52 views

Uploaded by hariharansesh

This paper attempts to provide a generalization of the Collatz Conjecture. It is based on the redefinition of the conjecture so as to overcome the restriction posed by the Undecidability result (J.H. Conway, 1972). The generalization provides scope for many more possible Collatz-like expressions.

- Gromov
- Math207-2017-SampleExam3
- Exploring number theory via Diophantine equations.pdf
- Multiplication_Complete-Set.pdf
- Mi Mantenimiento Nivel
- grade 1 sorico math unit 1 1 2013-2014
- Randomness and Complexity, From Leibniz to Chaitin (Cristian S. Calude) 9812770828
- Multiplication_Complete-Set.pdf
- Stein-Logos Logic Logistike
- Multiplication_Complete-Set.pdf
- SMARANDACHE REPLICATING DIGITAL FUNCTION NUMBERS
- Conjecture - Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia
- group10 ass1 report
- Ram Rec
- John L. Bell - A Primer of Infinitesimal Analysis - CUP
- béziau_what is a logic
- Dynamic Programming
- Compiler- 09
- Logic Gate
- James Cummings and Saharon Shelah- A model in which every Boolean algebra has many subalgebras

You are on page 1of 7

COLLATZ CONJECTURE

By Hariharan Seshadri

GENERALIZATION OF COLLATZ CONJECTURE

Abstract

The Collatz problem, also known as the 3𝑥 + 1 problem, states that every positive

integer approaches one on iterating the Collatz function [1], defined as: -

1

𝑥 𝑖𝑓 𝑥 𝑖𝑠 𝑒𝑣𝑒𝑛

𝑓(𝑥) = { 2

3𝑥 + 1 𝑖𝑓 𝑥 𝑖𝑠 𝑜𝑑𝑑

Many attempts have been undertaken to generalize the Collatz function. One

important result in this is ‘The Undecidability of the Generalized Collatz Problem’,[2]

which states that there is no generalization that can decide whether an arbitrary

Collatz-like function (𝑎𝑥 + 𝑏: 𝑎, 𝑏 ∈ 𝑄) converges to one or not.

The objective of this paper is to establish a generalized Collatz function that would

not be affected by the undecidability result. This is done by defining the Collatz

function differently.

Generalization

The Collatz Conjecture states that every positive integer approaches one on iterating

the Collatz function. The problem of generalization comes when we try to look for

a function that approaches one all the time. However, if we look for a generalization

that approaches some number that is related to the generalization itself, then we can

find a fruitful generalization that does not suffer the undecidability.

In order to generalize the Collatz problem, let us consider a new function, 𝑔(𝑥),

defined as follows: -

1

𝑥 𝑖𝑓 𝑥 𝑖𝑠 𝑒𝑣𝑒𝑛 (𝑤ℎ𝑒𝑟𝑒 𝑎, 𝑏 ∈ 𝑁)

𝑔(𝑥) = { 2

𝑎𝑥 + 𝑏 𝑖𝑓 𝑥 𝑖𝑠 𝑜𝑑𝑑

With this, the Collatz conjecture can be modified into – every positive integer

approaches the constant term 𝑏 on iterating the 𝑔(𝑥) function. Clearly, the Collatz

Conjecture is a subset of this statement.

Since not all values of 𝑎 and 𝑏 satisfy this statement, we need to find a specific form

or relation between 𝑎 and 𝑏 such that the above statement is obeyed. For this, 20

values of 𝑎 and 𝑏 each (i.e., all combinations between 𝑎 = 1 𝑡𝑜 20 and 𝑏 = 1 𝑡𝑜 20)

were tested with 20 values of 𝑥 and computationally tested, and the following result

was obtained: -

1

GENERALIZATION OF COLLATZ CONJECTURE

a b

1 1

2 2

3 1

3 3

3 9

4 4

6 2

6 6

6 18

8 8

12 4

12 12

16 16

Table: 𝑎 and 𝑏 values that reach 𝑏 on iterating the 𝑔(𝑥) function

From the above values and all values of this kind, we observe the following

behaviour: -

1. All accepted expressions are of the form, 2𝑎 3𝑏 𝑥 + 2𝑚 3𝑛 , where 𝑎, 𝑏, 𝑚, 𝑛 ∈ 𝑊.

2. Both 𝑎 and 𝑏 values are of the same parity with one divisible by the other.

3. The difference of co-prime forms of 𝑎 and 𝑏 is divisible by 2.

4. If a Collatz-like expression, 𝑎𝑥 + 𝑏, reaches 𝑏 after finite cycles of iterations,

then (2𝑛 𝑎)𝑥 + (2𝑛 )𝑏 where 𝑛 ∈ 𝑁, also reaches 𝑏 after finite cycles of iterations.

With these conditions in mind, the following flowchart can be constructed to decide

whether a given expression, 𝑎𝑥 + 𝑏, iterates to 𝑏 or not.

2

GENERALIZATION OF COLLATZ CONJECTURE

START

Given expression is of

the form 2𝑎 3𝑏 𝑥 + 2𝑚 3𝑛 , False REJECTED

where 𝑎, 𝑏, 𝑚, 𝑛 ∈ 𝑊

True

are of the same parity

True

False REJECTED

prime forms of 2𝑎 3𝑏 and

2𝑚 3𝑛 is divisible by 2

True

2𝑚 3𝑛 or vice-versa

True

3

GENERALIZATION OF COLLATZ CONJECTURE

are co-primes

Co-prime form of

True False

expression is

𝑘

3 𝑥 + 1, 𝑘 ∈ {0,1}

ACCEPTED REJECTED

True False

2𝑚 3𝑛 is of the form,

2𝑝 3𝑞 , 𝑝 ∈ 𝑊, 𝑞 ∈ {0,1}

REJECTED

True 𝑎 𝑏 𝑚 𝑛 False

2 3 =2 3

True False True False

expression is expression is

𝑘

3 𝑥 + 1, 𝑘 ∈ {0,1} 3𝑘 𝑥 + 1, 𝑘 ∈ {0,1}

4

GENERALIZATION OF COLLATZ CONJECTURE

Following the flowchart, we can say that

• 3𝑥 + 9 is of the form 2𝑎 3𝑏 𝑥 + 2𝑚 3𝑛 , where 𝑎, 𝑏, 𝑚, 𝑛 ∈ 𝑊.

• 3 and 9 are of the same parity.

• The co-prime forms of 3 and 9 are 1 and 3, respectively. 1 − 3 = −2, divisible

by 2.

• 9 is divisible by 3.

• 3 and 9 are not co-primes.

• The HCF of 3 and 9 is 3 = 20 31.

• 3≠9

• 3 is raised to the power 1

• The co-prime form of expression, 𝑥 + 3, is not of the form, 3𝑘 𝑥 + 1, 𝑘 ∈ {0,1}.

As a result of the flowchart, we can conclude that the expression, 3𝑥 + 9, reaches 9

after finite iterations.

This method is also helpful in eliminating expressions that do not satisfy the required

condition.

Note: The co-prime form of the expression should be of the form, 𝑎𝑘 𝑥 + 𝑏, 𝑘 ∈

{0,1}, such that 𝑎 and 𝑏 are prime numbers (or 1) which are ±1 away from another

prime number (or 1) such that 𝑎 ≥ 𝑏. This is what has been stated as 3𝑘 𝑥 + 1, 𝑘 ∈

{0,1}, which is the only possible expression.

This entire flowchart can be condensed into the following condition: -

Collagen Condition (Collatz Generalization)

𝑥⁄

2 if 𝑥 ≡ 0 (mod 2)

𝜇(𝑥) = { 𝑎 𝑏 (1−𝑏)𝑚𝑜𝑑 𝑛

2 3 {3 2 𝑥 + 3𝑛𝑏 } if 𝑥 ≡ 1 (mod 2)

Collagen Conjecture:

Every positive integer approaches the constant term of the 𝜇(𝑥) function, 2𝑎 3𝑏(𝑛+1) ,

on iterating the function for finite number of cycles.

5

GENERALIZATION OF COLLATZ CONJECTURE

References

1. “Collatz Problem”, http://mathworld.wolfram.com/CollatzProblem.html

Collatz Problem”, http://people.cs.uchicago.edu/~simon/RES/collatz.pdf

*********************************

- GromovUploaded byismyorulmaz
- Math207-2017-SampleExam3Uploaded byXandre Dmitri Clementsmith
- Exploring number theory via Diophantine equations.pdfUploaded byhumejias
- Multiplication_Complete-Set.pdfUploaded byVerónica Rodríguez
- Mi Mantenimiento NivelUploaded byFrancis Esquivel Cuenca
- grade 1 sorico math unit 1 1 2013-2014Uploaded byapi-233707670
- Randomness and Complexity, From Leibniz to Chaitin (Cristian S. Calude) 9812770828Uploaded byCraig Gates
- Multiplication_Complete-Set.pdfUploaded byJohn Jairo Tamayo Ortiz
- Stein-Logos Logic LogistikeUploaded byEdwin Pinzón
- Multiplication_Complete-Set.pdfUploaded byAT David
- SMARANDACHE REPLICATING DIGITAL FUNCTION NUMBERSUploaded byDon Hass
- Conjecture - Wikipedia, The Free EncyclopediaUploaded bySurya Bhupathi Raju
- group10 ass1 reportUploaded bypostscript
- Ram RecUploaded byEpic Win
- John L. Bell - A Primer of Infinitesimal Analysis - CUPUploaded byTommy Anderson
- béziau_what is a logicUploaded bycesarfredericosantos
- Dynamic ProgrammingUploaded byballechase
- Compiler- 09Uploaded byAnurag Upadhyay
- Logic GateUploaded byNidhy Khajuria
- James Cummings and Saharon Shelah- A model in which every Boolean algebra has many subalgebrasUploaded byJgfm2
- BooleanFunctions1 (1)Uploaded bynyshya22
- J_362,J_361.pdfUploaded byNishant
- j Met 2010 AnalysisUploaded byThahir Nm
- Adelic GoldbachUploaded byPaul Harley
- Peano ArithmeticUploaded byglaufan
- On the base-b expansion of the Number of Trailing Zeros of b^k!Uploaded byEdwin J Montufar
- M411S06notesUploaded byguzz_leon
- There is certainly no end to the series of mathematicians whose works created the platform for others to produce seminal works in mathematics.docxUploaded byAna Ramos Lopez
- Prog.de TelloUploaded byanon-885441
- Discrete Maths 2002 Lecture 16 3 Slides PpUploaded byapi-26021617

- Mahony v. Pickus, CUMcv-04-141 (Cumberland Super. Ct., 2008)Uploaded byChris Buck
- People vs., SabalonesUploaded byAldrinmarkquintana
- ICICI Bank - ProjectUploaded byTejasvi Katira
- The Premortem TechniqueUploaded byConnochaetesTaurinus
- Real Options TheoryUploaded byKumar Prashant
- Enzyme Activity With TemperatureUploaded byGuille Paz
- An Ars Oblivionalis Forget It! - Umberto EcoUploaded byAlisson Ramos De Souza
- CCNA1 ver 4.0 1st Final ExamUploaded bystigerj
- Fluid Mechanics by Chun-Liang LaiUploaded by李侑澄
- Samsung Fax Sf150tbUploaded byyiyus1
- Stick and Poke TattooUploaded byRenuka Patra
- Taking South Park seriously.pdfUploaded byJelicaVeljovic
- PNKYUploaded byPinky Shaikh
- Cultural ChangesUploaded byCourtney Gonzalez
- PSA Norway - Guidelines Regarding the Facilities Regulations - 2015Uploaded bynaveen_86
- the ruling on prayer beadsUploaded bysajid
- Great Conversation Essay 1Uploaded byMichaelWebb
- 04 Revelation 2 & 3 Introduction to the Seven ChurchesUploaded byVern Peterman
- Entreneurship (2)Uploaded byPriya Datta
- Richard Hamilton Tabular ImageUploaded byStacey King
- The Development of Element Preodic TableUploaded byRirin Alchin
- Baydoun OpinionUploaded byFrederick Bartlett
- AquinasUploaded byjunkman321
- (Pimlico) Harold Evans-Essential English for Journalists, Editors and Writers-Random House UK (2000)Uploaded byChan Yi Wen
- PG MachineVision EnUploaded byFranklin Rafael Ferreras Cuevas
- Homily Episcopal Ordination JammuUploaded byschacko77
- SF03 - Laser RangefinderUploaded byAnonymous yBx63qR
- Management Science Unit 1Uploaded bySrujana Mavilla
- Verilog basic pptUploaded byRajat
- IGNOU Prospectus and Application Form 2014 July SessionUploaded byAnweshaBose