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Section A: Objective (15m)

1 D 4 D 7 C 10 C 13 D
2 A 5 C 8 D 11 D 14 B
3 B 6 A 9 B 12 C 15 A

Section B: Structured (15m)

Q16 Response Marks

a) Function - cell recognition 1
Cell - lymphocyte 1
b) S - Na+ - K+ pump 1
c) -Cholesterol (drawing - correct shape, orientation and location) 1
-Maintain fluidity of cell membrane 1
Total 5m

Q17 Response Marks

a) -plasmodesmata enlarged to form sieve pores for transport across cells 1
-thin peripheral cytoplasm without nucleus and small organelles for transport 1
of organic substances
b) -no nucleus when mature to pack more haemoglobin 1
-biconcave disc increase surface area 1
c) -Node of Ranvier to enable faster transmission of impulses 1
-Long axon of motor neurones to reach effector/muscles located far away 1
d) -flexible support 1
-primary cell wall is unevenly thickened at the corner for support 1
e) -control amount and types of substances to enter the steele 1
-cell walls thickened with suberin becomes impermeable to water and 1
dissolved substances
Total 10m
Section C: Essay (30m)

18 Response Marks
a) Protein are important molecules that carries out numerous, diverse roles in
living organisms. Discuss this statement based on
a) the structure of protein. [9]
b) the roles of protein [7]

-Primary structure (sequence of amino acid in polypeptide chain) determines the 1

subsequent secondary or tertiary structure of the protein
-primary structure varies in number of amino acids within polypeptide chain 1
- 20 types of amino acids can be strung in different combination to form many 1
different kinds of polypeptide chains/protein 2m

-Secondary structure -repetitive regular arrangement of the polypeptide chain 1

-Example of secondary structure -α helix coils, β pleated sheets
-Secondary structure of protein is very important in structural protein 1
-determines the structural function of protein eg for support in keratin hooves of 1
horses/silk fibres in spider webs 2m

-Tertiary structure - folding, coiling of the secondary structure to form a precise, 1

compact, globular protein
-possess a specific 3D conformation which determines its function 1
-specific shape maintained by hydrofobic interactions, hydrogen bonds, Van der 1
Waals interactions, disulphide bridges, ionic bonds
-tertiary structure of protein is very important for globular protein 1

-Quarternary structure - when 2 or more polypeptide chains joined together to 1

form a single functional molecule 1m

*molecule with so many possibilities of combination and structurally 1

complexity can therefore form many different molecules each with its own 1m
unique shape and levels of structure

Total 9m
b) Each role with specific examples related to its structure
-enzymes 1
-homeostasis 1
-hormones 1
-transport 1
-structure/support 1
-movement 1
-protection 1
-storage 1
Any 6@1m 6m

Total 15m
19 Response Marks
a) a) Explain how a diet deficient in vitamins and minerals may affect human
physiology. [7]
b) Using examples from cell respiration, explain four classes of enzymes. [8]

Examples given must be specific and explained

-vitamins are organic molecules essential required in small quantities which are
important in many physiological functions
-Vit K - blood clotting 1
-Vit B1 - coenzyme for decarboxylation 1
-Vit B2 - component of FAD as hydrogen carriers in cell respiration 1
-Vit B3 - precursor to form NAD+ and NADP+ 1
-Vit B5 - precursor to form coenzyme A 1
-Vit B12 - coenzyme in nucleic acid metabolism 1
-Vit H - coenzyme in synthesis of fat and amino acid metabolism 1
Any 3 @1m 3m

-minerals are inorganic nutrients essential in many physiological functions,

some in relatively large amounts other in trace amounts 1
-Calcium - blood clotting, activate thrombokinase 1
-Phosphorus - synthesis of ATP and nucleic acids 1
-Sulphur - component of amino acid cysteine, methione - form protein/enzymes 1
-Chlorine - cofactor/enzyme activator for salivary amylase 1
-Iron - component of cytochrome b, c and oxidase in ETC 1
-Copper -component of cytochrome oxidase in ETC 1
-Iodine - synthesis of thyroid hormone 1
Any 4 @1m 4m

Total 7m
Classes of Reaction Enzyme
Oxidoreductase Succinate + NAD+ --> Fumarate + Succinate
NADH + H+ dehydrogenase 1+1

Lyase Pyruvate --> Ethanol + CO2 Pyruvate

decarboxylase 1+1

Transferase Glucose + ATP --> Glucose 6 Heksokinase

phosphate + ADP 1+1

Isomerase Glucose 6 phosphate --> Fructose 6 Phosphogluco-

phosphate isomerase 1+1


Total 15m
20 Response Marks
a) a) Explain how oxygen affects photosynthesis. [5]

-[CO2] is low, photorespiration occurs where RuBP accepts both CO2 and
oxygen during the Calvin cycle 1
-oxygen is a competitive inhibitor for enzyme ribulose biphosphate carboxylase
-RuBP accepts oxygen (catalysed by RuBP carboxylase) to form glycerate 3 1
phosphate and phosphoglycolate 1
-2 molecules of phophoglycolate will undergo series of reaction to produce one
molecule of glycerate 3 phosphate and release one molecule of CO2 1
-photorespiration requires oxygen and ATP and produces CO2 presence of light
-takes place in 3 organelles: chloroplast, mitochondria, peroxisome 1
-potentially reduce photosynthetic output by 20 to 50% 1
b) b) How does the production of ATP in a liver cell differ from that in a skeletal
muscle cell? [4]

ATP production in liver cell ATP production in skeletal cell

Produces total of 38 ATP per Produces total of 36 ATP per 1
molecule of glucose molecule of glucose
Uses the malate-aspartate shuttle Uses glycerol phosphate shuttle
The hydrogen carried as 2NADH+ The hydrogen carried as 2NADH+
H+ (from glycolysis) is passed to H+ (from glycolysis) is passed to 1
NADH+ H+ (mitochondria) FADH2 (mitochondria)

This 2NADH+ H+ (from glycolysis) This 2NADH+ H+ (from glycolysis) 1

in ETC producdes 6ATP in ETC producdes only 4ATP

Any 4@1m
c) c) Describe the effects of cyanide and carbon monoxide on respiration. [6]

-cyanide binds to the Fe3+ component of cytochrome oxidase, the last electron 1
acceptor in the ETC inhibiting Oxygen from accepting the electrons
-ETC is blocked/H+ cannot be pumped across into the intermembrane space 1
-prevents chemiosmosis/the buildup of electrochemical gradient 1
-no ATP is formed//no flow of H+ through ATP synthase//cytotoxic hypoxia 1
-carbon monoxide has very high affinity for haemoglobin forming
carboxyhaemoglobin (HbCO)//binds tightly with Hb preventing O2 from 1
binding with haemoglobin//reduces oxygen carrying capacity of Hb in blood
- ETC is blocked/electrons in the ETC accumulates as there lacks O2 as the last 1
electron acceptor//H+ cannot be pumped across into the intermembrane space
-prevents chemiosmosis/the buildup of electrochemical gradient 1
-no ATP is formed/no flow of H+ through ATP synthase/cytotoxic hypoxia 1

Total 15m