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NOR BAHIYAH BT MD. RAFIDI

You are a teacher in a new school. You are assigned to teach two classes of a similar year but with different abilities. As such, you need to consider various factors before planning a lesson including the different approaches. You are considering the following:

a)

“Effective teaching in Mathematics begins with thoughtful planning”. Do you agree with the statement? Provide your reasons. (4 marks)

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HBMT 1103 INTRODUCTOIN TO MATHEMATICS EDUCATION

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NOR BAHIYAH BT MD. RAFIDI

1.0 EFFECTIVE TEACHING IN MATHEMATICS BEGINS WITH THOUGHTFUL PLANNING Writing lesson plans helps me create effective lessons. While not the only factor in effective teaching, I believe “the more organized a teacher is, the more effective the teaching, and thus the learning, is” (Lesson Planning). Planning requires vision, and when I write a lesson plan, I envision a classroom of motivated students and think about how I can make it happen, how I can best communicate information, best use materials, and best engage students in active learning. A plan also keeps the class purposely focused, thereby making efficient use of our limited time. Adding to both efficacy and efficiency, a written plan helps me anticipate possible problem areas, allowing me to eliminate some before they occur and think of ways to work with others that will no doubt arise. When my ideas are written down in an organized plan, I can better see the details and tie even small components of the lesson to students’ lives, experience, and our previous lessons- ties that might not so readily spring to mind when I am in the middle of a class. Connections satisfy important needs of adult learners: seeing “the big picture” and relevancy. Reviewing the parts of the whole also helps me verify that the lesson includes. Spencer (1998) recommended a variety of learning activities which are interactive, meet their [the students] learning styles and prompt critical thinking and problem-solving Another benefit of a written lesson plan is that it bolsters my students’ perceptions of me as a knowledgeable professional who can guide them through their learning. This perception is a positive force in the class. When students are aware I have a thoughtful plan, they know that I share their sense of urgency for _______________________________________________________________________ 2 _

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___________________________________________________________________ _ accomplishment and recognize their desire for bottom-line results. If a student balks at working with a partner, or a few worry why I don’t correct every error on their papers, I can respond intelligently as an expert because when I planned my lesson, I gave thought to the principles behind every step. Students decide how they want to proceed after hearing my reasons. Having a lesson plan makes it easy to share with students what we are doing and why. Adult learners expect to be treated as partners in the learning process and have the cognitive curiosity to want to know what is going on. According to Kizlik (2006) “giant step toward owning the content they teach and the methods they use” understanding lesson objectives and the strategies used to reach them goes a long way towards the students “owning” their learning. Last, a written lesson plan aids in my professional development. To be a reflective teacher, I need some sort of record of lessons so I can debrief myself. I review my lesson plan and note things that were done differently, unexpected outcomes, student reactions, future improvements, ideas for follow up, etc. Looking back at weeks of annotated lesson plans reveals patterns, influences, and recurring problem areas, awareness of which keep me tuned in and responsive to student needs. Taking the time to write a thoughtful plan forces me to consider the individuality of my students and how they will respond. Planning makes me face pedagogical decisions based on what works best for my students and not just what works best for me. With all that I have to consider going into each class, I can’t imagine not laying out a plan in advance, yet I know I can deviate from it as necessary. My plan is but a proposal, after all, that begins to undergo subtle

NOR BAHIYAH BT MD. RAFIDI

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___________________________________________________________________ _ negotiations the minute class starts and my partners in the venture, the students, begin to interact with it.

NOR BAHIYAH BT MD. RAFIDI

**b) Discuss the differences between constructivist approach, contextual approach and traditional approach. (6 marks)
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NOR BAHIYAH BT MD. RAFIDI

2.0 MATHEMATICS TEACHING APPOACHES 2.1 Constructivist Appoach Constructivism is a philosophy founded on the belief that we construct our own understanding of the world by reflecting on our experiences. Each of us generates our own “rules” and “mental models”, which we use to make sense of our experiences. Learning is simply the process of adjusting our mental models to accommodate new experiences. This Constructivist philosophy is rooted in John Dewey’s philosophy of Pragmatism. John Dewey’s Philosophy (1981) is based on the assumption that knowledge and ideas emerge from situation in which learners had to draw them out of experience that had meaning and importance to them. These situations had to occur in a social context such as a classroom where students joined in manipulating materials and thus created a community of learners who built their knowledge together. Children do not directly know the world; they construct knowledge through process of adaptation.

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___________________________________________________________________ _ Accommodation can be understood as the mechanism by which failure leads to learning: when we act on the expectation that the world operates in one way and it violates our expectations, we often fail, but by accommodating this new experience and reframing our model of the way the world works, we learn from the experience of failure, or others' failure. It is important to note that constructivism itself does not suggest one particular pedagogy. In fact, constructivism describes how learning should happen, regardless of whether learners are using their experiences to understand a lecture or attempting to design a model airplane. In both cases, the theory of constructivism suggests that learners construct knowledge. Constructivism as a description of human cognition is often associated with pedagogic approaches that promote active learning learning by doing. Constructivism views each learner as a unique individual with unique needs and backgrounds. The learner is also seen as complex and multidimensional. Wertsch (1997) recognize social constructivism not only acknowledges the uniqueness and complexity of the learner, but actually encourages, utilises and rewards it as an integral part of the learning process 2.1.1 Constructivist View of Learning Learning is not a passive receptive process but is instead an active meaning making process required to solve meaningful problems. New learning depends on learner’s previous knowledge. Learning implies reorganization of prior conceptual scheme or cognitive map. Learning is facilitated by social interaction. It is meaningful learning occurs within authentic learning tasks.

NOR BAHIYAH BT MD. RAFIDI

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___________________________________________________________________ _ Considering this view of learning, constructivists have tried to evolve the nature of curriculum, teaching- learning and evaluation procedures in the constructivist classroom. Following section states the characteristics of a constructivist characteristics: • Considers students’ perspective. • Teacher negotiates with students as to what knowledge is useful for them. • Curriculum includes knowledge and skills, which are related to students’ prior knowledge and future utility • Decentralized, diversified, flexible, contextual curriculum 2.1.2 Example • • • Experimentation students individually perform an experiment and then come together as a class to discuss the results. Research projects: students research a topic and can present their findings to the class Field trips. This allows students to put the concepts and ideas discussed in class in a real-world context. Field trips would often be followed by class discussions. • • Films. These provide visual context and thus bring another sense into the learning experience Class discussions. This technique is used in all of the methods described above. It is one of the most important distinctions of constructivist teaching methods 2.2 Contextual Approach classroom. Constructivist Curriculum may have following

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Contextual approaches helps us relate subject matter content to real world situations and motivate students to make connections between knowledge and its applications to their lives as family members, citizens, and workers and engage in the hard work that learning requires. 2.2.1. Contextual teaching and learning strategies: Problem-based Contextual teaching and learning can begin with a simulated or real problem. Students use critical thinking skills and a systemic approach to inquiry to address the problem or issue. Students may also draw upon multiple content areas to solve these problems. Worthwhile problems that are relevant to students’ families, school experiences, workplaces, and communities hold greater personal meaning for students. Using multiple contexts Theories of situated cognition suggest that knowledge can not be separated from the physical and social context in which it develops. How and _______________________________________________________________________ 8 _

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___________________________________________________________________ _ where a person acquires and creates knowledge is therefore very important. exp Contextual teaching and learning strategies are enriched when students learn skills in multiple contexts (i.e. school, community, workplace, family). Drawing upon student diversity On the whole, our student population is becoming more diverse, and with increased diversity comes differences in values, social mores, and perspectives. These differences can be the impetus for learning and can add complexity to the Contextual teaching and learning broaden perspectives, and build inter-personal skills. experience. Team collaboration and group learning activities respect students’ diverse histories,

NOR BAHIYAH BT MD. RAFIDI

Supporting self-regulated learning Ultimately, students must become lifelong learners. Lifelong learners are able to seek out, analyze, and use information with little to no supervision. To do so, students must become more aware how they process information, employ problem-solving strategies, and use background knowledge. Contextual teaching and learning experiences should allow for trial and error; provide time and structure for reflection; and provide adequate support to assist students to move from dependent to independent learning. Using interdependent learning groups Students will be influenced by and will contribute to the knowledge and beliefs of others. Learning groups, or learning communities, are established in workplaces and schools in an effort to share knowledge, focus on goals, and _______________________________________________________________________ 9 _

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___________________________________________________________________ _ allow all to teach and learn from each other. When learning communities are established in schools, educators act as coaches, facilitators, and mentors. Employing authentic assessment. In contextual teaching and learning tended to build knowledge and skills in meaningful ways by engaging students in real life, or "authentic" contexts. Assessment of learning should align with the methods and purposes of instruction. Authentic assessments show (among other things) that learning has occurred; are blended into the teaching/learning process; and provide students with opportunities and direction for improvement. Authentic assessment is used to monitor student progress and inform teaching practices.

NOR BAHIYAH BT MD. RAFIDI

2.2.2 Example Teacher :i Soleh, can you tell me what multiplication is? Soleh: Multiplication is the same as doing plusses. Teacher : In away you are right. What plus-problem is 5 x 3 the same as? Soleh: , 5 + 5 + 5 = 15 From Soleh´s first answer Amin could not tell if he understood what multiplication is, but after checking with an example it is easy to tell that he does understand. _______________________________________________________________________ 10 _

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___________________________________________________________________ _ 2.3 Traditional Appoach In traditional teaching, knowledge is considered as accumulation of facts, laws and theories. Role of teacher is to transmit the authoritarian knowledge to the students, who are considered as passive receivers of knowledge. Teachinglearning process emphasizes memorization of facts, formulae, definitions, equations, derivatives, procedures and theories. Learning achievement of students is evaluated with the help of tests, which, test recall of facts, laws, definitions and theories. Students’ responses are evaluated as ‘’right’ or ‘wrong’ against the correct answer fixed and decided by the examiner. Exams classify students into different classes or grades. These do not indicate the extent of learning or development of the learner. Grades/marks in the final examination are considered as indicators of a pupil’s achievement and learning capabilities. Therefore, teaching is examination oriented 3 and it’s main objective is to prepare students to pass the examination with high marks/grades. 2.3.1 Example: Teacher : Class, today I want to teach you about multiplication Read after me, 1 x2 = 2.. Pupils : (Follow whatever teacher say without understand the concept) (Teacher centered) 2.4 The Differences Between Constructivist Approach, Contextual

NOR BAHIYAH BT MD. RAFIDI

**Approach and Traditional Approach _______________________________________________________________________ 11 _
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NOR BAHIYAH BT MD. RAFIDI

Constructivism approach a) Learning is creating meaning from experience b) Learner control and manipulation of information c) Learners set their own pace and must be intrinsically motivated d) Learners build personal interpretational of the world based on individual experiences and interactions e) Mind filter input from The. world to produce its own reality. f) Learners and environment interact to create

Contextual approach a) Knowledge acquisition is a mental activity that entails internal coding and Strutting by the learner. b) Concern about what learner knows and how they get it. c) Address issues of how information is received, organized stored and retries by the mind. d) Emphasis on environmental conditions such as explanations, demonstrations , examples , nonexamples, practice and feedback .

Traditional approach a) Learning is change in the form of observable behavior b) The primary concern is how association between the stimulus and response is made, strengthened or maintained. c) Environmental conditions influence learning , the pupils can make correct responses and receive reinforcement when environmental conditions arranged by instructor. d) Emphasis observable and measurable outcomes. e) Responses followed

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___________________________________________________________________ _ knowledge. g) Emphasis on context in which the skills will be learned and applied. h) Models construction of knowledge, promote collaboration design authentic learning environment. i ) Teacher will recognize pupil’s prior knowledge and plan teaching method based on this basic knowledge. j) Assessment becomes part of learning process. The learner is evaluated universally and plays a role in judging their own progress. e) Focus on mental activities That lead up to a response. f) Learning occur only when learners process new knowledge in such a way that it makes sense to them in their own frame of reference . g) Make knowledge meaningful and help learners organize and relate new information to existing knowledge in memory. h) determine predisposition to learning and learner’s mental structures so-as to design introduction that can be easily assimilated. _______________________________________________________________________ 13 _

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NOR BAHIYAH BT MD. RAFIDI

by reinforcement are more likely to occur in the future f) Use of cues , shaping and practice to ensure srong stimulusresponse association g) Use reinforcement to strengthen the association h) Nonuse of a response over time cause forgetting. i) Instructor determine which cue can elicit response j) Instructions used to transfer knowledge to the pupils in the mast efficient, effective manner possible.

___________________________________________________________________ _ j) Should be structured to encourage five essential forms of learning – Relating , Experiencing , Applying , Cooperating and Transferring

NOR BAHIYAH BT MD. RAFIDI

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c) In your opinion, how does a lesson plan able to assist you in teaching of different ability ? (5 marks)

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NOR BAHIYAH BT MD. RAFIDI

3.1 What is a lesson plan ? According to O'Bannon (2002) lesson plan is a daily lesson plan is developed by the teacher to guide the instruction. Planning the instruction is much more difficult than delivering the instruction. Planning is when you look at the curriculum standards and develop lesson content that match those standards. Luckily, textbooks that are adopted for your subject areas are typically are written with this in mind.

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___________________________________________________________________ _ All details should be written down to assist the smooth delivery of the content. The extent of the detail will vary depending on the number of years of experience that the teacher has and the number of times he/she has taught the lesson. Obviously a teacher with several or many years of experience may have plans that are much less detailed than beginning teachers. There will be requirements mandated by the school system that employs you regarding your responsibilities. A lesson plan is a framework for a lesson. If you imagine a lesson is like a journey, then the lesson plan is the map. It shows you where you start, where you finish and the route to take to get there. Essentially the lesson plan sets out what the teacher hopes to achieve over the course of the lesson and how he or she hopes to achieve it. Usually they are in written form but they don't have to be. New or inexperienced teachers may want to or be required to produce very detailed plans - showing clearly what is happening at any particular time in the lesson. However in a realistic teaching environment it is perhaps impractical to consider this detail in planning on a daily basis. As teachers gain experience and confidence planning is just as important but teachers develop the ability to plan more quickly and very experienced teachers may be able to go into class with just a short list of notes or even with the plan in their heads. Whatever the level of experience, it is important that all teachers take time to think through their lessons before they enter the classroom. 3.2 Purposes of Lesson Planning

NOR BAHIYAH BT MD. RAFIDI

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___________________________________________________________________ _ We are left with the question: 'How can a teacher produce a full lesson plan without writing it down on a formal lesson plan template form?' Here, I think the answer fo the 'day-to-day' lesson would be a 'Checklist of elements', against which a teacher could jot down (or at least mentally check) their ideas for what the lesson might involve. That way, they will go into the lesson properly prepared, but without the lesson-plan straightjacket which hinders proper flexibility of delivery. What should be in such a check list? The reason I developed the lesson plan template form was to try to ensure that observed teachers would not forget anything. So , following the template down, I think I would go for a checklist which would ask: 1. What resources will the lesson need and have you assembled them all? 2. Where is the pupils' learning on this after last lesson; does the content and skills of this lesson take them seamlessly to the next step? 3. What therefore are your key teaching objectives for this lesson? 4. Have you translated these key teaching objectives into 'pupil-speak' 'Learning outcomes' which you will write on the board for them at the start of the lesson? 5. Have you formulated a literacy (and, where appropriate, a numeracy and a behavior) objective? 6. What is your starter going to be? 7. What are the 4/5 'element-activities' of your lesson? How long would you initially intend to allocate to each element-activity? Have you looked at the sequence of element-activities from the pupils' point of view to make sure that they are getting a 'variety-of-fare' as the lesson progresses? 11. How are you going to assess the pupils' progress as the lesson progresses; particularly, what are you going to do in the plenary? _______________________________________________________________________ 17 _

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NOR BAHIYAH BT MD. RAFIDI

___________________________________________________________________ _ 12. Have you organized a properly-planned homework?

NOR BAHIYAH BT MD. RAFIDI

3.3 Importance of Lesson Planning One of the most important reasons to plan is that the teacher needs to identify his or her aims for the lesson. Teachers need to know what it is they want their students to be able to do at the end of the lesson that they couldn't do before. Here are some more reasons planning is important:•

gives the teacher the opportunity to predict possible problems and therefore consider solutions makes sure that lesson is balanced and appropriate for class gives teacher confidence planning is generally good practice and a sign of professionalism

• • •

3.4 How does lesson planning takes care of differences in ability among pupils? Teachers need lesson plan to help them to structure the learning for themselves and for pupils. Appropriate curriculum , the realistic goals of mathematics teaching ,make decisions about how to implement teaching-leaning and assessment activities to pupils are the important element to meaningful mathematics lesson for pupils with different ability 3.5 Eight-step Lesson Planning Process Lesson planning includes the following eight steps: 1. Determine the objective 2. Research the topic _______________________________________________________________________ 18 _

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___________________________________________________________________ _ 3. Select the appropriate instructional method 4. Identify a usable lesson planning format 5. Decide how to organize the lesson 6. Choose support material 7. Prepare the beginning and ending of the lesson 8. Prepare a final outline There are many other important planning elements to be considered in lesson planning , which include: (a) Time and experiences to develop social skills that will help pupils learn to Work cooperatively with other group members. (b) Discussion and negotiation of a classroom environment where among group members is expected. (c) Clear and accurate directions for students to follow so that they are clear about their responsibilities as group members. (d) A comfortable physical environment in which students can work effectively and shelves of materials for a variety of mathematical investigations. (e) Flexibility to change plans as needed, when activities take too long or do not proceed as otherwise planned. (f) Rich mathematical investigations that lend themselves nicely to cooperative group work. cooperation

NOR BAHIYAH BT MD. RAFIDI

3.6 Three main components of a lesson plan: 1. Preparation Preparation is one of the main component of lesson plan. It is the first _______________________________________________________________________ 19 _

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___________________________________________________________________ _ part of a lesson plan. In this component teachers have to select teachinglearning objectives. It consist:: • • • • • • • • General particular Pupil’s pervious knowledge Learning contents Learning objectives Skill integrations Teaching –learning resource teaching-learning objectives. Inculcation of moral value

NOR BAHIYAH BT MD. RAFIDI

2. Presentation This is the second part of a lesson plan. In presentation there are teaching-learning process. It consists of two main part:: • Set induction covers the warm up activities which help pupils to get started to do mathematics as soon as they enter the classroom . It is also a way to introduce a new topic. • Development of teaching-learning activities Learning activities covers skill development, teaching and learning activities, use of resources and inculcation of moral value.

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___________________________________________________________________ _ This is the last part of a lesson plan. In this part teachers have to make consolidation, evaluation and closure . It consists of activities and methods, including follow up and consolidation activities, evaluation of learning objectives and closure. 3.7 Elements of lesson plan There are several important elements needed to be fully implemented in a quality lesson . Some of the essential elements are : 1. Learning outcomes – goals or objectives It may describe the main concepts or topic of lesson as well as the skills or processes to be mastered by the students. 2. Set induction – warm up or opening activity It helps to get the pupils involved in doing mathematics as soon as they enter the classroom. A warm up activity is also a great way to introduce a new topic or provide opportunity for pupils to brush up on skills that are needed to learn the new concepts. 3. Activities in development stage – activities for achieving the objectives An outline of what the teacher will do, as well as what the pupils will do accomplish the state objectives. The activities should follow a logical sequence and should involved pupils in active learning. 4. Evaluation development stage – questions and other means of assessment . For a beginning teacher, questions that are part of the activities for achieving the lesson objectives should be written. These may include questions to test pupils’ prior knowledge, questions that simulate brainstorming among pupils or questions that can challenge pupils to investigate specific mathematical ideas. 5. Closure – summary of closing activity Wrapping up a lesson can be as important as the opening. It is valuable to _______________________________________________________________________ 21 _

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NOR BAHIYAH BT MD. RAFIDI

___________________________________________________________________ _ summarize that concepts discussed or gives pupils the opportunity to talk about what they perceived as the lesson outcomes. The summary is not necessarily the same as closing activity. 6. Teaching aids – materials needed or other special notes A list of any special materials needed for conducting the lesson. It might include manipulative, OHP and pens for pupils to record solutions and to present to classroom. Notes might include lesson modifications for students with special needed. 7. Time allotments – approximate time allotments It should indicate a range of minutes needed to complete a stated activity or goal. 4.0 Conclusion Planning a lesson help teachers develop the greater whole or the big picture . Planning lets us see how to get there and shows others how we will help our pupils attain an understanding of the big picture . In addition , planning imparts the values of organization and careful consideration to the pupils . In short , planning is making decision about the how and what of teaching .In order to do a good job , we must be properly prepared . You may often be teaching a class which has students who are clearly of different levels. They may have different starting levels mathematics or they may learn at very different speeds - for any number of reasons. There are several strategies that a teacher can use to deal with this situation.

NOR BAHIYAH BT MD. RAFIDI

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d)

Prepare two (2) lesson plans based on the

same mathematical content (chosen from KBSR syllabus) to the two different classes that are assigned to you. The two different approaches are constructivist approach and contextual approach. The lesson plans should include the THREE (3) main components as suggested in the module. Refer to the lesson plan in the module (page 84 – 85) as guidelines. (20 marks)

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NOR BAHIYAH BT MD. RAFIDI

LESSON PLAN 1 ADVANCE CLASS Subject Year Number of pupils Date Time Duration Topic Learning Area Learning Objectives : Mathematics : 4 Bestari : 25 pupils : 5 February : 7.45 a.m – 8.45 am : 60 minutes : Whole Numbers : 1. Numbers to 100 000 : Develop number sense involving numbers up to 100 000 1) Name and write the numbers up to 100 000 Learning Outcomes : By the end of the lesson, pupils should be able to: i) identify the names and write the numbers up to 100 000 at least 6 out of 10 numbers given. ii) recall the names , read and write the numbers up Previous knowladge Moral Value Thinking skills Teaching aids to 100 000 given spontaneously. : Pupils have learnt names and write numbers since year one : Being cooperative, careful : Comparing and contrasting : Slide of numbers used in different ways, Place Value chart ,Number cards fan, A 4 paper. _______________________________________________________________________ 24 _

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___________________________________________________________________ _ Worksheet, Example of folio needed

NOR BAHIYAH BT MD. RAFIDI

Procedure/ Allocation of Time Introduction: Set Induction (5 minutes ) Teacher shows the slide of numbers r are Teaching aids: used in different way. For example: receipt Slide number, birth certificates, serial number of numbers appliance , etc.\ Teacher discusses with pupils. Pupis respond. of used Teaching – Learning Activities Remarks

in different ways

Lesson Development: Step 1

Teacher uses a place value chart to read Teaching aids: large number. e.g : 3 8 4 9 8 Place chart Value

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Ten thousands Thousands Hundreds Tens Ones

NOR BAHIYAH BT MD. RAFIDI

3 8 4 9 8 Teacher guides pupils to read the number from left to right.Emphasise on the correct prounciation of number. Pupils name the number refer to the place value. Thirty-eight thousand four hundred and ninety-eight. Teacher make sure number are named according to the digits’ place value.

Step 2 (10 minutes ) Development

Teacher divides pupils into 5 groups. Each Teaching aids: group consists 5 pupils. each group.. The cards are held together by a string. It opens like a fan. Teacher calls a number, pupils show the representation of number using the card after discuss among them. Pupils play them game between the group. The first group shows the card number, the second group read the number after discuss among them. The third group write the number in A4 paper given. Activity routed Number cards Teacher prepares number cards (0-9) for fan, A 4 paper.

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___________________________________________________________________ _ Step 3 (15 minutes ) Assessment Teacher distributes worksheet to pupils to Teaching aids: answer. Pupils answer. Worksheet (refer Appendix 1)

NOR BAHIYAH BT MD. RAFIDI

Step 4 ( 10 minutes ) Enrichment Closure (5 minutes)

Pupils surf website for futher activities http://www.alfy.com/teachers/teach /thematic_units/123/123_1.asp. Teacher asks pupils to prepare a folio Teaching aid: pertaining to numbers. Cut from newspaper, Example of folio then name the number. needed

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NOR BAHIYAH BT MD. RAFIDI

LESSON PLAN 2 WEAK CLASS Subject Year Number of pupils Date Time Duration Topic Learning Area Learning Objectives : Mathematics : 4 Budiman : 25 pupils : 5 February : 7.45 a.m – 8.45 am : 60 minutes : Whole Numbers : 1. Numbers to 100 000 : Develop number sense involving numbers up to 100 000 1) Name and write the numbers up to 100 000 Learning Outcomes : By the end of the lesson, pupils should be able to: i) identify the name and write the numbers up to 100 000 at least 3 out of 10 numbers given. ii) recall the name , read and write the numbers up to 100 000 given spontaneously. Previous knowladge : Pupils have learnt name and write numbers since _______________________________________________________________________ 28 _

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___________________________________________________________________ _ year one Moral Value Thinking skills Teaching aids : Being cooperative, careful : Comparing and contrasting : Slide of numbers used in diiferent ways Place Value chart.Sweets, place value chart Worksheet, laptop

NOR BAHIYAH BT MD. RAFIDI

Procedure/ Allocation of Time Introduction: Set Induction (5 minutes ) Teacher shows the slide of numbers r are Teaching aids: used in different way. For example: Slide of used postcode, receipt number, birth certificates, numbers serial number of appliance , etc.\ Teacher discusses with pupils. Pupis respond. Teaching – Learning Activities Remarks

in diiferent ways

Step 1 (15 minutes )

Starting with small numbers progressing Teaching aids: to larger numbers. Place Value

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___________________________________________________________________ _ Development

Ten thousands Thousands Hundreds Tens Ones

NOR BAHIYAH BT MD. RAFIDI

4 7 3 Pupils fill the numbers in the place value chart with guide from teacher. Pupils read the numbers given The activity continue with progressing to larger numbers e.g:8 310 , 14 976

Ten thousands Thousands Hundreds Tens Ones

1

8 4

3 9

1 7

0 6

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**___________________________________________________________________ _ Step 2 ( 15 minit) Development Teacher recalls previous knowladge. e.g:
**

Hundreds Tens 1 6 0 Ones 1 4 0 0 Numeral One fourteen Sixty Two hundred

NOR BAHIYAH BT MD. RAFIDI

Teaching aids: Sweets, place value chart.

2

Teacher guides pupils how to write numeral based on previous knowladge. Teacher gives simple quiz to pupils. Teacher gives numbers, pupils write numeral in a piece of paper. Teacher rewards pupils with sweets if they answer correctly.

Step 3 (20 minutes ) Assessment

Teacher distributes worksheet to pupils to Teaching aids: answer. Pupils answer. Worksheet

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NOR BAHIYAH BT MD. RAFIDI

Closure (5 minutes)

Teacher sing a song together with pupils. One, Two, Three, Four, Five One, two, three, four, five Once I caught a fish alive Six, seven, eight, nine, ten Then I let it go again Why did you let it go? Because it bit my finger so Which finger did it bite? This little finger on my right From website: http://www.bbc.co.uk/cbeebies/tweenies/ songtime/songs/o/onetwothree.shtml

Teaching aid: Laptop

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Aytaç, T. (2003). Changing Roles of the Teacher in 21st Century Education in the Light of Science and Mind Magazine,4(45) Faculty Development Teaching Tips, Honolulu Community College .(n.d). Lesson Planning Procedures. Retrieved February 15, 2008 from _______________________________________________________________________ 32 _

HBMT 1103 INTRODUCTOIN TO MATHEMATICS EDUCATION

___________________________________________________________________ _ http://honolulu.hawaii.edu/intranet/committees/FacDevCom/guidebk/teachtip/lesspln1.htm Kizlik, B (2006). Lesson Planning, Lesson Plan Formats, and Lesson Plan Ideas. Retrieved February 17, 2008 from http://www.adprima.com/lesson.htm Robertson,C (n.d) .Planning 1 .Retrieved February 20, 2008 from http://www.teachingenglish.org.uk/think/methodology/planning1.shtml#2 Speller. M (2006) Why I Write Lesson Plans Maria Spelleri Extends on Recent TESL-L Discussion. Retrieved March 1, 2008, from http://www.eslminiconf.net/summer06/spellerispecial.html

NOR BAHIYAH BT MD. RAFIDI

Spencer, K (1998). Purposeful Teaching: Design and Instruction for Adult Learners. Retrieved February 16, 2008 from http://www.rcmp-learning.org/docs/ecdd1140.htm#needadlrn Wikipedia the free encyclopedia (n.d), Constructivism (learning theory). Retrieved March 5, 2008, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Constructivism_(learning_theory) Wikipedia the free encyclopedia (n.d), John Dewey. Retrieved March 5, 2008, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Dewey APPENDIX 1 Name : _____________________________ Fill in the blanks with correct answers Class: 4 Bestari

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HBMT 1103 INTRODUCTOIN TO MATHEMATICS EDUCATION

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NOR BAHIYAH BT MD. RAFIDI

Number Example: 21 532

Numeral

Twenty-seven thousand five hundred and thirty-two

1. 2. 3 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10

52 987 20 001 97 756 25 175 94 677 _________ _________ _________ _________ _________

____________________________________________ ____________________________________________ ____________________________________________ ____________________________________________ ____________________________________________ fourteen thousand three hundred twenty-six thousand five hundred and fourteen sixty thousand and one ninety-nine thousand and thirty-three forty thousand seven hundred and eight

APPENDIX 2 Name: _________________________________ Class : 4 Budiman Match with the correct answers.

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HBMT 1103 INTRODUCTOIN TO MATHEMATICS EDUCATION

___________________________________________________________________ _

NOR BAHIYAH BT MD. RAFIDI

Fourteen thousand three hundred 60 001 Twenty-six thousand five hundred 38 940 14 300 26 514 91 033 Ninety-nine thousand and thirty44 908 59 000 27 532 50 926 Fifty thousand nine hundred and 60 708 twenty-six three Twenty-seven thousand five hundred and thirty-two Forty-four thousand nine hundred and eight Fifty-nine thousand and fourteen Thirty-eight thousand nine hundred and forty Sixty thousand seven hundred and eight Sixty thousand and one

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HBMT 1103 INTRODUCTOIN TO MATHEMATICS EDUCATION

___________________________________________________________________ _

NOR BAHIYAH BT MD. RAFIDI

_______________________________________________________________________ 36 _

HBMT 1103 INTRODUCTOIN TO MATHEMATICS EDUCATION

oum mt assignment

oum mt assignment

- Differentiated Instruction and Educational Standard is Detente Possible
- Capstone Question 1
- The Teaching Profession
- Teaching Philosophy
- Positive Learning Framework Creating Learning Environments in Which All Children Thrive
- Theories and Approaches in Teaching Mathematics
- Online Learning 1
- Teaching Statement
- School Based Assessment
- Writing - Hidden Curriculum - Final
- tmp143E
- Activity Based Approach
- Teacher Efficacy in Secondary Mathematics
- Constructivist Teaching Methods
- Multiple Intelligence
- 4234-16936-1-PB
- 1769-2592-1-PB
- Unit Work Sample
- Field Study Orientation
- First Year Writing
- ACCMM2-04
- Konsepsi Siswa Tentang Statistik
- Philosophy Assignment 2012 Fauzi
- Reflection 3 Models of Teacher Training
- Robert j Sternberg 00 Broc
- Textile Dyeing and Printing-II
- Curriculum Development
- 2005 Using Arcs Model to Promote 11th Graders Motivation and Achievement in Learning About Acids and Bases
- 1 Framework Disposition
- Statement of the Purpose

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