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Masood Khan

Gas Turbine Cycle Designed by Sir Engr. Masood Khan

A gas turbine has an overall pressure ratio of 5 & a Expansion process:

maximum cycle temperature of 550 C. The turbine drives T4S/T3 = (P4 / P3)γ-1/γ

the compressor and an electric generator, the mechanical T4S = T3*(P4 / P3)γ-1/γ = 823*(1/5) 1.333-1/1.333 = 550 K

efficiency of the drive being 97%. The ambient temperature From ŋIS,T:

is 20 C & the air enters the compressor at the rate of 15 ŋIS,C = (T3 – T4)/(T3 – T4S)

kg/s; the isentropic efficiencies of the compressor & the T4 = T3–(T3–T4S)*ŋis,c=823–(823–550)0.83=596.41 K

turbine are 80 & 83%. Neglecting changes in Kinetic Now work of expansion.

energy, the mass flow rate of fuel, & all pressure losses, Cpg(T3 – T4) = 1.15*(823 – 596.41) = 267.58 kJ/kg

calculates: Work of compression required = Cpa(T2 – T1)/ŋMS

(i) The power output; = 1.005*(506.81 – 293)/0.97 = 221.52 kJ/kg

(ii) The cycle efficiency; Generator work = (Expansion work – Compression

(iii) The work ratio. work)/drive efficiency

= (267.58 – 221.52)/0.97 = 47.48 kJ/kg

GIVEN DATA: Power output = (generator work)(mass flow rate)

Pressure ratio, P2 / P1 = 5 = 47.48*15 = 712.2 kW

Max temp, T3 = 550 C = 823 K Process in combustion chamber:

Mechanical efficiency of drive = 97 % Qs, heat supplied = Cpg(T3 – T2)

Atmospheric temp, T1 = 20 C = 293 K = 1.15(823 – 506.81) = 363.6185 kJ/kg

mo = 15 kg/s, ŋIS,C = 0.8 ŋIS,T = 0.83 Cycle efficiency = net work output / heat supplied

= 47.48 / 363.9185 = 0.1305

REQUIRED: Work ratio = net work output / gross work output

Power output. Cycle efficiency. Work ratio. = 47.48 / 267.58 = 0.177

In a marine gas turbine unit a HP stage turbine drives the

SOLUTION: compressor, and an LP stage turbine drives the propeller

Compression process: through suitable gearing. The overall pressure ratio is 4/1,

T2S / T1 = (P2 / P1)γ-1/γ the mass flow rate is 60kg/s, the maximum temperature is

T2S = T1*(P2 / P1)γ-1/γ = 293*(5) 1.4-1/1.4 = 464.05 K 650 C, & the air intake conditions are 1.01 bar & 25 C. The

From Isentropic efficiency of compressor isentropic efficiencies of the compressor, HP turbine, & LP

Ŋis,c = (T2S – T1)/(T2 – T1) turbine, are 0.8, 0.83, & 0.85 respectively, & the

=> T2 = T1 + (T2S - T1)/ŋis,c mechanical efficiency of both shafts is 98%. Neglecting

Gas Turbine Cycle Designed by Sir Engr. Masood Khan

Kinetic energy changes, & the pressure loss in combustion, Cpg(T3 – T4) = 181.93/0.98 = 923 – T4 = 185.64/1.15

calculate: T4 = 923 – 185.64/1.15 = 761.57K

(i) The pressure b/w turbine stages; Now from ŋis,hpt

(ii) The cycle efficiency; Ŋis,hpt = (T3 – T4) / (T3 – T4S)

(iii) The shaft power. T4s= T3 –(T3 – T4)/ŋis,hpt= 923–(923–761.57)/0.83

T4s = 728.50 K

GIVEN DATA: Now, P3/P4 = (T3/T4S)γ-1/γ = (923/728.5) 1.333/0.333

Over all pressure ratio = 4/1 P3/P4 = 2.5786

Mass flow rate, mo= 60 kg/s Now since, P3 = P2 = 4.04 bar

Tmax = 650 C = 923 K P4 = P3 /2.5786 = 4.04 / 2.5786 = 1.5667 bar

Pa = P1 = 1.01 bar => P2 = 4.04 bar Pressure between turbine stages = P4 = 1.5667 bar

Ta = T1 = 25 C = 298 K Now, P5 = P1 = 1.01 bar

ŋis,c = 0.8 ŋis,hpt = 0.83 ŋiso,lpt = 0.85 P4/P5 = 1.5667/1.05 = 1.55

Shaft mechanical efficiency = 0.98 Now, T4/T5s = (P4/P5)γ-1/γ

T5s = 761.57 / (1.55) 1.333-1/1.333 = 682.59 K

REQUIRED: From Isentropic efficiency of LPT:

Pressure between turbine stages Ŋis,lpt = (T4 – T5) / (T4 – T5S)

Cycle efficiency. Shaft power. T5 = T4 – (T4 – T5S)*ŋis,lpt = 694.437 K

Work of expansion in LPT

DIAGRAM: Cpg(T4 – T5) = 1.15(761.57 – 694.437) = 77.20 kJ/kg

cycle = WNet/Qs= 77.20/Cpg(T3 – T2) = 0.15 = 15 %

SOLUTION: Shaft Power = mo* WLPT / Shaft Efficiency

Compression process: Shaft Power = 60*77.20/ 0.98 = 4726.53 kW

T2S/T1 = (P2 / P1)γ-1/γ

=> T2S = T1*(P2 / P1)γ-1/γ = 298*(4) 1.4-1/1.4 = 442.82 K PROBLEM # 9.3:

From Isentropic efficiency of compressor: For the unit of problem 9.2, calculate the cycle efficiency

Ŋis,c = (T2S – T1) / (T2 – T1) obtainable when a heat exchanger is fitted. Assume a

T2 = T1+(T2S – T1)/ŋis,c = 298+(442.82–298)/0.80 thermal ratio of 0.75.

T2 = 479.025K

Work of Compression DATA:

Cpa(T2 – T1) = 1.005*(479.025 – 298) = 181.93 kJ/kg From previous problem

This Work + Some Frictional Work = HPT Work Heat exchanger is fitted

Expansion Work of HPT = Compression Work/ŋm,shaft Thermal ratio = 0.75

Gas Turbine Cycle Designed by Sir Engr. Masood Khan

Cycle efficiency ηThermal = Wnet / Heat Supplied = 86.28/332.35= 0.259

Compression process: In a gas turbine generating set two stages of compression

T2S / T1 = (P2/P1)γ-1/γ = (4) 1.4-1/1.4 are used with an intercooler between stages. The HP

T2S = T1*1.49 = 298*1.49 = 442.82 turbine drives the HP compressor, & the LP turbine drives

From Isentropic efficiency of compressor: the LP compressor & the generator. The exhaust from the

Ŋis,c = (T2S – T1) / (T2 – T1) LP turbine passes through the heat exchanger, which

T2 = T1+(T2S – T1)/ŋis,c = 298+(442.82–298)/0.98 transfer heat to the air leaving the HP compressor. There is

T2 = 479K a reheat combustion chamber b/w turbine stages, which

Work of Compression = Cpa(T2 – T1) = 181.905 KJ/kg raises the gas temperature to 600 C, which is also the gas

Compression Work is supplied by the HPT temperature at entry to the HP turbine. The overall pressure

Expansion Work from HPT=181.905/Shaft efficiency ratio is 10/1, each compressor having the same pressure

Cpg(T4 – T5) = 181.905 / 0.98 ratio, & the air temperature at entry to the unit is 20 C. The

T5 = T4 – 181.905 / (0.98*Cpg) = 761.59K heat exchanger thermal ratio may be taken as 0.7, &

Now, ŋis,hpt = (T4 – T5) / (T4 – T5S) intercooling is complete between compressor stages.

T5s = T4 – (T4 – T5)/ŋis,hpt = 923–(923–761.59)/0.83 Assume isentropic efficiencies of 0.8 for both compressor

T5s = 728.5K stages, & 0.85 for both turbine stages & that 2% of the

Now P4/P5=(T4/T5S)γ-1/γ=(923/728.5) 1.333/0.333 = 2.5786 work of each turbine are used in overcoming friction.

P5 = P4/2.5786 = 4.04/2.5786 = 1.5666 bar Neglecting all losses in pressure, & assuming that velocity

Now P5/P6 = 1.5666/1.01 = 1.55 changes are negligibly small, calculates:

T5/T6S = (P5/P6)γ-1/γ = (1.55) 0.333/1.333 (i) The power output in kilowatts for a mass of 115

T6S = T5 / 1.550.333/1.333 = 682.61 K kg/s;

From ŋis,lpt = (T5 – T6)/(T5 – T6S) (ii) The overall cycle efficiency of the plant

T6 = T5 – (T5 – T6S)*ŋis,lpt = 686.559 K

Work of Expansion in LPT = Cpg(T5 – T6) DATA:

= 1.15(461.59 – 686.559) = 86.28 kJ/kg Tmax. = 600 C = 873 K T1 = 20 C = 293 K

Now Heat Exchanger Thermal Ratio is given by Over all Pressure Ratio = 10/1

Thermal Ratio =Temp Rise/max. Temp. diff. available Same pressure ratio through each compressor

0.75 = (T3 – T2) / (T6 – T2) Ŋis,C = 0.8, for each Compressor & Intercooling is

T3 = (T6–T2)*0.75+T2 = (686.559–479)*0.75 + 479) = 634 K complete

Heat supplied in Combustion Chamber = Cpg(T4 – T3) Ŋis,T = 0.85, for each Turbine

Gas Turbine Cycle Designed by Sir Engr. Masood Khan

2 % loss for each turbine power WLPT = Cpg(T8 – T9) =1.15(873–634.7) =274.045kJ/kg

Thermal Ratio of Heat Exchanger = 0.7 Generator Work

mo = 115 kg/s Reheat to Tmax. = Expansion Work–Compression Work–losses

= 274.045–143.21–2/100*(274.045) =125.3541 kJ/kg

REQUIRED: Shaft Power=125.3541*mo=125.3541*115=14146kW

Power Output, Overall Efficiency, Thermal Ratio = (T5 – T4)/(T9 – T4)

T5 = (T9–T4)*0.7+T4=(634.7–435.5)*0.7+435.5

DIAGRAM: T5 = 574.94 K

Qs = Cpg(T6 – T5)=1.15(873–574.94)=342.769kJ/kg

SOLUTION: Qs reheat =Cpg(T8–T7)=1.15(873–745.93) =146.13 kJ/kg

Compressor side: Total Heat Supplied=342.769 + 146.13 = 488.89kJ/kg

T2S/T1 = (P2/P1)γ-1/γ where P2/P1 = √10 = 3.16 Cycle Efficiency = Net work / Total Heat Supplied

T2S = T1*(P2/P1)γ-1/γ = 293*(3.16) 0.4/1.4 = 407 K ηCycle = 125.3541 / 488.89 = 0.256 = 25.6 %

Ŋis,C = (T2S – T1)/(T2 – T1)

T2 = T1+(T2s–T1)/ŋis,C = 293+(407–293)/0.8 = 435.5K PROBLEM # 9.5

Wc=Cpa(T2 – T1) = 1.005(435.5–293) = 143.21 kJ/kg A motor gas turbine unit has two centrifugal compressors

Same amount of work is required by HPC, which is provided by in series giving an overall pressure ratio of 6/1. The air

HPT leaving the HP compressors passes through a heat

Cpg(T6 – T7) – 2/100*Cpg(T6 – T7) = 143.21 exchanger before entering the combustion chamber. The

T6 – T7 – 2/100(T6 – T7) = 143.21/Cpg expansion is in two turbine stages, the first stage driving

T7 = T6 - 143.21/(Cpg*0.98) = 745.93 K the compressors & the second stage driving the car through

Ŋis,T = (T6 – T7)/(T6 – T7S) gearing. The gases leaving the LP turbine pass through the

T7S = T6 – (T6 – T7S)/ŋis,T heat exchanger before exhausting to atmosphere. The HP

T7S = 873 – (873 – 745.93)/0.85 = 723.5 K turbine inlet temperature is 800 C & the air inlet

Now P6/P7 =(T6/T7S)γ-1/γ = (873/723.5) 1.333/0.333 = 2.12 temperature to the unit is 15 C. The isentropic efficiency of

Now since P6 = P4 = 10.10 bar the compression is 0.8, & that of each turbine is 0.85. The

P7 = P6/2.12 = 10.10/2.12 = 4.76 bar mechanical efficiency of each shaft is 98%. The heat

P7 = P8 and P9 = P1= 1.01 bar exchanger thermal ratio may be assumed to be 0.65.

T8/T9S = (P8/P9)γ-1/γ Neglecting pressure losses & changes in Kinetic energy,

T9S = T8 / (P8/P9)γ-1/γ = 873 / (4.76/1.01) 0.333/1.333 = 592.68 K calculate:

Ŋis,T = (T8 – T9)/(T8 – T9S) (i) The overall cycle efficiency;

T9 = T8 – (T8 – T9S)*ŋis,T = 873 – (873–592.68)*0.85 (ii) Power developed.

T9 = 634.7K (iii) Specific Fuel Consumption.

Gas Turbine Cycle Designed by Sir Engr. Masood Khan

And Combustion Efficiency = 0.97 T6S = 852.68 K

P6/P7 = (T6S/T5)γ-1/γ = (852.68/1073) 1.333/0.333 = 0.3985

DATA: P6 = 0.3985*P5 where P5 = 6.06 bar => P6 = 2.415 bar

Over all Pressure Ratio = 6/1 T6/T7S = (P6/P7)γ-1/γ

Tmax. = 800 C = 1073 K T1 = 15 C = 288 K T7S = T6 / (P6 / P7)γ-1/γ

Ŋis,C = 0.8 for Compressors Ŋis,T = 0.85 for Turbines T7s = 885.73 / (2.415/1.01) 0.333/1.333 = 712.4K

Ŋm,Shft = 0.98 Thermal Ratio = 0.65 Ŋis,T = (T6 – T7)/(T6 – T7S)

T7 =T6–(T6–T7S)*ŋis,T=885.73–(885.73–712.4)*0.85 =

REQUIRED: 738.39

Overall Cycle Efficiency. Power developed Thermal Ratio = (T4 – T3)/(T7 – T3)

Specific Fuel Consumption. T4 = T3 + (T7 – T3)* Thermal Ratio

Calorific value of fuel = 42600 kJ/kg T4 = 502.66 + (738.39 – 502.66)*0.65 = 655.88 K

And Combustion Efficiency = 0.97 Qs = Cpg(T5 – T4) = 1.15(1073–655.88) = 479.68 kJ/kg

WLPT =Cpg(T6–T7)=1.15(885.88–738.39)=169.44kJ/kg

DIAGRAM: Cycle Efficiency = 169.44/479.68 = 0.353 = 35.3 %

Shaft Power = 169.44*0.98*0.7 = 116.2

SOLUTION:

Compression process:

T3S/T1 = (P3/P1)γ-1/γ

T3S = T1*(P3/P1)γ-1/γ = 288*(6) 0.4/1.4 = 480.53 K

Assuming same pressure ratio for each compressor

P2/P1 = √6 = 2.45

T2S/T1 = (P2/P1) γ-1/γ

T2S = T1*(P2/P1) γ-1/γ = 288*(2.45) 0.4/1.4 = 372 K

From, ŋis,C = (T2S – T1)/(T2 – T1)

T3 = T2 + (T3S – T2)/ŋis,C = 502.66 K

Wc=Cpg (T2–T1)*2 = 1.005(393–288)*2 = 211.05kJ/kg

Expansion work of HPT = 211.05/ŋm, shaft

Cpg(T5 – T6) = 211.05/0.98

T6 = T5 – 211.05/(0.98*1.15)

= 1073 – 211.05/(0.98*1.15) = 885.73 K

ŋis,T = (T5 – T6)/(T5 – T6S)

Gas Turbine Cycle Designed by S

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