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Coordinates: 11°22.4′N 142°35.5′E

Challenger Deep
e Challenger Deep is the deepest known point in
the Earth's seabed hydrosphere, with a depth of 10,898
to 10,916   m (35,755 to 35,814   ) by direct
measurement from submersibles, and slightly more by
sonar bathymetry. It is in the Pacific Ocean, at the
southern end of the Mariana Trench near the Mariana
Islands group. e Challenger Deep is a relatively
small slot-shaped depression in the boom of a
considerably larger crescent-shaped oceanic trench,
which itself is an unusually deep feature in the ocean
floor. Its boom is about 11 km (7 mi) long and 1.6 km
(1 mi) wide, with gently sloping sides.[1] e closest
land to the Challenger Deep is Fais Island (one of the
outer islands of Yap), 287 km (178 mi) southwest, and
Guam, 304 km (189 mi) to the northeast. It is located
in the ocean territory of the Federated States of
Micronesia, 1.6 km (1 mi) from its border with ocean
territory associated with Guam.[2]

e depression is named aer the British Royal Navy


Location of Challenger Deep within the
survey ship HMS Challenger, whose expedition of Mariana Trench and Western Pacific Ocean
1872–1876 made the first recordings of its depth.
According to the August 2011 version of the GEBCO
Gazeeer of Undersea Feature Names, the location and depth of the Challenger Deep are 11°22.4′N 142°35.5′E and
10,920 m (35,827 ) ±10 m (33 ).[3]

June 2009 sonar mapping of the Challenger Deep by the Simrad EM120 (sonar multibeam bathymetry system for
300–11,000 m deep water mapping) aboard the RV Kilo Moana indicated a depth of 10,971 metres (35,994 ). e
sonar system uses phase and amplitude boom detection, with a precision of 0.2% to 0.5% of water depth; this is an
error of about 22 to 55 m (72 to 180 ) at this depth.[4][5][6] Further soundings made by the US Center for Coastal
& Ocean Mapping in October 2010 are in agreement with this figure, preliminarily placing the deepest part of the
Challenger Deep at 10,994 m (36,070 ), with an estimated vertical uncertainty of ±40 m (131 ).[7][8] A 2014 study
concludes that with the best of 2010 multibeam echosounder technologies a depth uncertainty of ±25 m (82 ) (95%
confidence level) on 9 degrees of freedom and a positional uncertainty of ±20 to 25 m (66 to 82 ) (2drms) remain
and the location of the deepest depth recorded in the 2010 mapping is 10,984   m (36,037   ) at
11.329903°N 142.199305°E (11°19′47.650″N 142°11′57.498″E).[6]

Only four descents have ever been achieved. e first descent by any vehicle was by the manned bathyscaphe
Trieste in 1960. is was followed by the unmanned ROVs Kaikō in 1995 and Nereus in 2009. In March 2012 a
manned solo descent was made by the deep-submergence vehicle Deepsea Challenger.[9][10][11] ese expeditions
measured very similar depths of 10,898 to 10,916 metres (35,755 to 35,814 ).

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Contents
History of depth mapping from the surface
Descents
Manned descents
Trieste
Deepsea Challenger
Planned manned descents
Unmanned descents
Kaikō
ABISMO
Nereus
Haidou-1

Lifeforms
See also
Notes
External links

History of depth mapping from the surface


Over many years, the search for the point of maximum depth has involved many different vessels.[12]

The HMS Challenger expedition (December 1872 – May 1876) first sounded the depths
now known as the Challenger Deep. This first sounding was made on 23 March 1875 at
station 225.[13] The reported depth was 4,475 fathoms (26,850 ft; 8,184 m) at 11°24′N
143°16′E, based on two separate soundings.
A 1912 book, The Depths of the Ocean by Sir John Murray, records the depth of the
Challenger Deep as 31,614 ft (9,636 m), reporting the sounding taken by the converted
navy collier USS Nero in 1899.[14] Murray was one of the expedition scientists.[15]
In 1951, about 75 years after its original discovery, the entire Mariana Trench was
surveyed by a second Royal Navy vessel, captained by George Stephen Ritchie (later Rear
Admiral Ritchie); this vessel was also named HMS Challenger, after the original expedition
ship. This survey recorded the deepest part of the trench using echo sounding, a more
precise and easier way to measure depth than the sounding equipment and drag lines
used in the original expedition. A depth of 5,960 fathoms (35,760 ft; 10,900 m) was
measured at 11°19′N 142°15′E.

The maximum surveyed depth of the Challenger Deep was reported in 1957 by the Soviet
Research vessel Vityaz recording a spot 11,034 metres (36,201 ft) ±50 m (164 ft) deep at
11°20.9′N 142°11.5′E.[12] It was dubbed the Mariana Hollow and is listed in many
reference sources, including the Encyclopædia Britannica,[16] articles in National
Geographic[17] and on maps. The pressure at this depth is approximately 1,099 times that
at the surface, or 111 MPa (16,099 psi).[18]
In 1959, the US Navy research vessel RV Stranger using bomb-sounding surveyed a
maximum depth of 10,915 m (35,810 ft) ±10 m (33 ft) at 11°20.0′N 142°11.8′E.[3][12]
In 1962, the US Navy research vessel RV Spencer F. Baird using a frequency-controlled
depth recorder surveyed a maximum depth of 10,915 m (35,810 ft) ±10 m (33 ft) at

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11°20.0′N 142°11.8′E.[12]
In 1975 and 1980, the US Navy research vessel RV
Thomas Washington using a precision depth
recorder with satellite positioning surveyed a
maximum depth of 10,915 m (35,810 ft) ±10 m
(33 ft) at 11°20.0′N 142°11.8′E.[12]
In 1984, the survey vessel Takuyo from the
Hydrographic Department of Japan, used a narrow,
multibeam echo sounder to take a measurement of Research vessel Vityaz in
10,924 m (35,840 ft) ±10 m (33 ft) at 11°22.4′N
Kaliningrad "Museum of world
142°35.5′E.[3][12][19]
ocean"
In 1998, a regional bathymetric survey of the
Challenger Deep was conducted by the Deep Sea
Research Vessel RV Kairei, from the Japan Agency
for Marine-Earth Science and Technology, using a
SeaBeam 2112 multibeam echosounder. The
regional bathymetric map made from the data
obtained in 1998 shows that the greatest depths in
the eastern, central, and western depressions are
10,922 m (35,833 ft) ±74 m (243 ft), 10,898 m
(35,755 ft) ±62 m (203 ft), and 10,908 m (35,787 ft)
±36 m (118 ft), respectively, making the eastern
depression the deepest of the three.[12]
Deep Sea Research Vessel RV
In 1999 and 2002, the RV Kairei revisited the
Challenger Deep. The cross track survey in the 1999 Kairei
RV Kairei cruise shows that the greatest depths in
the eastern, central, and western depressions are
10,920 m (35,827 ft) ±10 m (33 ft), 10,894 m (35,741 ft) ±14 m (46 ft), and 10,907 m
(35,784 ft) ±13 m (43 ft), respectively, which supports the results of the 1998 survey. The
detailed grid survey in 2002 showed that the deepest site is located in the eastern part of
the eastern depression around 11°22.260′N 142°35.589′E, with a depth of 10,920 m
(35,827 ft) ±5 m (16 ft), about 290 m (950 ft) southeast of the deepest site determined by
the survey vessel Takuyo in 1984 and about 240 m (790 ft) east of the deepest place
determined by the 1998 RV Kairei survey.[12]
On 1 June 2009, sonar mapping of the Challenger Deep by the Kongsberg Simrad EM 120
sonar multibeam bathymetry system for deep water (300 – 11,000 metres) mapping
aboard the RV Kilo Moana (mothership of the Nereus underwater vehicle) indicated a
depth of 10,971 m (35,994 ft). The sonar system uses phase and amplitude bottom
detection, which is capable of an accuracy of 0.2% to 0.5% of water depth across the
entire swath.[4][5][20] In 2014 the multibeam bathymetry data of this sonar mapping have
yet to be publicly released, so the data are not available for comparisons with other
soundings.[6]
On 7 October 2010, further sonar mapping of the Challenger Deep area was conducted by
the US Center for Coastal & Ocean Mapping/Joint Hydrographic Center (CCOM/JHC) aboard
the USNS Sumner (T-AGS-61). The results were reported in December 2011 at the annual
American Geophysical Union fall meeting. Using a Kongsberg Maritime EM 122 multibeam
echosounder system coupled to positioning equipment that can determine latitude and
longitude up to 50 cm (20 in) accuracy, from thousands of individual soundings around
the deepest part the CCOM/JHC team preliminary determined that the Challenger Deep
has a maximum depth of 10,994 m (36,070 ft) at 11.326344°N 142.187248°E, with an
estimated vertical uncertainty of ±40 m (131 ft) at 2 standard deviations (≈ 95.4%)
confidence level.[7] A secondary deep with a depth of 10,951 m (35,928 ft) was located at
approximately 23.75 nmi (44.0 km) to the east at 11.369639°N 142.588582°E in the
Mariana Trench.[8][21][22][23]
In 2014, a study was conducted regarding the determination of the depth and location of the Challenger Deep based

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on data collected previous to and during the 2010 sonar mapping of the Mariana Trench with a Kongsberg Maritime
EM 122 multibeam echosounder system aboard the USNS Sumner (T-AGS-61). is study by James. V. Gardner et al.
of the Center for Coastal & Ocean Mapping-Joint Hydrographic Center (CCOM/JHC), Chase Ocean Engineering
Laboratory of the University of New Hampshire splits the measurement aempt history into three main groups:
early single-beam echo sounders (1950s - 1970's), early multibeam echo sounders (1980s - 21st century), and modern
(i.e., post-GPS, high-resolution) multibeam echo sounders. Taking uncertainties in depth measurements and
position estimation into account the raw data of the 2010 bathymetry of the Challenger Deep vicinity consisting of
2,051,371 soundings from eight survey lines was analyzed. e study concludes that with the best of 2010
multibeam echosounder technologies aer the analysis a depth uncertainty of ±25 m (82 ) (95% confidence level)
on 9 degrees of freedom and a positional uncertainty of ±20 to 25 m (66 to 82 ) (2drms) remain and the location of
the deepest depth recorded in the 2010 mapping is 10,984 m (36,037 ) at 11.329903°N 142.199305°E. e depth
measurement uncertainty is a composite of measured uncertainties in the spatial variations in sound-speed through
the water volume, the ray-tracing and boom-detection algorithms of the multibeam system, the accuracies and
calibration of the motion sensor and navigation systems, estimates of spherical spreading, aenuation throughout
the water volume, and so forth.[6]

e 2009 and 2010 maximal depths were not confirmed by the series of dives Nereus made to the boom during an
expedition in May–June 2009. e direct descent measurements by the four expeditions which have reported from
the boom, have fixed depths in a narrow range from 10,916 m (Trieste) to 10,911 m (Kaikō), to 10,902 m (Nereus) to
10,898 m (Deepsea Challenger) Although an aempt was made to correlate locations, it could not be absolutely
certain that Nereus (or the other descents) reached exactly the same points found to be maximally deep by the
sonar/echo sounders of previous mapping expeditions, even though one of these echo soundings was made by
Nereus mothership.

Descents

Manned descents

Trieste
On 23 January 1960, the Swiss-designed Trieste, originally built in Italy and acquired by the U.S. Navy, descended to
the ocean floor in the trench manned by Jacques Piccard (who co-designed the submersible along with his father,
Auguste Piccard) and USN Lieutenant Don Walsh. eir crew compartment was inside a spherical pressure vessel,
which was a heavy-duty replacement (of the Italian original) built by Krupp Steel Works of Essen, Germany. eir
descent took almost five hours and the two men spent barely twenty minutes on the ocean floor before undertaking
the three-hour-and-fieen-minute ascent. eir early departure from the ocean floor was due to their concern over
a crack in the outer window caused by the temperature differences during their descent.[24] e measured depth at
the boom was measured with a manometer at 10,916 m (35,814 ) ±5 m (16 ).[12][25]

Deepsea Challenger
On 26 March 2012 (local time), Canadian film director James Cameron made a solo manned descent in the DSV
Deepsea Challenger to the boom of the Challenger Deep.[9][10][11][26] At approximately 05:15 ChST on 26 March
(19:15 UTC on 25 March), the descent began.[27] At 07:52 ChST (21:52 UTC), Deepsea Challenger arrived at the

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boom. e descent lasted 2 hours and 36 minutes and the recorded


depth was 10,898.4 metres (35,756   ) when Deepsea Challenger
touched down.[28] Cameron had planned to spend about six hours
near the ocean floor exploring but decided to start the ascent to the
surface aer only 2 hours and 34 minutes.[29] e time on the
boom was shortened because a hydraulic fluid leak in the lines
controlling the manipulator arm obscured the visibility out the only
viewing port. It also caused the loss of the submersible's starboard
thrusters.[30] At around 12:00 ChST (02:00 UTC on 26 March), the
Deepsea Challenger website says the sub resurfaced aer a 90-
minute ascent,[31] although Paul Allen's tweets indicate the ascent
took only about 67 minutes.[32] During a post-dive press conference
Cameron said: "I landed on a very so, almost gelatinous flat plain.
Once I got my bearings, I drove across it for quite a distance … and
finally worked my way up the slope." e whole time, Cameron said,
he didn't see any fish, or any living creatures more than an inch
(2.54   cm) long: "e only free swimmers I saw were small
amphipods"—shrimplike boom-feeders.[33]
Lt. Don Walsh, USN (bottom)
and Jacques Piccard (center) in
Planned manned descents the bathyscaphe Trieste.

Several other manned expeditions are planned. ese include:[34]

Triton Submarines, a Florida-based company that


designs and manufactures private submarines,
whose vehicle, Triton 36000/3, will carry a crew of
three to the seabed in 120 minutes;[35]
Virgin Oceanic, sponsored by Richard Branson's
Virgin Group, is developing a submersible designed DSV Deepsea Challenger
by Graham Hawkes, DeepFlight Challenger,[36] with
which the solo pilot will take 140 minutes to reach
the seabed;[37]
DOER Marine, a San Francisco Bay Area based marine technology company established in
1992, that is developing a vehicle, Deepsearch (and Ocean Explorer HOV Unlimited), with
some support from Google's Eric Schmidt with which a crew of two or three will take 90
minutes to reach the seabed, as the program Deep Search.[38]

Unmanned descents

Kaikō
On 24 March 1995, the Japanese robotic deep-sea probe Kaikō broke the depth record for unmanned probes when it
reached close to the surveyed boom of the Challenger Deep. Created by the Japan Agency for Marine-Earth
Science and Technology (JAMSTEC), it was one of the few unmanned deep-sea probes in operation that could dive
deeper than 6,000 metres (20,000   ). e manometer measured depth of 10,911   m (35,797   ) ±3   m (10   ) at
11°22.39′N 142°35.54′E[39] for the Challenger Deep is believed to be the most accurate measurement taken yet.[12]
Kaikō also collected sediment cores containing marine organisms from the boom of the deep.[17][18] Kaikō made

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many unmanned descents to the Mariana Trench during three expeditions in 1995, 1996 and 1998.[40] e greatest
depth measured by Kaikō in 1996 was 10,898 m (35,755 ) at 11°22.10′N 142°25.85′E and in 1998 10,907 m (35,784 )
at 11°22.95′N 142°12.42′E.[12] It was lost at sea off Shikoku Island during Typhoon Chan-Hom on 29 May 2003.

ABISMO
On 3 June 2008, the Japanese robotic deep-sea probe ABISMO (Automatic Boom Inspection and Sampling Mobile)
reached the boom of the Mariana Trench about 150 km (93 mi) east of the Challenger Deep and collected core
samples of the deep sea sediment and water samples of the water column. Created by the Japan Agency for Marine-
Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC), it was the only unmanned deep-sea probe in use that could dive deeper
than 10,000   m (32,808   ) aer that of Nereus. During ABISMO's deepest Mariana Trench dive its manometer
measured a depth of 10,258 m (33,655 ) ±3 m (10 )[41]

Nereus
On 31 May 2009 the United States sent the Nereus hybrid remotely
operated vehicle (HROV) to the Challenger Deep.[42] Nereus thus
became the first vehicle to reach the Mariana Trench since 1998 and
the deepest-diving vehicle then in operation.[42] Project manager
and developer Andy Bowen heralded the achievement as "the start of
a new era in ocean exploration".[42] Nereus, unlike Kaikō, did not
need to be powered or controlled by a cable connected to a ship on
the ocean surface.[43]

Nereus spent over 10 hours at the boom of the Challenger Deep and
measured a depth of 10,902   m (35,768   ) at 11°22.1′N 142°35.4′E,
while sending live video and data back to its mothership RV Kilo
HROV Nereus
Moana at the surface and collecting geological and biological samples
from the Challenger Deep boom with its manipulator arm for
further scientific analysis.[4][42][44][45]

e Nereus was operated by the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. It was lost on May 10, 2014.[46]

Haidou-1
On 23 May 2016 the Chinese submersible Haidou-1 dove to a depth of 10,767 m (35,325 ) in the Mariana Trench.
is autonomous and remotely operated vehicle has a design depth of 11,000 m (36,089 ).[47]

Lifeforms
e Summary Report of the HMS Challenger expedition lists radiolaria from the two dredged samples taken when
the Challenger Deep was first discovered.[48] ese (Nassellaria and Spumellaria) were reported in the Report on
Radiolaria (1887)[49] wrien by Ernst Haeckel.

On their 1960 descent, the crew of the Trieste noted that the floor consisted of diatomaceous ooze and reported
observing "some type of flatfish" lying on the seabed.[50]

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"… And as we were seling this final fathom, I saw a wonderful thing. Lying on the boom just
beneath us was some type of flatfish, resembling a sole, about 1 foot long and 6 inches across. Even
as I saw him, his two round eyes on top of his head spied us — a monster of steel — invading his
silent realm. Eyes? Why should he have eyes? Merely to see phosphorescence? e floodlight that
bathed him was the first real light ever to enter this hadal realm. Here, in an instant, was the answer
that biologists had asked for the decades. Could life exist in the greatest depths of the ocean? It
could! And not only that, here apparently, was a true, bony teleost fish, not a primitive ray or
elasmobranch. Yes, a highly evolved vertebrate, in time's arrow very close to man himself. Slowly,
extremely slowly, this flatfish swam away. Moving along the boom, partly in the ooze and partly in
the water, he disappeared into his night. Slowly too — perhaps everything is slow at the boom of
the sea — Walsh and I shook hands.[51]

Many marine biologists are now skeptical of this supposed sighting, and it is suggested that the creature may
instead have been a sea cucumber.[52][53] e video camera on board the Kaiko probe spoed a sea cucumber, a
scale worm and a shrimp at the boom.[54][55] At the boom of the Challenger deep, the Nereus probe spoed one
polychaete worm (a multi-legged predator) about an inch long.[56]

An analysis of the sediment samples collected by Kaiko found large numbers of simple organisms at 10,900 m
(35,800 ).[57] While similar lifeforms have been known to exist in shallower ocean trenches (> 7,000 m) and on the
abyssal plain, the lifeforms discovered in the Challenger Deep possibly represent taxa distinct from those in
shallower ecosystems.

Most of the organisms collected were simple, so-shelled foraminifera (432 species according to National
Geographic[58]), with four of the others representing species of the complex, multi-chambered genera Leptohalysis
and Reophax. Eighty-five percent of the specimens were organic, so-shelled allogromiids, which is unusual
compared to samples of sediment-dwelling organisms from other deep-sea environments, where the percentage of
organic-walled foraminifera ranges from 5% to 20%. As small organisms with hard, calcareous shells have trouble
growing at extreme depths because of the high solubility of calcium carbonate in the pressurized water, scientists
theorize that the preponderance of so-shelled organisms in the Challenger Deep may have resulted from the
typical biosphere present when the Challenger Deep was shallower than it is now. Over the course of six to nine
million years, as the Challenger Deep grew to its present depth, many of the species present in the sediment died
out or were unable to adapt to the increasing water pressure and changing environment.[59] e species that
survived the change in depth were the ancestors of the Challenger Deep's current denizens.

On 17 March 2013, researchers reported data that suggested microbial life forms thrive in the Challenger
Deep.[60][61] Other researchers reported related studies that microbes thrive inside rocks up to 1,900  (579 m)
below the sea floor under 8,500  (2,591 m) of ocean off the coast of the northwestern United States.[60][62]
According to one of the researchers, "You can find microbes everywhere — they're extremely adaptable to
conditions, and survive wherever they are."[60]

See also
Sirena Deep
Horizon Deep
Galathea Depth

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Notes
1. All Things Considered (9 March 2012). "Diving Back to the Bottom of the Mariana Trench"
(http://www.npr.org/2012/03/09/148317355/film-director-to-travel-to-bottom-of-mariana-
trench). NPR. Retrieved 26 March 2012.
2. The Colbert Report, airdate: 2012 April 12, interview with James Cameron
3. "IHO-IOC GEBCO Gazetteer of Undersea Feature Names, August 2011 version"
(http://www.gebco.net/data_and_products/undersea_feature_names/#feature_links4).
GEBCO. August 2011. Retrieved 20 March 2012.
4. "Daily Reports for R/V KILO MOANA June and July 2009" (http://www.soest.hawaii.edu
/UMC/cms/ship-daily-reports/). University of Hawaii Marine Center. 4 June 2009. Retrieved
4 June 2009.
5. "Inventory of Scientific Equipment aboard the R/V KILO MOANA"
(http://www.soest.hawaii.edu/UMC/cms/kilo-moana/). University of Hawaii Marine Center. 4
June 2009. Retrieved 4 June 2009.
6. "So, How Deep Is the Mariana Trench?" (http://ccom.unh.edu/sites/default/files
/publications/Gardner-et-al-2014-Challenger-Deep.pdf) (PDF). Center for Coastal & Ocean
Mapping-Joint Hydrographic Center (CCOM/JHC), Chase Ocean Engineering Laboratory of
the University of New Hampshire. 5 March 2014. Retrieved 20 May 2014.
7. Amos, Jonathan (7 December 2011). "Oceans' deepest depth re-measured"
(http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-15845550). BBC News. Retrieved
7 December 2011.
8. Armstrong, Andrew A. (2011-12-22). "Cruise Report - UNH-CCOM/JHC Technical Report
11-002" (http://ccom.unh.edu/sites/default/files/publications
/Armstrong_2011_cruise_report_SU10-02_Marianas.pdf) (PDF). NOAA/UNH Joint
Hydrographic Center University of New Hampshire. p. 12. Retrieved 2012-05-01.
9. Than, Ker (25 March 2012). "James Cameron Completes Record-Breaking Mariana Trench
Dive" (http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2012/03/120325-james-cameron-
mariana-trench-challenger-deepest-returns-science-sub/). National Geographic Society.
Retrieved 25 March 2012.
10. Broad, William J. (25 March 2012). "Filmmaker in Submarine Voyages to Bottom of Sea"
(https://www.nytimes.com/2012/03/26/science/james-camerons-submarine-trip-to-
challenger-deep.html). New York Times. Retrieved 25 March 2012.
11. AP Staff (25 March 2012). "James Cameron has reached deepest spot on Earth"
(http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/46850002/ns/technology_and_science-science). MSNBC.
Retrieved 25 March 2012.
12. Nakanishi, Masao (10 April 2011). "A precise bathymetric map of the world's deepest
seafloor, Challenger Deep in the Mariana Trench" (http://naosite.lb.nagasaki-u.ac.jp
/dspace/bitstream/10069/25460/1/MGR_Hashimoto.pdf) (PDF). Faculty of Fisheries,
Nagasaki University. Retrieved 30 March 2012.
13. "Report on the scientific results of the voyage of H.M.S. Challenger during the years of
1872-76 (page 877)" (http://www.19thcenturyscience.org/HMSC/HMSC-Reports/1895-
Summary/htm/doc877.html). 19thcenturyscience.org. Retrieved 26 March 2012.
14. Theberge, A. (24 March 2009). "Thirty Years of Discovering the Mariana Trench"
(http://www.hydro-international.com/issues/articles/id1049-
Thirty_Years_of_Discovering_the_Mariana_Trench.html). Hydro International. Retrieved
31 July 2010.

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15. Page 131 (http://www.19thcenturyscience.org/HMSC/HMSC-Reports/1912-Murray


/htm/doc131.html) of Murray's book refers to the Challenger Deep.
16. "Mariana Trench". Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica.
17. "Life Is Found Thriving at Ocean's Deepest Point" (http://news.nationalgeographic.com
/news/2005/02/0203_050203_deepest.html), National Geographic News, 3 February 2005
18. Akimoto; et al. (2001). "The deepest living foraminifera, Challenger Deep, Mariana
Trench". Marine Micropaleontology. 42: 95. doi:10.1016/S0377-8398(01)00012-3
(https://doi.org/10.1016%2FS0377-8398%2801%2900012-3).
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External links

11 of 12 28/12/2017, 17:20
Challenger Deep - Wikipedia https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Challenger_Deep

"Official press release regarding Challenger Deep operation" (https://web.archive.org


/web/20020418105908/http://www.onr.navy.mil/focus/ocean/vessels/submersibles11.htm).
Archived from the original (http://www.onr.navy.mil/focus/ocean/vessels
/submersibles11.htm) on 18 April 2002.
Mariana Trench (http://www.marianatrench.com/default.htm)
Mariana Trench: Seven miles deep, the ocean is still a noisy place (http://oregonstate.edu
/ua/ncs/archives/2016/mar/mariana-trench-seven-miles-deep-ocean-still-noisy-place)
Location of Challenger Deep (http://deepseamap.com
/#?l=11.1682,142.8059,9,oceans,0,9) Interactive map

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