You are on page 1of 16

# Magnus Effect

Section B

CONDUCTED BY
SYED IMTIAZ ALI SHAH 2015436
RAFIQ ULLAH 2015378
Contents
Abstract ......................................................................................................................................................... 3
Introduction .................................................................................................................................................. 4
Magnus effect application ............................................................................................................................ 4
Sports ............................................................................................................................................................ 4
Ships .............................................................................................................................................................. 5
Magnus effect rotors as wind turbine .......................................................................................................... 5
Ballistics......................................................................................................................................................... 6
Methodology................................................................................................................................................. 6
Sketching and modeling ................................................................................................................................ 6
Meshing......................................................................................................................................................... 7
Solution setup ............................................................................................................................................... 8
Results ......................................................................................................................................................... 11
Abstract
The project is aimed to study Magnus effect and its possible application in real world. A two
method approach is used in this project. Magnus effect is explained theoretically along with CFD
analysis in Ansys. Practically Magnus effect is verified by using rotating cups and rotating
football falling from a building. The lift generated by Magnus effect is very high but the friction
involves in it due to its high surface area is always a practical challenge. Additionally an insight
is given to how we can efficiently use Magnus effect in daily life and real world application.
Links to all videos and movies generated during CFD and practical are given at the end of
project.
Introduction
This project presents simulation study and practical demonstration of Magnus effect on a rotating
cylinder. Magnus effect often called (Magnus force) was discovered by H.G. Magnus in 1853. It
is a fluid dynamic phenomenon, in which he observed a force that was acting on rotating body
moving relative to the fluid and that was perpendicular to the direction of body motion. The force
is perpendicular to the velocity vector of the object. Air is moving from right to left and cylinder
is given clock wise rotation. The resulting Magnus force is acting in the downward direction
perpendicular to the direction of the air. Magnus effect is a common phenomenon that is associated
with rotating and spinning objects that drag air faster around one side, creating a difference in
pressure that moves it in the direction of the lower-pressure side. This effect can be observed when
rotating cylinder changes its path of motion from the arc it would have followed if it were not
rotating. It is often used by soccer players, baseball pitchers and cricket bowlers. Consequently,
the phenomenon is important in the study of the physics of many ball sports. It is also an important
factor in the study of the effects of spinning on guided missiles—and has some engineering uses,
for instance in the design of rotor ships and Flettner airplanes.

## Magnus effect application

Magnus effect has a wide range application ranging from sports to aircrafts. Some of its
applications are discussed in this section.

Sports
Magnus effect has got a tremendous importance in sports. In sports like cricket, baseball, tennis,
basketball, golf and football this effect is widely used to bend the flight of a ball. In all these sports
ball is spun in such a way that its axis of rotation is perpendicular to the direction of motion.
Direction of curvature is specified by direction of rotation. Air velocity due to spinning of ball
increase on one side thus creating low velocity region on the other side which results in high
pressure on the low velocity region, thus producing a net force on the ball. In this way ball is bent
from its straight path.
Ships
Magnus effect can be utilized in ships where rotor are used instead of propeller to push the ship in
sea. In 1924, Anton Flettner invented and built the first rotor ship Buckau (fig. 2). Flettner was
the first man who used Magnus effect for commercial purpose. Flettner used rotating cylinders to
generate a net drag force. Though his experiment was successful and he got the desired results,
but it was very less efficient as compared to other ships. Flettner’s inventions are still attractive
for energy optimized applications to this day. Scientist and engineers are working on applications
of Magnus effect in ships and submarine.

## Magnus effect rotors as wind turbine

Magnus effect has also found application in the case of renewable sources of energy, e.g. wind
turbine. Magnus effect turbine blades along with classic cross-section shape of air foil also have
cylindrical rotor, which as a result of produce lift allows the rotor to rotate the whole turbine.
Ballistics
Ballistics is also the area where the Magnus effect has a very big impact on the track and the
trajectory of the bullet flight. In the case of using threaded barrels, the shooter, especially snipers
and marksmen, but also a modern fire control systems in the third-generation tanks, have to take
an amendment to the wind direction relative to the axis of the barrel.

Methodology
For CFD analysis of Magnus effect Ansys version 16.0 is used. The simulation software is run
by Core i3 PC. Due to the low power of PC the accuracy of the result is compromised for saving
time. Many simulations are tried to check the effect of Magnus effect on different speed of
rotation and different air speed. Each simulation took up to 45 minutes. A movie of each
simulation is also generated in Ansys which took another 30-45 minutes. Different version of
simulation are obtained. The Magnus effect is show by using Vectors, Streamlines and contours
for pressure and velocity. Having slow power of our PC in our mind we rely upon 2D model as
3D model would take enormous time to complete.

## Sketching and modeling

A 300 mm cylinder is sketched in flow domain of 2000x1000 mm^2.
Meshing
For obtaining better result fine meshing is used. Further, mesh is refined more near the cylinder
with 30 layers around cylinder and with growth rate of 1.2. The upper and lower boundaries are
defined as walls with the left side as inlet and right side as outlet.
Solution setup
Flow is kept transient viscous and laminar. With velocity of 25 m/s at inlet and clock wise
rotation of cylinder with 150 rpm. Drag and lift monitors are generated to see the convergence of
solution. A animated movie was also required and for that calculation activities are save after
each step. In solution portion a time step of 0.025 and total of 250 steps are used with 100
iterations. In addition a force report is generated with vertical force of 94.208 N.
Results
Results are generated in more than one way to verify the result from every side. Contours for
pressure and velocity indicate that the rotating body should move up with a force of 94.08 N.
The pressure contours indicates a pressure difference between upper and lower sides of the
cylinder. Due to Magnus effect the pressure at lower side is more than at the upper side which
causes the lift in rotating cylinder. The result is cross checked with contours, vectors and
streamlines of velocity. Among all vectors of velocity give clear indication of velocity difference
between upper and lower. At the lower side of the cylinder the arrows reverse it direction
indicating high resistance to the air.
The same results are obtained by performing the same setup practically using football and tea
cups. The football dropped from the top of hostel 11 clear showed change in its path when spin
was given to the ball. The same is behavior is observed when spin was given to tea cups while
giving push in forward direction.
The blue area over the cylinder indicates low pressure region. According to the color coding the
lower part pressure is more than that of the upper part.
This is the velocity of air over the cylinder. The blue area making a rail over the back of cylinder
in the direction of cylinder rotation is because of the Magnus effect. Right on top of the cylinder
the velocity of air is maximum compare to the minimum at the lower part of cylinder.
This is another velocity contours showing velocity direction as vectors. It is clearer version of the
air showing the same behavior. Air can be seen reversing its direction at the bottom of the
cylinder as explained by Magnus effect.

This is velocity contours showing the stream lines over the cylinder.
https://youtu.be/p9jMemVCqZE
https://youtu.be/orOSHJ8oUxg
https://youtu.be/TuXqj4m-G_8
https://youtu.be/JueoKu_aSlA