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NOR BAHIYAH BT MD.

RAFIDI
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You are a teacher in a new school. You are assigned


to teach two classes of a similar year but with
different abilities. As such, you need to consider
various factors before planning a lesson including the
different approaches. You are considering the
following:
a) “Effective teaching in Mathematics begins with
thoughtful planning”. Do you agree with the
statement? Provide your reasons.
(4 marks)

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HBMT 1103
INTRODUCTOIN TO MATHEMATICS EDUCATION
NOR BAHIYAH BT MD. RAFIDI
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1.0 EFFECTIVE TEACHING IN MATHEMATICS BEGINS WITH


THOUGHTFUL PLANNING

Writing lesson plans helps me create effective lessons. While not the only
factor in effective teaching, I believe “the more organized a teacher is, the more
effective the teaching, and thus the learning, is” (Lesson Planning). Planning
requires vision, and when I write a lesson plan, I envision a classroom of
motivated students and think about how I can make it happen, how I can best
communicate information, best use materials, and best engage students in active
learning. A plan also keeps the class purposely focused, thereby making efficient
use of our limited time. Adding to both efficacy and efficiency, a written plan helps
me anticipate possible problem areas, allowing me to eliminate some before they
occur and think of ways to work with others that will no doubt arise.

When my ideas are written down in an organized plan, I can better see the
details and tie even small components of the lesson to students’ lives,
experience, and our previous lessons- ties that might not so readily spring to
mind when I am in the middle of a class. Connections satisfy important needs of
adult learners: seeing “the big picture” and relevancy. Reviewing the parts of the
whole also helps me verify that the lesson includes. Spencer (1998)
recommended a variety of learning activities which are interactive, meet their [the
students] learning styles and prompt critical thinking and problem-solving

Another benefit of a written lesson plan is that it bolsters my students’


perceptions of me as a knowledgeable professional who can guide them through
their learning. This perception is a positive force in the class. When students are
aware I have a thoughtful plan, they know that I share their sense of urgency for

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HBMT 1103
INTRODUCTOIN TO MATHEMATICS EDUCATION
NOR BAHIYAH BT MD. RAFIDI
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accomplishment and recognize their desire for bottom-line results. If a student


balks at working with a partner, or a few worry why I don’t correct every error on
their papers, I can respond intelligently as an expert because when I planned my
lesson, I gave thought to the principles behind every step. Students decide how
they want to proceed after hearing my reasons.

Having a lesson plan makes it easy to share with students what we are
doing and why. Adult learners expect to be treated as partners in the learning
process and have the cognitive curiosity to want to know what is going on.
According to Kizlik (2006) “giant step toward owning the content they teach and
the methods they use” understanding lesson objectives and the strategies used
to reach them goes a long way towards the students “owning” their learning.

Last, a written lesson plan aids in my professional development. To be a


reflective teacher, I need some sort of record of lessons so I can debrief myself. I
review my lesson plan and note things that were done differently, unexpected
outcomes, student reactions, future improvements, ideas for follow up, etc.
Looking back at weeks of annotated lesson plans reveals patterns, influences,
and recurring problem areas, awareness of which keep me tuned in and
responsive to student needs.

Taking the time to write a thoughtful plan forces me to consider the


individuality of my students and how they will respond. Planning makes me face
pedagogical decisions based on what works best for my students and not just
what works best for me. With all that I have to consider going into each class, I
can’t imagine not laying out a plan in advance, yet I know I can deviate from it as
necessary. My plan is but a proposal, after all, that begins to undergo subtle

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HBMT 1103
INTRODUCTOIN TO MATHEMATICS EDUCATION
NOR BAHIYAH BT MD. RAFIDI
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negotiations the minute class starts and my partners in the venture, the students,
begin to interact with it.

b) Discuss the differences between constructivist


approach, contextual approach and traditional
approach.
(6 marks)
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HBMT 1103
INTRODUCTOIN TO MATHEMATICS EDUCATION
NOR BAHIYAH BT MD. RAFIDI
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2.0 MATHEMATICS TEACHING APPOACHES

2.1 Constructivist Appoach

Constructivism is a philosophy founded on the belief that we construct our


own understanding of the world by reflecting on our experiences. Each of us
generates our own “rules” and “mental models”, which we use to make sense of
our experiences. Learning is simply the process of adjusting our mental models
to accommodate new experiences.

This Constructivist philosophy is rooted in John Dewey’s philosophy of


Pragmatism. John Dewey’s Philosophy (1981) is based on the assumption that
knowledge and ideas emerge from situation in which learners had to draw them
out of experience that had meaning and importance to them. These situations
had to occur in a social context such as a classroom where students joined in
manipulating materials and thus created a community of learners who built their
knowledge together. Children do not directly know the world; they construct
knowledge through process of adaptation.

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HBMT 1103
INTRODUCTOIN TO MATHEMATICS EDUCATION
NOR BAHIYAH BT MD. RAFIDI
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Accommodation can be understood as the mechanism by which failure


leads to learning: when we act on the expectation that the world operates in one
way and it violates our expectations, we often fail, but by accommodating this
new experience and reframing our model of the way the world works, we learn
from the experience of failure, or others' failure.

It is important to note that constructivism itself does not suggest one


particular pedagogy. In fact, constructivism describes how learning should
happen, regardless of whether learners are using their experiences to
understand a lecture or attempting to design a model airplane. In both cases, the
theory of constructivism suggests that learners construct knowledge.
Constructivism as a description of human cognition is often associated with
pedagogic approaches that promote active learning learning by doing.

Constructivism views each learner as a unique individual with unique


needs and backgrounds. The learner is also seen as complex and
multidimensional. Wertsch (1997) recognize social constructivism not only
acknowledges the uniqueness and complexity of the learner, but actually
encourages, utilises and rewards it as an integral part of the learning process

2.1.1 Constructivist View of Learning

Learning is not a passive receptive process but is instead an active


meaning making process required to solve meaningful problems. New learning
depends on learner’s previous knowledge. Learning implies reorganization of
prior conceptual scheme or cognitive map. Learning is facilitated by social
interaction. It is meaningful learning occurs within authentic learning tasks.

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INTRODUCTOIN TO MATHEMATICS EDUCATION
NOR BAHIYAH BT MD. RAFIDI
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Considering this view of learning, constructivists have tried to evolve the


nature of curriculum, teaching- learning and evaluation procedures in the
constructivist classroom. Following section states the characteristics of a
constructivist classroom. Constructivist Curriculum may have following
characteristics:
• Considers students’ perspective.
• Teacher negotiates with students as to what knowledge is useful for
them.
• Curriculum includes knowledge and skills, which are related to students’ prior
knowledge and future utility
• Decentralized, diversified, flexible, contextual curriculum
2.1.2 Example

• Experimentation students individually perform an experiment and then


come together as a class to discuss the results.
• Research projects: students research a topic and can present their
findings to the class
• Field trips. This allows students to put the concepts and ideas discussed
in class in a real-world context. Field trips would often be followed by class
discussions.
• Films. These provide visual context and thus bring another sense into the
learning experience
• Class discussions. This technique is used in all of the methods described
above. It is one of the most important distinctions of constructivist teaching
methods
2.2 Contextual Approach

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INTRODUCTOIN TO MATHEMATICS EDUCATION
NOR BAHIYAH BT MD. RAFIDI
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Contextual approaches helps us relate subject matter content to real world


situations and motivate students to make connections between knowledge and
its applications to their lives as family members, citizens, and workers and
engage in the hard work that learning requires.

2.2.1. Contextual teaching and learning strategies:

Problem-based
Contextual teaching and learning can begin with a simulated or real
problem. Students use critical thinking skills and a systemic approach to inquiry
to address the problem or issue. Students may also draw upon multiple content
areas to solve these problems. Worthwhile problems that are relevant to
students’ families, school experiences, workplaces, and communities hold
greater personal meaning for students.

Using multiple contexts

Theories of situated cognition suggest that knowledge can not be


separated from the physical and social context in which it develops. How and

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HBMT 1103
INTRODUCTOIN TO MATHEMATICS EDUCATION
NOR BAHIYAH BT MD. RAFIDI
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where a person acquires and creates knowledge is therefore very important. exp
Contextual teaching and learning strategies are enriched when students learn
skills in multiple contexts (i.e. school, community, workplace, family).

Drawing upon student diversity

On the whole, our student population is becoming more diverse, and


with increased diversity comes differences in values, social mores, and
perspectives. These differences can be the impetus for learning and can add
complexity to the Contextual teaching and learning experience. Team
collaboration and group learning activities respect students’ diverse histories,
broaden perspectives, and build inter-personal skills.

Supporting self-regulated learning

Ultimately, students must become lifelong learners. Lifelong learners are


able to seek out, analyze, and use information with little to no supervision. To do
so, students must become more aware how they process information, employ
problem-solving strategies, and use background knowledge. Contextual teaching
and learning experiences should allow for trial and error; provide time and
structure for reflection; and provide adequate support to assist students to move
from dependent to independent learning.

Using interdependent learning groups

Students will be influenced by and will contribute to the knowledge and


beliefs of others. Learning groups, or learning communities, are established in
workplaces and schools in an effort to share knowledge, focus on goals, and
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HBMT 1103
INTRODUCTOIN TO MATHEMATICS EDUCATION
NOR BAHIYAH BT MD. RAFIDI
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allow all to teach and learn from each other. When learning communities are
established in schools, educators act as coaches, facilitators, and mentors.

Employing authentic assessment.

In contextual teaching and learning tended to build knowledge and


skills in meaningful ways by engaging students in real life, or "authentic"
contexts. Assessment of learning should align with the methods and purposes
of instruction. Authentic assessments show (among other things) that learning
has occurred; are blended into the teaching/learning process; and provide
students with opportunities and direction for improvement. Authentic
assessment is used to monitor student progress and inform teaching practices.

2.2.2 Example

Teacher :i Soleh, can you tell me what multiplication is?

Soleh: Multiplication is the same as doing plusses.

Teacher : In away you are right. What plus-problem is 5 x 3 the same as?

Soleh: , 5 + 5 + 5 = 15

From Soleh´s first answer Amin could not tell if he understood what
multiplication is, but after checking with an example it is easy to tell that he does
understand.

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HBMT 1103
INTRODUCTOIN TO MATHEMATICS EDUCATION
NOR BAHIYAH BT MD. RAFIDI
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2.3 Traditional Appoach

In traditional teaching, knowledge is considered as accumulation of facts,


laws and theories. Role of teacher is to transmit the authoritarian knowledge to
the students, who are considered as passive receivers of knowledge. Teaching-
learning process emphasizes memorization of facts, formulae, definitions,
equations, derivatives, procedures and theories.

Learning achievement of students is evaluated with the help of tests,


which, test recall of facts, laws, definitions and theories. Students’ responses are
evaluated as ‘’right’ or ‘wrong’ against the correct answer fixed and decided by
the examiner. Exams classify students into different classes or grades.

These do not indicate the extent of learning or development of the


learner. Grades/marks in the final examination are considered as indicators of a
pupil’s achievement and learning capabilities. Therefore, teaching is examination
oriented 3 and it’s main objective is to prepare students to pass the examination
with high marks/grades.

2.3.1 Example:

Teacher : Class, today I want to teach you about multiplication


Read after me, 1 x2 = 2..
Pupils : (Follow whatever teacher say without understand the concept)
(Teacher centered)

2.4 The Differences Between Constructivist Approach, Contextual


Approach and Traditional Approach
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INTRODUCTOIN TO MATHEMATICS EDUCATION
NOR BAHIYAH BT MD. RAFIDI
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Constructivism approach Contextual approach Traditional approach


a) Learning is creating a) Knowledge a) Learning is change in
meaning from acquisition is the form of
experience a mental activity observable behavior
b) Learner control and that entails internal
b) The primary concern
manipulation of coding and
is how
information Strutting by the
association between
c) Learners set their learner.
the stimulus and
own pace and b) Concern about
response is made,
must be what learner knows
strengthened or
intrinsically and how
maintained.
motivated they get it.
d) Learners build c) Address issues of
c) Environmental
personal how information is
conditions influence
interpretational of received,
learning , the pupils
the world based on organized stored
can make correct
individual and
responses and
experiences and retries by the mind.
receive reinforcement
interactions d) Emphasis on
when environmental
environmental
conditions arranged
e) Mind filter input from
conditions such as
by instructor.
The. world to produce
explanations,
its
demonstrations , d) Emphasis observable
own reality.
examples , non- and measurable
f) Learners and
examples, outcomes.
environment
practice and
interact to create e) Responses followed
feedback .
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HBMT 1103
INTRODUCTOIN TO MATHEMATICS EDUCATION
NOR BAHIYAH BT MD. RAFIDI
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knowledge. e) Focus on mental


by reinforcement are
g) Emphasis on context in activities
more likely to occur
which the skills will be That lead up to a
in the future
learned and applied. response.
h) Models construction of f) Learning occur only
f) Use of cues , shaping
knowledge, promote when learners
and practice to ensure
collaboration design process new
srong stimulus-
authentic learning knowledge in such a
response association
environment. way that it makes
i ) Teacher will recognize sense to them g) Use reinforcement to
pupil’s prior knowledge in their own frame of
strengthen the
and plan teaching reference .
association
method g) Make knowledge
based on this basic meaningful and help
h) Nonuse of a
knowledge. learners organize
response over time
j) Assessment becomes and relate new
cause forgetting.
part of learning information to
process. The existing knowledge i) Instructor determine
learner is evaluated in memory. which cue can elicit
universally and plays a h) determine response
role in judging their own predisposition
progress. to learning and j) Instructions used to

learner’s transfer knowledge to

mental structures the pupils in the mast

so-as to efficient, effective

design introduction manner possible.

that can be easily


assimilated.
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HBMT 1103
INTRODUCTOIN TO MATHEMATICS EDUCATION
NOR BAHIYAH BT MD. RAFIDI
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j) Should be structured
to encourage five
essential
forms of learning –
Relating ,
Experiencing ,
Applying ,
Cooperating
and Transferring

c) In your opinion, how does a lesson plan able to


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assist you in teaching of different HBMT 1103
INTRODUCTOIN TO MATHEMATICS EDUCATION

ability ? (5 marks)
NOR BAHIYAH BT MD. RAFIDI
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3.1 What is a lesson plan ?

According to O'Bannon (2002) lesson plan is a daily lesson plan is


developed by the teacher to guide the instruction. Planning the instruction is
much more difficult than delivering the instruction. Planning is when you look at
the curriculum standards and develop lesson content that match those
standards. Luckily, textbooks that are adopted for your subject areas are typically
are written with this in mind.

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HBMT 1103
INTRODUCTOIN TO MATHEMATICS EDUCATION
NOR BAHIYAH BT MD. RAFIDI
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All details should be written down to assist the smooth delivery of the
content. The extent of the detail will vary depending on the number of years of
experience that the teacher has and the number of times he/she has taught the
lesson. Obviously a teacher with several or many years of experience may have
plans that are much less detailed than beginning teachers. There will be
requirements mandated by the school system that employs you regarding your
responsibilities.

A lesson plan is a framework for a lesson. If you imagine a lesson is like a


journey, then the lesson plan is the map. It shows you where you start, where
you finish and the route to take to get there.

Essentially the lesson plan sets out what the teacher hopes to achieve
over the course of the lesson and how he or she hopes to achieve it. Usually they
are in written form but they don't have to be. New or inexperienced teachers may
want to or be required to produce very detailed plans - showing clearly what is
happening at any particular time in the lesson.

However in a realistic teaching environment it is perhaps impractical to


consider this detail in planning on a daily basis. As teachers gain experience and
confidence planning is just as important but teachers develop the ability to plan
more quickly and very experienced teachers may be able to go into class with
just a short list of notes or even with the plan in their heads.

Whatever the level of experience, it is important that all teachers take time
to think through their lessons before they enter the classroom.

3.2 Purposes of Lesson Planning

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INTRODUCTOIN TO MATHEMATICS EDUCATION
NOR BAHIYAH BT MD. RAFIDI
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We are left with the question: 'How can a teacher produce a full lesson plan
without writing it down on a formal lesson plan template form?'
Here, I think the answer fo the 'day-to-day' lesson would be a 'Checklist of
elements', against which a teacher could jot down (or at least mentally check)
their ideas for what the lesson might involve. That way, they will go into the
lesson properly prepared, but without the lesson-plan straightjacket which
hinders proper flexibility of delivery.

What should be in such a check list?


The reason I developed the lesson plan template form was to try to
ensure that observed teachers would not forget anything. So , following the
template down, I think I would go for a checklist which would ask:
1. What resources will the lesson need and have you assembled them all?
2. Where is the pupils' learning on this after last lesson; does the content and
skills of this lesson take them seamlessly to the next step?
3. What therefore are your key teaching objectives for this lesson?
4. Have you translated these key teaching objectives into 'pupil-speak' 'Learning
outcomes' which you will write on the board for them at the start of the lesson?
5. Have you formulated a literacy (and, where appropriate, a numeracy and a
behavior) objective?
6. What is your starter going to be?
7. What are the 4/5 'element-activities' of your lesson? How long would you
initially intend to allocate to each element-activity? Have you looked at the
sequence of element-activities from the pupils' point of view to make sure that
they are getting a 'variety-of-fare' as the lesson progresses?
11. How are you going to assess the pupils' progress as the lesson progresses;
particularly, what are you going to do in the plenary?

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INTRODUCTOIN TO MATHEMATICS EDUCATION
NOR BAHIYAH BT MD. RAFIDI
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12. Have you organized a properly-planned homework?

3.3 Importance of Lesson Planning

One of the most important reasons to plan is that the teacher needs to identify
his or her aims for the lesson. Teachers need to know what it is they want their
students to be able to do at the end of the lesson that they couldn't do before.
Here are some more reasons planning is important:-

• gives the teacher the opportunity to predict possible problems and


therefore consider solutions
• makes sure that lesson is balanced and appropriate for class
• gives teacher confidence
• planning is generally good practice and a sign of professionalism

3.4 How does lesson planning takes care of differences in ability among
pupils?

Teachers need lesson plan to help them to structure the learning for themselves
and for pupils. Appropriate curriculum , the realistic goals of mathematics
teaching ,make decisions about how to implement teaching-leaning and
assessment activities to pupils are the important element to meaningful
mathematics lesson for pupils with different ability
3.5 Eight-step Lesson Planning Process
Lesson planning includes the following eight steps:
1. Determine the objective
2. Research the topic
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HBMT 1103
INTRODUCTOIN TO MATHEMATICS EDUCATION
NOR BAHIYAH BT MD. RAFIDI
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3. Select the appropriate instructional method


4. Identify a usable lesson planning format
5. Decide how to organize the lesson
6. Choose support material
7. Prepare the beginning and ending of the lesson
8. Prepare a final outline

There are many other important planning elements to be considered in


lesson planning , which include:

(a) Time and experiences to develop social skills that will help pupils learn to
Work cooperatively with other group members.
(b) Discussion and negotiation of a classroom environment where cooperation
among group members is expected.
(c) Clear and accurate directions for students to follow so that they are clear
about their responsibilities as group members.
(d) A comfortable physical environment in which students can work effectively
and shelves of materials for a variety of mathematical investigations.
(e) Flexibility to change plans as needed, when activities take too long or do not
proceed as otherwise planned.
(f) Rich mathematical investigations that lend themselves nicely to cooperative
group work.

3.6 Three main components of a lesson plan:


1. Preparation
Preparation is one of the main component of lesson plan. It is the first
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HBMT 1103
INTRODUCTOIN TO MATHEMATICS EDUCATION
NOR BAHIYAH BT MD. RAFIDI
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part of a lesson plan. In this component teachers have to select teaching-


learning objectives. It consist::
• General particular
• Pupil’s pervious knowledge
• Learning contents
• Learning objectives
• Skill integrations
• Teaching –learning resource
• teaching-learning objectives.
• Inculcation of moral value

2. Presentation
This is the second part of a lesson plan. In presentation there are
teaching-learning process. It consists of two main part::
• Set induction
covers the warm up activities which help pupils to get started to do
mathematics as soon as they enter the classroom . It is also a way to
introduce a new topic.
• Development of teaching-learning activities
Learning activities covers skill development, teaching and learning activities,
use of resources and inculcation of moral value.

3. Conclusion

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INTRODUCTOIN TO MATHEMATICS EDUCATION
NOR BAHIYAH BT MD. RAFIDI
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This is the last part of a lesson plan. In this part teachers have to
make consolidation, evaluation and closure . It consists of activities
and methods, including follow up and consolidation activities,
evaluation of learning objectives and closure.

3.7 Elements of lesson plan


There are several important elements needed to be fully implemented in a
quality lesson . Some of the essential elements are :
1. Learning outcomes – goals or objectives
It may describe the main concepts or topic of lesson as well as the skills or
processes to be mastered by the students.
2. Set induction – warm up or opening activity
It helps to get the pupils involved in doing mathematics as soon as they enter
the classroom. A warm up activity is also a great way to introduce a new topic
or provide opportunity for pupils to brush up on skills that are needed to learn
the new concepts.
3. Activities in development stage – activities for achieving the objectives
An outline of what the teacher will do, as well as what the pupils will do
accomplish the state objectives. The activities should follow a logical
sequence and should involved pupils in active learning.
4. Evaluation development stage – questions and other means of assessment .
For a beginning teacher, questions that are part of the activities for achieving
the lesson objectives should be written. These may include questions to test
pupils’ prior knowledge, questions that simulate brainstorming among pupils
or questions that can challenge pupils to investigate specific mathematical
ideas.
5. Closure – summary of closing activity
Wrapping up a lesson can be as important as the opening. It is valuable to
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INTRODUCTOIN TO MATHEMATICS EDUCATION
NOR BAHIYAH BT MD. RAFIDI
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summarize that concepts discussed or gives pupils the opportunity to talk


about what they perceived as the lesson outcomes. The summary is not
necessarily the same as closing activity.

6. Teaching aids – materials needed or other special notes


A list of any special materials needed for conducting the lesson. It might
include manipulative, OHP and pens for pupils to record solutions and to
present to classroom. Notes might include lesson modifications for students
with special needed.
7. Time allotments – approximate time allotments
It should indicate a range of minutes needed to complete a stated activity or
goal.

4.0 Conclusion
Planning a lesson help teachers develop the greater whole or the big
picture . Planning lets us see how to get there and shows others how we will help
our pupils attain an understanding of the big picture . In addition , planning
imparts the values of organization and careful consideration to the pupils . In
short , planning is making decision about the how and what of teaching .In order
to do a good job , we must be properly prepared .

You may often be teaching a class which has students who are clearly of
different levels. They may have different starting levels mathematics or they may
learn at very different speeds - for any number of reasons. There are several
strategies that a teacher can use to deal with this situation.

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INTRODUCTOIN TO MATHEMATICS EDUCATION
NOR BAHIYAH BT MD. RAFIDI
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d) Prepare two (2) lesson plans based on the


same mathematical content (chosen from KBSR
syllabus) to the two different classes that are
assigned to you. The two different approaches are
constructivist approach and contextual approach.
The lesson plans should include the THREE (3)
main components as suggested in the module.
Refer to the lesson plan in the module (page 84 –
85) as guidelines.
(20 marks)

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INTRODUCTOIN TO MATHEMATICS EDUCATION
NOR BAHIYAH BT MD. RAFIDI
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LESSON PLAN 1

ADVANCE CLASS
Subject : Mathematics
Year : 4 Bestari
Number of pupils : 25 pupils
Date : 5 February
Time : 7.45 a.m – 8.45 am
Duration : 60 minutes
Topic : Whole Numbers
Learning Area : 1. Numbers to 100 000
Learning Objectives : Develop number sense involving numbers up to
100 000
1) Name and write the numbers up to 100 000
Learning Outcomes : By the end of the lesson, pupils should be able to:
i) identify the names and write the numbers up to
100 000 at least 6 out of 10 numbers given.
ii) recall the names , read and write the numbers
up
Previous knowladge to 100 000 given spontaneously.
: Pupils have learnt names and write numbers since
Moral Value year one
Thinking skills : Being cooperative, careful
Teaching aids : Comparing and contrasting
: Slide of numbers used in different ways, Place
Value chart ,Number cards fan, A 4 paper.
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HBMT 1103
INTRODUCTOIN TO MATHEMATICS EDUCATION
NOR BAHIYAH BT MD. RAFIDI
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Worksheet, Example of folio needed

Procedure/
Allocation of Teaching – Learning Activities Remarks
Time

Introduction: Teacher shows the slide of numbers r are Teaching aids:


Set Induction used in different way. For example: receipt Slide of
(5 minutes ) number, birth certificates, serial number of numbers used
appliance , etc.\ in different ways

Teacher discusses with pupils.

Pupis respond.

Lesson Teacher uses a place value chart to read Teaching aids:


Development: large number. Place Value
Step 1 e.g : 3 8 4 9 8 chart
(15 minutes )
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INTRODUCTOIN TO MATHEMATICS EDUCATION
NOR BAHIYAH BT MD. RAFIDI
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Ten Thousands Hundreds Tens Ones


thousands
3 8 4 9 8
Teacher guides pupils to read the number
from left to right.Emphasise on the correct
prounciation of number.
Pupils name the number refer to the place
value.
Thirty-eight thousand four hundred and
ninety-eight.
Teacher make sure number are named
according to the digits’ place value.

Step 2 Teacher divides pupils into 5 groups. Each Teaching aids:


(10 minutes ) group consists 5 pupils. Number cards
Teacher prepares number cards (0-9) for fan, A 4 paper.
Development each group.. The cards are held together by
a string. It opens like a fan.
Teacher calls a number, pupils show the
representation of number using the card
after discuss among them.
Pupils play them game between the group.
The first group shows the card number, the
second group read the number after discuss
among them. The third group write the
number in A4 paper given. Activity routed

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HBMT 1103
INTRODUCTOIN TO MATHEMATICS EDUCATION
NOR BAHIYAH BT MD. RAFIDI
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Step 3 Teacher distributes worksheet to pupils to Teaching aids:


(15 minutes ) answer. Worksheet
Pupils answer. (refer
Assessment Appendix 1)

Step 4 Pupils surf website for futher activities


( 10 minutes ) http://www.alfy.com/teachers/teach
Enrichment /thematic_units/123/123_1.asp.

Closure Teacher asks pupils to prepare a folio Teaching aid:


(5 minutes) pertaining to numbers. Cut from newspaper, Example of folio
then name the number. needed

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HBMT 1103
INTRODUCTOIN TO MATHEMATICS EDUCATION
NOR BAHIYAH BT MD. RAFIDI
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LESSON PLAN 2
WEAK CLASS

Subject : Mathematics
Year : 4 Budiman
Number of pupils : 25 pupils
Date : 5 February
Time : 7.45 a.m – 8.45 am
Duration : 60 minutes
Topic : Whole Numbers
Learning Area : 1. Numbers to 100 000
Learning Objectives : Develop number sense involving numbers up to
100 000
1) Name and write the numbers up to 100 000
Learning Outcomes : By the end of the lesson, pupils should be able to:
i) identify the name and write the numbers up to
100 000 at least 3 out of 10 numbers given.
ii) recall the name , read and write the numbers up
to 100 000 given spontaneously.
Previous knowladge : Pupils have learnt name and write numbers since
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HBMT 1103
INTRODUCTOIN TO MATHEMATICS EDUCATION
NOR BAHIYAH BT MD. RAFIDI
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year one
Moral Value : Being cooperative, careful
Thinking skills : Comparing and contrasting
Teaching aids : Slide of numbers used in diiferent ways
Place Value chart.Sweets, place value chart
Worksheet, laptop

Procedure/
Allocation of Teaching – Learning Activities Remarks
Time

Introduction: Teacher shows the slide of numbers r are Teaching aids:


Set Induction used in different way. For example: Slide of
(5 minutes ) postcode, receipt number, birth certificates, numbers used
serial number of appliance , etc.\ in diiferent ways

Teacher discusses with pupils.

Pupis respond.

Step 1 Starting with small numbers progressing Teaching aids:


(15 minutes ) to larger numbers. Place Value
e.g. 473 chart.
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HBMT 1103
INTRODUCTOIN TO MATHEMATICS EDUCATION
NOR BAHIYAH BT MD. RAFIDI
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Development Ten Thousands Hundreds Tens Ones


thousands
4 7 3
Pupils fill the numbers in the place value
chart with guide from teacher.

Pupils read the numbers given

The activity continue with progressing to


larger numbers

e.g:8 310 , 14 976


Ten Thousands Hundreds Tens Ones
thousands
8 3 1 0
1 4 9 7 6

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HBMT 1103
INTRODUCTOIN TO MATHEMATICS EDUCATION
NOR BAHIYAH BT MD. RAFIDI
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Step 2 Teacher recalls previous knowladge.


( 15 minit) e.g: Teaching aids:
Development Hundreds Tens Ones Numeral Sweets, place
1 One
1 4 fourteen
6 0 Sixty
value chart.
2 0 0 Two hundred
Teacher guides pupils how to write numeral
based on previous knowladge.
Teacher gives simple quiz to pupils.
Teacher gives numbers, pupils write numeral
in a piece of paper.
Teacher rewards pupils with sweets if they
answer correctly.

Step 3 Teacher distributes worksheet to pupils to Teaching aids:


(20 minutes ) answer. Worksheet
Pupils answer.
Assessment

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HBMT 1103
INTRODUCTOIN TO MATHEMATICS EDUCATION
NOR BAHIYAH BT MD. RAFIDI
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Closure Teacher sing a song together with pupils. Teaching aid:


(5 minutes) One, Two, Three, Four, Five Laptop

One, two, three, four, five


Once I caught a fish alive
Six, seven, eight, nine, ten
Then I let it go again
Why did you let it go?
Because it bit my finger so
Which finger did it bite?
This little finger on my right

From website:
http://www.bbc.co.uk/cbeebies/tweenies/
songtime/songs/o/onetwothree.shtml

BIBLIOGRAPHY
Aytaç, T. (2003). Changing Roles of the Teacher in 21st Century Education in the Light of
Science and Mind Magazine,4(45)

Faculty Development Teaching Tips, Honolulu Community College .(n.d). Lesson Planning
Procedures. Retrieved February 15, 2008 from

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HBMT 1103
INTRODUCTOIN TO MATHEMATICS EDUCATION
NOR BAHIYAH BT MD. RAFIDI
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http://honolulu.hawaii.edu/intranet/committees/FacDevCom/guidebk/teachtip/lesspln1.htm

Kizlik, B (2006). Lesson Planning, Lesson Plan Formats, and Lesson Plan Ideas. Retrieved
February 17, 2008 from http://www.adprima.com/lesson.htm

Robertson,C (n.d) .Planning 1 .Retrieved February 20, 2008 from


http://www.teachingenglish.org.uk/think/methodology/planning1.shtml#2

Speller. M (2006) Why I Write Lesson Plans Maria Spelleri Extends on Recent TESL-L
Discussion. Retrieved March 1, 2008, from
http://www.eslminiconf.net/summer06/spellerispecial.html

Spencer, K (1998). Purposeful Teaching: Design and Instruction for Adult Learners. Retrieved
February 16, 2008 from http://www.rcmp-learning.org/docs/ecdd1140.htm#needadlrn

Wikipedia the free encyclopedia (n.d), Constructivism (learning theory).


Retrieved March 5, 2008, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Constructivism_(learning_theory)

Wikipedia the free encyclopedia (n.d), John Dewey. Retrieved March 5, 2008, from
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Dewey

APPENDIX 1

Name : _____________________________ Class: 4 Bestari

Fill in the blanks with correct answers

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HBMT 1103
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NOR BAHIYAH BT MD. RAFIDI
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Number Numeral

Example:

21 532 Twenty-seven thousand five hundred and

thirty-two

1. 52 987 ____________________________________________

2. 20 001 ____________________________________________

3 97 756 ____________________________________________

4. 25 175 ____________________________________________

5. 94 677 ____________________________________________

6. _________ fourteen thousand three hundred

7. _________ twenty-six thousand five hundred and fourteen

8. _________ sixty thousand and one

9. _________ ninety-nine thousand and thirty-three

10 _________ forty thousand seven hundred and eight

APPENDIX 2
Name: _________________________________ Class : 4 Budiman
Match with the correct answers.

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NOR BAHIYAH BT MD. RAFIDI
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Fourteen thousand three hundred

60 001
Twenty-six thousand five hundred

38 940 and fourteen


Thirty-eight thousand nine

14 300 hundred and forty


Sixty thousand seven hundred and

26 514 eight
Sixty thousand and one

91 033
Ninety-nine thousand and thirty-

44 908 three
Twenty-seven thousand five

59 000 hundred and thirty-two


Forty-four thousand nine hundred

27 532 and eight


Fifty-nine thousand

50 926
Fifty thousand nine hundred and

60 708 twenty-six

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NOR BAHIYAH BT MD. RAFIDI
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