and Equalization in Fiber Optic Digital Communication
Systems", The Bell System Technical Journal, pp. 1174-1194, September 1973.
[4] D.G.Duff, "Computer-Aided Design Of Digital Lightwave Systems", IEEE Journal on Selected
Areas in Communications, Vol. SAC-2, No. 1, pp. 171-185, January 1984.
[5] D.O.Harris, J.R. Jones "Baud Rate Response: Characterizing Modal Dispersion for Digital Fiber
Optic Systems", Journal of Lightwave Technology, Vol. 6, No. 5, pp. 668-677, May 1988.
[6] J.L.Gimlett, N,K,Cheung "Dispersion Penalty Analysis for LED/Single-Mode Fiber
Transmission Systems", Journal of Lightwave Technology, Vol. LT-4, No. 9, pp. 1381-1391,
September 1986.
[7] T. Pfeiffer, M. Witte, B. Deppisch "High-Speed Transmission of Broad-Band Thermal Light
Pulses Over Dispersion Fibers", IEEE Photonic Technology Letters, Vol. 11, No. 3, pp. 385-387,
March 1999.
[8] M. Webster et al., “A statistical analysis of conditioned launch for Gigabit Ethernet links using
multimode fiber”, Journal of Lightwave Technology, Vol. 17, No. 9, pp. 1532-1541, September
1999.

404
PARABOLIC-INDEX MULTIMODE FIBER

Parabolic-Index Multimode Fiber

This component is a multimode fiber with a parabolic refractive index. It is a spatially


dependent component that models the transverse field profiles and propagation
constants for each mode supported by the fiber.

Ports

Name and description Port type Signal type Supported


Modes
Input Input Optical Sampled signals

Output Output Optical

Parameters
Main

Name and description Default value Default unit Units Value range
Length 1 km m, km [0, 100000]

Defines the fiber length

Attenuation 2.61 dB/km [0, 1e+010]

Defines the fiber attenuation

Fiber Profile

Name and description Default value Default unit Units Value range
Core radius 25 um [1, 100]

Defines the fiber core radius

Clad radius 10 um [1, 10000]

Defines the fiber clad radius

Refractive index peak 1.4142 [1, 2]

The peak value of the refractive index for


the parabolic profile

405
PARABOLIC-INDEX MULTIMODE FIBER

Name and description Default value Default unit Units Value range
Refractive index step 1 % [0.01, 10]

The delta parameter of the refractive


index for the parabolic profile

Number of radial steps 1000 [10, 100000]

The number of steps for the parabolic


profile

Chromatic Dispersion

Name and description Default value Default unit Units Value range
Include chromatic dispersion NO [YES, NO]

Defines whether chromatic dispersion


effects are included or not

Reference wavelength 820 nm [100, 2000]

Dispersion and dispersion slope are


provided at this reference wavelength

Use Sellmeier approximations YES [YES, NO]

Defines whether Sellmeier


approximations are used or not

Zero dispersion wavelength 1354 nm [100, 2000]

The wavelength where the dispersion is


zero. The zero dispersion slope is also
provided for this wavelength.

Zero dispersion slope 0.097 ps/(nm^2.km) [-1e+100,


1e+100]
The dispersion slope at the zero
dispersion wavelength

Dispersion –100 ps/(nm.km) [-1e+100,


1e+100]
Dispersion at the reference wavelength

Dispersion slope 0.5 ps/(nm^2.km) [-1e+100,


1e+100]
Dispersion slope at the reference
wavelength

Numerical

Name and description Default value Default unit Units Value range
User defined wavelength NO [YES, NO]

Defines whether to calculate the mode


solver at a user defined wavelength or
not

406
PARABOLIC-INDEX MULTIMODE FIBER

Name and description Default value Default unit Units Value range
Solver wavelength 820 nm [100, 2000]

Mode solver is calculated at this


wavelength

Modal attenuation NO [YES, NO]

Defines whether to load a file with modal


attenuations or no

Attenuation filename Attenuation.dat

The filename with the refractive index


profile

Relative delay YES [YES, NO]

Defines whether the differential mode


delay is absolute or relative

Const. mode power dist. NO [YES, NO]

Defines whether to generate a constant


mode power distribution (MDP) or not

LP(m,n) max. 20, 10

The maximum LP mode index value


when the mode solver is searching for
modes

Min. signal power -100 dBm [-1e+100, 0]

The minimum signal power for a given


mode. Modes will not be attached to
signals with power lower than this value.

Generate overfilled launch NO [YES, NO]

Defines whether to generate an


overfilled fiber launch or not

Generate report YES [YES, NO]

Defines whether to generate a report


with the attributes of the fiber

Report
The summary of fiber attributes,
including number of modes, coupling
coefficients and delays

407
PARABOLIC-INDEX MULTIMODE FIBER

Graphs

Name and description Default value Default unit Units Value range
Calculate graphs NO [YES, NO]

Defines whether to calculate graphs or


not

Format Power Phase [Power Phase,


Real Imag]
Defines whether to calculate the graphs
using rectangular or polar format

Wavelength 820 nm [100, 2000]

The reference wavelength for the


graphs

LP(m,n) 0, 1

The LP mode index for the individual


radial and mode profile graphs

Radial graphs YES [YES, NO]

Defines whether to calculate the radial


graphs

Mode number graphs YES [YES, NO]

Defines whether to calculate the mode


number graphs

Spatial profile graphs NO [YES, NO]

Defines whether to calculate the spatial


profile graphs

Spatial overfilled graphs NO [YES, NO]

Defines whether to calculate the spatial


overfilled graphs

Simulation

Name and description Default value Default unit Units Value range
Enabled YES [YES, NO]

Determines whether or not the


component is enabled

Graphs

Name and description X Title Y Title


Refractive index profile Radius (m) Refractive index

LP[m,n] index array - m Mode number m

408
PARABOLIC-INDEX MULTIMODE FIBER

Name and description X Title Y Title


LP[m,n] index array - n Mode number n

Group delay Mode number Group delay (ps/km)

Effective index Mode number Effective index

Radial profile - individual a Radius (m) Intensity

Radial profile - individual b Radius (m) Phase (rad)

Spatial profile - individual a X (m) Y (m)

Spatial profile - individual b X (m) Y (m)

Spatial profile - overfilled a X (m) Y (m)

Spatial profile - overfilled b X (m) Y (m)

Power coupling and modal delay Modal delay (s) Power coupling

Technical Background
This component is a multimode fiber with parabolic refractive index (Figure 1). The
parabolic profile is described analytically as [1]:

where n1 is the parameter Refractive peak index at the fiber center, n2 is the refractive
index in the cladding, Δ is the parameter Refractive index step, a is the parameter
Core radius and (b-a) is the parameter Clad radius.

The radial distance from the fiber center r is discretized using the parameter Number
of radial steps.

409
PARABOLIC-INDEX MULTIMODE FIBER

Figure 1 Parabolic refractive index profile

The main result of the fiber calculation is the spatial profile, coupling coefficients and
the time delay for each mode.The signal center frequency for the mode solver
depends on the center frequency of the input signal. The user can force the mode
solver to work at a user defined wavelength by enabling parameter User defined
wavelength.

Additionally, the user can provide a file with the modal attenuation. The modal
attenuation file format is a list with the m and n mode index and the attenuation in
dB/km for polarizations X and Y:

Figure 2 Modal attenuation file

For illustration purposes, in the file above, 4 modes will be attenuated: LP 0, 1 ,


LP 0, 2 , LP 1, 1 and LP –1, 1 . The first mode will be attenuated by 0 dB/km for
both polarizations. The next mode will be attenuated by 500000 dB/Km. The
remaining two modes will be attenuated by 2000 dB/km.

The final solution for the output field of the combined temporal and spatial properties
of the fiber for N number of modes is shown below:

where Ein is the signal input field, ci is the coupling coefficient between the fiber
modes and the spatial profile if the input field and Ei is the fiber mode for each index i.

410
PARABOLIC-INDEX MULTIMODE FIBER

If the power of (ci.Ein) is below the parameter Min. signal power, the signal i is
discarded.

The component has an analytical mode solver that will calculate the LP(m,n) modes.
The parameter LP(m,n) max. defines the maximum order for the radial and azimuthal
indexes m and n when searching for fiber modes. The analytical solution for the field
in the core, for each m and n index is [1]:

where Ea,0 is a scaling factor for the boundary conditions in the core/clad fiber
interface. L is the Laguerre polynomial function, and k0 and ρ are given by:

where λ 0 is the center wavelength. The solution in the clad is given by:

where Eb,0 is a scaling factor for the boundary conditions in the clad/core fiber
interface, K is the modified Bessel function. The propagation constant β m, n is
calculated accordingly to:

There are two main results of this calculation. They are the time delay associated with
each mode and the coupling coefficient between the input spatial fields and each of
the spatial fiber modes. The propagation constant β is used to calculate the time
delay per mode:

411
PARABOLIC-INDEX MULTIMODE FIBER

where L is the fiber length. The coupling coefficient is calculated according to:

where Ei is the spatial profile for each m,n mode, including the sin and cosine factors,
and Ein is the spatial input field.

The user can also generate a constant mode power distribution (MPD). In this case
the coefficients will be constant. Enabling the parameter Generate overfilled launch
can generate an overfilled launch mode.

After the calculation, the parameter Report will have a list of the modes, coupling
coefficients and delays for each mode and polarization.

Another advanced feature of this model is the graph calculations.

By enabling the parameter Calculate graphs, the user can see the results from the
analytical mode solver. The results can include the mode index number for the
calculated modes, the effective index, delays, power coupling, refractive index
profiles, and spatial and radial profiles for the individual and overfilled mode.

The fiber model also includes the chromatic dispersion effects. If chromatic dispersion
is enabled, the user can specify the value of the dispersion and dispersion slope, as
well as Sellmeier.

The parameter Use Sellmeier approximations defines whether to calculate dispersion


and slope from the Sellmeier approximations[2]:

References
[1] A. Ghatak, K. Thyagarajan, “Introduction to Fiber Optics”, Cambridge University Press, New
York, NY, 1998.
[2] G.D. Brown, "Bandwidth and Rise Time Calculations for Digital multimode Fiber-Optic Data
Links", Journal of Lightwave Technology, VOL. 10, NO 5, May 1992, pp. 672-678.

412
MEASURED-INDEX MULTIMODE FIBER

Measured-Index Multimode Fiber

This component is a general-purpose multimode fiber with user-defined refractive


index profile. It is a spatially dependent component that models the transverse field
profiles and propagation constants for each mode supported by the fiber.

Ports

Name and description Port type Signal type Supported


Modes
Input Input Optical Sampled signals

Output Output Optical

Parameters
Main

Name and description Default value Default unit Units Value range
Length 1 km m, km [0, 100000]

Defines the fiber length

Attenuation 2.61 dB/km [0, 1e+101]

Defines the fiber attenuation

Fiber Profile

Name and description Default value Default unit Units Value range
OptiFiber file format NO [YES, NO]

Defines whether to load a file generated


by OptiFiber or not

Filename Index.txt

The filename with the refractive index


profile

413
MEASURED-INDEX MULTIMODE FIBER

Material Properties

Name and description Default value Default unit Units Value range
Include material properties NO [YES, NO]

Defines whether material properties are


take into consideration in the delay
calculationt

Host material Pure silica Pure silica,

Defines the fiber host material 1.0% fluoride-


doped silica,

3.0% B2O3-
doped silica,

3.1% germania-
doped silica,

9.1% P2O5-
doped silica,

Pure fused GeO2,