Prepared by:

Name : NAMAN AGGARWAL Class : CSE2 Roll No. : 1241502707



CLOUD COMPUTING Future of Computing«« .

So I would like to thank father of internet. It also helped me to indentify the numerous spelling and grammar mistakes that I make that would have otherwise gone Unnoticed. But the best thing that happened to internet. Vint Serf for connecting this world together.It would have taken a lot of pain to search information on internet if the concise and appropriate results form Google has not been there. Internet for me is a repository of information. so beautiful that one would never get bored exploring things. is ³Google´ . I believe the best thing that happened to information crazy humans was the invention and advancement of internet. = . It provides the information from around the world which would have rather taken years to gather.Acknowledgement First and foremost I would like to thank God for creating so much. which has well now become synonym for internet. Much of the information in this reports are from Wikipedia which explained the concept in such simple way that it was worth including in the report. I would also like to thank Wikipedia which has always been the first place I go to know about something. I would also like to thank Microsoft to have built such powerful Word Processing software that helped me to store and organize information. I would like to thank Larry Page and Sergey Brin for their innovative effort to provide the best search engine ever. I also thank the people who put in effort to add and organize information in this free encyclopedia which anyone can edit.

Recent Developments 11. Key Features 6. Economics 4. Sum Up Picture . Issues with Cloud 9. Layers 7.What¶s Inside 1. Architecture 5. Deployment Models 8. Research 10. Introduction 2. Comparisons 3.

and information are provided to computers and other devices on demand. who no longer have need for expertise in. Introduction Cloud computing is Internet-based computing. The term "cloud" is used as a metaphor for the Internet. like the electricity grid.1. Details are abstracted from the users. It is a byproduct and consequence of the ease-of-access to remote computing sites provided by the Internet. and it typically involves over-the-Internet provision of dynamically scalable and often virtualized resources. consumption. Clouds often appear as single points of access for all consumers' computing needs. the technology infrastructure "in the cloud" that supports them. and later to depict the Internet in computer network diagrams as an abstraction of the underlying infrastructure it represents. whereby shared resources. This frequently takes the form of web-based tools or applications that users can access and use through a web browser as if it was a program installed locally on their own computer. Cloud computing is a paradigm shift following the shift from mainframe to client±server in the early 1980s. based on the cloud drawing used in the past to represent the telephone network. and delivery model for IT services based on the Internet. NIST provides a somewhat more objective and specific definition here. or control over. Commercial offerings are generally expected to meet quality of service . Cloud Computing Conceptual Diagram Cloud computing describes a new supplement. software. Most cloud computing infrastructures consist of services delivered through common centers and built on servers. while the software and data are stored on servers. Typical cloud computing providers deliver common business applications online that are accessed from another Web service or software like a Web browser. A key element of cloud computing is customization and the creation of a user-defined experience.

shared infrastructure and costs. low management overhead. Skytap. software. users can terminate the contract at any time (thereby avoiding return on investment risk and uncertainty). In general. Salesforce. Consumption is usually billed on a utility (resources consumed. typically bulk data processing such as census. IBM.(QoS) requirements of customers. as a metered service similar to a traditional public utility. and immediate access to a broad range of applications. . such as computation and storage. 2. Grid computing ² "a form of distributed computing and parallel computing. Utility computing ² the "packaging of computing resources. 5. HP. Client±server model ± Client±server computing refers broadly to any distributed application that distinguishes between service providers (servers) and service requesters (clients). with participants being at the same time both suppliers and consumers of resources (in contrast to the traditional client±server model). Mainframe computer ² powerful computers used mainly by large organizations for critical applications. According to Nicholas Carr. Economics Cloud computing users avoid capital expenditure (CapEx) on hardware. Autonomic computing ² "computer systems capable of self-management". and services when they pay a provider only for what they use. Other benefits of this approach are low barriers to entry. Amazon and Google. industry and consumer statistics. 6. and financial transaction processing. like electricity) or subscription (time-based. and the services are often covered by service level agreements (SLAs) with financial penalties. 3. the strategic importance of information technology is diminishing as it becomes standardized and less expensive. such as electricity". enterprise resource planning. Comparisons Cloud computing derives characteristics from. 2. Peer-to-peer ± a distributed architecture without the need for central coordination. but should not be confused with: 1. whereby a 'super and virtual computer' is composed of a cluster of networked. The major cloud service providers include Microsoft. like a newspaper) basis with little or no upfront cost. and typically include SLAs. 3. loosely coupled computers acting in concert to perform very large tasks" 4.

the cloud model might not make great fiscal sense. usually web services. they might not save much and might actually pay more for operating expenses. IP addresses. the level of adoption of cloud computing. with pricing dependent on demand for available instances.He argues that the cloud computing paradigm shift is similar to the displacement of electricity generators by electricity grids early in the 20th century. the systems architecture of the software systems involved in the delivery of cloud computing. In some cases. PUT requests and GET requests. users can bid on instances. Among the items that some cloud hosts charge for are instances (often with extra charges for high-memory or high-CPU instances). and load balancing. . 4. or where the organization has more flexibility in their capital budget than their operating budget. Architecture Cloud architecture. Other factors impacting the scale of any potential cost savings include the efficiency of a company's data center as compared to the cloud vendor's. In situations where the capital expense would be relatively small. the company's existing operating costs. storage (measured by the GB-month). Although companies might be able to save on upfront capital expenditures. I/O requests. typically involves multiple cloud components communicating with each other over application programming interfaces. data transfer in and out. and the type of functionality being hosted in the cloud.

) . This includes the client¶s network (or computer) and the applications used to access the cloud via a user interface such as a web browser.g. Device and location independence enable users to access systems using a web browser regardless of their location or what device they are using (e. i.e. The back end of the cloud computing architecture is the µcloud¶ itself. servers and data storage devices.. mobile). Key Features y y y y Agility improves with users' ability to rapidly and inexpensively re-provision technological infrastructure resources. The front end is the part seen by the client. As infrastructure is off-site (typically provided by a third-party) and accessed via the Internet. etc. comprising various computers. users can connect from anywhere. 5.Cloud computing sample architecture This resembles the UNIX philosophy of having multiple programs each doing one thing well and working together over universal interfaces. Complexity is controlled and the resulting systems are more manageable than their monolithic counterparts. This ostensibly lowers barriers to entry. electricity. Pricing on a utility computing basis is fine-grained with usage-based options and fewer IT skills are required for implementation (in-house). Multi-tenancy enables sharing of resources and costs across a large pool of users thus allowing for: o Centralization of infrastructure in locations with lower costs (such as real estate. the computer user. as infrastructure is typically provided by a third-party and does not need to be purchased for onetime or infrequent intensive computing tasks. Cost is claimed to be greatly reduced and capital expenditure is converted to operational expenditure. The two most significant components of cloud computing architecture are known as the front end and the back end. PC.

.One of the most important new methods for overcoming performance bottlenecks for a large class of applications is data parallel programming on a distributed data grid. o 6. and IT and business managers can at times do little when they are affected. Maintenance cloud computing applications are easier to maintain.y y y y y Peak-load capacity increases (users need not engineer for highest possible load-levels) o Utilization and efficiency improvements for systems that are often only 10±20% utilized. Security could improve due to centralization of data. many major cloud computing services have suffered outages. Layers Cloud has 5 layers: A cloud client consists of computer hardware and/or computer software that relies on cloud computing for application delivery. This will enable clients on choosing the vendor cloud on cost and reliability (QoS). is essentially useless without it. and annual basis. Metering cloud computing resources usage should be measurable and should be metered per client and application on daily. self-service basis near real-time. increased security-focused resources. in either case. Performance is monitored and consistent and loosely coupled architectures are constructed using web services as the system interface. since they don't have to be installed on each user's computer. . Examples include some computers. but concerns can persist about loss of control over certain sensitive data. etc. and the lack of security for stored kernels. Furthermore. operating systems and browsers. Nonetheless. Security is often as good as or better than under traditional systems. Scalability via dynamic ("on-demand") provisioning of resources on a finegrained. but accessing the audit logs themselves can be difficult or impossible. the complexity of security is greatly increased when data is distributed over a wider area and / or number of devices. in part because providers are able to devote resources to solving security issues that many customers cannot afford. Providers typically log accesses. They are easier to support and to improve since the changes reach the clients instantly. Reliability is improved if multiple redundant sites are used. which makes well designed cloud computing suitable for business continuity and disaster recovery. without users having to engineer for peak loads. or that is specifically designed for delivery of cloud services and that. weekly. monthly. phones and other devices.

and management of. not custom) software Activities that are managed from central locations rather than at each customer's site. clients instead buy those resources as a fully outsourced service. commercially available (i. It facilitates deployment of applications without the cost and complexity of buying and managing the underlying hardware and software layers. . often consuming cloud infrastructure and sustaining cloud applications.. eliminating the need to install and run the application on the customer's own computers and simplifying maintenance and support. data center space or network equipment. Cloud platform services or "Platform as a Service (PaaS)" deliver a computing platform and/or solution stack as a service. pricing. multi-tenant architecture) than to a one-to-one model. which obviates the need for downloadable patches and upgrades. Key characteristics include:y y y y Network-based access to. Rather than purchasing servers. It is an evolution of virtual private server offerings. enabling customers to access applications remotely via the Web Application delivery that typically is closer to a one-to-many model (single instance.e. typically a platform virtualization environment as a service. The service is typically billed on a utility computing basis and amount of resources consumed (and therefore the cost) will typically reflect the level of activity. including architecture. partnering. and management characteristics Centralized feature updating. Cloud infrastructure services or "Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS)" delivers computer infrastructure. software.Layers of Cloud Cloud application services or "Software as a Service (SaaS)" deliver software as a service over the Internet.

and Managed dedicated server for the database server. Another perspective on deploying a web application in the cloud is using Hybrid Web Hosting. A hybrid cloud environment consisting of multiple internal and/or external providers" will be typical for most enterprises´. Public cloud or external cloud describes cloud computing in the traditional mainstream sense.The server¶s layer consists of computer hardware and/or computer software products that are specifically designed for the delivery of cloud services. cloud-specific operating systems and combined offerings. . via web applications/web services. With the costs spread over fewer users than a public cloud (but more than a single tenant) this option is more expensive but may offer a higher level of privacy. from an off-site third-party provider who and bills on a fine-grained utility computing basis. 2. security and/or policy compliance. 3. self-service basis over the Internet. 7. including multi-core processors. A community cloud may be established where several organizations have similar requirements and seek to share infrastructure so as to realize some of the benefits of cloud computing. where the hosting infrastructure is a mix between Cloud Hosting for the web server. By integrating multiple cloud services users may be able to ease the transition to public cloud services while avoiding issues such as PCI compliance. whereby resources are dynamically provisioned on a fine-grained. Examples of community cloud include Google's "Gov Cloud". Deployment models 1.

4. Physically. The term was first used in the context of cloud computing in 2007 when Kevin Kelly opined that "eventually we'll have the intercloud. which recorded over 10 million phone calls between American citizens. and thus. rather than being hosted on dedicated servers." It became popular in 2009 and has also been used to describe the datacenter of the future. providers such as Amazon still cater to major markets (typically the United States and the European Union) by deploying local infrastructure and allowing customers to select "availability zones. Even within modern utility industries. and the greater powers it gives to telecommunication companies to monitor user activity. the communication and data stored between the user and the host company. however the concepts themselves pre-date the term cloud by 40 years. hybrid models still exist despite the formation of reasonably well functioning markets and the ability to combine multiple providers. Hosting companies operate large data centers. Privacy The Cloud model has been criticized by privacy advocates for the greater ease in which the companies hosting the Cloud services control. lawfully or unlawfully. Cloud Storage is a model of networked Computer data storage where data is stored on multiple virtual servers. ISSUES with CLOUD 1. virtualize the resources according to the requirements of the customer and expose them as virtual servers. Private cloud and internal cloud have been described as neologisms. 6. generally hosted by third parties. working with AT&T. The data center operators. which the customers can themselves manage. This Intercloud will have the dimensions of one machine comprising all servers and attendant cloudbooks on the planet. in the background. 8. the cloud of clouds. The idea was based upon direct comparison with other industries (e. the electricity industry) and the extensive use of hybrid supply models to balance and mitigate risks. and Verizon.g. While there have been efforts (such as US-EU Safe Harbor) to "harmonise" the legal environment. and people who require their data to be hosted buy or lease storage capacity from them and use it for their storage needs. The Intercloud is an interconnected global "cloud of clouds" and an extension of the Internet "network of networks" on which it is based. causes uncertainty among privacy advocates. Instances such as the secret NSA program. 5. can monitor at will. . the resource may span across multiple servers.

3. the number of trademark filings covering cloud computing brands. Academic institutions include University of Melbourne (Australia). while others argue that cloud providers have a strong incentive to maintain trust and as such employ a higher level of security.139. In 2009. As companies sought to better position themselves for cloud computing branding and marketing efforts. Boston University. goods and services has increased at an almost exponential rate. 9. there is as of yet no published study to substantiate this assumption. MIT. Thus countries with favorable conditions. 5. Trademark 77. and trademark analysts predict that over 500 such marks could be filed during 2010. Sustainability and siting Although cloud computing is often assumed to be a form of "green computing". The "Notice of Allowance" the company received in July 2008 was cancelled in August. Since 2007. are trying to attract cloud computing data centers. . businesses are also worried about acceptable levels of availability and performance of applications hosted in the cloud. Security The relative security of cloud computing services is a contentious issue which may be delaying its adoption. cloud computing trademark filings increased by 483% between 2008 and 2009. Carnegie Mellon. Dell applied to trademark the term "cloud computing" (U. 116 cloud computing trademarks were filed. which has happened in a number of cases. vendors and government organizations are investing in research around the topic of cloud computing. Research A number of universities. University of Wisconsin Madison. Yale. such as Finland. Indiana University. Sweden and Switzerland.2. Availability and Performance In addition to concerns about security. The Cloud Security Alliance is a non-profit organization formed to promote the use of best practices for providing security assurance within Cloud Computing 4. resulting in a formal rejection of the trademark application less than a week later. In areas where climate favors cooling and lots of renewable electricity is available the environmental effects will be more moderate.082) in the United States.Siting the servers affects the environmental effects of cloud computing. Georgia Tech. Virginia Tech. Legal In March 2007. Some argue that customer data is more secure when managed internally.S. There are also concerns about a cloud provider shutting down for financial or legal reasons. Wayne State.

University of project designed to enhance students' technical knowledge to address the challenges of cloud computing. Purdue. North Carolina State. In October 2007 IBM and Google announced the multi. designed to encourage research into all aspects of cloud computing. the Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute (ETRI) in Korea. HP. Open Cirrus partners include the NSF. academic and vendor collaborative research projects include the IBM/Google Academic Cloud Computing Initiative (ACCI). University of Minnesota. the Infocomm Development Authority (IDA) of Singapore. multi-data center.Called SiteonMobile. In July 2008. In April 2009. the Malaysian Institute for Microelectronic Systems (MIMOS). the University of Illinois (UIUC). . and the Institute for System Programming at the Russian Academy of Sciences (ISPRAS). Intel Corporation and Yahoo! announced the creation of a global. open source test bed. among others. University of Utah. the new technology is designed for emerging markets where people are more likely to access the internet via mobile phones rather than computers. even from low-end devices. University of Maryland. University of Washington. Karlsruhe Institute of Technology. University of Virginia. the National Science Foundation joined the ACCI and awarded approximately $5 million in grants to 14 academic institutions.University of Massachusetts. service and data center management. Joint government. HP Labs India announced a new cloud-based technology designed to simplify taking content and making it mobile-enabled. called Open Cirrus. In July 2010.

Google. 2010 in New York. and a number of universities embarked on a large scale cloud computing research project. and observed that "organizations are switching from company-owned hardware and software assets to peruse service-based models" so that the "projected shift to cloud computing ." Hewlett Packard¶s chief technology and chief strategy officer Shane Robison in July 2010 named the ³inevitability of the cloud´ as a top tenet of HP¶s strategy. By mid-2008. a year from now that will be 90 percent. Cloud computing is one of eight key research focus areas for HP Labs. Eucalyptus became the first open source AWS API compatible platform for deploying private clouds. 10. Microsoft's CEO.´ In March 2010. will result in dramatic growth in IT products in some areas and significant reductions in other areas. made his strongest statement of betting the company's future in the cloud by proclaiming "For the cloud. In early 2008. we're all in" and further stating "About 75 percent of our folks are doing entirely cloud based or entirely cloud inspired.. IBM. NY.The IEEE Technical Committee on Services Computing in IEEE Computer Society sponsors the IEEE International Conference on Cloud Computing (CLOUD). Gartner saw an opportunity for cloud computing "to shape the relationship among consumers of IT services. . Steve Ballmer. those who use IT services and those who sell them´..CLOUD 2010 was held on July 5±10.RECENT DEVELOPMENTS In 2007.

11.Sum Up Picture .