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CONTENTS

I. General Overview of the Project Area .......................................................................... 2


1. Abomsa .................................................................................................................... 2
1.1. Objectives .......................................................................................................... 2
1.2. Approach and Methodology ............................................................................... 2
1.3. Topography and Drainage ................................................................................. 4
2. Regional Geology ........................................................................................................ 5
2.1 General .................................................................................................................. 5
2. 2. Local Geology ...................................................................................................... 5
3. HYDROGEOLOGY ..................................................................................................... 7
3.1 Aspects of groundwater recharge and discharge ................................................... 7
3.2. Recharge .............................................................................................................. 7
3.2 .Recharge from precipitation ............................................................................... 9
4. Groundwater .......................................................................................................... 10
5. GEOPHYSICAL INVESTIGATION ......................................................................... 10
5.1. Methodology ................................................................................................... 11
5.2. ANNEX 1: RAW DATA OF VES POINTS ........................................................... 13
6. Recommendation ................................................................................................... 13
. .................................................................................... Error! Bookmark not defined.
Arsi Zone WME

1 GENERAL OVERVIEW OF THE PROJECT AREA


1.1 Abomsa
The project site Homba kebele is found around Abomsa town for in Oromia Regional
State. The town is connected in the south Eastern part of Asella on Dera-Arboye rough
gravely road, at about a distance of 120km from Asella Capital city of Zone.

1.2 Objectives
The main objective of the project is to investigate the hydrogeology of the selected areas
and select appropriate sites for geophysical investigation and ultimately evaluate the
groundwater potential and provide site specific information for water well drilling within
1.5km radius from the user community. The specific objectives includes (but not limited
to):
o Estimation of the potential of the groundwater based on hydrogeological and
geophysical investigation (VES)

o To locate appropriate well site(s)

o To recommend the type of drilling methodology to be employed

2 APPROACH AND METHODOLOGY


The study was carried out in two phases: 1) Data collection and analysis in the office
(desk study), and 2) Field investigation and subsequent analysis of the collected data.

A. Desk study
The Hydrogeological analysis was made using different methods.

Through assessment of the existing pertinent published and unpublished reports.

o Assessment of the existing hydro meteorological data.

o Evaluation of regional and sub-regional hydrogeological maps and digital elevation


model established from Shuttle Radar Terrain Mission (SRTM) data at a resolution
of 30 by 30 meters.

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B. Field investigation
The field activities include:
o Assessment of the structural and geological setup of the area in relation to the
hydrogeology.

o Assessment of the geomorphological features having importance in the movement


and localization of groundwater.

o Evaluation of recharge and discharge conditions by accounting catchment area


and hydrometeorology.

o Conduct vertical electrical sounding and image.

o Evaluate the groundwater potential and recommend the likely drilling sites and
method of drilling to be employed.

The most important equipments/materials used include:


o State of the art Electrical resistivity meter (Sysical pro-made France )

o High resolution GPS

o Topographic map at the scale of 1:25,000

C. Limitation of the Study


The following are some of the limitations and challenges encountered in the study.
1 .The 1km road not accessible for car to took the cable to study site.

2. The VES surveying requires often non-vegetated areas. In many places there are
crops. This was a major challenge in few areas.

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3. Except regional geological and hydrogeological information no site specific well data
has been obtained. This could have been a very good tool to calibrate geoelectrical layers.

5. Time shorted for study and to identify more alternative site.

2.1.1 1.3. Topography and Drainage


There is extreme variability in elevation from place to place. Each specific area will be
described in the following sections. In this section only the general regional topography
and drainage is described briefly. The topographic elevation varies a little above 2400 in
kebele to over 1400 m.a.s.l in keble. Almost both studied sites within marti woreda which
is within rift valley, although there is sharp decline in elevation in the steep cliffs of the
tributary rivers of Awash. The sharp elevation decline occurs along the major rift
escarpments and incised river valleys that originate from the highlands.

Figure 1. is regional Digital Elevation Model extracted from SRTM data.

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Figure 1 shows the topographic features of the highlands and the lowlands. As shown in
the Digital Elevation Model (DEM) the elevation change from the highlands to the
lowlands..

3 2. REGIONAL GEOLOGY

3.1 2.1 General

The regional geology of the rift floor and Arsi highlands where the study area is located
is represented by volcanic units (Pre-Pliocene) outcrop on the rift escarpment or margin
and the recent volcanic cover the entire rift (Kazmin, et al 1980). The Main Ethiopian Rift
Valley (MER) contains abundant acidic lavas and ignimbrites and they are associated
with central volcanoes containing wide calderas. Quaternary central volcanic products
cover the axis of the Rift. On the MER, peralkaline silicic ignimbrites, unwelded pyroclastic
and minor lavas related to fissural eruptions of regional extent are the most abundant
volcanic rocks.

3.2 2. 2. Local Geology


Understanding of the local geology is a key for the evaluation of the groundwater potential
of the area. The observation was carried out at the places that we can observe rock
outcrops along the rivers, mountains and at cliff and/or geological discontinuity.

The preliminary geological investigation includes examination of:

 Geological map of Ethiopia scale 1:2,000,000;

 Observation and interpretation of satellite imageries.

 Observation of Physiography of the area

 Conducting geo traverse along the exposures and bank of the rivers

 Collect and review of geological logs and reports of existing wells.

Based on the above study parameters, detail geological analysis has been made to
identify the litho-stratographic units, fracture traces and their intersections and in general
to verify the hydrogeological importance of the rock units.

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Considering the Regional geology referred from Ethiopian Geological Map (scale of
1:2000000), previous reports and Geo- traverse made and rock exposure observed in the
area different rock units were identified.

The geological method includes observation of the outcrops for lithological identification,
to see the elements of primary and secondary porosity, and investigation of geological
structures. Interpretations of the lighologic units from boreholes log data to deduce the
possible lithological

succession (stratigraphy) of the area. The hydrogeology of the area has been studied
based on occurrence of surface water (drainage system), geomorphology, primary and
secondary porosity of lithological formation, yield, static and dynamic water levels in the
wells drilled at different landscape in the project area.

The study area is geologically located within the eastern flank of the Ethiopian Rift Valley
that shows system of approximately parallel faults with dip slip displacement measured
in hundreds of meters. The main Ethiopia Rift Valley is characterized by the occurrence
of the underlying Early Tertiary volcanic rocks consisting mainly of basalt lava and
overlying Rift related intermediate to acidic volcanic rocks dominated by rhyolite, trachyte,
ignimbrite and tuff.

Geologically speaking the study area is located in the Nazerth group volcanic rocks that
consist of ignirnbrite, tuff, ash, and agglomerates and underlain by basalts.

Detailed geology of the project site is obtained from field observation, logging data from
some boreholes drilled in the area. Correlation of these boreholes and field observation
indicates that the project area is underlain by weathered ash and colluvial deposit at top
followed by pyroclastic fall deposit, ignirnbrite, and finally by basalt. The project area is
located along the north south trending regional fault sub- vertically dipping toward east.
The fault plane is parallel to the fault escarpment located in the eastern part of the project
site.

Structurally the project site is having a trend of NE-SW. Interpreted satellite imagery and
Global Mapper data revealed that the area is located in the eastern flank of the Main

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Ethiopian Rift Valley where there are intense faulting and fracture system development.
The northern part of the area is also characterized by the occurrence of intense structure
and linear elements. These structures strike NE direction and dips sub – vertically towards
E to NNE. Some linear features have long strike length and are parallel. These structures
are part of the main Ethiopian rift system that controls the flow path of the Awash River.
In addition, these structures cut across and deflect the stream channel of some stream
course and its tributaries and are recharged by surface water.

The major geological setting of the project site is consisting of the following unit:

- Basaltic unit
- Acidic unit (ignimbrite)
- Tuff
- Recent sediment (alluvial)

4 3. HYDROGEOLOGY

4.1 3.1 Aspects of groundwater recharge and discharge

4.2 3.2. Recharge


Groundwater recharge may be defined in a general term as the downward flow of water
reaching the water table, forming an addition to the groundwater reservoir. Recharge may
occur naturally from precipitation, rivers, canals, lakes, as man induced phenomena
(irrigation, urban recharge).

Three types of recharge can be identified.

. Direct recharge - water added to the groundwater reservoir in excess of soil moisture
deficits and evapotranspiration, by direct vertical percolation of precipitation through the
unsaturated zone.

2. Indirect recharge - percolation to the water table following runoff and localization in
joints, as ponding in low lying areas or through the beds of surface water sources such
as rivers, lakes and reservoirs.

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3. Localized recharge – resulting from horizontal surface concentrations of water in the


absence of well-defined channels.

Assuming groundwater flow is generally the replica of surface water flow it is very
essential to study the groundwater regime on the concept of a basin. Assessment of the
mechanism and amount of recharge is fundamental for sustainable groundwater
resources utilization and management. However, estimating the different recharge
processes is not simple. It requires understanding of the various processes that affect
recharge and quantifying the spatial and temporal variability. Unfortunately, there is no
direct means of measuring groundwater recharge at regional and sub-regional level.

Recharge estimation requires accounting the different factors. These include:

 Topography and geology


 Precipitation (magnitude, intensity, duration, spatial distribution)
 Runoff and ponding of water
 Irrigation (nature of irrigation scheduling, losses from canals and water courses, etc.)
 Rivers (rivers flowing into and leaving out of the area under consideration, rivers
gaining water from or losing water to the aquifer, etc.).
 Soil zone (nature of the soil, depth, hydraulic parameters, variability of the soil spatially
and with depth, rooting depth of the soil, and cracking of soil on drying out or swelling
due to wetting)

 Unsaturated zone between soil and aquifer (flow mechanism through unsaturated
zone, zones with different hydraulic conductivity.)
 Ability of aquifer to accept water and variation of aquifer condition with time
 Evapotranspiration
Here attempt is made to give the general picture of the recharge process at regional and
sub-regional scale.

The direct and indirect types of recharge can be identified in the region. However, direct
recharge and indirect recharge from rivers are the most important ones.

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4.2.1 3.2 .Recharge from precipitation


The ultimate source of groundwater recharge is precipitation. As discussed in the
previous section, the precipitation in the area varies significantly both in space and in
time. Generally, precipitation increases with altitude. However, due to topographic effects
this relation does not hold true in the study area. The most important recharge zone for
most of the study sites are the surrounding elevated mountain range and plateau.
However, due to unfavorable geological and topographical conditions as well as absence
of cluster of fractures the recharge to the groundwater is not as such appreciable in the
highland area. Recharge from precipitation could be classified as moderate recharge
zone. This was supported by the geophysical investigation conducted at this site.

In the study area, the annual potential evapotranspiration seems to be lower than the
precipitation. Moreover during wet spell monthly precipitation could exceed monthly
potential evapotranspiration, which would result in groundwater recharge. This means
that direct recharge from precipitation in the study area seems significant. However,
during extreme wet months of July and August direct recharge can be of significant in
highly fractured rocks and permeable Quaternary deposits.

3.3 Discharge

Natural groundwater recharge occurs when the groundwater flow (streamlines) intersect
the land surface. Discharge of groundwater is manifested as springs, seepage zones and
base flow of rivers. Often groundwater discharge areas are present in the lowlands, local
and regional depressions, and along the banks of rivers. Discharge areas are intimately
linked with groundwater flow lines and the existence of geological structures.

The groundwater flow direction in the area is to the east and north east following the
topographic gradient. The shape of groundwater contours seems to be subdued
duplication of topographic contours.

The discharge of groundwater in the region is manifested by the occurrence of springs


and increase in the base flow. On the contrary, groundwater recharge from rivers is
dominant in the lowlands. In general the contribution of groundwater to rivers is higher in
the highlands. As the rivers drain towards the lowlands, they are expected to lose
substantial amount of water in to the groundwater system through permeable Quaternary

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sediments and fractured rocks (both the acidic and basic volcanic). The existence of
recharge from rivers is evident by the general decrease of river discharge downstream.

Some of the wider streams that contain relatively thick sand cover in their bed have
continuous flow of water under the sand during the dry season. A considerable inflow of
groundwater is seen in the rivers where the riverbed contains permeable rocks or
sediments. Further downstream water infiltrates again into permeable streambed and
totally dry sand is seen on the same streams further downstream.

4.3 4. Groundwater

Groundwater potential evaluation for a given area/basin requires integrated approach.


Detailed quantification of the amount of groundwater demand a detailed water balance
study and defining the boundary conditions, establishment of the lateral and vertical
extent of aquifers and confining beds. In the absence of detailed hydro meteorological
and hydrogeological data groundwater, potential evaluation tends to be more semi-
quantitative mainly based on geophysical investigation.

The method followed for this project is on the short-term field hydrogeological
investigation and surface geophysical surveying. Both approaches could provide quick
information on the most favorable groundwater site. Geophysical investigation should be
assisted by hydrogeological investigation to provide the necessary information on the
availability of groundwater.

4.4 5. GEOPHYSICAL INVESTIGATION

. The main objectives of the Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES):


To determine different lithological and/or hydrogeological units according to their
resistivity contrasts.

To determine degree of weathering and fracturing of the water bearing materials,


depth and thickness of saturated zones, and thickness of the overburden or confining
layers.

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It should be noted that the recommended drilling depth stated in this section is based on
the geoelectrical signatures.

5.1. Methodology
The four different electrodes are used, two of the electrodes are ejecting the current
through the ground at the different AB/2 distance between current A and Current B and
the ejected current voltage is measured by MN/2 between M and N. The current and
potential distance used for this geophysical investigation are AB=1000m and
MN=90mrespectively. Using the Schulumberger array 20 data’s are gathered at different
AB/2 distance along SW-NE azimuth. Following the data collection the interpretation is
done with Winresist software along with the geology and hydrogeology of the area.

The Schlumberger electrode configuration with maximum half-current electrode


separation (AB/2) of 500m was used for this electrical sounding survey. The Apparent

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resistivity result, layer thickness and investigated depth and anticipated formation types
are tabulated below:

Layer Resisti Thick Depth(m) Probable Lithology remark


vity ness(
(ohm- m)
m)

First 5 0.6 0—0.6 Top soil No

Secon 13.5 4.5 0.6—5.1 Moisture clay soil No


d

Third 36.3 19.3 5.1—24.4 Slightly weathered pyroclastic rock(Tuff) No

Fourth 23.7 28.6 24.4— Weathered and/or fractured ignimbrite Aquifer


53.0

`Fifth 36.4 35.7 53.0— Slightly weathered and fractured ignimbrite Semi aquifer
88.8

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Sixth 26.1 18.8 88.8- It may be Weathered and/or fractured basaltic aquifer
107.6 rock

Sevent 15.3 - >107.6 It may be Highly fractured ignimbrite Good aquifer


h

NOTE :- Form geophysical investigation the target depth 150m but the actual depth the
site geologist recommend it.

4.5 5.2. ANNEX 1: RAW DATA OF VES POINTS

No AB/2 MN/2 Resistivity in ohm


1 1.5 0.5 7.44
2 2.1 0.5 9.55
3 3 0.5 10.07
4 4.2 0.5 11.7
5 6 0.5 13.81
6 9 0.5 16.59
7 13.5 0.5 18.76
8 20 0.5 20.23
9 20 6 18.79
10 30 0.5 23.85
11 30 6 26.18
12 45 6 31.22
13 66 6 29.97
14 100 6 26.74
15 150 6 26.56
16 150 45 25.70
17 220 6 23.55
18 220 45 22.70
19 330 45 20.47
20 500 45 18.09

4.6 6. Recommendation
The detail study of the area already done by consultant but I report raff study of the area.
In general the geophysical study done on Gurach stream, it is in good agreement with
the conceptual hydrogeological model and field observations. The hydrogeology of the
area appears to be similar with wide variability between the lowlands and the highlands
both in terms of lithology and structure. The aquifer is likely to be unconfined to semi-
confined. The presence of interceded pale soils with the volcanic may cause collapse
during drilling. Therefore, the drilling machine needs to have both DTH and mud rotary
drilling facilities. Mud rotary must be used if DTH is not going to be practical. Otherwise
the use of mud reduces the well yield. For this the drilling company needs to be prepared

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so as to finish the drilling on schedule. It is highly recommended to conduct geo-electrical


well logging to design the well properly and get to know the right position of water bearing
zones so as to set screen casings on the right position. It is extremely important to
supervise the drilling operation so as to log the different units and properly design the well
for maximum yield. It is also good to test the water after drilling to check the quality so as
to know the water quality for different uses.

The site for 1.4km have no accessible road ,so it need road construction to reach
the site.

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