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International Language of the Delegation



Revised by
(President of the French ldistic Society).

In wnformitr with the decisions of the Ido Academy



Foreword . . . . . . . . . . . . ... v .
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . ... vii .

The Grammar of Ido . . . . . . . . . ... 3

English Idioms and Ido ...... ... 20

Grammatical Terminations and Affixes ... 41

Exercaro . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... 45

English Translation of Exercaro ... ... 67

Ido-English Vocabulary . . . . . . . . . ... 89

English-Ido Vocabulary . . . . . . . . . ... 129

List of Geographical Names ...... ... 185


(Printed by special permission.)

Dear iZlarquis de Beaufront,

I thank you for yotrr letter.
I am bplensed to assist your work i n
Propagating Ido by giving the new inter-
national language Pz~blicityin tny news-
Believing Ido to be a practicul
auxiliary tolcgue and a valuable time-
saver to nations adopti~zgit, I trust you
will realize your ideal that it may further
a still closer entente between tlte Britislt
Elnpire and France, and indeed betweett
the Allies gen~rally.
Youvs tvuly,

27th May, 1917.


The present volunle has been issued t o meet the widespread demand
for an up-to-date text-book of Ido. In all countries interest in the
international language, which had abated in the early part of the
world-war, is awakening anew, and from all quarters enquiries about
Ido are being received. To the individual we can recommend Ido :
(1) as alanguage which one can easily, quickly and pleasantly acquire ;
(2) as a language which constitutes an attractive and unique personal
possession : and (3) a5 a language which will probably bestow im-
portant advantages on its experts.

Apart from its obvious advantages as a medium for international

communication, Ido will play a great part in language study. It
is a well-known fact that the first foreign language learnt, whichever
i t may be, is always the most difficult, for the student has to learn to
discard the limits of his mother tongue when thinking. Once this is
done, the learning of subsequent languages is easier. Ido is regular
and logical in its construction and the simplest language ever devised.
Make Ido the first foreign language t o be learnt and many of the
initial troubles of language students can be avoided. I t is quite
possible t o learn Ido and follow on with French or another European
language and make better progress than could be obtained by
applying oneself directly to the national language with all its idioms
and irregularities.

In a sense the Complete Manual is not a new work, though it has

never appeared before in the present form. The grammatical section
is substantially the Practical Grammar as revised by our lamented
colleague, Dr. J. L. Moore, of Bristol University, shortly before his
death. No apology is needed for including M. de Beaufront's
Exevcaro, the standard international set of exercises in Ido. The
English key t o the Exercaro has been supplied by Mr. L. H. Dyer
of Seattle, Washington, U.S.A., and should be of considerable
assistance to the student. The vocabularies, while not claiming t o
be exhaustive, are in advance of any which have appeared for
English-speaking students. For the lists of geographical names we
are once more indebted t o M. de Beaufront,

To the great number of friends who have extended their counsel

and assistance t o us i n the preparation of this book we tender our
cordial thanks. The kindness of M. de Beaufront in revising and
augmenting the vocabularies during a time of great stress, i f not
actual danger, must not be left without mention. Our colleague's
residence was destroyed during the German advance of March,
1918, and that unfortunate circumstance will have the effect of still
further delaying the production of the greater English-Ido and
Ido-English dictionaries. Undei the circumstances we must consider
ourselves extremely fortunate t o have secured M. de Beaufront's
co-operation in this more modest work.

N international auxiliary language is not meant to

A replace the natural languages, but to help everyone,

including people possessing only an average
elementary education, to speak and write to
citizens of foreign countries,
The need of an international language, to be learnt in
all countries, by all people interested in communicating
their thoughts and needs t o one another, is to-day
universally recognised.
Opinions are, however, divided as to whether this role
should devolve upon one of the existing natural languages,
such as English or French, or whether a specially formed
artificial language should be preferred. There are many
obstacles that prevent any natural language being used
for the international medium of expression. There are
difficulties of grammar, idioms, exceptions and irregularities,
and English-whose grammar is the simplest of all, possesses
an additional difficulty in its pronunciation which follows
rather custom than spelling. Another obstacle is the national
pride and national interest of the other nations who would
fear to see the prestige and the influence of the favoured
nation grow to proportions menacing to them.
The use of a neutral language, on the other hand, spares
all susceptibilities and not only does each people discover
in it something of the essence of its own speech, but it is a
hundred times easier to learn than even the simplest natural
The idea of an international language is by no means recent.
Already in 1629 Descartes had defined the two principal
systems of international language. Firstly, the a prior;
system of the so-called philosophical languages, consisting
of arbitrarily selected letters, syllables or words indicating
an idea or a group of ideas in accordance with a determined
classification and based in no way upon any natural language.
Secondly, the a posteriori system based on roots already
existing in the natural languages with a grammar reduced
to its most simple explession and comprising neither irregu-
larity nor exception.*
Reason and experience have proved that a priori auxiliary
languages are interesting only as curiosities evolved by the
human intellect.
To return to the a posteriori system, Descartes even foresaw
the possibility of modifying the meaning of primitive roots
by means of affixes and thus of unburdening the memory
to a very great extent; for instance, 5,000 roots, modified
in their meanings by five different affixes, represent 30,000
ideas, viz., 5,000 simple conceptions and 25,000 derived
From the time of Cromwell to our days dozens of projects
for an international language of both the a priori and the
a posteriori, as well as of mixed systems, have been produced.
Worthy of mention are the a priori systems of Sir Thomas
Urquhart (1653), George Dalgarno (1661), John Wilkins,
Bishop of Chester (1668), Liebnitz (1679)) Delormel (17g5),
Sudre (1817)~Grosselier (1836), Letellier (1852), Dr. Nicolas
(1900) ; the mixed systems of Monseigneur Schleyer (Volapiik,
1879) and of Bollac (La langue bleue, 1899) ; also various
a posteriori systems based upon Latin, German, Anglo-French,
Italian and other languages.
None of the a priori languages had any vogue. Volapiik
was a mixed system, invented in 1879 by the Abbe Schleyer,
who is supposed to have possessed a knowledge of more
than fifty natural languages. It was welcomed and learnt
in a number of countries. Within nine years it was spoken
by one million people. Instruction books were printed in
twenty-five languages, and there were nearly 300 Volapiik
Societies distributed throughout Europe, America and the
British Colonies. This progress was achieved entirely without

* An example of an a priori language is the system of Letellier of Caen,in whifh,

for instance, the letter a=animal ; ab =mammal ; abo=camivorous ; aboj=feline ;
abojc=cat. In the same manner abo&=dog, because the dog is an animal (a), a
mammal (b), carnivorous (c), of the camne genus ( d ) , and of the dog specles (c). Such
a system is veritably a linguistic algebra.
any governmental aid, and so sensational a success shows
how widely felt is the need of an international language.
The printed appearance of Volapiik is outlandish, and
although the vocabulary is supposed to be based mainly
upon the English language, the words are built in so arbitrary
a fashion that they bear no resemblance whatever to the
English ones which are supposed to have suggested them.
The word Volapuk, for instance, is stated to be based on the
English words " world " and " speak " ! The language and
grammar are quite ingenious.
Volapuk fell rapidly from favour because its disadvantages
were so obvious that groups arose in different localities, each
desirous of reforming the language. Bishop Schleyer would
not consent to a reform, and sections of his " followers "
proceeded to introduce changes. I t was this schism, together
with the difficulty of the language, which caused it to fall
from favour. No one knew which to learn of the several
different kinds of Volapiik in existence.
After Volapuk had quickened the interest in a universal
language, numbers of other systems made their appearance,
several of them almost practical, Esperanto, invented by
Dr. Zamenhof, and published in 1887, presenting the maxi-
mum of internationality until 1907, when Ido appeared
and offered to the world a simple and efficient means
of international communication.
These are the circumstances in which Ido originated.
At the time of the Paris Exhibition in 1900, when so many
International Congresses met in the French capital, the
necessity of adopting a language for international use seems
more than ever to have been felt, because, as is customary,
although authorities from all countries found themselves
in the presence one of the other, they were practically tongue-
tied !
A number of these Congresses and learned Societies, there-
fore, appointed Delegates for the consideration of the inter-
national language question. These Delegates met in January,
1901, and founded " a Delegation for the Adoption of an
Auxiliary International Language." They, furthermore, drew
up the following Declaration, which was also approved by
the Delegates they elected subsequently.
I. To select and promote the use of an auxiliary inter-
national language destined not to replace the national lan-
guages in their everyday use, but to serve as a means of
communication between people speaking different languages.
2. In order to fulfil usefully its intended purpose, an inter-
national auxiliary language ought to satisfy the following
conditions :-
( a ) It must meet the requirements of ordinary
social life, and also those of commerce, science,
and philosophy.
(6) It must be easily acquired by people having an
ordinary elementary education, and especially
by the peoples of European civilization.
(c) I t must not be one of the national languages.

From its foundation up to the year 1907 i t had received

the adherence of 310 Societies from all countries, and the
approval of 1,250 members of Academies and Universities.
I t then elected an international committee composed of
scientists and linguists having special competence in the
Prominent Esperantists recognised the impartiality of
the Delegation, as well as the scientific spirit in which it
prepared to select the auxiliary language to be adopted and
agreed to accept the decision of the Committee.
There seemed to be little doubt that Esperanto would
be the artificial language selected by the Delegation from
among the seventy odd projects that were to be considered.
The Secretaries of the Committee of the Delegation were
Messrs Couturat and Leau, two eminent French philologists
and mathematicians, who are the authors of " L'Histoire
de la Langue Universelle " and " Les Nouvelles Langues
Internationales," the two standard works on the subject.
The Committee was composed of :-
Prof. Louis Couturat (D6s lettres Paris), Philologist and
Prof. Dr. Leop. Leau (Univ. of Paris), Philologst.
Prof. Dr. Otto Jespersen (Univ. of Copenhagen), Philologist.
Prof. Dr. Baudouin de Courtenay (Univ. of Petrograd),
Mr. P. D. Hugon (London), Linguist. (Representing Mr.
W. T. Stead).
Dr. Boirac (Dijon), Linguist.
M. Gaston Moch (Dijon), Linguist.
Prof. Dr. Foerster (Univ. of Berlin), Philologist and
Prof. Dr. W. Ostwald (Emeritus Prof. of Leipzig Univ.).
Philologist and Nobel Prize-Winner for Chemistry.
Prof. Dr. Peano (Univ. of Turin), Philologist and Mathe-
These details are mentioned to indicate that this was no
hole and corner Committee, but a Committee composed of
men as eminent and competent as any that could be appointed
by an interested Government.
I t is evident, therefore, that the matter was properly
investigated and that the decision of the Delegation may
be accepted. If any Government committee were officially
to consider the matter they would only have to go over the
same ground again, and probably take as long to do so as
the Delegation did.
After six years of preparatory studies the Committee
deliberated in 1907, and finally decided that none of the
languages submitted to its examination could be adopted
as i t stood. They decided to adopt Esperanto in principle,
modified in accordance with the suggestion of the Marquis
de Beaufront, whose revised Esperanto is termed Ido. The
word Ido is an Esperanto suffix meaning " derived from,"
i.e., derived from Esperanto.
Ido has not the uncouth appearance of the original Espe-
ranto, and is more euphonious in sound. It has about it
something suggestive of Italian. I t has suppressed all
accented letters and may, therefore, be printed with the
ordinary founts of type or written on any typewriter. Ido
has, furthermore, suppressed all but a few grammatical
rules which have neither exception nor irregularity. The
correlative words of Esperanto, which are constantly recurring,
though difficult to learn and ugly in sound and look, are
abolished and replaced by simple words of Latin derivation.
All former language projects have tended constantly
and surely towards the evolution of Ido. Although the
Marquis de Beaufront established the natural principles
upon which Ido should be artificially constructed, the language
is far from being the invention of any one man. It has been
formed by the united efforts of many distinguished philologists
in many countries, and has involved over seven years' work.
Couturat, Leau, de Beaufront, Casares, Jespersen, Mackensen
(San Antonio, U.S.A.), Ostwald, Pfaundler, Lorenz, Chalon,
Peus, Waltisbiihl, Schneeberger (Switzerland), Ahlberg
(Stockholm), Donnan (London University), Hugon, Dow,
Koopman (Brown University, Providence, R.I., U.S.A.),
and the late Dr. J. L. Moore, of Bristol University, are among
the men who have collaborated in this great task and made
it a labour of love. The vocabulary is scientific, being con-
structed upon the principle of the maxiw~unzof internationality.
This means that the authors, when choosing a certain root.
examined all the equivalents in European languages and
selected a root which most resembles that understood by most
$eo$le, in look, if possible, as well as sound.
This basis is simple and fundamentally sound, where-
after all that is left to arbitrary choice are the grammatical
endings. These are very few and are established in a manner
completely analogous to that of natural languages. For
example, the ending o is natural for the singular, and i for
the plural ; anta is natural for the active participle and ata
for the passive participle. There then remains the question
of afixes (9rejixes and sufixes) used to modify the meanings
of the primitive roots. Their selection is not difficult, and
cannot be arbitrary, being likewise subject to the law of the
maximum of internationality ; for instance, the suffix ev must
necessarily indicate the agent who performs the action ex-
pressed by the verb, because it is used in this sense by the
majority of the great European languages ; eur in French, cv
in English and German, ero in Italian and Spanish, etc. These
examples show that the evolution of the international language
takes lace in a well-determined and mathematically defined
directibn. That is the maximum of internationality of the
root based upon the number of people who understand it,
which is briefly the law of the least effort applied to the
science of language.
M. Louis Couturat, the eminent French mathematician
and linguist, who devoted his personal fortune and the last
years of his life to the task of codifying the vocabulary of Ido,
counted the 5,379 roots of the first Ido dictionaries, and
found that of these the follo~vingnumbers occur in the inter-
national languages :-
French 4,880 i.e. 91 per IOO
Italian 4,454 ,, 83 ,,
Spanish 4,237 9 , 79 ,,
English 4,219 ,, 79 ,,
German 3,302 ,, 61 ,,
Russian 2,821 ,, 5 2 ,,
For all these languages the above percentages are relatively
higher than in the case of any previously suggested auxiliary
Ido is thus truly a neutral language, of ideal simplicity
and regularity, and because of these qualities i t permits
the easy and clear expression in a manner free from all am-
biguity of the most concrete and the most abstract ideas with
a minimum of brain work. Ido is the final international
language, the result of long evolution and of the experience
gained from former systems. Ido has been in practical
use for some years past. I t is read and spoken by men of
the most diverse nationalities, and not one intrinsic difficulty
has stood in the way of its spread. One thing alone is neces-
sary to assure its success, and that is a desire on the part of
mankind to shake off indifference and scepticism with regard
to so pleasing an invention and thus to render possible the
same progress in the communication of ideas as has been
rendered possible in the material world by the invention of
railways, telegraphy and the telephone.
The student should know that more than thirty years ago
the Marquis de Beaufront invented an earlier auxiliary lan-
guage which he, however, discarded when the first books
on Esperanto reached France. He became the enthusiastic
chief of the Esperanto movement in Western Europe, and
not only has he been called the codifier of Esperanto, but it
is generally recognised that had it not been for his personal
efforts little more would have been heard of Esperanto.
When M. de Beaufront submitted his suggestions for the
new auxiliary language, he did so anonymously, in order that
the Committee of the Delegation might judge the project on
its intrinsic merits, and not on the linguistic prestige of its
The Ido project, as mentioned earlier, was unanimously
approved, and a t the end of its eighteen meetings in the
College de France (October, 1go7), the Committee of the
Delegation appointed a permanent Commission charged to
settle the details of the language adopted. I t is as a result
of the labours of that Commission that the first manuals and
dictionaries of the language Ido were compiled, i n conformity
with the oficial decisions of the Committee and the Commission.
This is formally attested in a declaration of the said Com-
mission signed by all its members, and notably by the pro-
fessors Ostwald, Baudouin de Courtenay, and Jespersen,
President and Vice-Presidents of the Committee of the Dele-
gation, who were present and took part a t all its meetings.
The Delegation having thus achieved its object, was regularly
dissolved on the 31st July, 1910, after having founded, in
accordance with one of the articles of its programme, Tlte
Union for the International Language, whose mission was to
develop and to propagate the " International Language of
the Delegation." That Union, regularly constituted, with
headquarters in Zurich, is directed by a Committee and an
Academy, regularly elected and periodically re-elected.
F. H . B.



THE ALPHABET.-The ordinary English alphabet of 26 letters is

used, without accents or other mark$. Spelling is phonetic, but the
values of certain letters differ from the Eligllsh values. Roughly,
the consonants are sounded as in English, the vowels as in German,
Italian or French.
THECONSONANTS b, d, f, k, 1, m, n, p, t, v, w, x, z are pronounced
as in English, except that x keeps the ks sound even initially.
c = t s in tsetse. q u as in queen.
g = g in get (never as 111 gem). sh as in shall. A hyphen IS used
h is always sounded. in compound words to show
j is sounded as in French, that that each letter keeps its own
is like s in zi6szon. sound, as chas-hzrndo, c hunting-
r is trilled or clearly pronounced. dog )).
s is always sharp, as in a house y is always a consonant, like the
(never like z , as in to house). y in yes. Hence mavo 1s mah-
ch as in church. vo, not may-o.
THE VOWELSare a, e , i, 0 , u and are sounded as in the words
fathrr, vezl, machine, SOT^, rule. The southern English tendency to
diphthongize the vowels, especially those in liezl, soul should be
avoided; they should be single sounds as sung on a single note
Listen how a foreigner or a Scotchman pronounces them.
There are two dzphthongs in Ido, au and eu. Give each half of the
diphthong the sound it would have if standing alone, only making
the u shorter and weaker. Thus, nu is pronounced ah-oo (something
like ow in cow) ; eu is pronounced eh-00.
THE ACCENT or stress of voice falls ( I ) on the last syllable of the
Infinitive ( - b y , -ir, -6r) ,
(2) on the last syllable but one of other words.
(3) But in polysyllabic roots, i and u immediately before a vowel
cannot receive the stress.
E.g. : ( I ) amIr, kredir, findr ; (2) a m l t a , kredita, finhta, espert3bIe.
faclnda, j6y0, boId, muzeo, h e r b , dio, diio ; (3) fhlio, ltlio,
mentio, Itllia, akademio, melddio, Iquo, linguo, pdrtuo, r@vuo.
MANUSCRIPT.-T~~ written forms of certain letters differ slightly
in different countries. I n international correspondence it is then
advisable t o choose these forms that most resemble the italic printed
letters, especially in the case of capitals ; e.g. the small e , g, x , the
capital C, F, J , T, S. With regard t o figures, the same rule holds.
In a nutshell, write clearly and avoid flourishes.

Ka vu ja lernas la nova linguo
Kah voo zhah Ilirnahs lah nbhvah lCengwoh
iaternaciona ? Me komencis studiar 01 ante
eentairnahtsibhnah? meh kohm6ntsees stoodeahr oh1 Shnteh
kelka dii, e me trovas, ke 01 esas vere
kClkah d6e-ee, eh meh trbhvahs, keh oh1 6hsahs vehreh
tre faeila. Omna-die me lektas texto dnm
treh iahts6elah. bmnah-d6e-eh meh lCktahs tdkstoh doom
un horo ; me sempre lektas iaute. Ka vu
oon hbhro ; meh sdmpreh ldktahs l6uteh. Ka voo
komprenas to ?
komprdhnahs toh ?

ARTICLE.-T~~definite article (the) is la. There is no indefinite
article (a or a n ) :
patr-ulo, a father ; la patr-ulo, the father.
NOUN.-The noun ends in -0 in the singular ; in -i in the plural :
frat-ulo, brother ; frat-uli, brother.. .
la frat-ino, the sister ; l a frat-ini, the sisters.
ADJECTIVE.-The adjective ends in -a (singular and plural) :
bon-a, good ; long-a, long.
bona patrulo, bona patruli.
V E R B . - T ~ ~present infinitive of verbs ends i n -ar (bearing the
accent or stress of voice) :
kred-ar', to believe ; don-ar', to give.
The present tense ends in -as :
me kred'-as, I helieve. me don'-as, I give.
The past infinitive ends in -ir (accented) :
kred-ir', to have believed. don-ir', to have give~z.
The past tense ends in -is :
me kred'-is, I believed, I Jzave believed.
me don'-is, I gave, I have given.
QUESTIOXS.-Questions are asked by beginning the sentence
with kad :
Kad vu kredas ? Do you believe ?
Kad vu komprenis ? Did you understand ?
(= Question you understood).
If there is a word like who, where, etc., kad is not used :
Ube vu lojas ? Where do you live ?
NEGATION.-The word ne, not, is always placed before the verb or
word i t modifies :
I1 ne esas, He i s not.
Do, D1~.-The English auxiliaries, do, did, are not translated :
Do 3ou come ? (= Question you come), H e does not say ( = H e not says).
Kad vu venas ? I1 ne dicas.
Did you speak ? (=Question you spoke), They rlidnot go ( = T h e y not went)
Kad vu parolis ? Li ne iris.
AFFIXES.-Gender is usually left unmarked in Ido, as is often the
case in English :
filio, child. sekretario, secretary. kuzo, cousin.
When necessary, the suffix -ul marks masculine. -in feminine :
Illi-ul-o, son ; fili-in-o, daughter.
kuz-ul-o, male cousin ; kuz-in-o, female cousin.
doktor-ul-o, m a n doctor ; doktor-in-o, woman doctor.
When necessary, the prefix ge- markn common gender (both
sexes together) :
ge-patri, parents.
ge-avi, grandparents.
ge-filii, children, sons and duughters.
A few words are of one gender only :
viro, man. matro, mother. amazono, amazon. damo, marvied
The suffix -id denotes offspring : Izrael-id-o, Israelite.
bo- = -in-law : bo-patrulo, father-in-law.*
E~1s1ox.-In the following words the final d is part of the root ;
i t may be dropped before a consonant, But the elision is not com-
pulsory ; those who prefer to use either form only may do so :
ka, kad, question word. e, ed, and.
a, ad, to. 0, od, or.
Ka vu ja lernas la nova linguo internaciona ? Me komencis
studiar 01 ante kelka dii, e me trovas, ke 01 esas vere tre facila.
Omna-die me lektas texto dum un horo; me sempre lektas laute.
Pose me facas kurta traduko e fine me skribas letro en la nova linguo.
Ka vu komprenas to ?
Kun kordiala saluto,
Vua amiko,
COMPARISON.-Adjectivesare compared by :
plu . kam, more . . than. tam . . . kam, as . as. . .
min . . kam, less . than. ne t a m . . . kam, not so . .as.
maxim . . de, most . . of. trey very.
. .
minim . de, least . . o f .
E.g. : Me esas t a m richa k a m il, I a m as rich as he (is).
El esas plu granda kam me, She i s taller than I ( a m ) .
01 esas l a maxim bela de omni, I t i s the finest of all.
I1 esas tre brava, He i s very brave.
Kam is used i n making comparison, even where English does
not use than :
Me preferas ico kam ito, I prefer this to that.
Translate as good as possible and similar phrases thus :
maxim bona posible.
ADVERBSof manner are formed from adjectives by changing -a
into -e :
bon-a, good ; bon-e, well. fln-a, final ; fin-e, finally.
They are compared like adjectives :
I1 lektas plu bone, He reads better.
PRONOUNS.-The personal pronouns are :
Sing. : me, I , me. il, he, him.
tu, thou, thee. el, she, her.
vu, vou (speaking t o one person). 01, it.
Plur. : ni, we, us. vi, you (more than one person). 11, they, them.
* For Reference List of affixes see pp. 11-42.
When necessary, the gender of they, them may be indicated by
using the fuller forms : ill for the masculine, ell for the feminine. and
oli for the neuter. And similarly in the singular lu is the common
gender form of il, el, 01, corresponding t o 11 in the plural ; it is con-
venient in such sentence3 as : I f the reader des~resfuller detazls, let
him or her (lu) turn to page so-and-so.
on, one, they, people :
E.g. : On dicez quon on volas, Let people say what %)eylzke.
The reflexive pronoun is su, himself, herself, itself, themselves (third
person only) :
I1 lavas su, He washes hzmself.
Li lavas su, They wash themselves.
But : Me lavas me, I wash myself.
V E R ~ . The future tense ends in -0s ; the conditional in -us ; the
imperative in -ez :
Me esos, I shall be.
El vidas, she would see.
Venez hike 1 Come here !
AFFIXES. -er, one who habitually does something, amateur :
fum-ero, smoker. voyaj-ero, traveller.
This suffix is also used for animals or things characterized by an
habitual action :
rept-ero, reptile, remork-ero, tug (-boat).
-kt, one whose profession has t o do with :
art-isto, artist. iotograf-isto, professzonal Photographer.
dent-isto, denttst. (Cp. fotograf-ero, amateur photoprapher.)
T i e suffix -1st also indicates a n adherent of a party or school of
thought :
social-isto, socialist. ideal-isto, idealist.
-Ism, system, doctrine, party :
social-ismo, socialism. Katolik-ismo, Catholicism.
-an, member of a community, country, town or body :
societ-ano, society member. Paris-ano, Parisian.
Kanad-ano, Canadian. partis-ano, pavtisan.
-ier, who or what bears or is characterized by :
pom-iero, apple-lree. roz-iero, rose-bush.
millon-iero, millionaire.
Also, in a few wordq, holder :
plum-iero, pen-holder. sigar-iero, cigar-holder.

Me arivis en la staciono. La veturo haltis. Portisto ad\-enis.

" Ube vu iras ? " il questionis. "Me iras a Paris." me respondis.-
" Ka vu havas vua bilieto ? "-" No ! -" Venez komprar 01 en la
kontoro." Me pagis la veturisto. Me donis ad il drinko-pekunio.
" Hastez ! " klamis la portisto. " La treno departos sen vu."-
" On devas vendar la bilieti plu rapide I Me volus komprar jurnalo.
Ube esas la jurnal-vendeyo ? Me perdis mea monetuyo : Ho
no I " Esas tri kloki. La treno departas. Mea kofro esas en la
pako-vagono. Ti1 la rivido !
mea, m y , mine. nia, our, ours.
tua, thy, thine. via, your, yours
vua, your, i~ozrrs, (belonging t o more than one).
(belonging t o one person). lia, thcir, theirs.
lua, his, her, hers, its. sua, his own, her own, its own, their
When necessary use :
ilua, his ; ilia, their (belonging t o men).
elua, her, hers ; elia, thpir (belonging t o women).
olua, its ; olia, their (belonging t o things).
Me visitis mea dentisto, I went to see m y dentist.
I1 vizitis lua (sua) matro, He visited his (his own) mother.
El perdis ilua parapluvo, She lost his umbrella.
Li admiris sua chapeli, T h e y admired thetr (own) hats.
111 admiris elia ehapeli, T h e y (the men) admired their (the
women's) hats.
A possessive pronoun always implies the definite article ; thus
mea amiko is m y friend, the friend I spoke of, while a friend of mrne
is translated amiko di me.
AFFIXES:- -eri, establishment where something i s made or done.
rafin-erlo, relznevy. chapel-erio, hat-factory.
distil-erio, dzstillery.
-11, instvument :
plug-110, plough. fotograf-ilo, canzern.
pekt-110, comb.
Many special names of instruments exist, e.g., kleio, key, martelo,
h a m m e r ; from these verbs can he formed by compounding them
with the root -ag to do, act : e.g., klef-agar, to lock, martel-agar,
to hammer.
-ey, place (room) devoted to some object or action]:
kaval-eyo (horse )stable. preg-eyo, oratory.
tomb-eyo, cew&terzl. koqu-eyo, kitchen.
dorm-eyo, dormitory. vit-eyo, uznevard.
lern-eyo, srhool-room.
As the meaning of this suftis is rather wide, special words are t o
be used where the sense requires them : e.g., universitato, skolo,
etc., for lerneyo ; katedralo, kirko, etc., ior preg-eyo.
-uy, receptacle :
ink-uyo, znkwell. kafe-uyo, coffee-box.
sigar-uyo, czgar-box. te-uyo, tea caddy.
XOTE.: coffee-pot, tea-pot are kafe-krucho, te-krucho.
-1, domain or sphere of action :
duk-io, dtcchy. komt-io, coayty.
episkop-10, bishopric.
-ed, the full of, amount covresponding to :
bok-edo, moztth fttl. pinch-edo, p h c h .
glut-edo, gulp.
Good morning ! Bona matino !
Good day I Bona jorno !
How are you ? Quale vu standas ?
Very well. Tre bone.
Thank you ! Me dankas !
Are you tired ? Kad vu esas fatigita ?
Not a t all ! Tote nc !
Yes, a little. Yes, kelkete.
No, sir. No, sioro.
If you please. Me pregas.
I am hungry. Me hungras.
Are you thirsty ? Kad vu durstas ?
Give me a glass. Donez ad me glaso.
A cup of tea. Taso de teo.
Do you want .... ? Kad vu deziras .... ?
I don't mind. Me ne objecionas.
I t does not matter. Ne importas.

what, which (person) ; quo (singular), what, which (th~ng); qui
(plural), who, what, which :
Qua esas ibe ? W h o i s there ?
La viro qua parolis, 7'he m a n who spoke.
Quo eventis ? W h a t ha@pened ?
Qui parolis ? W h o (plural) spoke ?
La viri qui parolis, T h e men who spoke.
La aeidenti qui eventis. T h e accidents that took place.
Qua is also used as adjective :
Qua viro parolis ? Which nzan spoke ?
ACCUSATIVE.-Qua,quo, qui, when they are the object of a verb
and placed before the subject, take the accusative (-n) :
La viro q u a n vu vidfs, The m a n , whom you saw.
Quin YU vidas ? W h o m (plural) do you see ?
uon il dicis ? W h a t did he say ?
S e ne audis q u o n il dieis ? I did not hear what he said.
PLURAL PRONOUNS.-T~~ adjective is invariabIe ; but when used
without a noun, i t becomes a noun itself, and takes the plural, if
necessary :
Blanka hundi, nigra kavali, White dogs, black horses.
La blank], e la nigri, T h e whites and the blacks.
I1 manjis sua pomi, el manjis sui, He ate his apples, she ate hers.
DERIVATION.-T~~ adjective in -a forms a noun in -0 having the
same sense :
bon-a, good ; bon-o, good one, good man.
acesor-a, accessory ; acesor-o, a n accessory.
Or, vice versa :
or-o, gold ; or-a, golden, made o f gold.
AFFIXES.- -a1 forms adjectives meaning " belonging t o " or
" relating t o".
univers-aia, universal. raeion-ala, rational.
-0z means " full of," " containing," " rich in " :
por-oza, porous. sabl-oza, sandy.
kuraj-oza, courageous. fam-oza, famous.
-em means " inclined t o " :
babil-ema, tal,kntii~e. oci-ema, lazv.
labor-ema, industrious.
-ik means " sick of," " suffering from " :
ftizi-iko, consumptive. artrlt-iko, arthritic.
alkohol-iko, alcoholic patient.
-atr means " like," " similar to," " -ish " :
sponj-atra, spongv. har-atra, hair-like.
verd-atra, greenish.
-e means " having the appearance or colonr of " :
viol-ea, violet (-coloured). mus-ea, mouse-coloured.
roz-ea, rosy, pink.
Give me a fork, Donez a me forketo.
I have no spoon. Me ne havas kuliero.
This knife is not sharp, Ta kultelo ne esas akuta.
Pass me the sa!t, Pasigez a me la salo.
May I trouble you for the bread ? Kad vu voluntus pasigarla pano ?
Bring me a bottle of stout, Ad-portez a me botelo de nigra
Will you have a glass of ale ? Kad vu deziras glaso de flava
biro ?
I only drink water, Me drinkas nur aquo.
Are you a teetotaler ? Kad vu esas anti-alkoholisto ?
Will you have some salad ? Kad vu deziras salado ?
Here is a fine lettuce, Yen bela latugo.
Do you take oil and vinegar ? Kad vu prenas oleo e vinagro ?
Here are the pepper and salt. Yen la pipro e salo.

TIIE DEMONSTR.~TIVE PRONOUN (this, these ; that. those) is ita,
shortened t o ta, when euphony permits :
KaiP lta esas vua libro ? I s this yoznv book ?
Ta libri esas mea, Those books are mine.
When quite necessary to distinguish between "this," "that,"
use iea (or ea) for this, and ita (or ta) for that :
Ica esas bona, ita esas mala, T h i s one i s good, that one i s had.
When it means " this thing," " that thing," use to (or, ito, co, Ico) :
Quo esas to ? W h a t i s this ?
Ico esas libro, it0 esas plumo, T h i s (thing) i s a book, that (thing)
i s n pen.
" That which," " what " is translated to quo when used in the
most general sense of " t h a t thing or matter which." When some
definite thing is referred to, use ta qua, " t h e one that," fplural :
ti qui).
To quon me dicas esas. ..
M7hat I sav is-
Yen omnaspeca frukti, prenez ti quin vu preferas,
Here are all kinds of fruit, take those 5'ou h k e best.
When distinction of gender is necessary, il-, el-, 01- may be pre-
fixed t o these or any other pronouns, except naturally the personal
pronouns themselves :
Ilti facis 01 ed elti regardis,
Those (men) did i t , and these (women) looked on.
La matro di mea amiko, elqua ....
M y friend's mother, who-.
La matro di mea amiko, ilqua ...,
The mother of m y friend, who-.

PO~SESSIVE.-Insteadof whose, Ido uses of whom, of which, di qua :

La autoro, pri la libro di qua me parolis,
The awthor whose book I spoke of (literally, the author concerntng
the hook o f whom I spoke).
The pronoun lo, analogously to co, to, quo, refers t o an indeter-
minate object-to a fact rather than a thing :
Prenez tca pomo, me volas lo,
T a k e this apple, I desirr zt (= I desire jrott to do so ; me volas
01 would mean I desire i t [the apple].)
Lo is also used with adjectives to mark theindeterminate sense :
Lo bona, lo Vera, lo bela,
T h e Good, the True, the Btautifu.1.

AFFIx~s.-para-, warding off :

para-suno, parasol. para-vento, wind-screc?z.
para-pluvo, umbrella.
par-, completion of action :
par-lektar, to peruse, read through.
par-drinkar, to drink u p .
par-kurar, to make the circuit of.
par-lernar, to learn thoroughly.
-esk, beginning of action :
dorm-eskar, to /all asleep. irac-eskar, to grow angry.
sid-eskar, to szt down.
With noun roots, -esk means to become, to t z w ~: ~
vir-eskar, to become a m a n , reach man's estate.
pal-eskar, to grow pale.
When added t o the passive participle of a transitive verb, it has
the same sense :
vid-at-eskar, to become vistble.
-ad, repetition, frequency :
dansar, to dance ; danso, a dance ;
dans-ado, danrzng.
-fg, with a verbal root, means " t o cause to " :
dorm-igar, to send to sleep ;
with a non-verbal root, i t means " t o make, cause to be (such
and such) " .
bel-igar, to beautify.
-iz, to cover, supply, provide with :
arm-izar, to arm (provide with weapons),
limit-izar, to limit (fix a limit to).
adres-izar, to addvess (write address on).
When necessary, the sense " coat, cover with" may be rendered
clearer by prefixing sur I = on) :
sur-or-izar, to gild, plate with gold.
-if, t o produce, generate, secrete :
flor-ifar, to blossom. sudor-ifar, to pevspire.
sang-ifar, to bleed, lose blood.
I want to pack this up, Me volas pakigar ico.
Give me some brown paper, Donez a me pak-papero.
I want some string, Me bezonas kordeto.
Have you any sealing-wax ? Kad vu havas siglovaxo ?
I can give you some paste, Me povas donar a vn gluo.
That will do, To konvenos.
Where is the pastebottle ? Ube esas la botelo de gluo ?
Here i t is, Yen olu.
There is no brush in it, Ne esaq pinselo en 01.
Here is the brush, Yen la pirtselo.
Now I want a label, Nun me deziras etiketo.
A gummed label, Gumizita etiketo.
I haven't a gummed one, Me ne havas un gumizita.
Will this one do ? Kad ica konvenos ?
Yes, thanks, Yes, danko.

NuMERALS.-T~~ cavdinal numbers are :
un 1 SOP 7
du 2 ok 8
tri 3 non 9
quar 4 dek 10
kin 5 cent loo
sis 6 mil 1000
milion 1,000,000
bilion 1,000,000,000,000
From these all others are formed, the adjectival -a being used t o
show multiplication and the conjunction e to show addition. Thus :
dek e un, 1 1 (ten plus one).
dek e du, 12 (ten plus two).
dek e sis, 16 ($en plus six).
dek e non, 19 (ten plus nine).
dua- dek, 20 (twice ten).
dua- dek- e- un, 21 (twzce ten plus one).
tria- dek- e- quar, 34,
quara- dek- e- kin, 45.
kina- dek- e- sis, 56,
cent- e- sepa- dek- e- ok, 178.
mil- e- sisa- dek- e- sis, 1066,
mil- e- nona- cent- e- dua- dek- e- tri, 1923.
As in English, numbers may be given out, e.g., when dictating, b y
naming the digits only. The name of the digit 0 is zero. The last
two numbers given would then he :
un zero sis sis, 1066.
un non du tri, 1923.
Ordznals are formed by the suffix -esm :
unesma, 1st centesma, 100th.
duesma, 2nd milesma, 1000th.
triesma, 3rd dekeduesma, 12th.
dekesma, 10th.
omna duesma dio, every second day.
Cardinals and ordinals can be used as nouns or adverbs by adding
-0 or -e :
uno, a u n i t trio, a trio
duo, a couple dekeduo, a dozen.
un-esmo, the first one une, in one manner.
dek-esmo, the tenth unesme, firstlv.
Fractions are formed by the suffix -im :
du-imo, a half.
quar-imo, a quarter.
dek-imo, a t m t h part.
cent-imo, a hundredth.
du triimi, two-thirds.
sep okimi, seven-eighths.
Multiples are formed by the suffix -opl :
du-opl-a, double. cent-opl-a, hundredfold.
(mult-op-la, manifold. )
Distrihutives are iormed by the suffix -op :
quar-op-e, i n fours, four at a time.
(pok-op-e, little bv little. vort-op-e, word for word.)
The word tzmes in counting is translated foye :
three times, tri-foye. once, un-foye.
a hundred times, cent-foye. twice, du-foye.
When used as prefixes the numbers have special forms (except 3) :
mono-, bi-, tri-, quadri-, quinqua-, sexa-, septua-, okto-, nona-.
E.g. : mono-plano, bi-plano, tri-folio, quadri-pedo, etc.
PARTICIPLES.-The present participle active ends in -anti3 :
vid-anta, seem$.
The past participle passive ends in -ita :
vid-ita, seen.
These are the two chiefly needed ; there are six altogether, the
vowels -a-, -i-, -0- being used exactly as in the indicative and
infinitive to form a present, a past, and a future participle: both in
the active and in the passive. This gives us the complete set :
pres. vid-anta, seeing ;
vid-ata, being seen ;
vid-inta, having seen ; act.
past {vid-1.t a, seen ; pass.
(vid-onta, about to see ; act.
fut' Ivid-ota, about to be seen ; pass.
How old are you ? Quante vu evas ?
I am ten (years old), Me evas dek (yari).
She was thirty (years old). El evis triadek.
When I was seven. Kande me evis sep.
He is aged (of age). I1 esas ev-oza (grand-eva),
The aged gentleman. 1.a evoza sior-ulo.
I am forty years of age. Mea evo esas quaradek yari,
The baby was five months old. La infanteto evis kin monati.

The Perfect Tenses of the verb are formed by means of the suffix
-ab-, placed after the root and before the grammatical ending :
Me parol-ab-is, I had spoken.
I1 fin-ab-os, He will have finzshed.
El en-fal-ab-us, She would hale fallen in.
Fin-ab-ez, kande me arivos, Have finished when I (shall) arric:e.
For the Present Perfect the ordinary Past is used :
Quon me skribis me skribis, W h a t I have written. I halve written.
T h e Progressive Forms ( I a m s p ~ a k i n g , I was speaking) may be
translated literally : but most languages find the simple forms of the
verb sufficient, so that these are to be preferred in Ido :
Me parolas, I speak, I am speaking.
Me parolis, I spoke, I was speaking, I hnzle spoken.
Me parolos, I shall speak, I skall be speaking.
Me parolus, I should (or wozcld\ speak, I si ould be speaking.
The future participle in -onta translates the English " t o be about
to." " t o be going to " :
Me esas parol-onta, .I a m going to speak.
I1 esls parol-onta, H e was about to speak.
Kelka homi esas sempro o manjanta, o quik manjonta, o jus
manjinta, some people are always either halting a meal, or just
going to have one, or just having had one.
The Emphatic Forms are translated by the Ido simple forms
reinforced by the adverb ya, indeed :
Me ya askoltas, I do listen, I am listening.
Me skribis ya, I did write.
Me atencis ya, I was attending.
Venez ya, Do come !
AFFIXES.-~~S-, separation, dissemination :
dis-donar, to distribute (by hand). dis-sekar, to dissect.
dis-sendar, to distribute (hv letter).
des-, the contrary (of any action, quality, etc.) :
des-honoro, dishonour. des-plezar, to displease.
des-facila, dzfficirlt. des-espero, dcspnir.
des-pruvar, to disfivo~e.
ne-, really an adverb meaning " not," is much used as a prefix to
indicate negation. I t differs widely from des-, which marks the
" direct opposite." There is all the difference in the world between
a piece of evidence that does not prove a charge (atesto ne-pruvanta)
and one that disproves i t (atesto des-pruvanta) :
vole o ne-vole, willv-nzlly.
sen-, a preposition meaning " without," is also used as a prefix
having the value of the English suffix -less :
sen-viva, lifelers. sen-hara, hairless.
mi-, half :
mi-horo, half-an-hour. mi-apertita, hnlf-open, ajar.
mls-, wrongly, amiss :
mls-lektar, to misread. mis-pozar, to misplace.
(Note the verb egarar, t o mislay).
-ach, pejorative, giving a bad sense :
popul-acho, populace. rid-achar, to guffaw.
skrlb-achar, to scrawl.
You look pale, Vu aspektas pala.
Are you unwell ? Kad vu esas ne-sana ?
I have a cold, Me hava3 kataro.
I have caught cold, Me prenis kataro.
Don't stand in the draught, Ne restez en la aer-fluo.
Send for the doctor, Querigez l a mediko.
Are you often ill ? Kad vu esas ofte malada ?
No, very seldom, No, tre rare.
I don't remember being ill Me ne memoras esir malada, depos
since I was a child, mea infanteso.
Last year 1 had cold in the head, Lasta yaro, me havis nazkataro.
I had t o stay a t home two days, Me devis restar en la domo dum
du dii.
But I did not go t o bed, Ma me ne restis en la lito.

THE PASSIVEVOICE is formed with the verb " t o be " followed
by a passive participle :
La puero esas am-ata, The boy is loved.
La puero esis am-ala, The boy was loved.
La puero esos am-ata, The boy will be loved.
The Perfect Tenses are formed with the suffix -ab :
La puero esabis amata, The boy had been loved.
La puero esabos amata, The boy will have been loved.
All these forms can be contracted by adding the verb " t o b e "
directly t o the root :
La puero am-esas, The Boy i s loved.
It is, however, advisable not to contract the -ab forms as they are
clumsy and hard to follow in conversation. Thus La puero esabos
amata is t o be preferred t o L.a puero amesabos.
The present participle passive is most used, but the others are
occasionally required. For example, the past perfect passive can
be translated with the help oi the past participle :
La puero esis amita,
The boy had been loved (literally, was a was-lolqed-person).
The future in -ota is used in the same way as -0nta is in the active
voice, to translate " about to be," " going to be " :
01 esas fac-ots, I t i s about to be done.
La letro esas skrib-ota, T h e letter i s going to be written.
The contracted passive is useful in sentences like the following :
Ica vorto uzesas rare, T h i s word i s seldom used.
It is frequently neater and clearer t o avoid the passive by using
the pronoun on, one, t h e j ~people,
, with the active :
On trovas diamanti en India, Diamonds arc found i n India.
The preposition b y after a passive verb is always translated by da :
01 esas recevita da li, I t has been received by them.
The preposition of (possessive and genitive case) is di ; from is de.
T h i s i s Peter's book, received by P a u l from John.
Ita esas la libro dl Petro recevita da Paulo de Johano.
T h e reception of the President of the French Republic by the
K i n g of England.
La acepto dl la Prezidanto dl la Franca Republiko da la Rejo
dl Anglia,
Like other adjectives, the participles can be changed into nouns
of the same sense by changing the final -a into -0 or -i :
La parol-ant-o esas la urb-estr-o,
T h e man-now-speaking i s the mayor.
La kant-ant-o esas yun-in-o,
T h e person now singing i s a young lady.
La disput-ant-i aceptis arbitro,
T h e contending parties accepted arbitration.
La bat-at-o kriis, ma la bat-ant-o duris sua bat-ad-o,
T h e one-who-was-being-beaten cried, but the one-who-was-
beating h i m continued beating.
La regn-at-i expresas granda kontenteso pri la agi di sua reg-
T h e subjects (=those governed) express great satisfaction with
the acts of their rulers.
They can also form adverbs of manner by changing -a into -e :
Ni progresas aston-ant-e,
W e are progressing astonishingly (wonderfully).
AFFIXES.--et forms diminutives, marking smallness and changing
the idea of the root :
domo, house ; dom-eto, cottage.
rivero, river ; river-eto, brook.
kantar, to sing ; kant-etar, to hum.
ridar, to laugh : rid-etar, to smile.
I t also serves to form pet names :
matro, mother ; matr-eto, mamma.
Johano, John ; Johan-eto, Johnny, Jack.
-eg forms augmentatives (the opposite of diminutives), denoting
largeness with a change in the idea of the root :
dom-ego, mansion.
pluvo, rain ; pluv-ego, downpour.
arki- denotes pre-eminence :
arki-episkopo, archbishop. arki-anjelo, archangel
arki-duko, archduke. arki-fripono, arch rogue.
-estr, head of, chief of :
urb-estro, mayor. nav-estro, ship's master.
polic-estro, chief constable.
The two following affixes should be grouped with the participial
-ot " about t o be."
-ind, worthy to be-:
estim-inda, estimable. am-inda, lovable.
kred-inda, credible.
-end, that must be-, is t o be- :
lekt-enda, that must be read.
me havas nulo skribenda,
I have nothing to write (that must be written).
Thus, a problem t o be solved (solvenda) is possibly not about t o be
solved (solvota) nor even worthy of solution (solvinda).
-0s forms nouns having the sense " state, condition, quality " :
san- esar, to be healthy ; san-eso, health.
avar-eso, avarice.
bel-eso, beauty.
qual-eso, quality.
konstrukt-eso, (state o f ) construction.
[compare konstrukto, (act of) construction.]
konvert-eso, conversion, (act of being converted).
okup-eso, state of being busy, occupation.
What is your name ? Quale vu nomesas ?
I am ealled John, Me nomesas Johano.
Where do you come from ? De ube vu venas ?
What is your father's name ? Quale nomesas vua patro ?
Where were you born ? Ube vu naskis ?
I was born in London. Me naskis en London.
When were you born ? Kande vu naskis ?
I was born in 1897. Me naskis en mil e oka-cent e
nona-dek e sep.
Where do you live ? Ube vu habitas ?
I live a t the sea-side. Me habitas an la mar-bordo.

PREPOSITIONS.-Each preposition has a well-defined meaning,
and (like all words in the International Language) must be used only
when the sense clearly requires i t ; e.g. :
I bought i t of h i m , becomes : I bought i t from him.
Me kompris 01 de 11.
He cut himself with his knife, becomes : by means o f his knife.
I1 sekis su per sua kultelo.
The preposition ye, however, has no definite meaning, and is only
to be used when no other preposition will do :
Ye la duesma (di) marto,
O n the 2nd of March.
I1 kaptis la kavalo ye la kolo per lazo,
H e caught the horse by the ~zeckwith a lasso.
Me doloras ye la kapo,
I have head-ache (= I ache a t the head).
C ~ ~ j ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ . - - C o nare j u nfollowed
c t i o nb sy whatever mood
and tense are logically required :
( a ) Se vu e s u s malada,
I f you were (should be) ill.
(b) Se vu e s o s malada,
I f you are (will be) ill.
(c) Imperez, ke il venrz,
Order h i m to come (imperative).
( d ) Restez ti1 ke il venos,
Stay until he comes (will come).
(e) Kande il departos, dicez ad 11...
W h c n he leaoes ( = w i l l depart), tell him-
(t) Segun ke me e s o s fatigita o ne, me iros kun vu,
According as I a m (shall be) tired or not, I will go with you.
(g) Preparez chambro, por l a kazo se il Venus,
Prepare a room in case he came (should come).
( h ) En la kazo ke I1 venos, en-duktez 11,
I n case he comes (will come) show haw in.
Conjunctions are o f t e n formed f r o m prepositions b y adding ke :
pro, because of (prep.) ; pro ke, becausc (conj.).
por, for, i n order to (prep.) ; por ke, in order that (conj.).
dum, durina (prep.) ; dum ke, while (conj.).
de-pos, since (prep.) ; de-pos ke, since (conj.).
til, as far as, till (prep.) ; ti1 ke, till, until (conj.).
T h e prepositions ( w i t h o u t ke) are used before a n o u n , pronoun,
or i n f i n i t i v e ; t h e conjunctions before a v e r b (except t h e infinitive! :
De-pos mea mariajo, Since m y marriage.
De-pos ke me mariajis me, Since I got married.

AFFIXES.-pre-, fore-, pre-, ante- :

pre-dicar, to foretell, predict.
pre-avo, great-grandfather. [Compare pos-nepoto, great-grand-
pre-datizar, ante-date.
prim-, primitive :
prim-avi, forefathers.
retro-, b a c k :
retro-venar, to return, come back.
retro-irar, to return, go back.
retro-sendar, to return, send back.
ri-, again :
ri-dicar, to repeat, say again.
ri-polisar, to repolish.
Retro i s used as a n a d v e r b ; t h e a d v e r b corresponding t o ri- is
Itere, again.
-iv f o r m s adjectives signifying " able to," " capable o f doing " :
instrukt-iva, instructive. respons-iva, responsible.
sugest-iva, suggestive.
-ebl f o r m s adjectives signifying " t h a t can be," " c a p a b l e o f
being-", -able :
kred-ebla, credible. lekt-ebla, legible.
ne-sond-ebla, unfathomable.
-ari denotes the indirect object (with to expressed or understood)
of verb :
legac-arfo, (persota to whom something i s bequeathed).
Do you like travelling ? Ka vu prizas voyajado ?
I seldom travel. Me rare voyajas.
It is too expensive. 01 esas tro kustoza.
Not so much as formerly. Ne tam multe kam olim.
Do you think so, really ? Ka vu tale opinionas, vere ?
According t o my experience. Segun mea experienco.
Have you visited France or Ka vu vizitis Francia o Ger-
Germany ? mania ?
No, I don't know French or No, me ne savas la Franca nek
German. la Germana.
They are so hard to master. Li esas tante desfacile aquirebla.
I t is to be hoped that everyone Espereble, omnu balde lernos
will soon learn Ido. Ido.

INDEFINITE PRONOUNS.--T~~ following, though belonging t o the
vocabulary, are mentioned here on account of their very frequent use :

} some (indeterminate quality).
Ula is an adjective :
ula libro, some book.
Ulu is a pronoun :
ulu dicis, someone (a certain person) said.
Ulo is a noun (thing) :
ulo mankas, something is wanting.
Irga, lrgu, irgo, (used in the same way as ula, ulu, nlo) =any
whatever :
irgo konvenos, anything whatever will do.
Kelka, kelko, = some (an indeterminate number or quantity) :
kelka homi, some men.
donez ad me kelko, give me some (quantity of it).
Note the difference between kelka and poka ; kelka means some,
a certain amount, a few (opposed t o nula, none) ; poka means some,
but little, few (opposed t o multa, much).
omna, omnu, omno, all, every :
omna homi, all men.
Plural, omni, all :
omni dicis, they all said.
omnu kantis, every-one sang.
omno esas hike, everything is here.
Altra, altru, altro, other :
altra ioyo, another time.
altru parolos, someone else will speak.
altro montros, ke -, another thing will show that-
Nula, nulu, nulo, none, nobody, nothing (the opposite of ulu, etc.).
Slngla, single, each.
singla karti, single cards.
li venls single, they came singly.
dek centlmi po singla, a penny apiece.
The difference between omna and singla is slight, but clear : omna
means every (collectively), while singla means each (distributively) :
Omnu parolis, singlu en sua Iinguo.
Everyone spoke, each in his own language.
Observe that each other can be translated una la altra (in the
plural uni la altri) when the prefix Inter- is unsuitable :
Amez uni la altri,
Love one another.
Li lnterparolis longe,
T h e y talked together (with each other) long.
Li donis donaci uni a I'altri,
T h e y gave each other gifts (gave gifts each to the others).

AFFIXES.--aj with a verbal root, marks the object of the action

expressed by the verb (transitive or mixed) :
manj-ajo, food (what is eaten).
drink-ajo, drink (what is drunk).
chanj-ajo, thing changed.
With an intransitive verb it marks the subject of the action :
rezult-ajo, result (what results).
rest-ajo, rest (what remains).
With a non-verbal root, i t signifies a thing made of a certain
matter, or possessing a certain quality :
Ian-ajo, woollen article. bel-ajo, beauty, beautiful thing.
mol-ajo, soft part.
By extension it expresses " act of-" :
amlk-ajo friendly act. infant-ajo, childish prank.
-ur marks the concrete result of the action expressed by the verb :
pikt-uro, a painting.
imlt-uro, a n imitation (made). (Compare imit-ajo, the thing
imprim-uro, printed work, letterpress.
fotograf-uro, a photograph (picture).
-ar, collection of :
hom-aro, mankind. vort-aro, vocabulary.
" One of a mass " is expressed by -un :
grel-uno, a hailstone.
Where the elements are pieces, rather than individuals, use peco :
sukro-peco, l u m p of sugar.
ex-, e x , former :
ex-konsulo, ex-consul. ex-oficlro, ex-officer.
-um is an indefinite suffix with no fixed meaning. Consult the
dictionary for words in which it occurs :
mond-umo, T h e World, smart society.
foli-umar, to thumb, turn over the leaves of.
kol-umo, (shirt-) collar.
nuk-umo, neck-flap.
Are you a chess-player 7 Ka vu esas shak-ludero ?
I used t o know the moves. Olim me savis la stroki.
I have forgotten the names Me obliviis la nomi di la peci.
of the men.
I couldn't even castle right. Me ne povus mem roquar korekte.
Should you prefer t o go out and Ka vu preferus ekirar e juar la
enjoy the fresh air ? fresha aero ?
Yes, indeed ; the rain is over. Yes, certe ; la pluvo cesis.
Very well ; we'll takeour umbrel- Bone ; ni prenos nia parapluvi,
las, in case i t begins again. kaze ke 01 rikomencus.
If you are cold, we won't Se vu sentos vu kolda, ni ne restos
stay long. longatempe.


por separar la frazi ; komo ( , ) por separar la propozicioni ; la punto-
komo ( ; ) por separar frazi gramatikale nedependanta, ma ligita per
la senco ; la bipunto ( : ) por anuncar expliko o citajo ; la klamo-
punto ( ! ) pozesas pos frazo klamanta ; la question-punto ( ? ) pozesas
pos propoziciono direte questionanta (ne pos propoziciono subordinita).
La cito-hoketi (" ") uzesas porinkluzar omna citajo. Laparentezi ( )
inkluzas frazo. o vorto separenda de la cetera texto ; la kramponi [ j
ed embracili

havas analoga roli ; un embracilo I juntas plura
linei (dextre) ad una (sinistre). La streketo ( - ) unioAas la parti di
vorto kompozita; 01 indikas anke la seko di vorto inter du linei.
La streko (-) indikas chanjo di parolanto : 01 devas sempre uzesar
en dialogi. On ne darfas uzar 01 vice la parentezi, o vice la puntaro.
La puntaro (. . .) indikas interrupt0 di la penso. L'alineo (new
paragraph) indikas chanjo di temo o nova ordino di pensi. La noti
(infre di la pagini) devas referesar per numeri (ne per steli, kruci, etc.)
POSSESSIVECASE.-(I) The English possessive case has t o be
turned round, and translated by the preposition di :
T h e father's dog (=the dog o f the father).
La hundo di l a patrulo.
T h e mothers' meeting (=the meeting of the mothers),
La asemblo di l a patrini.
A mothers' meeting ( = a meeting of mothers),
Asemblo di patrini.
A beggar's revenge (=the revenge o f a beggar).
Venjo di mendikisto.
(2) With prepositions to and at, the possessive case is translated
by preposition che :
She lives at her uncle's (house),
El lojas che sua onklulo.
H e went to his tailor's (shop).
I1 iris che sua talioro.
(3) The possessive case was formerly used with all nouns. We
still find traces of it in expressions like, a n hour's walk, where there
is no real possession, and preposition de is t o be used :
Un horo de marcho, or : marcho de (or, durn) un horo.
(4) A few expressions where the possessive case is found can be
rendered by simpler forms :
at arm's length, ye brakio-disto.
for mercy's sake, pro kompato.
a hair's breadth, har-dikeso.
to-day's news, l a ea-diala novaji.
for forw's sake, por l a formo.
(5) Another form of possessive is the adjectival noun :
a railway carriage = fer-voyala vagono.
or better, vagono di fervoyo.
the park gate = la parkala pordego.
or better, l a pordego di la parko.
POSSESSIVE= T H A T . - T ~ possessive
~ case a t the end of a sentence
often has t o be translated by the pronoun that :
He said his writing was better than his brotherls(=than that of
his brother),
I1 dicis ke lua skribajo esas plu bona, k a m t a di lua fratulo.
She liked her sister's best (=that of her sister),
El maxim prizis t a di sua fiatino.
I t i s as good as m y grandfather's ( = a s that o f m y grandfather),
01 esas t a m bona, k a m t a di mea avulo.
I t i s the old man's (=that of the old m a n ) ,
01 esos t a di l a oldulo ;
or : It belongs to the old m a n ,
01 apartenas a l a oldulo.
PARTITIVEARTICLE.-^^^^ the indefinite adjectives some, a n y ,
are used with words of quantity in place of a, a n , they are not t o be
translated :
T h e children have some bread, La infanti havas pano.
Did he get a n y money ? Kad il recevis pekunio ?
He w o t e without a n y ink. I1 skribis sen inko.
I n such cases the word some or a n y could easily be left out.
Did he get money ? etc.
If the word some or a n y cannot be left out, then i t is a n adjective
or a pronoun, and must be translated :
Whether he got a n y or not, I don't know,
Kad il recevis kelka o ne, me ne savas.
APPARENT PLURAL.-Note the following and all similar :
bellows, suflilo. contents, kontenajo.
breeches, pantalono. dregs, lizo.
scissors, cizo. alms, almono or almoni.
tongs, tenalio. means, moyeno or moyeni.
billiards, biliardo. news, novajo or novaji.
Some nouns of quantity remain singular in English when preceded
by a number ; they should, of course, be plural in Ido :
T h e y had three brace of partridges and s i x dozen oysters,
Li havis tri pari [de] perdriki e sis dekedui [de] ostri.
(1) If it joins two sentences, use ke.
(2) If it means who, whom, which, use qua as subject, quan as
object (if before the verb).
(3) If it means that (person),use ita, ta.
(4) If i t means that thing, use ito, to.
(5) If it means that kind o f , use tala.
(6) If i t means in order that, use por ke (with imperative).
( 1 ) I see that you are here, me vidas, ke vu esas hike.
(Joins sentences " I see," " y o u are here.")
( 2 ) T h e cat that was here, La kato qua esis hike.
T h e dog that you saw, La hundo, quan vu vidis.
(3) T h a t m a n i s too old, Ita (or, ta) viro esas tro olda.
(4) That i s n o use, Ito (or, to) ne utilesas.
(5) That person I Well, I neoer !
Tala persono ! ne-kredebla I
(6) I tell you now, that you m a y be prepared,
Me dicas 01 a vu nun, por ke vu esez preparita (or pronta).
The word that is very often omitted in English, but should NEVER
be omitted in Ido :
( 1 ) T h e book I gave you (=the book that (or which) I gave you),
La libro quan me donis a vu.
(In this case that is the pronoun.)
( 2 ) I think he will come ( = I think that he will come),
Me opinionas, ke il venos.
(In this case that is the conjunction.)
It is generally omitted in English after verbs like to think, to hope,
to wish, to believe.
I t is impossible t o pay too much attention t o this rule, as the
correct use of the word ke is the key t o a good international style
for English-speaking students.
OTHER WORDSOMITTED.-A11 other words omitted in English
have to be inserted in Ido :
I t was he mentioned the fact (=he who mentioned),
I1 esas t a qua meneionis la fakto.
He knew the m a n we were speaking of (=of whom we. . . .),
I1 konoois la viro pri qua ni parolis.
Do what he will (=let him do. . . .), he cannot. . . .
I1 faeez quon il volas, i l ne povas. ...
If a m a n was great while living (=while he was living),
Se homo esis famoza, dum ke il vivis.
He gave the boy a penny ( = a p e m y t o the boy),
I1 donis dek eentimi a la puero.
Show i t me (=show i t to m e ) ,
Montrez 01 a me.
WHOSE,OF WHICH.-Whose and of which are translated di qua
(or di qui) :
T h e boy whose book I saw (=the boy of whom I saw the book),
La puero di qua me vidis la libro.
T h e sword which Hector gave A j a x was that o n whose point
A j a x fell,
La glavo quan Hektor donis ad Ajax, esis t a sur la pinto di qua
Ajax falis.
T h e books, the bindhzg o f which you liked,
La libri di qui vu prizis la binduro.
INFINITIVECLAUSE.--Anothercase in which that as a conjunction
(= ke) should be used is the infinitive clause :
I want you to come, Me volas, ke vu venez.
H e ordeved them to go away, I1 imperis, ke li de-irez.
It will be noticed that such phrases occur most frequently with
verbs of command and desire.

( a ) If it means that which, use to quo or to quon, according to sense :
(1) W h a t i s here i s good (= T h a t which i s here i s good),
To quo esas hike, esas bona.
(In this sentence which is the subject of is.)
( 2 ) W h a t you say i s right (=that, which you say, i s right),
To quon vu dieas, esas j u s t a
(Here which is the object of you say.)
NOTE.-^^ the correlation to quo, or to quon, the to can be omitted
after a verb :
I heard what he said, Me audis quon il dicis.
I know what they are, Me savas quo li esas.
(6) If it is a question and means what thing, use quo or quon :
W h a t i s i t ? Quo esas ?
W h a t i s the matter ? Quo eventas ?
W h a t do you want ? ( = y o u want what thing ? you subject, what
object, placed before the verb),
Quon vu volas ?
(c) As an adjective, use qua, quan :
W h a t carriage ? Qua veturo ?
W h a t day ? Qua dio ?
(d) As an exclamation, use qU0 !
W h a t ! i s i t true ! Quo, ka Vera ?
(e) Followed by a , translate what by quala :
W h a t a wind ! Quala vent0 !
Some, alzy. See Lessons X. and XI.
N o , before a noun of quantity=not before the verb :
I have n o bread (= I not have bread),
Me ne havas pano.
N o before a noun of individuality = not one : nula :
N o man will say, Nula homo dicos.
Either (=the one or the other) :
Either of them will do (=one or other will suit).
Una od altra konvenos.
Either book will do (=one book or the other will suit),
Un llbro o la altra konvenos.
[Either . . or is a conjunction, sive . . siVe.1
Neither (=%or one nor the other) :
Neither door was open,
Nek una nek la altra pordo esis apertita.
Few =poka.
A few = kelka.
Several= plura.
M a n y , much= multa (too m a n y , much = tro multa).
Such, meaning " quality " = tala,
, meaning those = ti.
Such as we are, Tala, quala ni esas.
Such as like i t , Ti qui prizas 01.
All, meaning everything= omno.
,, meaning everybody = omni.
,, as an adjective=omna.
A l l I have said, Omno, quon me dicis.
A l l were there, Omni asistis.
All trouble, all efforts, Omna peno, omna esforci.
All the, meaning the whole=la tota.
A l l the town was ablaze, La tota urbo flagris.
Each other= una altra.
One another= una altra (or verb commencing by inter-)
T h e y loved each other,
Li amis una altra.
T h e y loved one another,
Li amis una altra (or : inter-amis).
T h e y took each other's hats,
Li prenis la una la chapel0 di la altra.
Not anything,
) ne . ulo
i or, nulo.
Not anyone, ..
N o one,
None. 1 ne ulu
or, nulu.
One is translated by un as a number, una as a n adjective showing
unity, unu as a pronoun of person :
One and one make two,
Un ed un facas du.
T h e One Holy Church,
La Una Santa Eklezio.
T h e one said this, the other said that,
Unu dicis ico, la altru dicis ito.
One after demonstratives (this one, that one, the other one), and after
adjectives ( a young one, a good one) is omitted :
T h i s one said this, that one said that, and the other one said the
other thing.
Ica dicis ico, ita dieis ito, e l a altra dicis la altro.
T h e little one was tired,
La puereto esis fatigita.
One, after an adjective, is often translated by a repetition of
the noun :
She had a doll, a beautifzsl one too,
El havis pupeo, vere bela pupeo.
T h e ones as a pronoun= uni :
The ones were long, the others were shovt,
Uni esis longa, l'altri esis kurta.
Ones, after an adjective, is not translated :
Give me two small ones, Donez ad me du mikra.
Self.-The pronoun self is translated by ipsa :
W h o was there ? Only myself,
Qua esis ibe ? Nur me ipsa.
When myself, himself, etc., are used after the simple pronoun ( I
myself, she herself, etc.), or after a noun (the king himself), translate
the simple pronoun or noun, and add ipsa a s separate word :
T h e y themselves told me, Li ipsa dicis to a me.
She saw i t herseZf, El ipsa vidis 01.
She saw thz thing itself, El vidis la kozo ipsa.
I t will be noticed that the word ipsa should be placed next to the
word i t refers to.
Self as a noun is translated by persona :
M y whole self, mea tota persono.

(1) If i t is a simple future, use -0s :
I shall be here to-morrow, me esos hike morge.
(2) If i t means " duty," use devar or the imperative :
He shall do i t , I1 devas facar lo.
T h o u shalt not bear false witness, Tu ne false atestez.
( 1 ) If it is a simple future, use -0s :
He will wride to you, I1 skribos a vu.
(2) If it means " emphasis," use ya with future :
I will do it, me ya facos lo.
(3) If i t means to be willing, to be so good, use voluntar :
W i l l you do me a favour ? Ka vu voluntas faear favoro
a me ?
(4) As a frequentative, i t is not translated (except by a peri-
phrase or by -ad-) :
Sometimes he will look in o f a n evening,
Kelka-foye il venas vizitar ni en la vespero (or, Eventas kelka-
foye ke il venas vizitar nl . . . or, I1 vizitadas ni vespere).
(1) If it is a simple conditional, use -us :
I should be glad lo have i t ,
Me esus feliea havar 01 (or, se me havus 01).
(2) If it means ought, use devas :
Y o u should write to them, Vu devas skribar a li.
When really conditional, devus not devas is used. Compare
" You ought (devas) t o do i t if you can " and " you ought (devus)
to do i t if you could."
(3) At beginning of the sentence, use se with future :
Should you require m y seruices, Se vu bezonos mea servl.
( 1 ) If it is a simple conditional, use -us :
H e would not forget it, I1 ne oblivius 01.
(2) If i t means "insistence," use volis (=did wawt) :
I tried to stop h i m , but he would do i t ,
Me probis haltlgar il, ma il volis faear 01.
(3) If i t means " habit," use -ad- :
She would sit on that little chair,
El sidadis sur ta stuleto.
(4) In the phrase would that, use either Se nur with conditional
or Deo volez ke with imperative :
Would that we were young again !
Se nur nl esus itere yuna :
Would that peace reigned eoerywhere !
Deo volez ke paeo omna-loke regnez !
(1) If i t means perhaps, use forsan :
I t m a y rain, Forsan pluvos.
It m a y be so, Forsan esas tale.
(2) If i t means "permission," use darfar or a periphrase :
M a y I conw in ?
Ka me darfas en-venar ?
Y o u m a y not do it ( = y o u are not allowea co do i t ) ,
Vu ne darias faear 01.
[The same sentence : " y o u may not do it," meaning "perhaps
you won't do it," would be forsan vu ne facos 01.'
(1) With a personal subject, use the personal verb mustar ;
I must go, Me mustas departar.
( 2 ) When the subject cannot, or need not, be expressed use the
impersonal verb oportar :
W e must go now, Oportas departar nun.
(3) Sometimes an adjective in -end suffices :
A book that must be read, Libro lektenda.
FREQUENTATIVE FORM -The word used to, when i t really means
" a habit," is translated by affix -ad- :
W e used to walk u p and down for hours,
Ni iradis e venadis dum hori.
( 1 ) In Ido tenses do not govern each other :
I thought i t was raining (= I thought that i t is raini~zg= " I t is
raining," I thought),
Me pensis, ke pluvas
H e found she was tired (= He found that she is tired-at the
time he found it),
I1 trovis, ke el esas fatigita.
( 2 ) The English present perfect with date is translated by present
tense and the word since.
I have known i t these four days (= I know i t from four days),
Me savas lo de quar dii.
I have been here two months,
Me esas hike de du monati.
I had been in Rome a week when I received your letter (= I was
i n Rome from a week .
. .),
Me esis en Roma de un semano, kande me recevis vua letro.
( 3 ) The English preterite with for equals a past tense with dum.
I was there for two months (=during two months),
Me esis ibe durn du monati.
She used i t for one year,
El uzis 01 durn un yaro.
TAGGED QUESTIONS AND THE LIKE.--The following examples
wiil explain better than any rule how t o translate sentences of the
sort :
Are you tired ? Ka vu esas fatigita ?
I a m not tired, Me ne esas fatigita.
Y o u are tired, aren't you ? Vu esas fatigita, ka ne ?
Y o u aren't tired, are you ? Vu ne esas fatigita, ka yes ?
I a m not tired ; are you ? Me ne esas fatigita ; ka vu (esas) ?
I a m t i r e d ; aren't you ? Me esas fatigita; ka vu ne (esas) ?
H e i s tired, isn't he ? I1 esas fatigita, ka ne ?
He isn't tired, is he ? I1 ne esas fatigita, ka yes ?
I have f i n i s h e d ; have you ? Me (ja) finis ; ka vu (anke) ?
I have ! Me anke !
Has he ? Kad il (anke) ?
He hasn't. I1 ne.
You'll come, won't you ? Vu venos, ka ne ?
She won't come : will you ? El ne volas venar ; ka vu volas ?
I don't know, I a m sure. Me tote ne savas.
Oh ! do ! please ! Ho, yes ! (venez) me pregas !
How TO TRANSLATE THE ENGLISH -1NG.-The English termina-
tion -ing seldom is a real present participle that can be translated
by -anta. The following rules cover most cases :
( 1 ) Use -anta only if the word in -ing is a true verbal adjective,
quallfylng a noun :
A crying child, Krianta infanto.
A gratifying result. Kontentiganta rezulto.
I n the above, the adjective in -ing can be replaced by a verb,
with who or which :
a child who cries,
a result which gratifies,
( 2 ) I n most cases, -ing is merely a noun of action, i.e., a word
expressing a n action :
to beat, a beating.
to brush, a brushing.
to institute, instituting.
Such nouns are rendered by the simple termination -4which,
when the root is a verb, precisely means action :
bat-ar, bat-o.
bros-ar, bros-o.
institue-ar, instituc-o.
If it is intended t o convey an idea of particular duration, use the
affix -ado :
T o dance, dans-ar ;
A dance, dans-o ;
Dancing, dans-ado.
Young people are fond of dancing, La yuni prizas dansado.
Angling i s a pleasant pastime,
(Angel-) peskado esas agreabla tempo-pasigivo.
Constant travelling i s bad for the nerves,
La sempra voyajado noeas la nervi.
I n the last two examples, the simple form pesko, voyajo, would
mean catching a jish (not catching f i s h ) , and a journey (not tmvelling).
(3) At the beginning of a sentence or clause, the word i n -ing
should he translated by -ante, if i t could he or is preceded by a
preposition or conjunction like while, i n , on :
Replying to your letter ( = i n reply to your letter),
Respondante a vua letro.
O n coming i n , I saw her,
En-irante, me vidis el
I spoke to h i m standing (=while standing),
Staeante, me parolis ad il.
Taking his hat, he went out,
Prenante lua ehapelo, il ek-iris.
If the word in -ing is the auxiliary to have, then the past participle
of the second verb must be used :
Having spoken thus, he sat down,
Tale parolinte, il sideskis.
Having been i n the place, I know i t ,
Esinte e n l a loko, me konoeas 01, or : Pro ke me esls ...
( 4 ) A f t e r a preposition, t h e word in -ing i s t h e equivalent o f a n
i n f i n i t i v e , as English prepositions, except to, govern t h e participle :
Before going away (=before to-go-away),
Ante departar.
.4fter speaking (= after to-have-spoke%),
Pos parolir.
Instead of writing (= instead-of to-write),
Vice skribar.
After answering her letter,
Pos respondir ad elua letro.
NOTE.-While i s a conjunction (during being t h e correspondixig
preposition) :
Wh.ile running, they fell down,
Dum ke li kuris (or, dum lia kuro), li falls.
( 5 ) A large n u m b e r o f cases cannot b e classified under a n y o f t h e
above heads, b u t a f e w examples will s u f f i c e :
( a ) Angry for being disturbed (=angry because one disturbed h i m ) ,
Iraoanta pro ke on trublis il.
(b) Particular ways o f doing things ( = t o d o things),
Speoala manieri faear kozi.
(c) H e was f a r from appreciating her good qualities (=he cevtainly
did not value highly her good qualities),
I1 oerte ne alte prizis elua bona qualesi.
or : He was far from alz appreciation of her good qualitiss.
I1 esis for prizar elua bona qualesi.
( d ) H e agreed with her i n liking sweets (=he agreed with her in that
thing, that they two liked sweets),
I1 akordis bun el e n to, ke Ii du prizis sukraji,
or : 11 akordis k n n el e n prizar sukrajl.
(e) I can't help loving the child (= I cannot not love the chitd),
Me ne povas ne amar l a infanto.
( f ) T h e y hindered h i m from running,
Ll impedis, ke iI kurez.
(g) She intended coming yesterday (=she intended to cotm),
El intencis venar hiere.
( h ) Out of hearing (=not able-to-be-veached by a call),
Ne-atingebla per voko,
or : Exter voko (out of call),
or : J a ne-vokebla (=already not call-able),
(i) A boarding-house, gasteyo.
A n eating-house, restorerio.
A dining-room, manjo-chambro.
'4 walking-stick, promen-bastono.
A sitting-room, saloneto.
A swimming-bath, nateyo.
A writing-table, skribo-tablo.
A drawing-pencil, desegno-krayono.
A camping outfit, acesori di kamp(ad)o.
(6) If the word in -ing is the subject of a verb, use either the
infinitive or the noun form :
Smoking i s bad for the health,
Fumar esas mala por la saneso.
(7) If the word i n -ing is preceded by to be, see Lesson V I I . , " Pro-
gressive Form " :
I a m calling you, Me vokas vu.
De, from, since, of (in quantities) :
unu de li, one of them.
de-pos, since, after.
di, of (possession and genitive).
da, by (authorship or after passive verb).
a, ad, to (direction, object, intention) :
pensar a, to turn one's thoughts to, think of.
amo a Deo, love of God.
irar a..., to go to-
aden, into.
adsur, on to.
en, in.
ek, out of (with motion, choice, material).
vazo ek oro, a vase of gold.
irar ek la chambro, to go out of the room.
exter, outside (without motion).
sur, on.
super, above.
sub, under (with or without motion).
intre di, at the bottom or foot o f , below.
inter, between, among.
tra, through (in crossing only).
cis, this side of.
trans, the other side o f , across (with or without motion).
preter, beyond, leaving behind.
lor, at the t i w o f .
ante, before (in time).
pos, after (in time).
avan, in front of, before (in space).
dop, behind, after (in space).
koram, in the presence of.
che, at, to (the house of).
apud, ne.xi to, b ~ beside.
an, on, at (contiguity) :
an la tablo, at table.
an Seine, on the Seine.
cirkum, around, about (place, time, quantity, etc.).
kontre, against.
pro, because, o n account of.
por, for, in view o f , in order to.
per, by means o f , through.
pri, concerning, o f , about, relating to, on.
kun, wzth (in company with).
sen, without (privation).
ultre, beyond, in addition to.
proxim, near, close to (not touching).
po, for, at the price of, in exchange for.
dum, during.
til, till (prep.), as far as :
ti1 l a pordo, as far as the door.
malgre, in spite o f , notwithstanding.
vice, instead o f , i n place of.
segun, according to.
alonge, along.
vers, towards.
ye, at (indefinite preposition).
Prepositions must always be placed before a noun or pronoun :
T h i s i s the book he spoke of ( = o f which he spoke),
Yen l a libro, pri qua il parolis.
W h a t are you talking about (=about what. .) ?
Pri quo vu parolas ?
I t is frequently possible t o combine a final preposition with its
verb, or t o form a phrase :
T h i s i s the stick he came with (=which he brought),
Yen l a bastono, quan il ad-portis.
T h e doctor was sent for (=owe caused-to-be-fetched. . . .),
On quer-ig-is la mediko.
The bag he came for (=which he fetched),
La sako, quan il queris.
T h i s will do to go o n with ( = a t the begiuning),
Ico konvenos en l a komenco.
The boat had not been intended t o be lived in,
La batelo ne esis destinita por habitado.
The church had not been preached in for m a n y years,
O n ne predikabis en l a kirko dum multa yari.
A word which is a preposition, if before a noun or pronoun, may
be an adverb, if alone :
Near the brook, Proxim l a rivereto.
T h e brook ran near, La rivereto fluis proxime.
All Ido prepositions can be changed into adverbs by the addition
of a n -e :
dum, during ; dume, meanwhile.
lor, at the time o f ; lore, then.
pos, after ; pose, afterwards.
ante, before ; antee, previously.
kontre, against ; kontree, on the other hand, contrariwise.
As adjectives, antea means previous, posa, subsequent, kontrea,
(Extere, interne, are used in place of ene, eke.)
Some prepositions are used as adverbs in English with a different
sense :
(About an hour, Cirkum un horo.
1 T h e y ran about, Li kuris hike ed ibe.
!On the bell, Sur la klosho.
T h e y rang on, Li sonigadis.
I, Over the way, Trans la voyo.
( The storm was over, La sturmo esis finita (o : cesabls).
j Up a tree, Supre di arboro.
I The door i s shut up, La pordo esas tote klozita.

i T u r n round the horse, Turnez cirkum la kavalo.

T u r n the horse round, Turnez la kavalo.
Prepositions, in English, are often used with the full meaning of
a verb, the verb accompanying them having only the value of an
adverb :
T o walk i n , ride i n , creep in, r u n i n , float in (=to enter by
walking. riding, creeping, running, floating),
En-irar marchante, vehante, reptante, kurante, flotacante.
I wind about and in and out,
Me sinuifas, en-iras, ek-iras.
He was trudging through woods, up hill and down dab.
I1 pene tra-iris boski, acensis kolini, decensis vali.
I t was blown off into the dirt,
01 esis de-portata da la vento aden la fango.
The consequence of this peculiar use is that a n intransitive verb
can (apparently) take a direct object :
W i l l you row me to the bridge ?
Ka vu voluntas rem-vehigar me a la ponto ?
T h e child will cry her eyes out,
La infantino ruinos sua okuli per lakrimi.
K i s s away her tears,
Sikigez elua lakrimi per kiso.
H e was argued into allowing the fact,
11 esis obligata per argumenti aceptar la lakto.
Adjectives are also used in same way :
T h e y walked themseloes dry,
Li per marcho sikigis su

When the speaker does not want to name, or does not know, the
author of a n action, he states i t in the passive voice i n English :
The father i s loved.
In Ido, the indefinite pronoun is used :
On amas la patrulo.
This avoids such passive constructions as :
He was not told the whole truth,
On ne dicis ad il la tota verajo.
Sometimes, instead of the passive voice, a pronoun is used in
English ; the pronoun we is used when the speaker wants to associate
himself with the statement :
We are all mortal,
Ni omna esas mortiva.
But when the statement applies t o everybody, on should be used :
W h e n we hear but one bell, we hear but one sound,
Kande on audas nur un klosho, on audas nur un sono.
The same is true of the pronouns they, you, and the expressions
people, somebody :
T h e y manage those things better in America,
On administras ta kozi plu bone en Amerika.
Y o u cannot eat you7 cake and have i t ,
On ne povas manjar sua kuko e konservar 01.
People say i t i s their own fault,
On dicas, ke 01 esas lia propra kulpo.
A m a n i s not always lucky,
On ne sempre esas fortunoza.
Any preposition can be used before a n infinitive, as the infinitive
is the equivalent of a noun :
Loko por studiar (=loko por studio).
A place for studying ( = a place for study).
Sen dormar, without sleeping.
Sen dormo, without sleep.
Ante departar, before starting.
Ante departo, before departure.
Sen parolir, without having spoken.
Preposition to is not translated if i t is part of the infinitive :
I want to come, me volas venar.
If i t means in order to, use por :
He wrote fo come, I1 skribis por venar.
If you could use the form in -ing with nearly the same sense, the
por is not necessary :
T o be or not to be (=being or not being), Esar o ne esar.
After an adjective, preposition to means neither in order to nor
- -

an infinitive :
E a s y to learn (=easily learnable), Facile lernebla.
t understand, ~esfacilekomprenabla.
~ i f f i u l to
T h e y have only themselves to blame, Li ipsa esas sola blaminda.
For the infinitive clause, " I want you to come," etc., see Lesson XI1
Verbs like to rain, to snow, to hail have no real subject ; therefore
the English pronoun i t is not translated :
I t rains. Pluvas.
I t snowed. Nivis.
I t i s going to hail, Esas balde grelonta.
(See also Lesson XX.)
The same is true when the pronoun i t does not refer t o anything :
I t i s you, Esas vu.
" I A M COLD "

Translate such phrases by means of sentar, to feel, used reflexively :

Me sentas me kolda.
Vu sentos vu tro varma.

These are simply translated by the verb to be, the real subject
being the word that follows :
There is a hill outside the town,
Esas kolino exter l a urbo.
There are twelve hens in the cage,
Esas dek-e-du hanini en la kajo.
But when there is points to a person or thing, use yen :
There he is (= There he comes !) Yen 11 venas !

An hour is horo, but time by the clock is expressed by kloko,

kloki :
What tipne is it ? Qua kloko esas ?
It is two o'clock, Esas du kloki.
At half-past two, Ye du kloki e duimo.
Always reckon quarters and minutes from the last hour, not to
the next one :
A quarter to eight,
Sep klokl e tri quarimi, or Sep kloki quaradek-e-kin mlnuti.
Twenty to ten f = 9.401. Non kloki auaradek.
continental timetables, etc., reckon up tb 24 o'clock (midnight) :
Twelve noon, Dek-e-du kloki.
One p.m., Dek-e-tri kloki.

The words plus, minus, multiplied by, divided by, are translated
plus (pronounced ploos), minus (mid-00s).per (pair),sur (soor) :
2+3- 1, du plus tri minus un.
4 x 2 = 8 , quar per du facas ok.
9 t 3 = 3, non sur tri facas tri.

The names of the days of the week are (no capitals, except a t head
of sentence, etc.) :
Sundio, lundio, mardio, merkurdio, jovdio, venerdio, saturdio.
The names of the months are (capitals as above) :
Januaro, februaro, marto, aprilo, mayo, junio, julio, agosto,
septembro, oktobro, novembro, decembro.
The names of the seasons are :
Printempo, somero, autuno, vintro.
The international hotel custom is followed in naming the chief
meals :
Breakfast, dejuneto. Dinner, dineo.
Lunch, dejuno. Supper, supeo.
The corresponding verbs are : dinear, supear, etc.
In dating, begin with the day, end with the year.
Sept. 12th, 1914, 12-ma septembro 1914.

Ed (e), and. ke, that.
od (o), or. se, if.
od . . . od, either . . or. .
sive . . . sive, whether. . or
neb, nor. whether.
nek . . nek,, neither . nor. se ne, if not.
or, now (in argument). se . . . nur, nur se, provided that.
nam, for (=because). ecepte se, wnless.
do, then, so (=therefore). quale se, as though.
ma, but. quankam, although.
tamen, however, nevertheless, yet. pro quo ? why ?
yen, here i s , here are. por quo ? what for ?
lore . . . lore, wow . . . then. de kande, as soon as, since when.
ka(d), (question word) whether por ne, lest (with infinitive).
I n addition t o the conjunctions formed from prepositions by
adding ke (see Lesson I X . ) , many can be formed irom adverbs i n
the same way :
tale ke, so that, i n such a way that.
tante ke, so much that.
tam longe ke, as long as.
kaze ke, in case.
kondicione ke, olz co*zditio%zthat.
unloye ke, once (that). . .
omnafoye ke, each time (that). . .
tam ofte ke, as often as.
time ke, for fear that.
tante plo . . . ke, all the more . . that.
quante plu . . . tante plu, the more . . the more.
quante min . . tante min, the less . . the less.
tante plu bone ke, all the better . . . because.
A few examples will help t o understand the value of the most
difficult, and show how many others not given above can be formed.
The general rule is that EVERY WORD MEANS ONE DEFINITE IDEA,
and can be combined with another word also meaning O N E DEFINITE
IDEA,t o form the exact equivalent of any English phrase consisting
of two or more words that have often lost their original meaning :
se, means i f ,
nur means only,
/ se nor (=i/ only) is translated
provided that.
de means from, de kande is translated since
kande, means when, when ? or how long ?
pro means on account o f , pro quo is translated why ?
quo means what thing,
quik means i m w d i a t e l y , 1 quik kande is translated as
kande means when, I soon as.
pro means on account o!,
to means that (thing),
quante means so much,
min means less,
tante means thus m ~ t c h ,
I pro to is translated that's
quante min . . . tante min
is translated the IESS . .
the less.

Quante min me manias, tante min me drinkas,

(How-much less I eat, thus-much less I drink,)
The less I eat. the less I drink.

De kande vu lojas hike ? me lojas hike de un monato.

(From when you are-living here ? I am-living here from
one month.)
How long have you lived here ? I have lived here one month.
De kande il arivis . ..
(From when he arrived)
A s soon as he arrived, . . .
Apene il arivis, kande el klozis la pordo,
(Hardly he arrived when she shut the door,)
He no soorzer arrived than she closed the door.
Very often, between an imperative and an infinitive, and cannot
be translated by ed :
Take care and behave yourself, Take care that you behave yourself,
Sorgez ke vu kondutas bone.
Be careful and see that he does i t , Carefully see that he does i t ,
Sorge atencez ke il facas 01.
Be sure and come, Fail not to come,
Ne faliez venar.
The word as conveys so many different ideas, that several examples
of its use are necessary :
He came i n as I spoke (=while I spoke),
I1 en-venis dum ke me parolis.
I t happened as I told you ( = i n the way i n which I told you),
Lo eventis, quale me pre-dicis a vu.
T h e y were as like as two peas (comparison),
Li esis tam simila kam du pizi,
or : Li tam similesis una a l'altra kam du pizi.
Great as he i s , he i s not infallible (=although he i s great),
Quankam il esas granda, il esas eroriva.
Much as I regret i t . . (=however much . . .),
Irge quante me regretas 01. . .
Such as have anything to say . . . (=those who),
Ti, qui havas ulo dicenda . . .
It's pluck as does i t (=which causes success),
La audaoo esas to, quo sucesigas.
As you are angry, you should not sfieak (=because you are angry),
Pro ke vu fracas, vu devas silencar.
These both translate as, or like, but while kom implies identity,
quale only marks resemblance :
I1 esis aceptata kom rejo,
He was received like a king (and he was a king).
I1 esis aceptata quale rejo,
H e was received like a king (though he was not a king).
I1 aparis quale Hamlet,
He appeared as Hamlet (in the character of H.).
Me ne parolas kom experto.
I do not speak as a n expert.
(As one who was an expert would).
At the beginning of a sentence or clause, nor means : and not :
Nor was he tired,
Ed il ne esis fatigita.
Nor . . either is translated nek . . . anke :
I a m not tired, nor he either,
Me ne esas fatigita, nek il anke.
maxim(e), most. pre-hiere, the day before yesterday.
minim(e), least. pos-marge, the d a y after to-morrow.
pluse, further, moreover. jus, just (in the past).
maxim . posible, most . possible : quik, at once, immediately.
Maxim granda posible ankore, still.
T h e greatest possible. ja, already.
minim(e) . posible, least. possible. ne .. fa, not yet.
tam . kam posible, as . as possible. interne, inside.
admaxime, at the most. extere, outside.
adminime, at least. supre, u p , upstairs.
proxime, approximately, near. infre, down, below.
kelke, a little. avane, in front.
poke, little. dope, behind.
sat@), enough. retro, backwards.
tro, too much. dextre, on the right.
sam-tempe, at the same time. sinistre, on the left.
nul-tempe, never. fore, far away.
sempre, always. cirkume, around.
kune, together. forsan, perhaps.
nun, now ; ago = before now, ante komprenende, of course.
nun. mem, even; still (with comparative)
olim, once u p o n a time, formerly. ya, indeed.
true, early. nur, only.
tarde, late. precipue, chiefly.
erste, only = no earlier than. aparte, apart, separatel??.
ca-die, to-day. itere, anew, afresh, again.
hiere, yesterday. okazione (di), apropos ( o n .
morge, to-morrow. oportune, by-the-way, by-the-bye.
cra-vespere, this ewening.
The word but can be ( I ) a conjunction, joining two statements ;
(2) a preposition, before a noun or a pronoun in the objective case
in English ; (3) an adverb, explaining a verb, an adjective, or another
adverb ; (4) a pronoun, subject of a verb ; (5) a verb, expressing
an action ; (6) a noun, expressing a thing done :
(1) I like peas, but I do not like beans.
Me prizas pizi, ma me ne prizas fazeoli.
(2) All but h i m liked i t ,
Omni ecepte il prizis 01.
(3) I had but one friend,
Me havis nur un amiko.
(4) There i s n o one but loves her,
Nulu esas qua ne amas el.
(5, 6) But me n o buts,
No opozez a me kontre-dlcL
The word ever may mean (1) all time, always ; (2) at a n y time :
(1) The Maple-leaf for ever,
La acer-folio por sempre.
I shall loue you for ever,
Me amos vu sempre, sempre.
(2) If he ever comes, . . .
Se il ul-tempe venos, . . .
Ever, in compound words like whenever, wherever, whoever, is
translated irge, irga, etc. :
Do whatever you like,
Facez irgo quon vu volas.
Whatever might be his anger, ...
Irge quala (or, quanta) esas ilua iraco. ...
Whower they m a y be, ..
Irge qui li esas, ...
Whenwe? I hear the birds singing, ...
Irge kande me audas la uceli kantar. ...
Whichever i s here, ...
Irge qua esas hike, ...
Give me anylhzng whatever,
Donez a me irgo.
Let i t be w e r so small, ...
Irge quante mikra 01 esos. ...
W e have bought ever such a t i n y cottage,
Ni kompris tote mikra rurdometo.
The word just can be (1) an adjective meaning correct, translated
justa ; (2) an adjective meanlng r~ghteous,translated yusta ; (3) an
adverb meaning the moment before now translated jus ; (4) an adverb
meaning the moment nozu coming, translated quik ; (5) an adverb
meaning exartly, translated exakte, juste :
(1) He made a very just remark,
I1 facis tre justa remarko.
( 2 ) Be just and fear not,
Esas yusta e ne timez.
(3) She has just come,
El jus arivis.
(4) She i s just coming,
El esas nun venanta (quik venonta).
I will just do i t , and then I a m ready,
Me quik facos lo, e lore me esos pronta.
( 5 ) It's just the thing I want,
01 esas juste to quon me deziras.
Both, as a pronoun, is translated we two, they two, the two : as a n
adverb, at the same time together ; or, i n many cases, by the use
of also :
They both went to the station,
Li du iris a la staciono.
We were both agreed,
Ni du konkordis.
Both the men were drunk,
Omna du viri esis ebria.
Both I and m y brother think so,
Me ed anke mea frato opinionas tale.
A l l the tourists were both hungry and thirsty.
Omna turisti sam-tempe hungris e durstis.
The address was both on the paper and on the envelope,
La adreso esis sur la papero ed anke sur la kuverto.

Generally speaking, the English order of words is the clearest,
since English, having few inflexions, has to arrange its words logically,
subject, verb, object.
Me amas il, I love him.
The adjective (if there is only one, and not too long) is better
placed before the noun :
Longa voyo, A long way.
(Voyo longa would, of course, also be correct).
Adverbs are also normally placed before the word they modify:
I1 vere dicis, ke il tote komprenas.
The adverbs ne and tre must always be placed before their word :
Me tre amas 11, I like h i m very much.
Ne tote, not entirely (=not quite).
Tote ne, entirely not (=not at all).
Any noun, adjective, or pronoun can be made a n accusative, but
only when i t is the direct object of a verb and placed before the
subject. This is done by adding an -n :
A fine story, he told me ! Bela rakonton il faals a me !
I t was they that I called Lin me vokls.
The pronouns 11, el, 01, are abbreviations for ilu, elu, olu, and their
accusatives would be ilun, elun, olun :
Elun me tante amis ! She i t was whom I loved so !
But the accusative is not necessary, if the object is preceded
by the subject :
Me li vidis,
I saw them (= I them saw).
Nouns can be united as i n English t o do away with a proposition :
A tea-cup ( = a c u p for tea), te-taso (= taso por teo).
A steam-ship, vapor-navo.
The -0- between the words depends on the euphony :
skribo-tablo or skrib-tablo,
but tablo-tuko (not tabl-tuko).
The hyphen is often better inserted :
fervoyo-vagono (rather than fervoyovagono).
When the compound is formed with adjectives or adverbs. i t may
be useful to write the termination :
English-speaking people, Angle-parolanti.
Sky-blue, Clel-blua.
Sunburnt, Sun-brulita.
A dark-eyed, curly-headed little boy,
Nigr-okula loklo-hara pueruleto.
Compound words formed with prepositions take the prtposition
first and remain in the same order as in English :
sub-tera, subterranean.
Such compound words do not require the usual affixes, as the
relation is expressed by the preposition :
nacion-al-a, national.
inter-nacion-a, international.
natur-al-a natural.
super-natur-a, supernatzdral.
I n compound words formed by a preposition and a vtrb, care
should be taken not to let the compound form alter the object of the
verb. For instance :
Me vidas la stoni di la fundo tra la aquo,
I see the stones at the bottom through the water.
becomes as a compound :
Me tra-vidas la stoni di la fundo, en la aquo (not : me travidas
la aquo).
The adjective travidebla, therefore, cannot mean transparent ;
i t only applies t o the stones, and means visible through (the water).
(The word transparent is diafana : Stoni travidebla tra diafana aquo).
MIXED VERBS.-M~~Yverbs, i n the L.I., as in English, can be
transitive or intransitive :
Mea laboro komencas, duras, cesas (intransitive) :
Me komencas, duras, cesas mea laboro or laborar (transitive).
IMPERSONALvE~Bs.-The following are used without a subject,
and are followed by an infinitive :
oportas= i t i s necessary.
importas= it is important.
konvenaszit 2s convenient.
decas=it i s proper.
suileas= i t i s sufficient.
Oportas levar ni frue morge,
It i s necessary to raise ourselves early to-morrow ( = W e must
get u p early to-morvow).
Other impersonal verbs can be formed by the use of esar with a n
adjective :
Esas utila vakuigar la barelo,
It i s useful to empty the barrel.
The logical relation of words must be strictly adhered t o i n deriva-
tion. We cannot, for example derive the verb to address, from the
noun address, except by means of the affix -iz, to cover with :
adres-o, adres-iz-ar.
We cannot derive the verb to brush, from brush ; the root is the
verb of action, brosar, and the noun broso can only mean the act
of brushing ; a brush requires the affix of instrument 41 : bros-il-0.
But in addition t o the affixes that can only be affixes, many roots
are used as affixes, forming then a kind of compound word. Thus
the root ag- of the verb meaning to act, do, wield, is used with many
names of instruments, when it was necessary t o take the instrument
as the first root ; e.g., we say a kammer, to hammer, the second being
evidently derived from the first. We therefore have t o use the
root -agar t o play the part of an affix :
Martel-o, martel-agar, or martel-uzar.
This verb, meaning to hammer, is a transitive verb, that can be
followed by an object.
I1 martel-agis la pikturo He hammered (at) the picture.
I n the same way we have :
klef-agar, to lock ;
buton-agar, to butto?&;
fren-agar, to apply the brake ;
pedal-agar, to pedal.
In addressing noble persons, etc., the word Sinior(u1)o(or Siniorino)
Sinioro Rejo, me humile pregas
Sinioro Episkopo di London.
. ..
is used, and if necessary followed by the name of the dignity :

Siniorino Komto (The Coztntess . . .)

Yes, Sinioro, Yes, your Honor, your Worship.
The final a of la and of adjectives, particularly derived adjectives
in -al-, may be dropped when no confusion in sense can arise :
il parolis a l'infanto.
la naeional sentimento.
The accent remains on the same syllable as if the a was inserted.
The definite article may be contracted with certain prepositions :
dal = da la dil = dl la
del = de la a1 = a la

The numerals in parentheses indicate the lessons of the grammar

treating of each termination and affix.

The grammatical terminations are 12 in number, viz. :

-0 for singular nouns ;
-i for plural nouns or pronouns ;
-a for adjectives ;
-e for adverbs ;
-ar, -ir, -or for infinitive (present, past, future) ;
-as, -is, -0s for indicative ,,
-us for conditional present ;
-ez for imperative.
To these must be added the suffixes of the participle :
-ant-, -in&, -ont- for the active voice (present, past, future) ;
- a t , - i t , - o t for the passive voice (present, past, future) (VI);
besides -ab- for the perfect tenses (VIII).

Prefixes :
arki-, pre-eminence : arki-anjelo =archangel (VIII).
bo-, relationship by marriage : bo-patro =father-in-law (i).
des-, contrary : des-honoro =dishonour; des-esperar = to despair (VII).
dis-, separation : dis-sekar = to dissect (VII).
ex-, e x - , former, late : ex-Oficiro =ex-officer (x).
ge-, unites both sexes : ge-patri=parents (I).
mi-, half : mi-horo =half-an-hour (VII).
mis-, mis-, wrongly : mis-komprenar=to misunderstand (VII).
ne-, negation, ne-utila = useless (VII).
par-, completely: par-lektar=to vead through (v).
para-, warding off: para-suno=parasol (v).
pre-, : pre-, ante-, fore- : pee-lndo, prelude ; pre-dicar, to foretell,
to preZict (ix).
prim-, primitive : prim-avi, forefathers (IX).
retro-, back : retro-sendar =to send back, return (ix).
ri-, again : ri-dicar=to say again. (ix).
sen-, devoid of : sen-viva=lifeless (vii).

-a&, pejorative, giving an unfavourable meaning : popul-ach-O=

populace (vn).
-ad-, frequency, repetition : dans-ad-o = da>tcinq (v).
-aj-, thing made of or to which something is done : Ian-aj-o=
woollen stuff ; insert-aj-o = insertion (x).
-al-, relating t o : nacion-al-a=national (IV).
-an-, member of : senat-an-o =senator (11).
-ar-, collection : hom-ar-o=mankind (collection of men) (x).
-ark, receiver of : legac-arl-o =legatee (IX).
- a h , like : eponj-atr-a =spongy ( N ) .
-0-, coloured : roz-e-a=rose coloured (IV).
-ebb, that can be (done) : fac-ebl-a=feasible (IX).
-ed-, contents of: manu-ed-o =handful; pinch-ed-o=a pinch o f (m).
-eg-, augmentative : pluv-eg-o =downpour ( v ~ n ) .
-em-, inclined to : venj-em-a = revengefd (IV).
-end-, which must be : solv-end-a = to be solved (VIII).
-er-, amateur : totograf-er-o (11).
-mi-, establishment : distil-eri-o = distillery (IU).
-0s-, t o be : san-es-ar = to be i n health ; thence are derived nouns
showing state or quality : san-es-o=good health (VIII).
-esk-, to begin t o : dorm-esk-ar =to fall asleep; pal-esk-ar =to
t u r n pale (v).
-estr-, head of, chief of : urb-estr-o = majjor (VIII).
-et-, diminutive : river-et-o =brook (VIII).
-ey-, place for : kaval-ey-o = stable (111).
-I-, domain, sphere : komt-i-o = county ; parok-i-o = parish (111).
-id-, offspring : Sem-id-o = Semite (I).
-ier-, holder of : kuras-ier-o =cuirassier ; sigar-ier-o =cigar-holder ;
pom-ier-o = apple-tree (11).
-if-, t o produce : frukt-if-ar=to fructify ; Ilor-if-ar=to bloom (v).
-ig-, t o make, cause to be : bel-ig-ar = to beautify ; dorm-ig-ar =
to send to sleep (v).
-ik-, sick : artrit-ik-a = arthritic ; alkohol-ik-o = alcoholic (IV).
-il-, instrument : bros-il-o = brush (111).
-in-, feminine : frat-in-o = sister (I).
-ind-, deserving t o be : respekt-ind-a = respectable (~111).
-ism-, system, doctrine : social-ism-o, imperial-ism-o (11).
-kt-, professional, adherent : art-ist-o = artist ; social-ist-o (11).
-iv-, that can (do) : instrukt-iv-a = instructive (IX).
-iz-, to supply or cover with : or-iz-ar=to gild ; alkohol-iz-ar (v).
-oz-, full of: por-oz-a=porous (IV).
-ul-, male : kat-ul-o =tom cat ; kaval-ul-o =stallion ( I ) .
-urn-, suffix without any definite meaning. Words in which i t is
found are t o be looked up in the dictionary (x).
-ur-, result of action : pikt-ur-o=picture (x).
-ynn-, young one : bov-yun-0 =calf.
-uy-, receptacle : ink-uy-o = ink-pot (111).

Numeral Suffixes :
-esm-, ordinal numbers : un-esm-a= first ; du-esm-a=second (vI).
-Im-,fraction : tri-lm-a=third part ; quar-im-o =a qttavter (vI).
-op-, distributive : quar-op-e=in fours, four at a time (vI).
-opl-, multiplying a f f i x: du-opl-a =double (vI).
Page Page
ACCENT . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 ELISION . . . . . . . . . 4. 40
ACCUSATIVE ............ 38 Ever . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
of qua. qui. quo . . . . . . . . . 7 FRACTIONS. . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Ad.ed. od . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 GENDERS ......... 3.5
ADJECTIVES . . . . . . . . . 3 I a m cold . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
Indefinite . . . . . . . . . ...4.23 -i?zg termination . . . . . . . . 27
used as verbs . . . . . . . . . 31 Just . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
ADVERBS. List of . . . . . . . . . 36 KOm and
...... 36
of manner .........
AFFIXES(List of): . . . . . . 41 MONTHS............... 33
MULTIPLES. . . . . . . . . . . . 11
AGE (Conversation . . . . . . 12 .............. . 25
ALPHABET . . . . . . . . . . . . NEGATION . . . . . . . . . 3. 12
And . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 h'or .............. . 36
Any . . . . . . . . . . . . 17. 20 o .............. . 3
(partitive article) . . . . . . 20 NOUNS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
ARITHMETIC . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 Possessive case of . . . . . . 20
ARTICLE.Definite ... 3. 9. 40 Participles as . . . . . . . . . 14
Indefinite . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Apparent plural of . . . . . . 21
Partitive . . . . . . . . . 20 as adjectives . . . . . . . . . 20
As . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 NUMERALS ......... 10
AUXILIARIES : do. did ... 3 On . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. 1 4. 31
to have . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 One ............... 23
to be . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 ORDEROF WORDS ...... 38
m a y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 PLACEOF WORDS (preposi-
shall. should . . . . . . 24. 25 tions as adverbs) . . . . . . 31
will. would . . . . . . 24. 25 PLURAL.Apparent . . . . . . 21
Both . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 POSSESSIVE case . . . . . . 9. 20
But . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 PREPOSITIONS. Sense of i5. 31
B y after passive verb . . . . . . 14 List of ............ 29
COMPARISON . . . . . . . . . 4 Final . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
COMPOUND WORDS ... I . 39. 40 before infinitive ... 28. 32
CONJUNCTIONS. List of ... 34 and - i q . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
Compound . . . . . . 16. 34 as adverbs ......... 30
formed from prepositions 16 as verbs . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
Mood and tense governed PRONOUNS. Demonstrative ... 8
by . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Indefinite . . . . . . . . .8. 17. 23
CONSONANTS . . . . . . . . . 1 Interrogative and relative 7
DATES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 Personal . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
DAYS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 Plural adjectives as . . . . . . 7
DERIVATION . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 Possessive ......... 6
adjectives and nouns ... 7 Reflexive . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Di. de. da . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Relative . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Do. did ............ 3 PRONUNCIATION ......... 1
Page Page
Puntizado (punctuation) ... 19 VERBS-
QUESTIONS. . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Infinitive clause ...... 22
Self . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Mixed (transitive or in-
Shall . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 transitive) . . . . . . . . . 39
Should . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 Participle as a noun ...... 14
Some ............ 17.20 Passive voice ... 13. 1 4
Theve is. there are ...... 33
. . . . . . . . . . ..2U. 2 1 22
26 Passive voice translated
by on . . . . . . . . . 14
Perfect tense ...... 12. 13
TIME OF DAY . . . . . . . . . 33 Progressive form . . . . . . 12
TITLESOF COURTESY ... 43 Tense correlation ... 26
To with infinitive . . . . . . 32 VOWELS ............... 1
VERBS . . . . . . . . . 3. 5. 12. 13 What . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
Change of tense . . . . . . 26 Whose . . . . . . . . . . . . 9. 22
Emphatic form . . . . . . 12 Will . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Frequentative form . . . . . . 26 Words omitted in English 21. 22
Impersonal . . . . . . 32. 39 Would . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Infinitive after preposition28. 32 Ye . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15

Konsili a la Studianti.
On povas, mem sen pre-studio di la gramatiko, uzar ica Exercaro,
nam en l'unesma pagini ni separis l'elementi kompozanta di la
vorti. Tale, per simpla sercho en la lexiki Ido-nacional, on havos
la valoro di la parti formacanta, e fine la signifiko di la tota vorto.
Tamen on agos plu saje, se, ante komencar l'exerci, on aquiros kelka
konoco gramatikala, aparte pri la finali -0, -a, -e, -i, -as. -is, -os,
-us, -ez, -ar, -ir, -or, -ant, -int, -ont, -at, -it, -ot. Per t a procedo on
plufaciligos a su la koinpreno e la traduko di l'exerci (1).
Ante omno ni dicos : Euitez la hasto : konsiderez tre atencoze
mem la maxim mikra detali. La linguo internaciona devas esar
extreme facila, e fakte Ido esas tala ; ma ica facileso divenas danjero
por la ne-atencanti. Pro ke li komprenas sen esforco nek peno, li erore
imaginas, ke la formi e vorti rivenos en lia kapo kun egala, facileso,
kande li volos parolar o skribar la linguo internaciona. Ma, pro
ke li ne atencis sate, li montras lore, e sentas ipsa, ke li ne posedas
bone la linguo. Ido substitucas expresuri justa e logikala a multa
idiotismi e stranjaji di nia lingui, pro ke nur l'expresuri justa e
logikala povas esar komprenata da omni. Ma, se on ne donos
ad oli atenco suficanta, on ne aquiros li, ed on transportos en Ido
l'expresuri nelogikala e nekomprenebla di la lingui national.
L'experienco konsilas la sequanta procedo :
l e Pronuncar laute (se on povas) la vorti di la texti, tre atencante
pozav sur la konuenanta silabo I'acento lonika, qua esas plu-fort-igo,
di la voco sur t a silabo. Tale la orelo kustumeskos la soni di
la linguo, e la vorti penetros e restos plu facile, plu bone, en la
2" Skribar la traduko di l'exerci, quin on facos sen ula omiso,
e komparar lu kun la tradukuro imprimita sur altra pagino.
3e Atinginte la 12" exerco (ma ne plu fvue), on rikonstruktos kun
grand avantajo (per la tradukuri en Angla qui trovesas en ca
libro) la texto di 1'Exevcaro. Por ica laboro on sequos tre
fidele l'ordino di la numeri, ed on ne rikonstruktos, me supozas,
la 3" exerco ante la la o la 2a.

(I) A 1' Angli ni tre konsilas kornencar per n The Elementary Grammaro, qua esas
komposita precize por preparar a 1'Exercaro.
4e Samtempe on finos tradukar en la linguo nacional la restanta
duimo di 1'Exercaro ; e kande t a traduko esos finita, on rikon-
struktos anke en Ido ica duesma parto.
Komparante t a rikonstrukto kun la texto, on facile povos vidar
la kulpi facita ed emendar oli.

Substantivi.--Genro e nombro.
J,a hom-o nask-as infanto, diven-as puer-o ( I ) , adolecanto, adulto.
-La speco ((homo))es-as, per la sexu-o, iive hom-ul-o, sive hom-in-o.
--Homulo divenas vir-o cirkum su-a 20 yar-i.-Famili-o konten-as
du spozi (spoz-ul-o e spoz-in-o) kun li-a fili-i (fili-ul-i e fili-in-i),
qui mas reciprok-e frat-i (frat-ul-i e frat-in-i).-La filii dev-as respekt-
ar ed am-ar su-a ge-patr-i (la patr-ul-o e la patr-in-o).-Vu-a onkl-o
(onkl-ul-o od onkl-in-o) esas la frato di vu-a patr-o (patr-ul-o o
patr-in-o).-La filii di vu-a onklo esas vua kuz-i (kuz-ul-i o kuz-in-i).
-La ge-patri di vua gepatri esas vua av-i. Singl-u hav-as du
av-ul-i e du av-in-i, di qui lu esas la nepot-o (nepot-ul-o o nepot-in-0).
-Inter la rej-i di Anglia existis eminent-a rej-in-i ; ma Francia
hav-is nur rej-ul-i.-Letr-o komenc-as per : Sior-ul-o, o per : Sior-
in-0.-Sior-i, dic-as orator0 a la sioruli ed a la siorini, qui askolt-as
1u.-Me vid-as ge-siori M....--Me-a fratulo esas profesoro, e mea
fratino esas sekretario di advokat-in-0.-Inter la besti-i on disting-as
maskul-i e femin-i, exempl-e bov-ul-i e bov-in-i ; ma ordinar-e on
union-as li per la nom-o komun-a ctbovi)).-La nomo ctfeminon
ne konven-as por homino : on uz-as I11 nur por besti-o femin-a.
On uz-as -ul e -in nur se to esas absolut-e neces-a por indikar la
sexuo di bestio o persono. Nam esas ordinar-e tre komod-a parol-ar,
mem pri homi, sen distingar la sexui, exempl-e pri su-a frati, pri
sua profesori, pri sua amiki, qui povas esar homuli o homini.

Adjektivi ed adverbi. -La kontreaji.
La filio di vua kuzino esas tre fort-a ; kontre-e, la filii di vua
fratino, vua ge-nevi, esas feblx ; mem li semblas ma1ada.-No,

(I) De 7 ti1 15 yari.

li ne esas malada, ma kelk-e delikata ; li-a ge-patri anke esas plu o
min de1ikata.-Vua patrino (o matro) kantas ver-e tre bon-e.-
Yes, el kantas bone, ma el ne povas kant-ar 1onge.--Lav-ez vua manui,
narn li esas sordida.-Yes, me konfesas, ke li esas mem tre sordida ;
ma por lavar li, me bezonas la sapono. Ube 01 esas ?-01 esas sur
la mikra tablo, apud la fenestro.-La libri esas tre interesanta, ma
li esas tro serioza por vua filii ankore infanta.-Kad vu amas vua
yuna kuzini ?-No, narn li esas superba e des-afab1a.-Rakont-ez
(naracez) a me la kozo, ma rapide e kurte, narn me havas nur kelka
minyti.-Bone, bone, la kozo esas des-agreabla, ma on povas facile
aranlar omno.

Pronomi personala e posedala.
Me amas mea frati.-Tu ne sat respektas tua olda patru10.-
Vu esas tro severa por vu-a filii.-Il(u) deziras trovar en la domo
sua patrino e sua fratini.-El(u) esas tre bona por omna sua serv-
ist-i.-La kavalo esas tro fatigita : ol(u) ne plus povas tir-ar la veturo.
-La afero semblas bona, ma forsan 01 ne esas tala, e ni saje ag-os,
se ni ne aceptos lu blind-e.-La komenco di la voyajo es-is agreabla,
ma lua fino esos forsan des-agreab1a.-El(u) ed il(u) venos kun nia
kuzini.-Vu akompanos mea onklulo e lua filii, se li arivos sat frue.
-Pro quo vu prenas elua libri ? Lekt-ez la vui e lasez la e1ui.-
I1 ne amas mea filiulo, e me ne amas la i1ua.-Vua servisti ne fre-
quentas la mei, e la mei ne frequentas la vui.-Pardonez a tua
filiini, quale me pardonas a la mei.--I1 ri-trovis elua libri, ma il ne
povis ritrovar la sui.-Ili departis plu fru-e kam eli, e tamen ili
arivis plu tarde.-Pueruli e puerini su propoz-is por guidar me :
ili postulis de me tri franki, ed eli konsentis po du franki; me do
elektis eli e refuzis i1i.-Me venos morge kun mea frati e lia amiki.
-Prenez elia manteli kun la vii, narn vi retro-venos erste nokte
kun e1i.-Me renkontris viri, qui duktis kavali ; la viri e la bestii
ne konkordis inter su, e mem forte luktis, narn ili tiris ad-dextre, dum
ke oli tiris ad-sinistre ; ma fine li pac-esk-is, e me vidis ili ed oli irar
en la sama direciono.

Konjugado aktiva-Chefa tempi.
Me ne pov-as amar ilu, narn il odias me.-Tu sempre devas obediar
tua gepatri e respektar 1i.-El dicas, ke el preferas restar hike.-
Se l'infanto volas, 01 darfas akompanar vu por manjar.-Hiere
ni labor-is dum la tota jorno.-Vu dicis a me, ke il esas malada,
e me renkontris lu en la publika gardeno.-I<ad vu trovis vua amiki ?
Yes, me trovis li che la imprim-ist-0.--La homuli e la homini kon-
sentis, ma ili plu rapide kam eli.--I1 sempre admiris su ipsa, ma
nun il divenas tote netolerebla pro sua fier-es-o e superbeso.-
La lekt-er-i di nia jurnalo certe kompren-os, ke 01 bezonas pekunio
por vivar : li do pagos fidele sua abono e mem esforcos (por) atraktar
ad ol(u) altra lekt-er-i.-Se vu depart-os ca-matin-e, vu ne povos
vidar mea patrulo, nam il arivos erste ca-vesper-e.-Vi parol-us
altre, kara amiki, se vi savus la ver-aj-0.-Forsan la servisti obedius
plu bone sua mastri, se ici esus plu polita, plu afabla en sua maniero
imperar.-Me ne povus kredar (i)to, se me ne vidus o1u.-Ka t u Venus
kun me che mea ge-onkli, se tua fratulo akompanus ni ? Yes, me
quik venus.-Askolt-ez me.-I1 venez, e me aceptos lu bonkordie.-
Ni laborez kuraj-oz-e por la triumfo di nia ideo.-Havez fido a li ;
li meritas lo.-Esez sempre bona por omna homi, quale vi deziras
ke li esez (tala) por vi.-Nature omna homo amas su ipsa, e tre facile
pardonas su.-Ka vu vidas vu en t a spegulo ? Yes, me vidas me
ed anke vu ipsa.-Me lavos me en la dormo-chambro, e t u lavos
tu en la tualet-al-a kabineto.-Vu vest-iz-os vu hike, e me vestizos
me che mea kuzu10.-I1 laudas su pri omno.-Nun el gratulas su
pro la kurajo quan el havis en t a cirkonstanco.-Li jenus su ipsa,
se li tale agus.-Lu deziras lektar t a 1ibro.-Nun esas la tempo
ludar e repozar, ne la tempo 1aborar.-Luktar por nobla idealo esas
bela e laud-ind-a.-Mentiar a pueri e trompar li esas plu grava kam
trompar homi matura.-Plu bona esas exist-ir kam exist-ar od
exist-or, dicis pesimisto.

Aktiva konjugado.-Sekundara tempi.

Kande me en-ir-is, il skribis (esis skrib-ant-a) letro tre longa,
quan il donis a me por 1ektar.-La puerino tre deziris venor, ma
lu ne povis, nam lua patrino ne permisis.-Pro quo vu tante forte
kriis ? Pro ke mea fratulo batis me.-Ma pro quo il batis vu ?
I1 batis me, pro ke me sen-intence rupt-ab-is (esis rupt-int-a) lua
pulchinelo, ed il esis tante furioza, ke il ne mem audis enirar mea
patrino, qua fortun-oze por me salvis me ek lua manui.-Kande
ni bone labor-ab-is, on permisis, ke ni ludez kun nia mikra kuzini.-
Me esas tote certa, ke me havis ankore du franki ; me do perdis li,
nam li ne plus esas en mea monet-uy-0.-Quik kande il lern-ab-is
(esis lerninta) sua leciono, il ad-kuris a me por recitar olu ; e me
rekompensis lu, se il recitis 01 bone.-Yes, vu darfos ek-irar, kande
vu fin-ab-os (esos fininta) la tasko quan me donis a vu.-Se vu
rakontabus (esus rakontinta) la kozo a vua gepatri kun omna (o)lua
detali, probable li ne punisabus (esus punisinta) vu.-Me amabus
lu, se il esabus plu yusta por me.-Kande li pagabos sua debaji,
ni aceptos li volunte ; ma ti1 t a tempo ni ne volas, ke li venez che
ni o ke li parolez a ni.-Se ni savabus lo, ni nultempe frequentabus
1i.-Ne jenez vu ; me paciente vartos, ti1 ke vu finabos (esos fininta).
-En tala cirkonstanci, ni agabus (esus aginta) tote a1tre.-Me
deziras, ke vu reparabez (esez reparinta) ito ante lia retro-veno.-
I1 volabus, se on lasabus (esus lasinta) lu facar, ke on demandez de lu
permiso pri omno.-Se me bezonabus (esus bezoninta), ke il finez plu
frue, me dicabus 10.-Kad vu vidas t a oldino sidanta en l'angulo di
la korto ed atence lektanta jurnalo ?-Me renkontris li promenanta
kun sua pueri ; li semblis a me trista.-La tempo pasinta ne plus
apartenas a ni ; la tempo futura ne ja apartenas a ni, e mem forsan
01 ne venos por ni ; konseque ni devas okupar ni nur pri la tempo
prezenta.-Jac-ant-e sur la lito e kloz-int-e la okuli, il semblis
mortinta, tante pala e tante magra il esis.-Manjinte peco de pano,
il departis a sua magazine.-Me pensas montr-ir (be me montris)
a vu omna vid-inda edifici di nia urbo.-La abon-int-i di ca
jurnalo probable komprenos, ke quante plu ni havos multa lekt-er-i,
tante plu ni povos 01 plu-bon-ig-ar.-La traduk-int-i di t a verki ne
esas konoc-at-a.-Pro quo laborir tante, se ni esas perd-ont-a la
tota frukto di nia laboro ?-Me esperas ven-or (ke me venos) matin-
morge (morge matine).-Ven-ont-e pos du dii, me ad-portos 01 a
vu sam-temp-e.

Konjugado pasiva-Formi analizala e sintezala.
Me nun esas punisata (punis-es-as) pro kulpo quan me ne facis.
-Esez quieta, nam hike t u esas amata (am-es-as) da omna habitanti.
-11 esas omna-foy-e honor-iz-ata per longa aklami.-Ni esis laudata
(laudesis) da la multa asistanti.-Ta libro esas editita en Amsterdam.
-Vu esos rekompensata o punisata mem en vua vivo.-Esez male-
dikata da omna vivanti, hipokrito !-Me tre dezirus, ke la kozo
esez des-kovrata (des-kovresez) en omna detali, por ke vu esez
judikata (judikesez) segun vua menti.-Yes, ni pensas esar plu
amata (plu amesar) kam e1i.-El opinionas esir sat rekompensata (sat
rekompensesir).-Me esis felica, nam me esis amata da mea gepatri
e da mea instrukt-er-i.-I1 laboris tante male, ke il esis sempre
punisata.-Quik kande me facis maxim mikra kulpo, me esis batata.
-Kad vu ja esis reprochata da nia mastrulo ?-Se vu olim ne men-
tiabus (esus mentiinta), vu ne esus kondamnita.-Esas necesa, ke
t a debaji esez balde pagata.-Kande ni esis punisata, il konsolacis
ni tam dolce kam matro.-Batata (batate) da sua fratulo, la puer-
in-o kriis e ploris bitre.-Klozita (klozite) en la matino, la pordo
restas klozita ti1 la mezo di la jorno.-Amata (amate) de la benigni
e timata (timate) da la maligni vu havas la influo necesa por ito.-
Kad la konstrukt-ot-a palaco kustos multa pekunio ? No, 01 kustos
nur poka pekunio, nam on urns materialo di la incendiita.-Ta
ri-nov-ig-it-a atesto augmentos lia forteso kontre lia enemiki.-
Vere, kad la posedo di ruinita kastelo igas lu tante richa ?-La
arest-it-o esas nun questionata (nun questionesas), ed il esos balde
punisata (balde punisesos).


Pasiva substantivi.
I1 su okupas pri la konstrukto di la nova teatro.-Me regardas
la palaco ed admiras lua konstrukt-es-0.-Kad vu asumas la instrukto
di t a infanto ?-El posedis instrukteso tote astonanta.-Lia aban-
dono lasis ni en granda danjero.-Quon me povis facar en tala
abandoneso ?-Ni sempre laudis lua talent0 di konvinko e konverto.
--La konvinkeso quan produktis en me lua argumenti, efekt-ig-is
mea konverteso.-Kad la civilizo praktikata dal Europani sur la
sovaji esas vere kapabla produktar en li la deziro di la civilizeso ?-
La eduko di la pueri e lia morala formaco ne esas kozo faci1a.-
En t a cirkonstanco il donis pruvo di perfekta edukeso.-La organizo
di la kongreso obligis ni abandonar omna altra 1aboro.-Vere nula
societo prizentas tam bona organizeso.-La orno di t a chambro
kustos de vu multa pekunio.-Ha ! quante bela orn-es-o-n posedas
nun tua salono !-La preso di la fingri sur mola vaxo sempre lasas
traci.-La konstanta preseso, en qua N vidas la organo, explikas
lua funcionado ne-regul-oz-a.-Segun mea opiniono, vua interpret0
esas ne-justa; la texto parolas pri la krueleso quan t a rejulo uzis
en la submiso di la rebe1i.-La submiseso di t a populi esas nur sem-


Reciproka verbi e substantivi.

Amez l'uni l'altri (o reciproke) quale me amis vi,imperis la Kristo
a sua dicipu1i.-Ta homi ne volas tolerar l'una l'altra (o reciproke) ;
li sempre inter-disputas ed inter-kombatas.--Se ni esus vere homi,
ni devus montrar lo, ne inter-nocante, ma helpante l'uni l'altri
(o reciproke).-Nu, kad vi ne venos inter-aranjar la afero ?-Yes,
ni venos, ma ni timas ke on ne povos inter-konsentar.-Pueri,
pro quo vi sempre batas l'una l'altra (o reciproke) ? Kad vi ne
savas, ke la homi ne esas pozita da Deo sur la tero par internoco,
ma por inter-helpo e mem interamo ? Or, komencante la vivo per
interkombato, vi preparas vi facor ti1 la morto precize la kontre-aj-o
di via devo.-L'interpardono esas plu bela karn 1'intervenjo.-
Ne flatez, ma helpez l'uni l'altri (o reciproke) nam la flato esas
mala, kondamn-ind-a, e la interhelpo esas imperita ad omna homi.-
La membri di vua familio esas vere tre serv-em-a ; li sempre esas
pronta servar l'uni l'altri (o reciproke).-Me pre-vidas, ke mea du
fratuli balde interdisputos, nam li ja iracoze regardas l'una I'altra ;
to finos male.-Se me savabus (esus savinta), ke en t a domo sempre
regnas deskonkordo ed interkombato, tre certe me ne venabus (esus
veninta) aden ol(u). On vere kredus, ke hike la regulo esas inter-
disputar sempre.-Ta homi per envidio e jaluzeso nocis l'uni l'altri
lo reciproke).-Li su jetis l'una sur l'altra ed interbatis furioze.

Komparativi e superlativi.
I1 esas plu obedi-em-a e laboras plu diligente karn vu.-Tu esis
min richa, en (i)ta tempo, e posedis min mlilta kapitalo kam nun.-
Kad il voyajis tam o plu multe kam vu ? I1 ne tam multe voyajis
karn me, ma vizitis plu lnulta 1andi.-El esas min bela ma plu afabla
karn vu.-Se vi laboros tam fervor-oze karn li, ni donos a vi la sama
rekompenso karn a 1i.-Petro esas la maxim bona puero sur la tero ;
il laboras maxim diligente ek omni.-Mea pueruli esis la maxim
respektema ek (de, inter) la sam-eva pueri, ma anke li esis la minim
laborema.-Me rekompensas lu maxime, nam il maxim kurajoze
kombatis.-Ilus instrukt-er-i amas lu minime, nam il laboras maxim
male.-Ni trovis du exempleri pluse en la kesto de libri, ma tri glasi
minuse en la kesto de vazi.-Venez tam rapide karn posib1e.-Vokez
lu maxim forte posib1e.-Parolez minim rapide posib1e.-Pluse me
dicos, ke se vu venabus (esus veninta) plu frue, ni povabus (esus
povinta) finar ante la nokto.-Admaxime il refuzos, ma tre certe
nia invito ne ofensos il(u).-Adminime vu devus konfesar, ke vu
plene eroris.

Pronomi demonstrativa e questionala-relativa.

Ta vilajo esas tote simila a la nia.----Ka tu preferas ica od ita
kavalo ? I t a esas plu forta, ma ica plu bela.-Nek ica nek ita
flori plezas a me : li tro forte odoras.-Ta soldato e lua kamarado
tre konkordas pri omno ; kande t a volas ulo, ca quik 01 facas.-
La yuni e la oldi tre deziras lo : iti, pro ke li pensas, ke 01 amuzos
li, ed ici, pro ke li pensas, ke 01 esos utila por 1i.-Camatine t a pueri
ludis dum tri hori per ica ludo : la puer-ulo celis naz-tuko, e la puer-ino
serchis lu. Ilta (il) devis dicar ad elca (el), bad el esas proxim o for la
objekto. Kande olca (01) esis trovita da la puerino, el remplasis la
puerulo por la celo, ed il remplasis el por la sercho.-Ta qua volas
vivar felica, devas esar vertuoza.-Ilti qui konocas me bone savas
ke mea karaktero ne esas tala.-Elta quan me amas ne amas me.-
Omna t i quin me amis esas mortinta.-Qua venas a ni ? La viro
quan vu prizentis a me en la lasta semano, che siorulo B. ; me ne
plus memoras lua nomo.-To quo plezas a vu maxim ofte plezas
a me.-Prenez to quon vu volos : omno esas vua hike.-Di qua esas
t a garden0 ? 01 esas di mea onklino ; el kompris lu de nia komuna
konoc-at-i, gesiori P.-Kad vu savas, ye qua kloko il arivos ?-No ;
il ne dicis ye qua kloko ; ma me supozas, ke il arivos erste en la vespero.
-Ek omna flori, t a quan me judikas la maxim bela esas tre certe la
rozo.-Pri quo il parolis a vu ?-Pri la afero quan on propozis a
lu ; il dicas, ke 01 esas kozo tre grava.-Quon facar en t a des-facila
kondicioni ?--Me tre dezirus povar donar a vu konsilo ; ma me ipsa
ne vidas to quo esas fac-ebl-a.-Ta qua amas la danjero perisos en
lu, dicis sajo. --La pani quin adportis la panisto esas harda.-To
quon vu rakontas ne esas kredeb1a.--Ti qui vidis vu afirmas, ke
vu mentias.---Elti quin me vidis esas plu o1da.-Kande la persono
quan ni vartas arivos, vu duktos lu aden la salono e pregos lu repozar,
ti1 ke ni retro-venos.-Me judikis tre interesanta la libri quin vu
donis a me hiere matine.-Omna t i qui deziras havar facila komuniki
skrib-al-a o parolala kun homi di altra linguo ne darfas restar indi-
ferenta avan la question0 di linguo inter-naciona.

Pronorni generala.
Me vartis ilu durn kelka tempo ; ma vidante ke nulu venas, me
departis.-Advere ni ne esis multa, ma tamen plura, nam ni esis
du en la komenco e tri en la fino.-Omnu qua volos venar esos bone
aceptata (bone aceptesos).-I1 invitis omni quin il renkontris.--
Kad vu komprenis omno quon el dicis ? Me komprenis nulo.-
Se irgu prizentos su pos la di-mezo, vu dicos, ke me ne esas hike.-
Ne multi ma kelki tale opinionas.-Ube vu pozis omna mea libri ?
Me pozis li en ula angulo, ma me ne plus memoras en que.-Uli
prizas la danjero, ma nuli (prizas) la morto.-To esas certa : uli
preferas esar judikata (judikesar) maligna kam stupids.-Se vu ne
volas pro irga motivo aceptar mea invito, vu adminime devas dicar
a me pro qua.---I1 esas tam bona kam brava, e tam brava kam
prudenta.-I1 montris tanta maligneso, ke nulu volas frequentar
il p1use.-La varmeso esas tala, ke ni omna ne plus povas ek-irar
dum la jorno ; ni restas inkluzita ti1 la nokto.-Omni qui venos
kun me ne regretos lo.-En irga qua dio vu me advokos, me quik
adkuros a vu.
Kardinala nombri.
La homo havas un boko, du oreli, quar membri.-La hom-al-a
manuo havas kin fingri, ed omna fingro tri falangi, ecepte la polexo,
qua havas nur du.-La tri filiini di vua kuzulo esas plu bela, kam
on povas imaginar.-Quanta uceli-n vu kompris de la ucel-ist-o ?
Me kompris de lu sis kolombi.-Sep plus non facas dek-e-sis, e dek-
e-sis minus quar facas dek-e-du.-Dua-dek plus dek-e-tri facas tria-
dek-e-tri, e kina-dek minus dek-e-kin facas tria-dek-e-kin.-La
nombro di la habitanti diminutas omna-yare en nia urb-et-o ; nun
01 esas nur mil e oh-cent e quara-dek-e-du.-En un horo esas sisa-dek
minuti, ed en omna minuto sisa-dek sekundi.-I1 ganis dua-mil
franki.-Un homo ne povas facar tanta laboro ; du adminime esas
necesa por (i)to.-La ordinara yari havas tria-cent e sisa-dek-e-kin
dii.-El retrovenos pos dek-e-quar dii de la longa voyajo, quan el
entraprezis non monati ante nun.-Cent personi asistis la festo, e
li esis tre presata, nam la salono povas apene kontenar sepa-dek
o sepa-dek-e-kin sen-jene.-Kad me povas komprar naz-tuki en t a
butiko ? Me bezonas un dek-e-duo de 1i.-Duo esas la du-opl-o di
1'nno.-Cent yari facas yar-cento, e mil yari facas yarmilo.

Nombri ordinala e cetera.

La un-esm-a republiko Franca, same kam la du-esm-a e la triesma,
esis una e ne-divid-ebl-a.-La dek-e-duesma dio di (od en) aprilo
e la kinesma di (od en) mayo esas dati memor-ind-a por me.-I1
skribis a ni ye l'sepesma (dio) (en) oktobro.-Quon vu lektas en la
komenco di la letro ? ((London, ye (od en) la dek-e-unesma (dio)
(di) januaron.-Nia filiulo naskis ye la nonesma (dio) (di) februaro,
dum la yaro mil-e-oka-cent-e-nona-dek-e-duesma, e lua fratino naskis
ye la nonesma (dio) (di) novembro, en la yaro mil-e-nona-cent-e-
unesma.-Ye l'unesma foyo, me kompris de t a homulo un mi-
dek-e-duo de glasi ; e, ye la duesma, me kompris de lu un mi-cento
de 1i.--11 ne esas kontenta pri la salario quan il recevis ; il volas la
duoplo, e me ne konsentas, pro ke il laboras tante male, ke il apene
meritas la du-im-0.-Se vu savos perfekte vua leciono, vu havos
duopla rekompenso.-Camatine la profesoro parolis a ni pri la fra-
cioni, ed unesme explikis to quo esas duimo, triimo, quarimo, e c.
-En mea skolo, esis absolute ne permisata interparolar du-e durn
la amuz-tempo ; on devis sempre dar kun la ceteri.-Quale me
povus vinkir ? Li atakis me trie.-L'unika rekompenso quan on
donis a me, esis lektar o desegnar.-Quarople sis o triople ok esas
(facas) dua-dek-e-quar.-Me abonis ita revuo po dek franki por un
yaro.-I1 abonis nia jurnalo po dua-dek-e-quar franki dum un yaro,
ma pose il cesis, asertante ke po t a preco l'abono devus valorar por
du yari.-Abonigez da omna via amiki revuo kombatanta por nia
idealo.-Quante kustas ito ? To kustas non franki e duimo.-To
esas multe tro chera ; po la sama sumo on havas la duoplo che omna
komercisto di nia urbo.-Ho ! quanta labori-n, (quanta) penin,
(quanta) dolorin kustabos (esos kustinta) de sua pioniri la linguo
internaciona, kande ol esos en-plantac-ita en nia rutin-em-a, skeptika
mondo !-Me kompris t a dek sigari po un franko, konseque li kustas
dek centimi single.-Ni marchis ne quar-op-e, quale soldati, ma
diiope ; mem kelki marchis unope (o single).

Kad ja vu asistis kunsido akademi-al-a ? No, me ne ja asistis
tala kunsido. -Ka vua filio esas ankore malada ? No, me dankas
vu (o danko), lu ne plus esas malada ; lu ja rikomencis levar su de
tri dii.-Vu vizas ankore tro alt-e ; pro to vu ne povas atingar la
skopo.-Irez ti1 la kirko, e de ibe vua vido embracos un de la maxim
bela e maxim vasta panorami.-Pos-e ni arivis hike, ube ni restis, quale
vu konstatas.-Nun, se vu volos, ni iros a la komon-domo por querar
diversa paperi quin me bezonas.-I1 apene parolis, e nur mi-voce.-
Kad vu havas sat multa pano ? Me havas ne nur sate ma tro multe.
-Forsan el ne komprenas bone, ke olim el esis for ni, dum ke nun
el esas proxim ni.-Nultempe, nek nun nek olim, me volis to.-
Anke il opinionas, ke vu povos retro-venar erste matin-morge e
ne ca-vespere.-Quanta lakto-n vu deziras ? Ho ! tre poka, me
pregas, nam la mediko imperis (preskriptis) ke me drinkez ne-multe.
-Kad il ja retrovenis ? No, il ne ja retrovenis ; probable il retro-
venos erste vesper-morge (morge vespere).-Quante joyoza esas vua
fratulo cadie ! I1 kantis dum la tota matino ; il cesis nur ye la dimezo
por manjar.-Quanta homi-n me vidas sur la placo ! On pensus, ke
esas dio votala por ula e1ekto.-Frue o tarde la mali esos punisata.
-La puerino ploras, quale se on batus lu, o quale se el sentus tre
granda chagreno.

Ni iras a1 urbo che la mediko, nam nia patrulo esas grave malada.
Che qua vu lojis, kande vu habitis Madrid ?-La soldati ne lojos
che la habitanti dil urbo, ma en kampeyo, ye du kilometri de ibe.
-Me kombatos por la linguo internaciona e kontre lua enemiki ti1
mea lasta sopsiro.-Pos nia leciono, ni iros ad-sur I'agro, qua esas
dop la domo, por koliar vio10.--Ante la nuna yaro, me ankore povis
venar avan la fenestro, an la gardeno, e sidar ibe.-Ube il esis ? I1
esis en sua laboratorio, ube il iris (marchis) per granda pazi, de un
extrem-aj-o a 1'altra.-Ad-ube vu iras ? Me iras a rnea chambro
por querar rnea mantelo, quan me obliviis en 1u.-La muso kuris
tranquile sub la lito ; ma la hundo en-venis e su jetis ad 01; lore
la besti-et-o pavorante saltis desub la lit0 adsur la tablo.-Portez
to (ad)en la salono ;vu pozos lu sur la kanapeo.-Omn-ube vu habitos,
me habitos anke, ed (ad)omnube vu iros, (ad)ibe me iros kun vu.-
De la domo il klamis, ke ni venez ; ma regret-ind-e ni ne audis.-
E k la barelo en qua la hundo celabis su, lu jetis krio a ni, e tale atraktis
nia atenco.-De la matino ti1 la nokto on vidas lu sidanta an sua
tablo e skribanta sen-cese.-Cirkum la gardeno e trans la muro esis
vidata (videsis) soldati kun fusili en la manui.-De Paris a Lyon
il dormis dum la tota voyajo.-De nun me ne plus pagos vua deb-
aj-i.-Quik pos la morto di sua patrulo il iris ad Amerika.-El ne
povis venar, pro ke el esas malada de du dii.-Kad vu vidas t a
amaso de pueri avan nia pordo ?-Me kompris du metri de drapo
e mi-deb-e-duo de tasi.-Ek quo esas la tasi ? Li esas ek porcelano.
--I1 drinkis granda glaso de vino ed il departis a la staciono.-Da
qua esas t a libro ? 01 esas da me e da Petro.-Di qua esas t a
naztuko ? 01 esas rnea (di me).-A (o pri) quo vu pensas nun ? Me
pensas a rnea gepatri.-Cadie me recevis de nia fratino la vesti di
Henriko.-Da qua vu esas sendita ? Da rnea ge-mastri, qui deziras
respond0 pri la letro quan li skribis a vu de Paris.--Me venos che
vu inter la dimezo e la vespero.-Cis la muro esas nu1 danjero, ma
trans olu vu riskus la vivo.-Pri t a temo ni parolos pos 1'asemblo.-
Departinte ante ni, la amiki arivis pos ni ; nam ni rajuntis li e
preteriris li ; konseque li arivis pose e dope.-Pro rnea povreso, il
pagis vice me por la voyajo quan ni facis kune.-Segun vua reko-
mendo e malgre lua nepoliteso, me restis po1ita.-Vice laborar, vu
dormis o repozis dum la tota jorno.--Vartez rnea retroveno, e ni iros
kune (por) abonar t a jurna10.-Apud la muro e kontre vua domo
il haltis dum adminime du 11ori.-Dextre e sinistre dil kameno,
an la muro, pendis du tre bela portreti.-Me facis omno per rnea
propra manui.


Ni do opinionas ke nek vu nek ilu povos solvar t a desfadla

questiono.-El esas vere tre stranja o malada, nam lore el ridas,
lore el ploras sen-kauze.--Nu ! vu ne venas kun me malgre vua
promiso !-Kad vu judikas lu kom bona ? Yes, me judikas lu kom
bona e kom tre fid-ind-a.-Sive el moitos, sive el vivos, vua destino
esos tre kompat-ind-a,-Vu facos to quon me imperos a vu ; se ne,
vu quik cesos akompanar me.-Se nur el obedios bone, me ne
reprochos e1u.-Quankam la pueri ne esas sempre jentila, tamen
omna bon-kordia homo esas atraktat a 1i.-I1 recevis t a frapo
sen ke lua vizajo montris la maxim mikra signo di do1oro.-Me
avertis vi, bon amiki, por ke vi ne falez en t a danjero.-Pro ke la
fero esas plu solida karn la ligno, on preferas lu en multa uzi. Ilua
chagreno venas de ke il recevis icamatine longa letro plena de tre
des-agreabl informi.-De kande vn savas to ? De kin dii.--Ube
e kande il mortis, me tote ne povas dicar, nam, depos ke il abandonis
me, nu1 inform0 pri lu arivis a me.-Segun ke vu esos richo o
mizerozo, la homi judikos vn kom bona o kom mala.-Se vu laboros
bone, kara puero, me volunte rekompensos vu ; kontre ke me devos
punisar vu, se vu esos oci-em-a.-Quik kande il en-iris, ni omna
levis ni polite.-Quante plu me lu vidas, tante plu me odias 1u.-
Tam ofte karn il venas, vu donas ad il pekunio.-Kondicione ke vu
sempre obedios, me sempre konkordos kun vu.-Omna-foye kande
me probas manjar, me sufras balde pose ; mea stomako nun toleras
nur drink-aj-i.-I1 respondis tale, ke me qnik ek-pulsis lu ek la
domo.-Quante min vu laboras, tante min vu volas 1aborar.-Pro
ke vu ne permisas to, me ne iacos o1u.-Pro to me ne povis venar
plu frue.-Ha ! por to il bezonos multa pekunio, ed il havas tre
poka.-Pos ke vu ek-iris, lu queris la mediko.-Dum ke vu repozis,
me skribis a nia klienti por avertar li pri nia balda paso tra lia urbo.

Akuzativo ed eliziono.
Nulo-n altra il volis dicar a me.---To-n me naracos a vu detale,
kar' amiko, pos kelka dii, kande ni esos plu quieta karn nun.-
Quante bel' vetero ! mem 1'Jtaliani ne havas plu klar e plu blua
cielo karn esas cadie la nia.-Del fenestro a1 pordo me kontis dek
e sis pazi.-Nova seminon ankore plu o min perdata ni semadas
tra la mondo : ma tam certe karn la sun0 lumas super nia kapi,
t a semino ne sempre perdesos ; pos kelk o mult yari 01 jerm-if-os,
kreskos, e kovros la tero. Advere, la final vinkon ni ne havos tam
rapide karn opinionas uli ; ma la kombaton ni ne livos, e, se ni la
triumfon ne vidos, per quo to importas ? Olun vidos a1tri.-
Quon vu kompris en la merkato ? Terpomin, napin, kaulin,
rapin, pizin e fungin me kompris de vua vendistino ; sika
prunin, figin, oranjin, nucin de vua olda protektati, quin vu konoc-
-ig-is da me en la lasta semano.-Blamin, mokin, persekutin, tor-
mentin, omno ton il sufris por restar fidel' a sua kredo.-Omnon
kredas l'infanti, ni devas do tre atencar por ne trompar 1i.--Bona,
simpla e modesta, el esas amata da omni.-Simpla, flexebla e t)elsona,
vere internaciona en sua elementi, t a linguo prizentas a1 mondo
civilizita la sole Vera solvo di la linguo internaciona, nam, tre facil
por homi poke instruktita, 01 esas komprenata sen pen0 da
omnu bone ednkita.-((To esus ne nova linguo, ma nur kelke chanjit
Esperanto ! Konseque la tota question0 pri la futuro di la linguo
internaciona reduktesas nur a co, kad Esperanto aceptesos sen-
chanje en lua nuna formo, o kad en 01 facesos ul-tempe kelka chanji.
Ma ca question0 por 1'Esperantisti ne plus havas ul graveso ; li
protestas nur kontre to, se aparta personi volas chanjar Esperanto
segun sua arbitrio ; ma se ultempe yur-iz-ita kongreso od akademio
decidos facar en la linguo tal od altra chanji, 1'Esperantisti ton
aceptos kun plezuro e nulon perdos pro to.)) (Kvestomatio di
DrOZarnenhof, p. 312).


Afixi CE-, BO-, -ID, -YUN, EX-, -ESTR, -AN,

-ISM, -1ST.
Ta uobelulo esas Vera parazito ; il vivas nur per la repasti quin
il mendikas hike od ibe.-Santa Virgino, el klamis, sokursez ni en
t a danjero teror-ig-anta ; helpez ni trovar ul moyeno por eskapar
la morto.-Vere vua lavistino esas tre ne-akurata ; el venas omnase-
mane en diferanta dii e hori.--Me ne dicis a vu ke rnea fratino
esas doktorino, ma nur ke el esas la spozino di doktoro.-Regardez
t a bovini, qui pasturas kun la kavalino di rnea patrulo ; li nun esas
sat grasa por vendesar.--Nia ge-patri e nia cetera parenti donis
a ni ne-negebla pruvi di amo en t a cirkonstanci do1origanta.-Gesiori
H. camatine venis vizitar nia kara malado.-La Israelidi naskis
ek Izrael, e la Karolidi, rejal dinastio en Francia, naskis ek Karolo
la Granda, imperiestro di 0cidento.-Tam longe kam la genit-ur-o
dil gebovi esas yuna, on nomizas 01 bovyuno, same kam on nomizas
la tre yuna kavali, kava1yuno.-Ne konfundez bopatro, bofilio,
kun stifa patro, stifa fi1io.-Omna parenti di rnea spozo
(N.B. : spozulo o spozino) esas rnea boparenti.-Mea stifa patro esas
nur la spozo di rnea patro ; rnea mi-frato esas la filio di un de rnea
gepatri ; ma rnea stifa frato esas nur la filio di rnea stifa patro ; In
havas nula patro komuna kun me.-I1 esas ex-prezidero di republiko,
nam il esis dum sep yari la statestro di Francia, ed antee il esis vice-
prezidero dil senate.-La urbestro tote ne prizas la nobeli ; volunte
il qualifikus li, quale dum la unesma republiko Franca, l'ex-nobeli.
-La skolestro e la navestro esas la chefi di skolo o di navo.-La
skolani o la navani esas la instruktati o komandati di skolestro o di
navestro.-Hike l'urbani obedias tre male l'imperi di sua chefaro.
-La gemastri di t a domo esas ex-Kristani, nam nun li esas Mohame-
disti. Li abandonis la Kristanismo, e mem la katolikismo, nam li
esis baptita kato1ike.-El volas esar membro di nia societo, ma
olua chefaro ne volas membr-ig-ar elu ; el havas tante mala karaktero
ke el disputus kun omna societani pos un o du monati.-Nia dentisto
e nia mediko esas socialisti.-La florist0 esas specale la homo qua
profesione kultivas la flori, e la florvendisto esas specale la homo,
de qua on kompras li endetale.
La soldati qui portas kuraso esas kurasieri.-Ta yuna rentiero
kuracesas de du yari kom ftiziiko.-Manjez nur la molajo di t a
frukto e lasez la hardajo.-La kozo quan il rakontis a vu esas pur
neverajo.-Me preferas la porkokarno kam la bovkarno.-Lia
amikaji esas perfidaji.-Qua naivajon el facis itere ?-Ilua tablo
sempre esas plena de paperi e skriburi.-Me recevis vua sendajo.-
Ni vizitis omna vidinda konstrukturi dil urbo.- An la muri videsis
diversa tre be1 pikturi.-Erste cadie me remarkis la fenduro di
t a vazo.-La skulturo quan vu vidas sur la kameno esas imituro.
-On devus klozar l'aperturo, nam la vento pasas tra olu e tre jenas
me, kande me esas an la fenestro.-La tota pueraro di t a urbo
semblas malad-em-a.-Promenante en t a tre granda foresto, me
remarkis divers arborari, plantacita segun la speci : en un parto
popli, en altra querki, hike alni ed ibe abieti.-Hastez, hastez, la
gastaro arivas.-Quante be1 navaro ! 01 esas la maxim be1 ek (de)
omni, quin me ultempe vidis.-Ha ! pro quo la homaro plu similesas
vasta enemikaro kam vasta frataro ?-Me serchas la brosilo por brosar
mea panta1ono.-Ni renkontris lu en posto-kontoro, ube tra la
gicheto il regardis la telegrafilo, vartante sua foyo.-Me demandis
de vu ne irga tranchilo, ma precize ku1telo.-Omna arm0 pafanta
esas pafilo, ma omna pafilo ne esas fusi1o.-Querez tua libri en la
skribeyo ; li esas apud la skribmashin0.-La lavistino ne ja esas en
la laveyo ; el ne ja arivis ; el esas ankore neakurata qnale sempre ;
el venos kande to plezos ad el(u).-Sigaruyo kontenas kelka sigari ;
01 esas por li specala etuyo, kontre ke sigariero kontenas un sigaro,
e mem ne komplete, nam nur extremajo dil sigaro esas en la sigariero.
Per l'unesma objekto on portas sigari an su, kontre ke per la duesma
on fumas li.-Ube do la servistino pozis la kandeliero ? Yen ol(u),
siorulo ; me trovis 01 apud sukruyo, stranja vicineso por t a objekti.
-Nia pomieri havas quaze nu1 pomo ; ni ne havos cidro cayare.
-Ha ! quante bel roziero ! 01 esas tote kovrita da rozi.-
I1 sufras de facial(a) doloro tante forta, ke il ne plus povas laborar
de quar dii.-To ne esas normala, e vu devus querar la mediko.-
La linguo universala esas la specal instrumento dil internaciona
relati.-La rezultajo di nia demarsho ne esas tre agreabla por t a
olda alkoholiko ; ma, se on ne inlrluzos lu, certe il ocidos ulu en
krizo di furio.-Ha, la be1 katyuni ! Kad vu konservos li omna ?
-No, me konservos nur la katulo e donacos la katini.-La kavalini
duktesas plu facile kam la kavaluli.
Afixi -OZ, -IV, -EM, -IND, -END, -ATR,
-ES, -ESK.

Ta aquo esas tre kalkoza, pro ke la kalko abunde trovesas

hike.-Kontree, en mea lando, la tereno esas sabloza ; pro to
ni havas tre klar e tre pur aquo.-Nula danjero pavorigas
ilu ; on ne povas renkontrar homo plu kurajoza kam ita.-El
donis a me tante konvinkiv argumenti: por respondar a vua
objecioni, ke me esas tre certa konvertor vu.-To ne esas nutriva,
ma facile digesteb1a.-Quankam t a verko ne esas instruktala,
01 tamen esas tre instruktiva.-I1 esas tre sentema, e havas nu1
rezistiva povo (rezistiveso).-Me adportas a vu konsolaciv informi.
-Vua responsiveso en t a afero esos extreme grava ; vice vu, me
ne aceptus.-La persono qua havas la inklineso kredar omno esas
kredema ; e, se lu havas anke la inklineso iracar, lu esas anke iracema.
-I1 esas un ek (de) la maxim laborema homi en la mondo.-Mea
filii ne similesas la ceteri ; li esas tre studiema.-Forsan to esis neposi-
b1a.-Posibla o neposibla, la kozo eventis ; yen nediskutebla fakto,
ne nur kredebla o kredinda, ma kredenda.-Ta skriburo esas tote
ne1ektebla.-Me povas afirmar, ke lua konduto esis sempre digna
e respektinda.-Quale vu volas, ke me skribez ? Me havas nulo
por skribar, nek inko, nek plumo, ne mem krayono; e tamen me
mustas skribar, nam me havas ja de tri dii grava letro skribenda.
-Kad vu havas ulo facenda cadie ? Yes, me mustas vizitar mea
gepatri.-To ne esas verda, ma nur verdatra, sioru10.-Ta nntrivo
havas dolcatra saporo tre desagreabla a mea palato.-Ta ligno tante
longatempe restis en l'aquo, ke 01 divenis sponjatra.-Elua sente-
meso esas extrema, ed elua rezistiveso tote nula. Pluse, febral
agemeso prenis el de du monati, ed igas me timar plu kam la cetero.
-1lua avareso ne povas nomizesar.-Vu ne povas imaginar, quanta
esis ilua emoco.-Izoleso, maladeso, mizero, omno t o atakis il(u)
dum longa yari.-Pri t a konstrukturo me precipue admiras lua
vasteso ; la cetero dil konstrukteso ne tushas me tante.-Venez,
venez, il morteskas !-En la lasta nokto me ne povis dormeskar.
-Lore il iraceskis e krieskis furioze.-Unesme el vidis nulo, ma
pose el videskis formo, qua pokope precizeskis.-Mult exerci esas
necesa a puero, por ke 01 adu1teskez.-Komence on ne amis me
en t a familio ; ma pos quar monati me amateskis (o ameskesis) da
lu, e nun me esas tre amata da omni.--El redeskas pro iraco ; el
furieskas, me tre bone vidas lo.-Se vu volas forteskar, vu devas
movar, promenar, kurar, edc.

Afixi -IC, -IZ, -IF, DIS-, RI-, RETRO-, DES-,

MI-, -EC, -ET, -UM, -ACH, MIS-, -AD.
Por netigar la chambro, vu demandos la helpo di Johano.-
Ta vino esis bona ; quon do on pozis en lu por maligar lu tante ?
-Kar amiko, vu febligas vu e riskas perdar la saneso, laborante
tale del matino ti1 la vespero, e mem ofte dum la nokto.-Kad
vu venigis la mediko ? Yes, me ipsa queris il(u).-Dormigez la
infant-et-o ; 01 ja dormeskas.-Me sendigis a vu du kunikli e tri
kolombi da Petro hiere matine.-Da qua vu instruktigas vua filii ?
Me instruktigas li da nia skolestro, qua docas a li lektado, skribado,
kalkulado, edc.-Ni ja vidigis da Henriko nia domo ; nun ni vidigos
01 da vu.-Kande mea kavalo esos olda, me manjigos lu ; ma
tamen me ne igas lu manjar tro mult aveno, nam me ne volas ke lu
ma1adeskez.-I1 su celis tante bone, ke il ne videsis dal enemiki.
-Kande infanto esas lavata da altra persono, on darfas dicar,
ke lu lavesas ; ma kande lu lavesas d a su ipsa, on devas dicar :
ctlu lavas sun, por montrar bone, ke lu facas la ago a su ipsa. Kon-
seque, omnafoye kande persono o bestio facas ago a su ipsa, ne
uzez la sufixo ctes*.-El su levas e su kushas sen helpo, nam nun
el ne plus esas infanto ma puero.-Staceskez pueri ; via profesoro
eniras.-Fine la kaldrono neteskas ; de du hori me lavas e frotas lu.
Vu netigis mea chambro, ma obliviis ordinar 1u.-El su amuzas
kolorizante imaji.-Vestizez vu rapide, nam ni mustas ekirar
ante la dimezo.-Kad vu piprizis la salado ? No, me nur salizis
1u.-Por konservar la karno, uli sulfizas 1u.-Ne tushez t a mashino,
nam pro sua elektrizeso 01 povus mortigar vu.-La florifo di omna
arbori pre-iras lia fruktifo.-Quo eventis a vu ? Ha ! preske nulo ;
me nur sangifas del nazo.--11 versifas tre bone ; il esas tre remarkinda
versifisto.-Kad vu volas vizitar kun me la armiferio ? Yes, tre
vo1unte.- -La shuifisti (o shuisti) facas shui, e la chapelisti facas
chapeli o vendas 1i.-Me dissendis o disdonis omna broshureti quin
me recevis por to.-Ye qua kloko facesas hike la disdono di la letri ?
Ye dek e tti kloki-Enirante me trovis desordinita sur la tablo
mea paperi, quin me ordinabis (esis ordininta) tante bone.-Me
to dicis e ridicis a vu multafoye, ma vu sempre obliviis 01.-I1 cedis
a me omna sua yuri, e me retrocedis li pose.-Rikomencez, on ne
komprenis tu.-I1 esas neyuna, e tamen il ne ja esas o1da.-Kad esas
permisata fumar hike ? No, siorulo, to esas interdiktita.-Pro
ke el esas tre superba, el tre sufros de t a ofenso.-I1 esas maligna
por omni ; pro to il esas odiata (o odiesas) da omni.-La verajo
esas juste la kontreajo di vua dico.-Me studiis la kantado e la
dansado.--Quankam il ne facis mem un diskurseto, tamen, pro ke
il paroladis kun ni dum la tota jorno, il snfras ye la guturo cavespere.
-Kad vu audas la pafado ? Yes, ma ne tre bone ; me darfus dicar,
ke me lu miaudas.-Pro quo il sempre parolas mivoce ?-Pro quo
il klamas omno quon il dicas ?-Semblas a me, ke me audis kriego.
-Cesez vua bruisego ; vu surdigas me.-To esas tre varma, e mem
varmega.~-Ni renkontris kelka rivereti ; pose un rivero : e fine arivis
a fluvio.--Mikra monto esas plu granda kam kolino e min granda
kam montego, qua esas plu granda kam tre granda monto.--I1
esas tre joyoza cadie ; il ridetas ad omni e kantetas sencese.-Patru-
leto, kad vu permisas, ke me ekirez pos la dimezo ?-To esas ne domo
ma domacho.-Ha ! me ne pavoras pro la populacho, qua tote
ne reprezentas la popu1o.-Me facis rnea devo ; sive on laudos, sive
on blamos me, to esos por me granda konsolaco.-I1 sempre mis-
komprenas t o quon n i dicas ad i1u.-To esas multe tro chera ; certe
on misevaluis lu, o vu miskalku1is.-Desvestizez vu, altre vu desnetigos
laborante vua nova vesto.-La soldati esis desarmizata ed en-
Afixi PRE-, -ED, PAR-, -ER, -I, ARKI-, -ERI,
PARA-, -E, -ARI.
Nia prim-avi esas anke la primavi di nia preavi.-La fratulo
di rnea avulo esas rnea preonMo.-Li esas ne rnea kuzi, ma
rnea prekuzi. -Me iras a la chambro di rnea preavino ed
eniros ol(u), se me audos nula bruiso. - I1 manjis nur un
hokedo de pano e drinkis un glasedo de vino. - Ni asemblos
ni vesper-morge (morge vespere) por parlektar la grava letri
quin me recevis. -Vu dicas, ke vu parlernis vua lecioni, ma
t o esas tre dubinda, nam vu ne povas recitar oli. - On vidas
facile, ke t a dansanti ne esas danseri, nam li dansas tre male.-
-La paroko di t a parokio esas tre habila peskero e chasero.
-La granda-dukio Luxemburgia esas lando tre pikt-inda.-La
prehistorio esas tre necerta.--Saja homo ne havas prejudiki,
e lu ne predicas suceso o falio segun idei plu o min senbaza.-
Ca pot0 esas neplena, ma ita esas vakua.-Sendube (certe) il
venos ; ma pri la veno di rnea onklino existas nur probab1eso.-
On povas restar senmova e tamen esar tre moveb1a.-Pronuncez
tre distingeble t a vorti ; vu tre bezonas lecioni di pronuncado
e di deklamado ; la soni ne ekiras vua boko, por tale dicar :
vu parolas ne feble o mivoce, ma koniuze.-Me nedubeble devis
agar quale me agis, e facar to quon me facis.-En Rusia la frati
di l'imperiestro esis granda-duki, ed en Austria li esas arki-duki.
-L'arki-diakoni esas sacerdoti, kontre ke la diakoni ne ja esas
sacerdoti.-Trovinte damzelo N.. .., me questionis lu pri la stando
di lua patru10.-El dicis a me, ke il standas tre bone e posedas
saneso perfekta malgre sua evo.---Nu, quante il evas ? H a ! il
esas evoza ; il esas nona-dek-e-sep-yara.-Mea filiulo esas direktisto
di tre granda rafinerio ; ma antee il direktis importanta distilerio.
--Me instaligos parafulmino sur la tekto di nia domo.-Mea fratino
serchas sua parasuno, e me serchas rnea parap1uvo.-Buton-ag-ez
vua kolumo di surtato ; ni quik sentos la koldeso sur t a ponto.-
La rozi esas rozea e la violi vio1ea.-Di qua koloro esas rnea rob0 ?
Lu esas brunatra ; no, kastanea.- Ordinare la kati esas plu o min
tigrea, ma ica havas la pili perlo-griza.-Me ne fidus a vua konfi-
dencario: lu esas tro babilema por konservar la sekretaji.-La
legacario ne aceptis la heredajo, pro ke lu savis kc la debaji di la
legacinto superesas lua havajo.-Ne trovinte la destinario, la post0
retrosendis a me la letro.
I1 restas en sua dqrmo-chambro, ma del fenestro il regardas
la placo dil komon-domo.-La invent0 dil vapornavi esas plu ancien
kam t a dil fervoyi-Venez vidar la bela ciel-arko (o pluv-arko) ;
01 esas la maxim grandioza quan me vidis en mea vivo.-l'agro-
kultivo ne esas la gardenkultivo, quankam la du esas terku1tivo.-
El promenas omnadie an la marbordo, vestizita per ciel-blua robo,
ed el esas avino kina-dek-e-tri-yara !-Me tre prizas la terpomi, irge
quale li esas koquita, ma me tote ne povas tolerar la florkauli ;
li efektigas en me mala digestado e konseque kapdo1ori.-Quanta.
sturmo ! Sencese tondras, e la vento-stroki intersucedas konstante.
-Dum l'inter-akto ni asemblis ni en la foyero dil teatro por konversar
kun altra spektanti pri la dramato reprezentata.-L'Esperantisti,
adminime pluri de lia maxim eminenta chefi e multi de la tro docil
dicipuli, asertas ke li konstitucas internaciono, mem supernaciono,
e ke Esperanto esas la vivanta linguo di populo vivanta !-I1 esas
tante superba, ke il kredas esar super-homo.-Portez ica letro a1
posto-kontoro, e jetez lu ipse (vu ipsa) en la letro-buxo ; pose vu
kompros por me posto-marki (o marki postala) e posto-karti (o karti
postala).-On ne kredus, ke ica du pneruli esas frata, nam la senior0
esas mikra e nigr-okula, kontre ke la junior0 esas granda e blu-okula.
-En aquo diafana on facile travidas la fishi e mem la stoni dil
fundo di la rivero.-Donez a me sub-taso, altre me povus faligar
kafeo sur ica be1 tablo-tuko.-La submara navi esas inventuro
recenta.-I1 kredas nu1 fenomeno supernaturala; mem il tote
negas l'existo di supernaturo.-Vu ne sat enterigis ica planto ; lua
radiki esas apene kovrita dal tero.-Me ne povas komprenar, ke uli
trovas plezuro en asistar la senkapigo di kondamniti.-La balno-
kuvo di mea balneyo esas tro kurta por vua amiko : il esas tante
1onga.-Tatempe ni esis richa, e nun ni esas mizeroza.-Kad vu
povus indlkar a me bon enkadrigisto di pikturi ? Me volus igar lu
enkadrigar t a be1 portreto.-En nia epoko on preske ne plus vidas
vento-muelili, quale olim ; ma on vidas ankore aquo-mue1ili.-
Ube vu kompras vua ter-karbono ?-On dicas bonsapora la pork-
yuni ; me ne savas ka to esas vera : nultempe me manjis de o1i.-
Ni ne darfas nomizar undia bestli la efemeri, nam li ne vivas precize
un dio.-On ekterigos la kadavro, nam on dicas kc la kompatinda
fervoyisto ne mortis de acidento, ma esis venenagata.-Omno
to esas preopinioni, prejudiki. kontredici senbaza.-I1 recevis de
lu ne nur insulti, ma mem vango-frapo.-Me drinkos nur un glasedo
de aquo kolda kun un sukropeco.-Ni bezonas lit-kovrilo (o lital
kovrilo) e kap-kuseno (o kapal kuseno) por la chambro di vua amiki.
--hero, on trompis vu ; ne existas reale papilioni or-a1 oza ; t o esas
nur poezial expresuro.-On povas dicar ke la printempo esas flor-
sezono e l'autuno frukto-sezono, ma nur en la zono temperata di
la norda mi-sfero.-La rokaji ne esas enti mortinta, ma kozi sen-
viva.--Ne esas justa dicar, ke kalvo esas senhara.-Same ne esus
justa dicar, ke tuerto esas un-okula, nam la ciklopi esis un-okula
e ne tuerta.-la homo esas un-langa e du-orela, por indikar ke lu
devas min parolar kam askoltar, nam la par010 esas arjenta, on
dicas, e la silenco ora.


Kelka expresi distingenda.

Pro quo vu dormas, kande vu devus laborar ?-Yes, me konfesas,
ke me devus nun laborar ; ma me mustas dormar, pro ke me vigilis
dum la tota lasta nokto.-La pordo ne esas klefo-klozita ; ni do povus
enirar.-Yes, ni povus, ma ni ne darfas enirar ; videz ya l'afisho, qua
dicas : cdnterdikto enirar, kun puniso per amendo.))-Li pasis la riv ero
canokte, dum ke ni pasis la tempo ludante per karti.-Ni expektas lua
vizito ye dek-e-quar kloko (du kloki pos la dimezo) ; ma, se il ne venos
akurate ye t a kloki, nine vartos i1u.--Me venis vartar la treno ye la horo
regulala, quankam me ne erspektas lu ante mi-horo, pro lua tardeso
kustuma1.--Me judikas, ke t a homo esis tre yuste judiciata.-Durez
laborar t a moblo, por ke 01 esez pronta maxim balde (posible).-Yes, me
duros la laboro asidue e diligente, ma me ne povos duvar lu kontinue ;
nam me mustos ya interruptar lu por manjar e dormar.--Ta societo
facis mult asembli en ica yaro ; e singla de oli esis grandanombra,
nam la societo havas tre multa membri. La kasero facis sua raporto
pri la financi, raporto nombroza e tedanta, quale omna tal doku-
menti. Ma la diskurso dil prezidero rivekigis l'atenco dil asistanti
e rekoltis mult ap1audi.-Quon vu agas dum la tota jorno, se on
interdiktis a vu facar irga laboro manuala ? Ha ! me ne restas
nul-aganta ; me facas argila statueti ; to ne esas penigiv okupado.
-Me persequis la furtisto dum preske un horo, ante atingar e kaptar
lu.-Se il ne tante persequabus la plezuro, il ne esus nun persequata
avan la tribuna10.-La mali persekutas la boni, pro ke li odias
la bonajo (o : lo bona).-Longe e kruele la Kristani persekutesis dum
l'unesma yari di 1'Eklezio.--Ne ca festi igas me timar, ma la festini,
quin me mustos partoprenar dum oli.-Me vidis elua dorso, ne lua
,facie ; konseque me ne konocas elua vizajo, e ne savas, kad el esas
bela.-La ombro desegnis sur la kontrea muro figuro homala mi-
profile.-Me konfidis a lu mil franki ye la procento di quar po cent.
-Grand interesti debatesis dum t a diskutado, ed on tre longe deliberis
par savar kad esas oportuna konocigar quik dal publiko la rezultajo
dil debati.-Se du homi marchas sur lineo perfekte rekta, li sequas
tote sama direciono ; ma se ica marchas vers la dextra extremajo,
durn ke ita marchas vers la sinistra, certe li ne sequas la sama sinso.
-11 dicis a1 tribunal0 : (( hfe ne volis advokar testi, e me nule
invokas via klementeso ; me nur apelas a via yusteso pri mea mis-
kondamneso.s-Ta veturo esas male charjita, nam on kargis omna
pakegi sur la sama latero.
Singlu serchas ante omno sua profito, ed omnu deziras esar
sua mastro.-La sentenco : ct A singlu lua debajo D imperas,
ke ni traktez singlu segun lua laboro e merito.-La domi di qui la
mastri esas absenta restas ordinare k1ozita.-Omna grupi a la chefi
di qui la prezidanto sendis t a cirkulero respondis per varma aprobo.
-Ni esperas, ke la homi di qui ni favoras l'interesti montros su
gratitudoz a ni e protektos ni omna-maniere.-Ta patrono, por
la profito di qua ni tante longe laboris, nule rekompensis ni.-
Evitez segun posibleso pezoza frazi tal quala ici : (( Yen la libri
quin me deziras ke vu lektez s ; <( Ube esas la vesti quin vu volas ke
me rapecez ? )) Dicez exemple : (( Yen la libri di qui me konsilas
a vu la lekto s ; (( Ube esas la vesti, quin vu volas rapecigar da
me ? ))-Preferinda esas tarde kam nultempe, dicas konocata pro-
verb~.-Tam fore karn ni povas retroirar en la historio, nia ancestri
habitis ica 1ando.--Tam longe kam t u esos felica, tu kontos mult
amiki ; tam balde kam la fortuno livos tu, t u restos sola.-Tante
ofte la krucho iras aden la puteo, ke fine 01 ruptesas.-I1 esas tante
avara, ke il donas nu1 almono a1 mizerozi.-Se on reprochas lu pro
lua avareso, il audacas respondar : t( Me esas tro povra, o : me
ne esas sat richa, por donar grand almoni D. Ed omni savas, ke
lu esas mi1ioniero.-Vu esos tante plu richa, quante vu havos min
multa bezoni.-On esas richa nur segun quante on havas plu granda
revenui kam bezoni.-Ni kompris tante multa provizuri, ke certe
ni havos sat multo por manjar e vivar per oli dum un monato, irge
quanta ni esos.-Ta desfortunoza rejino dicis a sua persekuteri : Se
vi ue respektas me kom rejino, adminime egardez me kom matro.-
Tro benigna, la rejo dicis a sua revoltinta filiulo : t( Kom suvereno
me kondamnas vu : ma kom patro me pardonas vu )). I1 ya devabus
mem kom patro impozar puniso e pardonar erste pose.-Konsi-
derante, quale il agis ad vu, me judikas lu kom deshonesta.-I1 esis
proklamata kom rejo.-Se me sucesus, me esus felica quale rejo.-I1 ne
darfis agar kom prezidero, e tamen il agis quale prezidero.--Ni omna
facas projeti, quale se ni esus vivonta cent yari, e ni esas necerta
mem pri la morgo.-I1 kondutis che me quale se il esus en sua hemo.
-11 semblas quaze fola. No, ma il agas preske quale fo1o.-El
aspektis quale mortintino, e fakte el esis quaze mortinta pro pavoro.
Me sequos vu irga1oke.-Irgube vu iros, me sequos vu.-Ni helpos
vi irgatempe.-Irgekande vi vokos ni, ni qnik adkuros.-De qua
vu kompris ica pikturo ?-Me kompris lu de mea kuzulo, qua aqui-
rabis lu de olda piktisto tre mizeroza.-I1 ne plus savas, de qua
pruntar la sumo quan il bezonas, nam nulu volas prestar ad i1u.-
Ne mokez la oldi, nam vu oldeskos, e forsan vu anke mokesos.-
Ni pardonez nia ofensinti, por esar pardonata pri nia propra kulpi.
-Esez atencoza, pueri, se vi volas profitar la bona lecioni di via
instrukteri.-Vu ne eskapos la danjero, se vu restos tante neprudenta.

Me ya facis to (ne altru). - Pro quo vu ne respondas ? Vu

savas ya Ido !-Pro quo vu eniris ? Vu vidas ya, be me
esas okupata ! - Advere t a martelo ne esas forta ; ma por
stekar ica klovo, 01 povas ya suficar. - Ta infanto ne esas
advere tre forta, ma il esas nultempe malada. -Ne vu facis
t a laboro (ma altru) ; me vidas lo tre bone.-Vu ne facis t a laboro
(quan vu devis facar).-Vu facis ne t a laboro, ma altra tote neutila.
--Ca libro esas tote ne interesanta (nule interesanta) ; 01 esas mem
ne tote korekta (01 ne csas tote korekta).-I1 tre deziras divenor
balde richa.-I1 deziras divenor tre balde richa.-I1 deziras divenor
balde tre richa.~~-Nur el povas kantar tale (ne altru).-El nur povas
kantar tale (to esas nur povo, ne vole).-El povas nur kantar tale
(el ne povas facar altro).--El povas kantar nur talc (e ne altre).-
Dum la vakanco, il nur promenas (il ne facas altro).-En la mezo
dil maxim varma jorni, nur il promenas (la ceteri restas en sua
hemo).--Dicez : (I Me recevis letro skribit en linguo ne konocata
da me )) e ne : (( me recevis en da me ne konocata linguo skribita
1etro.))-Dicez : El esas amata e laudata da omna ti qui prizas
la beleso ed afableso,)) e ne (( El esas da omna t i qui prizas la beleso
ed afableso amata e 1audata.))-Dicez : (( Ta urbo esas abunde
provizita ye kozi utila por la viva,)) e ne : (( Ta urbo esas ye por la
vivo utila lrozi provizita.a-Dicez : ct Tablo kovrita per ancien
reda tapiso lacerita,)) e ne : (( tablo per anciena reda lacerita tapiso
kovrita.n-Dicez : (( Ni refutis omna objecioni prizentita da nekom-
petenta personi ed ofte genitita da nesuficanta konoco di nia lingua,,
e ne : (( Ni refutis omna da nekompetanta personi prizentita ed ofte
da nesuficanta konoco di nia linguo genitita objecionis-Dicez :
((Me propagas la linguo helpanta Ido, konstruktita sur logikal
principi e sencese developata per ciencal diskutado,)) e ne : ((Me
propagas la helpanta, sur logikal principi konstruktita e per ciencal
diskutado sencese developata linguo 1do.s-Dicez : ct La linguo
helpanta esas l'inventuro maxim utila por la developo di l'inter-
naciona relati e maxim fekunda de grava konsequi por la profito
di la homaro futura,)) e ne : ((La helpanta linguo esas la por la
developo di l'internaciona relati maxim utila e por la profito di la
futura homaro de grava konsequi maxim fekunda inventur0.a-
Dicez : a La mastro ebria de furio bastonagis l'asno ne volanta
avancar,)) e ne : ((La de furio ebria mastro bastonagis la avancar
ne volanta asno.))-Dicez per la formo aktiva : (( On (o ni) sequis
la voyo, acensis la kolino, vizitis la kastelo, ed admiris la bela
panoramo, quan on vidas del somito,~prefere kam per la fonno
pasiva : (( La voyo sequesis, la kolino acensesis, la kastelo vizitesis,
e la panoramo admiresis, qua videsas del s0mito.u
Noto pri l'eliziono e l'adjektivo.
(( On darfas elizionar l'a di l'artiklo la e dil adjektivi, tam egale

avan konsonanto kam avan vokalo, observante ica nura kondiciono,

ke to ne produktos akumulajo de konsonanti. Esas konsilata uzar
t a eliziono precipue kun la derivit adjektivi ( I ) , e partikulare pos la
sufixo a1 : infanta1 annzo, amikal ago, edc. Ta eliziono ne diplasas
l'acento (2). On devas ne uzar lu tro freque, e precipue kande 01
produktus ambigueso : l'afer-la fero.)) (Grammaire complkte de
la langue internationale, da L. DE BEAUFRONT, pagino 12).
Ek ita texto konvenas prenar ica principo : l'eliziono esas kozo
tote permisata, ma nule obliganta. On do konservas la plena yuro
uzar l'artiklo e l'adjektivo kompleta, sen ula eliziono. Se ni aplikis
lu en l'Exercaro, ni lo facis l e por donar exempli, 2e pro ke, se
l'eliziono ne esas obligant en Ido, ni mustas konfesar, ke dicerne
praktikata, 01 donas a la linguo plu granda lejereso, e harmonio plu
agreable fluanta. Irgu qua havas delikat orelo ne kontestos la
kozo, Te lu komparos la frazi dil Exercaro, en qui ni praktikis l'eliziono,
kun la sama frazi sen olu. Esas Vera alejo ne audar kun tedanta
monotoneso la, la, -a, -a konstante.
Nia gramatiko konsilas ccta eliziono precipue kun la derivit adjek-
tivi.)) La vorto ccprecipuea implikas necese, ke l'eliziono darfas anke
praktikesar mem kun la prima adjektivi ipsa, to esas kun la adjektivi
nederivita. Pro to la studianti renkontris la prima adjektivi (( bon,
bel, klar, pur, ancien e c. )) elizionita en kelka exerci, ube t a eliziono
produktas nek l'aku9nulajo de konsonanti, nek l'ambigueso evitenda
segun la gramatiko.
Omno co naturale duktas ni parolar pri la plaso dil adjektivi en
la frazo. Kad ni devas, quale en 1'Angla e la Germana lingui, pozar
l'adjektivo sempre e mashinatre avan la substantivo ? Certe no ;
ico ne esas dubebla. Se la du lingui jus nomita procedas tale, altri
agas segun maniero tote kontrea ; li pozas l'adjektivi sempre pos la
substantivi ; e funde li esas plu justa, nam esas plu logikala nomar
la enti o la kozi ante dicar quala qualesin li havas. Poke importas
tre ofte lia qualesi, ed on ne vidas pro quo t a qualesi havus sempre
e mashinatre la prefer0 e la precedo. Pozar nia adjektivo sempre
avan la substantivo esus konseque donar ad Ido entravilo qua,
nejustifikata segun la logiko, produktas pro e per la ...a, ...a, audata
kun tediva monotoneso, impreso preske netolerebla. Ico explikas
la diverseso plasala, quan ni donis a1 adjektivo en la frazi di I'Exercaro.
Cetere to ne devas desquietigar irgu, nam ni donis exempli por la
stilo sorgata ; ma en Ido, quale en omna linguo, apud t a stilo existas
la parolmaniero di la vivo singladia. Nu, por ica, en qua on sorgas
nur komprenigar su, sen multe suciar pri eloquenteso e mem eufonio,
pozez vua adjektivo ube jetos lu spontane vua pensado. Ido esas
tale konstruktita ke (( bona homo )) e (( homo bona )), exemple, expresas
nur un sama ideo, e ne du diferanta, quale en la Franca linguo.
( I ) La derivit adjektivi esas ti qni posedas sufino (-al,-iv, -08 edc.) o mem, quale
I'adjektivi-participa, gramatikal sufixo . -ant, -int, -ont : -at. -it, -ot.
(1) Konseque I'acento restas sur la silabo qua portis lu en l'adjektivo neelizionita.
Ma pro ke ta silabo arltee prelasta divenas lasta, pos l'eliziono, omna adjektivo
elizionita bavas fakte l'acento surla lasta silabo. Esas uotinda, ke la substantivi, en
Esperanto, same portas l'acento sur la silabo Insta, kande 01 elizionesas.
Some Words of Advice to Students.
This set of exercises can be used even without a previous study of
the grammar, because in the earlier pages we have separated the
component parts of the words. Thus, by simply referring t o the
Ido National Dictionaries or the Guide manuals, the force of the
component parts will be arrived a t and finally the meaning of the
word. I t would be more prudent, however, before making a start on
the exercises to pick up some grammatical knowledge, particularly
as regards the terminations -0, a , e, i ; -as, -is, -os, -us, -ez ; -ar, -ir,
-or ; -ant-, -in&, -on& ; -at-, -it-, -ot-. Proceeding in this way the com-
prehension and translation of the exercises will be rendered easier to
the student.
At the outset we would say : avoid hurry. Consider very atten-
tively even the smallest details. The international language should
be extremely easy, and as a matter of fact Ido is such ; but this fact
that it is easy becomes a source of danger in the case of the inattentive.
For the very reason that they understand it without effort or trouble,
they erroneously imagine that the forms and words will recur to them
with like facility when they want to speak or write the international
language. Now in consequence of having paid insufficient attention
such people then show and themselves perceive that they have not
got a firm grip of the language. Ido substiti~tesreasonable and logical
expressions for many idioms and oddities which occur in our modern
languages, and does so for this reason, that only those expressions
which are of this nature can be universally understood. If, however,
sufficient attention be not paid t o these substitutes, they will not be
learnt, with the result that the illogical and incomprehensible expres-
sions of modem national languages will be introduced into Ido.
The following procedure is recommencIed as being the result of
experience :
(1) To pronounce aloud if possible the words of the text, taking
great care t o put the tonic accent on the proper syllable, i.e., t o
emphasize or stress such syllable in the utterance. In such a way
the ear will grad,ually get accustomed t o the sounds of the language and
the words willsink deep into, and be better retained by the memory.
(2) To write out the translation of the exercises studied without
making any omissions, and compare i t with the translation prin!ed
on another page.
(3) After reaching the twelfth exercise, but not earlier, the text
of Exercaro may (with the help of the translations in English which
the student will find in this book), be with great advantage retrans-
lated into Ido. For this tack the order of the exercifes should be
rigidly followed. Thus, for instance, exercise No. 3 should not be
taken before Nos. 1 and 2.
( 4 ) . When the student has finished translating the remaining
exercises of Bxercnvo into his own vernacular, and when the
written translation has been completed, the student should also
thi-; second part into ldo. On comparing the translation
with the text the student will readily see the mistakes he has made
and correct them.
Substantives-Gender and Number.
Man is born an infant, becomes a child, an adolescent, an adult.
The ,species " homo " is, by sex, either male (ho>zio, man) or female
(lioirio, womaii). A man becomes fully developed (viro, a male, adult
human being) a t about his 20th year. A family consists of (contains)
two married perrons (husband and wife) with their children (sons
arltl <laughter\),who are reciprocally ,ti)brothers and/or sisters.
Children :liould respect and love their (own) parents (gepairi, both
sexes conjointly). Your uncle (re1atio:lship without sex, uncle or
aunt) is the brother (or sister) of your parent (father or mother.)
The children of your uncle are your cousins (cousins, male or female.)
The parents of your parenti are your grandparents. Each (each one)
ha5 two grandfathers and two grandmothers, of whom he (or she) is
the grandchild (grandson or granddaughter.) Among the sovereigns
of Ellgland existed (there were) eminent queens ; but France has
had only kings. h letter commences with (by means of) : Sir, or
with (by means of) : Madam. " Siori," says an orator t o the gentle-
man ant1 ladies who listen to him (or to her). I see Mr. and Mrs. M.
My brother is a professor and my sister is secretary to (of) an advocate
(barriqter ; advokatino, lady ativocate). Among beasts one dis-
tinguishes males a:ld females, for example, bulls and cows ; but,
ordinarily, one combines them under (by means of) the common
name " cattle." The name .e!:iino is not mitable for a woman ; one
uies (employs) i t only for (in the ca-e of) female beasts. One uses
(we use) -ul- and -in- only if i t (that) is absolutely necessary t o
indicate the sex of beast or person. Because it is, ordinarily, very
convenient to speak, even of people, without distingui~hingthe
sexes, for example, of one's brothers and/or sisters (without reference
tosex), of one's professors, of one's friends, who may be menor women.
Adjectives and Adverbs-The Opposites.
Your (female) cowin's child is very strong ; on the other hand,
your sister's children, your nephews (both sexes) are feeble ; indeed
they seem to be ill. No, they are not ill, but somewhat delicate ;
their parents are also more or less delicate. Your mother (two
translations) really sings very well. Yes, ?he does sing well, but she
cannot sing for ally length of time. Wash your hands, because they
are dirty. Yes, I confess (admit) they are really very dirty ; but
(in order) to wash them I need (I want) the soap. Where is i t ?
I t is on the little table, by the window. The books are very interest-
ing, but they are too serious for your children, who are still very
young (infants). Are you fond of your young cousins (female) ?
No, because they are haughty and discourteous. Recount (narrate)
to me the thing (occurrence) but quickly and briefly, as I have but
a few minutes. Well, well the matter is a disagreeable one, but it can
all be eayily put right (one can easily arrange everything).
Personal and Possessive Pronouns.
I love my brothers (and/or sisters). You (familiar form) do not
sufficiently respect your old father. You are too severe (strict) with
your children. He wishes to find his mother and his sisters in the
house. She is very good to (towards) all her servants. The horse
is too tired ; it can no longer draw the vehicle. The affair seems
all right, but perhaps it is not so, and we shall act wisely if we do not
accept it blindly. The commencement of the voyage (journey) was
agreeable but it's end will, perhaps, be disagreeable. She and he will
come with our cousin (female). You will accompany my uncle
and his children if they arrive early enough. Why do you take her
books ? Read your own and let hers alone. He does not love (care
for) my son and I do not love (care for) his. Your servants do not
associate with mine and mine do not asscciate w ~ t hyours. Forgive
your (familiar form) daughters as I forgive mine. He (re-)found her
books but he could not (re-)find his own. They (mas.) left earlier
than they (fern.) and yet they (mas.) arrived later. Boys and girls
offered themselves as guides t o me ; the former demanded
of me three francs and the latter consented for (at the rate of)
two francs; I therefore chose the latter and refused the
former I will come to-morrow with my brothers (and/or
sisters) and their friends. Take their (fern.) cloaks with your own
(plural) as you will not return before night with them (fern.) I met
men who led (were leading) horses ; the men and the beasts did not
agree (amongst themselves) and even stoutly contended, as the
former pulled to the right while the latter pulled t o the left ; but,
in the end they became tranquil and I saw them (the men) and them
(the horses) going in the same direction.
Active Conjugation-Principal Tenses.
I cannot love him, for he hates me. You (familiar) ought always
to obey your parents and respect them. She says she prefers t o
remain here. If the child (infant) wishes, it may accompany you t o
your meal. Yesterday we worked all day (all the day time). You
told me he was ill (said to me " he is ill and I met him in the
' I ) ,

public garden. Did you find your friends ? Yes, I found them a t
the printers. The men and the women consented, but the former
(they, masc.) more quickly (readily) than the latter (they, fern.)
He always admired himself, but now he is becoming quite intolerable
with (on account of) his pride and conceit. The readers of our paper
will certainly (surely, of course,) understand that it needs money t o
(in order to) live ; they will, therefore, faithfully (duly) pay their
subscription and even endeavour (make efforts) to attract to it (the
paper) other readers. If you leave this morning you will not be able
t o see my father as he will not arrive before this evening. You
(plural) would speak otherwise, dear friends, if you knew the truth.
Perhaps (the) servants would obey their masters better if they (these)
were more polite, more affable in their manner of giving orders
("manner to order "). I could not have believed that had I not
seen it. Would you come with me to my uncle and aunt's if your
brother would (or should) accompany us ? (tu, tua, familiar forms).
Yes, I would come a t once. Listen to me. Let him come and I will
give him a hearty reception. Let us work courageously for the
triumph of our idea. Have faith in them, they deserve it. Be
always good to all men (every man) as you desire that they should
be t o you. Naturally every man loves himself and very easily
pardons himself. Do you see yourself in that mirror ? Yes, I see
myself and so do you (so do you see yourself). I shall wash myself
in the bed-room and you (familiar form) will wash yourself in the
dressing-room. You will dress yourself here and I shall dress myself
a t my cousin's (cousin, masc.) He praises himself about everything
(takes praise for everything). Now she congratulates herself for
(on account of) the courage she had (displayed) on t h a t occasion.
They would inconvenience themselves if they acted (should act)
thus (in such a manner). He (or she) desires (wishes, wants) t o read
that book. Now is the time to play and to rest, not the time t o
work. To strive for a noble ideal is beautiful and praiseworthy.
To lie to young persons (the young) and t o deceive them is more
serious than to deceive mature persons (the mature). I t is better t o
have lived than t o be living or to be about t o live, said a pessimist.
Active Conjugation.-Secondary Tenses.-Participles.
When I entered he was writing a very long letter which he gave
to me to read. The girl very much wanted to come, but she could not,
for her mother did not (Eng. would not) let her. Why did yon cry
so violently ? Because my brother beat me. But why did he beat
you ? He beat me because I had unintentionally broken his Punch
(puppet) and he was so furious that he did not even hear my mother
come in, who, fortunately for me, saved me from his hands. When
we had worked well we were permitted to play with our little cousins
(fern.) I am quite sure (certain) that I had still two francs ; I, there-
fore (must have) lost them (or I lost them then) as they are no longer
in my purse. As soon as he had learned (or, on having learned) his
lesson he ran to me t o recite it and I rewarded him if he recited it
well. Yes, you may go out when you have finished (shall have
finishedl the task I gave you (gave to you). If you had told (should
have told) of the matter to your father and mother with all its
details (in full detail) they probably would not have punished you.
I would have loved him if he had been (or, had he been) more just
towards me. When they have paid their debts we will willingly
receive them ; but until then (until that time) we do not wish them
t o come t o our place or to speak to us. If we had known (had we
known) the facts we would never have associated with them. Do
not put yourself out ; I will wait patiently until you have finished
(until that you shall have finished). Under such circumstances we
should have acted quite differently. I should like you to have
repaired that before their return. He would have wished, had they
(people) allowed it, that his permission should have been asked about
everything. If I had wanted (needed) that he should have finished
earlier (sooner) I would (should) have said so. Do you see that old
woman sitting in the corner of the court and attentively reading a
paper ? I met them walking with their boys (or girls, or boys and
girls) ; they seemed to me (to be) sad. Past time is ours no more,
the future is not yet ours, and, perhaps, will never come for us ;
therefore, we should occupy ourselves only'with the present. Lying
on the bed and having closed the (his) eyes, he seemed dead, so pale
and thin was he. Having eaten a piece of bread, he left for his
warehouse (store). I think I showed (I think t o have shown) you
all the buildings in our town worth seeing. The subscribers of this
journal (paper) will probably understand that the more readers we
have (the more we have many readers) the more we shall be able to
improve it. The translators of (those who have translated) those
works are not known. To what purpose to have worked so hard
if we are to lose (going to lose) the whole fruit of our labour. I hope
to come (that I shall come) to-morrow morning. Being about to
come two days hence I will bring you that a t the same time.
Passive Voice-Analytical and Synthetic Forms.
I am now being punished for an offence which I did not commit.
Be calm, for you (familiar) are beloved by all the inhabitants here.
He is always (every time) honoured with (by) prolonged cheers. We
were praised by the numerous persons present. That book was
edited in Amsterdam. You will be rewarded or punished even in
your life (time). May you be cursed by all living, you hypocrite !
I much desire that the thing may be exposed in all its details, so that
you may be judged according t o your merits. Yes, we think our-
selves more beloved than they (fern.) She thinks herself t o have been
sufficiently recompensed. I was happy, for I was beloved by my
parents and by my teachers. He worked so badly that he was
always being punished. When I had committed the slightest
offence I was immediately beaten. Have you yet been reproved
by our master (masc.) ? Had you not (should you not have) pre-
viously lied you would not have been condemned. I t is necessary
that those debts should soon be paid(shou1d be paid soon-esez,(l)
subjunctive mood). When we had been punished he consoled us
as gently as a mother. Beaten by her brother, the girl cried (out)
and wept bitterly. Having been closed in the morning the door
remains closed until the middle of the day. Loved by the kindly
(well-disposed) and feared by the ill-disposed, you have the influence
necessary for that. Will the palace about t o be built cost much
money ? No, it will cost but a small sum, as the material from the
one burnt down will be made use of. That renewed attestation will
increase their strength against their enemies. Does the possession
of a ruined castle really make him (or her) so rich ? The person
arrested is now being questioned (interrogated) and he will soon
be punished.
Substantives Expressing State of Quality.
He occupies himself with (concerning) the construction i f the new
theatre. I look a t the palace and admire its construction (-eso, --
( I ) In Ido the so-called imperative mood does duty for the subjunctive and con-
junctive moods.
state or quality). Do you assume (take upon yourself) the instruc-
tion (instrukto, act of instructing) of that young child ? She pos-
sessed quite an astonishing amount of learning. Their desertion
left us in great danger. What could I do (was I able to do) in such
a state of abandonment ? We always praised his (or her) talent
for (of) convincing and converting. The (state of) conviction which
his (or her) arguments produced in me caused my conversion (-eso,
state of). Is the civilizing process (as) practised by Europeans on
savages capable of producing in them the desire ior (of) civilization ?
The education of boys (and girls) and the moulding of their moral
character is not an easy matter. In that case (in that circumstance)
he gave proof of a perfect education. The organizing of the congress
compelled us to abandon all other work. Indeed, no society presents
so good an organization. The decoration of that room will cost you
(from you) a great deal of (much) money. Oh ! what (how) beautiful
decoration (obj. case) your drawing-room has (possesses), or How
beautifully your drawing-room is ornamented I The pressure of the
fingers on sott wax always leaves traces. The constant (state of)
pressure in which we see the organ explains its irregular action. In
(according to) my opinion your interpretation is incorrect ; the text
speaks of (concerning) the cruelty which the king used in (the)
subduing (of) the rebels. The (state of) submission of those peoples
is only apparent.

Reciprocal Verbs and Substantives.
Love one another (or, reciprocally) as I have loved you (plural),
enjolned Christ upon (to) his disciples. Those men do not wish t o
bear with one another; they are always disputing and fighting
(against one another). If we were truly men we should show it by
not injuring, but helping one another. Well, won't you (plur.) come
and (to) settle up the business ? Yes, we will come, but we are
afraid that an agreement (mutual arrangement) will not be possible.
Boys (and/or girls), why are you always striking one another ? Do
you not know that man was not placed on the earth by God for
reciprocal injury, but for mutual aid and even for love ? Now (argu-
mentative) starting life by quarrelling, you prepare yourselves to do,
till death, exactly the opposite of your duty. Mutual forgiveness
is more beautiful than mutual revenge. Do not flatter, but help
one another, for flattery is bad, to be condemned, while mutual help
is inculcated on all men. The members of your family are, indeed,
very helpful (inclined to serve) ; they are always ready to serve
(render service to) each other. I foresee that my two brothers will
soon quarrel (be involved in a dispute with each other), as they
already regard one another angrily ; that will end badly. Had I
known (if I had known) that in that house there always reign discord
and mutual contention most certainly I would not have come in (to)
it. One would, indeed, think that here the rule is always t o quarrel.
Those men have injured (harmed) one another through (by means of)
(their) envy and jealousy. They threw themselves on one another
and fought furiously.
Comparatives and Superlatives.
He is more obedient and works more diligently than you. You
(familiar) were not so rich a t (in) that time and had not so much
capital as now. Has he travelled as much or more than you ? He
has not travelled as much as I have, but has visited more countries.
She isless handsome (beautiful), but more affable than you. If you
work (shall work) as earnestly as they do we shall give you the same
reward (remuneration) as we do to them. Peter is the best boy on
(the) earth ; he works the most diligently of all. My boys were the
most respectful among (out of) the children of the same age, but,
also (it must be added that), they were the least inclined to work.
I rewarded him the most, for he contended the most couragcously.
His teachers liked him least, because he worked the worst. We found
two copies (in excess) in the chest of books, but three tumblers
(drinking glasses) less (short) in the chest of table-ware (china and
glass, etc.) Come as quickly as possible. Call him (or her) as loudly
as possible (most strongly possibly). Speak as slowly as possible
(least rapidly possibly). Furthermore, I will say that if you had
come earlier we should have been able to finish before night. At
most, he will refuse, but, it is very certain (very certainly), our
invitation will not offend him. At least you should confess (ownj
that you were entirely mistaken.

Demonstrative and Interrogative Relative Pronouns.

That village is just like (totally similar to) ours (the ours). Do
you prefer this or that horse ? That (one) is (the) stronger, but this
(one) is (the) more handsome. Neither these nor those flowers please
me (give pleasure to me) ; they smell too strongly. That soldier and
his comrade (much) agree about everything ; when the former wants
anything the latter immediately does it. The young and the old
greatly desire it ; those (the former) because they think that it will
amuse them, and these (the latter) because they think that it will
be useful to them. Those children played this game for three hours
this morning ; the boy hid the handkerchief and the girl hunted
for it. He had to tell her whether she was near to or far from the
object. When it was found by the girl shr took the place of the boy
for the hiding (of it), and he took her place for the search. Who
would live (he, she, who will live) happy (happily) should be virtuous.
Those (masc.)who know me, know well that my character is not such.
She whom I love does not love me. All those whom I loved are dead.
Who comes to us ? The man (whom) you introduced to me (in,
during the) last week a t Mr. B's ; I forget (do not now remember)
his name. What (that which) pleases you generally (most often)
pleases me. Take what you will ; everything here is yours. Whose
is that garden ? I t is my aunt's. She bought it of (from) Mr. and
Mrs. P., acquaintances of ours and of hers. Do you know a t what
hour he will arrive ? No, he did not say a t what time ; but I suppose
he will arrive not before the evening (that he will not arrive before
the evening). Of all flowers that (the one) which I consider the most
beautiful is very certainly the rose. Of (concerning) what did he
speak to you ? On the matter which was proposed to him ; he says
it is a very serious thing. What is to be done (what to do) in (under)
these difficult conditions ? I (should) very much desire to be able
t o give you advice ; but I, myself, do not see what is feasible (what
can be done). One who loves danger will perish in it, said a sage
(wise man, wise person). The loaves (breads) which the baker
brought are hard. What you relate (recount) is incredible. Those
who saw you affirm that you lie. Those (fern.) whom I saw are older.
When the person whom we await (expect) arrives (shall arrive) you
will conduct him (her) into the drawing-room and beg him to rest
(take rest, rest himself, herself) until we return (shall return). I
consider the books which you gave (to) me yesterday morning very
interesting. All those who desire to have (wish for) easy written
or spoken communication with persons of another language may
not (cannot) remain indifferent when confronted with the question
of international language.
Pronouns in General.
I waited some time for him (awaited him during some time), but,
seeing that no one was coming, I left. True, we were not many, but
still, (we were) more than one, for we were two a t the commencement
and three a t the end. Everyone who is willing (shall be willing) to
come will be well received. He invited all whom he met. Did you
understand all that she said ? I understood nothing. If anyone
should present himself after the middle of the day (after mid-day)
you will say that I am not here. Not many, but some, are of the
opinion (hold such an opinion). Where did you put all my books ?
I put them in some corner, but forget (no longer remember, do not now
remember) in which. Some like danger, but none like death. That
is certain ; some prefer to be considered evil-disposed rather than
stupid. If, from any motive whatever, you do not wish to accept
my invitation, you should a t least tell me why. He is as good as
(he is) brave and as brave as (he is) prudent. He displayed such
malignity that no one wished to associate with him any longer.
The heat is such that none of us can go out any more during the day
time ; we remain shut in until (the) night (fall.) All who come
(shall, will, come) with me will not regret it. Whatever day you
summon (shall summon) me I will hasten to you a t once.
Cardinal Numbers.
(The) man has one mouth, two ears, four limbs. The human hand
has five fingers, and every finger three finger bones, except the
thumb which has but two. Your cousin's (masc.) three daughters
are more beautiful than can be imagined. How many birds did you
buy (have you bought) of (from) the bird-dealer ? I bought of (from)
him six doves. Seven plus nine make sixteen, and sixteen minus
four make twelve. Twenty plus thirteen make thirty-three, and fifty
minus fifteen make thirty-five. The number of inhabitants in our
little town diminishes yearly : now i t is only eighteen hundred and
forty-two. In one hour there are sixty minutes, and in every minute
sixty seconds. He gained (won) two thousand francs. One man
cannot do so great a (thus much) labour (work, task) ; two a t least
are necessary for that. The ordinary years have three hundred and
sixty-five days. She will return in (after) fourteen days (fourteen
days' time) from the long voyage (journey) which she undertook nine
months ago (nine months before now). A hundred persons were
present a t (attended) the feast (f&te,entertainment) and they were
very much crowded, as the drawing-room is hardly capable of accom-
modating seventy or seventy-five without inconvenience. Can I
buy handkerchiefs in (at) that shop ? I want (need) one dozen of
them. A couple is the double of the unit. A hundred years make
a century, and a thousand years make a millennium (period, length
of time, not necessarily in the sublime or any particular sense).
I bought those ten cigars for one franc, consequently they cost
(therefore they cost) ten centimes each (apiece). We walked
(marched), not in fours as (like) soldiers, but in (by) twos ; some
even walked (marched)singly (by ones).
Ordinal and other Numbers.
The first French Republic, as well as the second and the third, was
one and indivisible. The twelfth day of (or in) April and the fifth
day of (or in) May are memorable dates for me. He wrote t o us on
the seventh day o{(in) October. What did you read a t the beginning
of the letter ? London, (on) the eleventh (day) of January."
Our son was born on the ninth (day) of (in) February, in (during) the
year 1892 and his sister was born on the ninth (day) of November in
the year 1901. On the first occasion I bought of (from) that man
half a dozen glasses (one half-dozen of (from) glasses) ; and, on the
second. I bought of (from) him a half-hundred of them. He is not
content (satisfied) with (about, concerning) the salary he received (has
received) ; he wants (the) double, and I d o not agree ( t o i t ) ,because
he works so badly that he scarcely deserves (the) half. If you know
(shall know) your lesson perfectly, you shall have a double reward.
This morning the professor spoke to us of (about, concerning) fractions
(the fractions) and, firstly, explained what a half, a third, a quarter,
etc., meant. In my schooi ~twas (we were) absolutely forbidden (not
permitted) t o converse together in twos (carry on private conversa-
tion) during the play-time ; one had always t o play with the rest.
How could I have won ? They attacked me three a t a time (literally
threely). The sole reward given to me (which ' one' gave to me) was
t o read or to draw. Four times six or three times (triple) eight are
(make) twenty-four. I subscribed t o that review ten francs a year
(at the rate of ten francs for one year). He subscribed (to) our
journal (paper) twenty-four francs a year (at the rate of twenty-four
francs during one year), but, afterwards, he ceased (stopped), assert-
ing that, a t that price (at that rate) the subscription ought t o hold
good for two years. Get all your (plural) friends to subscribe t o a
review contending for our ideal. How much does that cost ? That
costs nine francs and a half. That is much too dear ; for the same
sum one can get (one has) double the amount (twice as much, ' the
double ') of (at) every firm (businessman, commercial house) in our
town. Oh ! how much labour (plural objective), how much pains,
how many griefs will the international language have cost (from) its
pioneers when i t has been (shall have been) implanted in our routine-
bound, sceptical world !
Have you as yet attended an academic meeting ? No, I have not
yet been present a t such a gathering. Is your child still ill ? No,
thank you (or thanks), he (she) is no longer ill ; indeed he (she) began
t o get up again three days ago. You still aim too high ; that is why
you cannot hit the mark. Go as far as the church, and from there
your view will embrace one of the most beautiful and extensive of
panoramas. Afterwards we arrived here, where we remained, as you
see for yourself. Now, if you wish, we will go t o the Town Hall t o
fetch various papers which I need. He scarcely spoke, and only in a
low voice. Have you enough bread ? I have not only enough, but
too much. Perhaps she does not quite realize that once she was far
distant from us, whi!e now she is near. Never, neither now nor
formerly, have I wanted that. He also is of opinion that you will
only be able t o return to-morrow morning and not this evening.
How much milk do you want ? Oh ! very little, please, because the
doctor ordered (prescribed) that I should not drink much. Has he
already returned ? No, he has not returned yet ; probably he will
not return before to-morrow evening. How joyous your brother is
to-day ! He was singing the whole morning : he only stopped a t
noon t o take his meal. \What a lot of people I see in the square !
One would think that it was an election day. Sooner or later the
wicked will be punished. The girl cries as though she were being
beaten, or as if she were experiencing very severe grief.
We are going to the town to the doctor's house, because our father
is seriously ill. At whose house did you lodge when you lived in
Madrid ? The soldiers will not lodge with the inhabitants of the
town, but in a camp two kilometres distant from here. I shall con-
tend for the international language, and against its opponents
(enemies) until my last breath. After our lesson, we will go into the
field, which is behind the house, t o gather violets. Before the present
year I was still able t o come in front of the window looking on t o the
garden, and sit there. Where was he ? He was in his laboratory,
where he was walking with long strides from one end to the other.
Where are you going to ? I am going to my room to fetch my cloak,
which I forgot in it. The mouse ran quietly under the bed ; but the
dog came in and sprang a t it : then the little animal in its terror
jumped from under the bed on to the table. Carry that into the
drawing-room ; you will put it on the couch. Wherever you may
live, I will live also ; and whithersoever you may go, thither will I
go with you. He shouted from the house for us t o come ; but unfor-
tunately we did not hear him. From the barrel in which the dog
had concealed itself it cried to us, and thus attracted our attention.
From morning till nightfall one sees him sitting a t his table and
writing incessantly. Around the garden and beyond the wall were
seen some soldiers with muskets in their hands. From Paris to Lyons
he slept during the whole journey. Henceforth (from now) I shall
no longer pay your debts. Immediately after the death of his father
he went to America. She could not come because she has been ill for
two days. Do you see that crowd of children in front of our door ?
I bought two metres of cloth and half a dozen cups. What are the
cups made of ? They are made of china. He drank a large glass of
wine and went to the station. Whom is that book by ? I t is by
Peter and myself. Whose is that handkerchief ? I t is mine. What
are you thinking about now ? I am thinking of my parents. To-day
I received Henry's clothes from our sister. By whom have you been
sent ? By my master and mistress, who want an answer to the letter
which they wrote to you from Paris. I will come to your house
between midday and evening. On this side of the wall there is no
danger, but on the other side you would risk your life. About that
subject we will talk after the assembly. Having departed before us,
our friends arrived after us ; because we overtook them and passed
them b y ; consequently they arrived later and behind us. On
account of my poverty, he paid for me (instead of me) for the journey
which we made together. According to your advice and in spite of
his rudeness, I remained polite. Instead of working, you slept and
rested during the whole day. Wait for my return, and we will go
together t o subscribe to that journal. Close by the wall and opposite
your house he stopped for a t least two hours. On the right and left
of the chimney-piece, on the wall, there hung two very beautiful
portraits. I made everything with my own hands.
We are of opinion therefore that neither you nor he will be able t o
solve that difficult question. She is really very odd or ill, for some-
times she laughs, sometimes she cries without cause. Well ! you are not
coming with me notwithstanding your promise ! Do you consider
him good ? Yes, I consider him good and very trustworthy.
Whether she will die or live, your fate will be a very pitiable one.
You will do what I tell you ; if not, you will a t once cease to accom-
pany me. Provided she obeys well, I will not rebuke her. Although
children are not always polite, yet every kind-hearted man is
attracted to them. I-Ie received that blow without letting his face
betray the least sign of pain. I warned you, good friends, in order
that you should not fall into that danger. Because (the) iron is more
substantial (solid) than (the) wood, i t is preferred for many uses.
His grief is due to his having received (comes from receiving) this
morning a long letter full of very disagreeable news. How long have
you known that ? For five days. Where and when he died, I am
quite unable t o say, for since he abandoned me, no information about
him has reached me. According as you are rich or needy, (the) men
will judge you as good or bad. If you work well, dear child, I will
gladly reward you, on the contrary, I shall be obliged to punish you
if you are idle. As soon as he entered we all rose politely from our
seats. The more I see him the more I hate him. As often as he comes
you give money to him. On condition that you will always
obey me I shall always get on with you. Every time I try to eat 1
suffer soon afterwards; my stomach will only take liquids now.
He replied in such a way that I immediately drove him out of the
house. The less you work, the less inclination you have t o work.
Since you do not allow it, I will not do it. I t was on that account
that I could not come earlier. Ah ! for that (undertaking) he will
need much money, and he has got very little. After you went out,
he fetched the doctor. M'hile you were taking a rest I wrote to our
clients to give them notice of our early passage through their town.
Objective Case and Elision.
(There was) nothing else he wanted t o say to me. That I will
narrate to you in detail, dear friend, in a few days, when we shall be
quieter than now. What beautiful weather ! even the Italians have
not a more clear and blue sky than is ours to-day. From the window
to the door I counted sixteen steps (paces). New seed, yet more or
less lost, we go on sowing through the world ; but as certainly as the
sun shines above our heads, that seed will not always be lost ; after
a few or many years it will germinate, grow and cover the earth.
Truly the final victory will not be ours so quickly as some think;
but we will not relinquish the combat, and, if we do not see the
triumph, what does that matter ? I t will be seen by others. What
did you buy in the market ? Potatoes, turnips, cabbages, white
radishes, peas and mushrooms I bought from your dealer ( / e m . ) ;
dried plums, figs, oranges and walnuts from your old protkggs, with
whom you made me acquainted lost week. Reproaches, mockeries,
persecutions, torments, all these he suffered in order to remain faith-
ful t o his belief. Children believe everything, therefore we ought to
be very careful not to deceive them. Good, simple and honest, she is
loved by all. Simple, flexible and euphonious, truly international
in its elements, this language presents to the civilized world the only
true solution of the international language ; for, while very easy for
men of little education, it is understood without trouble by every
well educated person. " This would not be a new language, but only
a somewhat changed Esperanto ! Consequently the whole question
about the future of the international language is reduced simply to
this, as to whether Esperanto will be accepted without change in its
present form, or whether some changes will be made in it a t some
(future) time. But with Esperantists this question has no longer
any weight ; they only protest against this, in the case of individuals
wanting to change Esperanto according to their own will ; but if a t
any time an authorized congress or academy shall decide t o make
one or other changes in the language, the Esperantists will accept
such change with pleasure and will lose nothing thereby." (Kres-
tomatio, by Dr. Zamenhof, p. 312).
Afixes CE-, BO-, -ID, -Y UN, EX-, -ESTR, -AN,
-ISM, -1ST.
That nobleman is a veritable parasite ; he lives on the repasts
which he begs here and there. Holy Virgin ! she exclaimed, assist
us in this terrible danger, help us to find some means of escaping
(the) death. Really your laundress is very unpunctual ; she comes
every week on different days and (at different) hours. I did not tell
you that my sister is a lady-doctor, but only that she is the wife of a
doctor. Look a t those cows which are grazing along with my
father's mare ; they are now fat enough to be sold. Our parents and
others of our relations give us undeniable proofs of their love under
those painful circumstances. Mr. and Mrs. H. came this morning to
visit our dear invalid. The Israelites (were born of) sprang from
Israel, and the Carolingians, a royal dynasty in France (were born of)
sprang from Charlemagne, Emperor of the West. So long as the
offspring of cattle is young, we call it a calf, just as we call very young
horses, colts or fillies. Do not confound the terms father or mother-
in-law, son or daughter-in-law, with a step-parent, a step-son or
daughter. All the relations of my spouse (husband or wife) are my
relations-in-law. My step-father (or mother) is only the spouse of
my mother (or father) ; my half-brother is the son of one of my
parents ; but my step-brother is only the son of my step-parent ;
he has no parent in common with me. He is an ex-president of the
republic, because for seven years he was the head of the ~ t a t eof
France, and previously vice-president of the senate. The Mayor
thoroughly dislikes (the) nobles ; he would gladly style them, as
during the first republic in France, ex-nobles. The schoolmaster
and the skipper are the chiefs of the school or of the ship. The
scholars and the sailors are the instructed or commanded of the
schoolmaster or the skipper. The citizens here attend very badly
to the orders of their leaders. The master and mistress of that house
are ex-Christians, for now they are Mohamedans. They abandoned
Christianity and even (Roman) Catholicism, for they were baptized
according t o Roman Catholic rites. She wants to be a member of
our society, but its leaders will not enrol her as a member ; she has
such a bad disposition, that she would fall out with all the members
of the society (after) in the course of a month or two. Our dentist
and our medical man are socialists. The florist is specially the man
who professionally cultivates flowers, and the flower-seller is specially
the man from whom one buys them retail.
Affixes -IER, -IK, -AJ, -IL, -UR,-AR, -EY,
-UY, -AL.
(The) soldiers who carry a cuirass are cuirassiers. That young
gentleman has been treated for the past two years as a consumptive.
Eat only the soft part of that fruit and leave the hard part. The
thing which he related t o you is a pure falsehood. I prefer pork t o
beef. Their friendly acts are treacheries. What act of simplicity
has she been guilty of again ? His table is always full of
papers and writings. I received what you sent. We visited all the
buildings worth seeing in the town. On the walls were seen several
very beautiful paintings. To-day for the first time I noticed the
crack in that vase. The sculpture which you see on the chimney-
piece is an imitation. The aperture should be closed, for the wind
passes through it, and very much inconveniences me when I am by
the window. All the children of that town seem to be sickly. Walk-
ing about in that very large forest, I noticed several clumps of trees,
planted out according to their species ; in one part poplars, in another
oaks, here elms and there firs. Do make haste, the guests are
arriving. What a fine fleet ! it is the finest I have ever seen. Ah !
why does mankind more resemble a vast horde of enemies than a
vast brotherhood ? I am looking for the brush in order to brush
my trousers. We met him in the post-office, where he was watching
the telegraph instrument through the grating while awaiting his turn.
I asked you not for just any cutting instrument. but precisely for a
knife. Every shooting weapon is a fire-arm, but every fire-arm is
not a musket. Fetch thy books into the writing-room ; they are
beside the typewriter. The laundress is not yet in the laundry ; she
has not yet arrived. She is still as unpunctual as ever; she will
come when it pleases her. A cigar-case contains some cigars; it
is a special case for them ; on the contrary, a cigar-holder contains
one cigar, and even that not completely, for only one end of the cigar
is in the holder. By means of the first object one carries cigars on
one's person, while by means of the second one smokes them. Where
then did the maidservant put the candlestick ? Here it is, Sir ; I
found it by the sugar-bowl, a strange vicinity for objects such as that.
Our apple-trees have so to speak not an apple ; we shall have no
cider this year. Ah ! what a beautiful rose-tree ! i t is entirely
covered with roses. He suffers so badly from face-ache, that he has
not been able t o work for four days. That is out of the normal (a
normal condition) and you should fetch the physician. The universal
language is the special instrument of international relations. The
result of the step we have taken is not very agreeable to that old
drunkard ; but, if he is not shut up, he will certainly kill someone
in a fit of fury. Ah ! the pretty kittens ! Will you keep them all ?
No, I shall only keep the tom-cat and give away the females. (The)
mares are more easily led than stallions.

Affixes -OZ, -lV, -EM, -IND, -END, -ATR,
-ES, -ESK.
This water is very chalky, because chalk abounds (is abundantly
found) here. On the contrary, in our country, the ground surface
is sandy ; on that account we have very clear and pure water. No
danger daunts him ; one cannot meet with a more courageous man
than he is. She gave me such convincing arguments, in answer t o
your objections, that I am very sure of converting you. This is not
nourishing, but easily digestible. Although that work is not in-
structional, it is nevertheless very instructive. He is very sensitive,
and has no resisting power (reGstivity). I bring you Eonsolatory
(consolincr) news. Your responsibilitv in this affair is extremelv
heavy ; & your place, I shouid not accept. The person who has thk
inclination t o believe everything is credulous ; and, if he has also
the inclination to be angry, he is irascible as well. He is one of the
most industrious men in the world. My children are not like the
rest ; they are very studious. Perhaps that was impossible. Possible
or ~mpossible, the thing happened ; it is an indisputable fact,
nct only credible or worthy of being believed, but which must be
believed. That writing is quite illegible. I can affirm that his
conduct was always dignified and worthy of respect. How do you
wish that I should write ? I have nothing with which t o write,
neither ink, pen nor even a pencil ; and yet, I must write, for I have
indeed an important letter of three days standing which must be
written. Have you anything which must be done to-day ? Yes,
I must visit my parents. That is not green, but only greenish, Sir.
That food has a sweetish taste very disagreeable to my palate. That
wood has remained in the water such a Iong time that it has become
spongy. Her sensitiveness is extreme and her power of resistance
n ~ l . Moreover a feverish activity has overtaken her for the past two
months and makes me fear it more than the other (complaint).
His avarice cannot be given a name to. You cannot imagine how
gre t his emotion was. Isolation, illness, misery, all these attacked
h:m for a long series of years. With regard t o that structilre I prin-
clpally admire its vastness ; the remainder of the construction does
not appeal t o me so much. Do come, he is dying ! Last night I
could not get to sleep. Then he began to be angry and began t o cry
out furiously. At first she saw nothing, but afterwards she began
to see a form, which little by little took a definite shape. Many
exercises are necessary for a child, t o enable it to become an adult.
At first they did not love me in that family ; but after four months
I began t o be loved by them, and now I am loved very much by all.
She flushes red with anger ; she begins to rage, I see that very well.
If you want t o become strong, you should move, walk, run, etc.
Affixes -IG, -IZ, -IF, DIS-, RI-, RETRO-, DES-,
MI-, -EC, -ET, -UM, -ACH, MIS-, -AD.
I n order t o clean the room, you will ask for John's help. That
wine was good ; what then has someone put into it in order t o make
i t so bad ? Dear friend, you enfeeble yourself and risk losing your
health, working thus from morning till evening, and often even
during the night. Did you cause the doctor to come ? Yes, I
fetched him myself. Put the baby t o sleep ; it is already going t o
sleep. I caused two rabbits and three wood-pigeons to be sent to
you by Peter yesterday morning. By whom are you having your
children instructed ? I am having them instructed by our school-
master, who teaches them reading, writing and arithmetic, etc.
We have already shown Henry our house ; now we will show i t to
you. When my horse is old. I will feed him up ; however, I will not
make him eat too much corn, because I do not want him t o become
ill. He concealed himself so well, that he was not seen by the
enemies. When a child is washed by another person, one may say
say that he is washed ; but when he is washed by himself, one ought
t o say : " he washes himself," in order t o show clearly (well) that he
does the act for himself. Consequently, whenever a person or a beast
does an act for himself or itself do not use the suffix -es-. She gets up
and puts herself to bed without help, for she is now no longer a baby,
but a girl. Stand up, children; your professor is coming in. At
last the cauldron is clean, for two hours I have been washing and
polishing it. You cleaned up my room, but forgot to put it straight
again. She amuses herself by colouring printed pictures. Dress
yourself quickly, for we must go out before noon. Did you add
pepper t o the salad ? No, I only added salt t o it. In order to
preserve meat, some put sulphur on it. Do not touch that machine,
for owing to its electrification it might kill you. The blosson~ingof
all trees precedes their fruit-bearing. What has happened t o you ?
Oh : nothing much ; only my nose is bleeding. He versifies very
well ; he is a very remarkable verse-maker. Would you like to visit
the arms factory with me ? Yes, with pleasure. (The) shoemakers
make shoes, and (the) hatters make hats or sell them. I sent away
or distributed all small brochures which I received for that (purpose).
At what time do they distribute (deliver) the letters here ? At ten
and three o'clock. On entering I found littered upon the table my
papers which I had tidied (had put in order) so well. I told and
reminded you of that many times, but you always forgot it. He
ceded to me all his legal rights, and I afterwards restored them t o
him. Begin again, people cannot understand you (familiar). He is
not young, and still he is not yet old. I s smoking alldived here ?
No, Sir, it is prohibited. Since she is very conceited, she will suffer
very much, by giving offence. He is ill-natured towards all, hence
he is hated by all. The truth is just the opposite of your statement.
I studied (the) singing and (the) dancing. Although he did not make
even one short speech, nevertheless since he had talked with us
during the whole day, he is suffering in his throat this evening. Do
you hear the shooting ? Yes, but not very well ; I might say that
I hear i t faintly. Why does he always speak in a low voice ? Why
does he shout everything that he says ? I t seems t o me that I heard
a loud cry. Cease your uproar ; you deafen me. That is very
warm, and even hot. We came across some brooks ; afterwards
a river ; and finally arrived a t a river running into the sea (an
estuary). A small mount is greater than a hill and not so big as a
big mountain, which is bigger than a very big mount. He is very
joyful to-day ; he smiles on all and hums incessantly. Papa, have
I your permission t o go out in the afternoon ? That is not a house,
but a hovel. Oh ! I am not afraid on account of the rabble, who do
not represent the people a t all. I did my d u t y ; whether I am
praised or blamed, that will be a great consolation to me. He always
misunderstands what we say to him. That is much too dear ; cer-
tainly i t has been wrongly valued or you have miscalculated. Take
off your things. otherwise while working yon will soil your new
garment. The soldiers were disarmed and imprisoned.
Affixes PRE-, -ED, PAR-, -ER, -I, ARKI-, ERI-,
PARA-, -E, -ARI.
Our forefathers are also the forefathers of our great-grandparents.
My grandfather's brother is my great-uncle. They are not my
cousins, but my great-cousins. I am going t o my great-grand-
mother's room, and shall enter it if I hear no noise. He ate only one
mouthful of bread and drank one glass of wine. We shall assemble
to-morrow evening t o read through the serious letters which I have
received. You say that you have thoroughly learned your lessons,
but that is very doubtful, for you cannot recite them. One can
easily see that those dancers are not trained dancers, for they dance
very badly. The vicar of that parish is a very skilful fisherman and
huntsman. The Grand Duchy of Luxemburg is a very picturesque
country. The pre-historic is very uncertain. A wise man has no
prejudices, and does not foretell success or failure depending on more
or less baseless ideas. This pot is not full, but that one is empty.
Without doubt (certainly) he will come ; but with regard t o the
coming of my aunt there exists only a probability. One can remain
motionless and yet be very ready t o move (or be moved). Pronounce
those words very distinctly ; you need lessons in pronunciation and
declamation very much ; the sounds do not get out of your mouth,
that is to say, you do not speak feebly or in a low voice, but con-
fusedly. I undoubtedly ought t o have acted as I did act, and t o
have done what I did. In Russia the brothers of the Emperor were
Grand Dukes, and in Austria they are Archdukes. Arch-deacons
are priests, on the other hand, deacons are not yet priests. Finding
Miss N., I questioned her about her father's condition. She told
me that he was very well and was in perfect health in spite of his age.
Well ! what is his age ? Oh ! he is very old ; he is ninety-seven
years of age. My son is general manager of a very large refinery,
but previously he managed an important distillery. I shall install
a lightning-conductor on the roof of our house. My sister is looking
for her sunshade, and I am looking for my umbrella. Button up
the collar of your overcoat ; we shall feel the cold on the bridge
directly. Roses are rose-coloured and violets violet-coloured.
What colour is my gown ? I t is brownish ; no, chestnut-coloured.
Usually cats are more or less striped (tiger-coloured), but this one has
a pearl-gray coat. I should not trust t o your confidant ; he is too
talkative t o keep secrets. The legatee did not accept the inheritance,
because he was aware that the debts of the legator exceeded the
value of his property. Not having found the adressee, the post
(authorities) sent back the letter to me.


He remains in his bed-room, but from the window he looks on t o

the square of the communal-house (the town-hall square). The
invention of steamboats is more ancient than that of railways. Come
and see the beautiful rainbow ; it is the finest I have seen in my life.
Agriculture is not garden-culture, although both are included in the
term ground-culture. She walks everyday by the seaside, dressed
in a sky-blue gown, and she is a grandmother of fifty-three (years
of age). I am very fond of potatoes, however they are cooked, but
I am quite unable to take cauliflowers ; they cause me bad indigestion
and consequent headaches. What a storm ! It thunders incessantly,
and the gusts of wind succeed one another unceasingly. Betu;een
the acts we assembled in the green-room of the theatre t o converse
with other spectators about the drama performed. The Esperantists,
a t least several of their most eminent leaders and many of their too
docile disciples, assert that they constitute an inter-nation, even a
super-nation, and t h a t Esperanto is the living language of a living
people ! He is so conceited that he believes himself t o be a super-
man. Take this letter to the post-office, and drop i t yourself into
the letter-box ; afterwards you may buy stamps and post-cards for
me. One wonld not believe that those two boys were brothers
(,fvata akin in brotherhood), for the elder one is small and black-eyed,
while the younger one is tall and blue-eyed. In clear water one can
easily see the fishes and even the stones a t the bottom of the river.
Give me a saucer, otherwise I might spill some coffee on this pretty
table cloth. Submarine boats are a recent invention. He believes
no supernatural phenomenon ; he even totally denies the existence
of the supernatural. You did not sufficiently bury this plant ; its
roots are scarcely covered with earth. I cannot understand how
anyone can find pleasure in attending the beheading of the con-
demned (plur.) The bath in my bath-room is too short for your
friend ; he is so tall (long when in the bath). At that time we were
rich, and now we are badly off. Could you tell me of a good picture-
framer ? I should like him to frame this beautiful portrait. In
our days one scarcely ever sees windmills as formerly ; but one still
sees water-mills. Where do you buy your coal ? Some say that
sucking-pigs are nice to eat ; I do not know whether that is true ; I
have never eaten them. We have no right to call creatures of one
day the Ephemeridae, for they do not live precisely for one day.
The corpse will be disinterred, because it is said that the unfortunate
railway servant did not die as the result of an accident, but was
poisoned. All those are baseless preconceptions, prejudices and
contradictions. He received from him (her) not only insults, but
even a box on the ears. I shall drink only one glass of cold water
with one piece of sugar. We need a quilt and a pillow for your
friend's room. Child, you have been deceived ; golden winged
butterflies do not really exist ; that is only a poetical expression.
One can say that Springtime is a flower-season and Autumn a fruit-
season, but only in the temperate zone of the northern hemisphere.
Rocks are not dead entities, but things without life. I t is not correct
to say that a bald-headed person is without hair. In the same way
it is (would) not be correct to say that a person blind of one eye is
one-eyed, for the Cyclops were one-eyed, but not blind of one eye.
Man is one-tongued and two-eared, in order to indicate that he ought
t o talk less than listen, for speech is silver, they say, but silence
Some Exprejsions which must be Distinguished.
Why do you sleep when you ought to work ? Yes, I confess that
I ought to work now ; but I must sleep, because I was awake during
the whole of last night. The door is not locked, we should therefore
be able t o enter. Yes, we might be able t o but we have no right to
enter ; just look a t the poster which says : " Entry forbidden, under
penalty of fine." They have crossed the river to-night while we have
spent the time playing cards. We expect his visit a t fourteen
o'clock (two hours after noon) ; but if he does not come punctually
a t that time we shall not wait for him. I came t o wait for the train
a t the regular time, although I do not expect it for half a n hour, on
account of its being usually behind time. I consider that that man
was very justly judged. Continue to work a t that piece of furniture
in order that i t may be ready as soon as possible. Yes, I will go on
with the work assiduously and diligently, but I shall not be able t o
continue it without stopping ; for I must, of course, interrupt it in
order to take my meals and sleep. That society has held many
meetings this year ; and each of them was very fully attended, for
the society has very many members. The treasurer made his report
concerning the finances, a statistical and tedious report, like ail such
documents. But the president's speech roused the attention of
those present and elicited much applause. What do you do all day.
if you are forbidden to do any manual labour ? Oh ! I do not remain
inactive ; I make clay statuettes ; that is not an arduous occupation.
I pursued the thief for nearly an hour before overtaking and captur-
ing him. If he had not pursued pleasure so much, he would not now
be brought up before the tribunal. The wicked persecute the good,
because they hate what is good. Long and cruelly were the Christians
persecuted during the first years of the Church. I t is not these
festivals which cause me t o fear, but the banquets in which I must
take part during them. I saw her back, not her front ; consequently
I am not acquainted with her face, and do not know whether she is
pretty (or otherwise). The shadow outlined the form on the opposite
wall of a human figure half in profile. I entrusted t o him a thousand
francs a t the rate of four per cent. Matters of great interest were
debated during that discussion, and there was a long deliberation t o
ascertain whether i t was opportune t o make known a t once t o the
public the result of the debates. If two men march on a perfectly
straight line, they follow the same direction, but if this one marches
towards the right whilst the other marches towards the left, certainly
they do not follow the same direction. He said t o the tribunal, " I
did not want to call witnesses, and I by no means invoke your
clemency; I only appeal to your justice in reference t o my unfair
condemnation." That waggon is badly loaded, for they have stowed
all the large packages on the same side.

Each one seeks before everything else his own'profit, and everyone
desires t o be his own master. The phrase : To each his due "
inculcates that we should deal with every one according t o his work
and merit. The houses from which the masters are absent usually
remain closed. All groups, t o the heads of which the president
issued that circular, responded with a warm approval. We hope
that the men, whose interests we favour, will show themselves grateful
to us and will protect us in every way. That employer, for whose
profit we laboured so long, in no wise rewarded us. Avoid whenever
possible cumbersome sentences such as these : " Here are the books
which I wish that you should read," " Where are the garments which
you wish that I should patch ? " Say, for example : " Here are
the books I advise you Ao read " ; " Where are the garments which
you want me to mend ? Better late than never, says a well-kno wn
proverb. So far as we can go back in history, our ancestors in-
habited this country. So long as thou art well t o do thou wilt count
many friends ; as soon as fortune deserts thee, thou wilt remain alone.
So often does the pitcher go t o the well that a t last it is broken. He
is so avaricious, that he gives no alms to the poor. If anyone
reproaches him on account of his avarice, he has the audacity to reply,
" I am too poor," or " I am not rich enough to give great alms,"
while all know that he is a millionaire. You will be so much the
richer as you have fewer needs. One is only rich according as one
has a greater revenue than needs. We bought so many provisions,
that we shall certainly have sufficient to eat and live upon for a
month, however many we may be. That unfortunate queen said
to her persecutors : " If you do not respect me as a queen, a t least
regard me as a mother." Too benign, the king said to his son, who
had revolted : " As a sovereign I condemn you, but as a father I
pardon you." He ought surely in his capacity as a father to have
imposed a punishment and to have pardoned only afterwards.
Considering how he acted towards you, I judge him as being dishonest.
He was proclaimed as king. If I should succeed, I should be as
happy as a king. He had no right t o act as president, and yet he
acted as though he were a president. We all make projects, as
though we should live a hundred years ; and we are uncertain even
about the morrow. He behaved himself a t my house as if he were
in his own. He seems as though he were mad. No, but he acts
almost like a madman. She looked like a dead person, and in fact
she was as though dead from fright. I will follow you anywhere.
Wherever you go, I will follow you. We will help you a t any time.
Whenever you (phv.) call us, we will immediately run to you. From
whom did you buy this painting ? I bought it from my cousin (m),
who had acquired it from a very poor old painter. He no longer
knows from whom to borrow the sum which he needs, for no-one
wishes t o lend to him. Do not mock the old, for you will become
old, and perhaps you also will be mocked. We should pardon those
who have committed offence against us, in order t o be pardoned
for our own faults. Be attentive, children, if you want to profit by
the good lessons of your instructors. You will not escape danger if
you continue to be so imprudent.
The Order of Words.
I most certainly did that (not another). Why do you not reply ?
You surely know I do ! Why did you come in ? You surely see
that I am busy ! I t is true that hammer is not strong ; but to drive
in this nail it will do. That child is not, i t is true, very strong, but
he is never ill. I t was not you who did that work (but someone else).
I see that very well. You did not do that work (which you ought
t o have done). You did not do that work, but something else quite
useless. This book is quite uninteresting (not a t all interesting) ;
i t is even not quite correct (it is not quite accurate). He very much
wishes t o become rich soon. He wishes t o become rich very soon.
He desires t o become very rich soon. Only she (not another) can
sing so. She only can sing so (that is, power only not will). She
can only sing so (she cannot do anything else). She can sing only so
(and not otherwise). During the holidays, he only walks (he does
nothing else). In the middle of the hottest days it is only he who
walks (the others remain in their home). Say : " I received a letter
written in a language not known by me," and not " I received in a
by me not known language written a letter." Say : " She is loved
and praised by all those who appreciate beauty and affability," and
not " She is by all those who appreciate beauty and affability loved
and praised." Say : " That town is abundantly provided with
things useful for (the maintenance of) life," and not " " That town
is for the (maintenance of) life with useful things provided." Say :
" A table covered with an old red torn cloth," and not " A table
with an old red torn cloth covered." Say : " We refuted all objec-
tions presented by incompetent persons and often based on insuffi-
cient knowledge of our language," and not " We refuted all by in-
competent persons presented and often on insufficient knowledge of
our language based objections." Say : " I propagate the auxiliary
language Ido, constructed on logical principles and unceasingly
developed by means of scientific discussion," and not " I propagate
the auxiliary, on logical principles constructed and by means of
scientific discussion unceasingly developed, language Ido." Say :
" The auxiliary language is the most useful invention for the develop-

ment of international relations and most fruitful of weighty conse-

quences for the profit of (the) future humanity," and not " The auxi-
liary language is the for the development of the international rela-
tions most useful and for the profit of (the) future ffumanity of
weighty consequences most fruitful invention." Say : The m ~ s t e r
drunk with fury beat the ass unwilling to advance," and not The
with fury drunken master beat the to advance unwilling ass." Say
by means of the active form : " One (or we) followed the road,
ascended the hill, visited the castle, and admired the beautiful
panorama which one sees from the summit," rather than by means
of the passive form : " The road was followed, the hill was ascended,
the castle was visited, and the panorama was admired, which is
seen from the summit."

Note Relating to the Elision and the Adjective.

" One may elide the a of the article la and of adjectives as well
before a consonant as before a vowel, observing this sole condition,
that it does not produce an accumulation of consonants. I t is
advisable to make use of elision principally with derivative adjec-
tives ( I ) , and particularly after the suffix -a1 : infanta1 annzo, amikal
ago, etc. Elision does not displace the accent (2). I t should not be
used too frequently ; especially when it would produce ambiguity :
l'afero-la fero." (Complete Grammar of the international language,
by L. de Beaufront, page 12).
From this text it is convenient to take this principle : the elision
is a thing quite permissible, but by no means obligatory. I t is quite
legitimate to use the article and the adjective complete, without any
elision. If we have applied it in the Exercaro, we have done so lst, by
giving examples ; 2nd, because, if the elision is not obligatory in Ido,
we must confess that, practised with discernment, it gives the
language a greater lightness, and a more agreeably fluent harmony.
Anyone who has a sensitive ear will not contest this if he will compare
the sentences in the Exercaro in which we have practised the elision
with the same sentences without it. I t is a real relief not t o hear
constantly with tedious monotony la, la, -a, -a.
Our grammar ~ o u n s e l s" that elision be used principally with the
derivative adjectives." The word " principally " necessarily implies
that the elision m a y also be practised even with the primary adjec-
tives themselves, that is, with the underived adjectives. On this
account the student has met with the primary adjectives-bon, bel,
klar, pur, ancaen, etc., elided in some exercises where that elision
produced neither a n accu+nulation of consonants nor ambiguity, which
must be avoided according to the grammar.
All this naturally leads us to speak about the position of the adjec-
tive in a sentence. Should we, as in the English and German langu-
ages, place the adjective always and mechanically before the sub-
stantive ? No, certainly, there is no doubt about that. If the
two languages just named proceed in this way, others work in quite
a contrary manner; they put the adjective always after the sub-
stantive ; and fundamentally they are more correct, for it is more
logical t o name the entities or the things before saying what qualities
they have. Their qualities are very often of little importance, and
one does not see why those qualities should always and mechanically
have the preference and the precedence. To place our adjective
always before the substantive would consequently give to Ido a
fetter, which unjustified according to logic, would produce an almost
intolerable impression on account of and by the -a, -a, heard with
wearying monotony. This explains the diversity with regard t o place
which we have given to the adjective in the sentences of the Exercaro.
Besides that ought not to cause trouble to anyone, because we gave
examples of the style concerned ; but in Ido, as in every language,
there exists besides that style, the manner of speaking in everyday
life. Now for this,-in which one only takes the trouble t o make
oneself understood, without being much concerned about eloquence
or even euphony-put your adjective where it will spontaneously
throw your thought. Ido is so constructed that bona homo and
homo bona, for example, express only one and tine same idea, and not
two different ones as in the French --language.
- -- P --

( I ) The derivative adjectives are those which possess a suffix (-a1 -iv -oz etc.) or
even as the participle adjectives, a grammatical sufflx : -ant -int -o;tt .'-at lit -ot.'
(2) Consequently the accent remalns on the syllable which boie it i n t i e Anelided
adject~ve. But because that syllable, y y i o u s l y the last but one, became the last
after the elision, every adjective elided as In fact the accent on the last syllable. It
isnoticeable that the substantives in Esperanto in the same way bear the accent on
thc last syllable when it is elided.
This vocabulary is not exhaustive, but contains most oi the roots
usually met with, though many useful derivatives have had t o be
omitted. To recognise the root-part o f a word, i t is iiecessary to
know the rules of word-building, i.e., the grammatica! terminations,
prefixes and suffixes given elsewhere.
The roots preceded b y a n asterisk (*) do not require a ternlina-
tion, though they may also be used with such terminations or affiscs
as may be useful. E.4. apud, which is a preposition, gives tlle
adverb apud-e (=besides), the adjective apud-a ( = v e . u t ) , the verb
apud-esar ( = t o he ~zez-tto), etc.

A / -ad-, cowti?~uavlce(only moderate

-a, adjective ad-avan-e, forward
*a(d), t o adi-ar, t o say good-bye
abad(u1)-o, abbot I adjudik-ar, t o adjudge, award
abas-ar, let down, or cause to let / adjutant-o, aide-de-camp
down (in level) / admaxim-e, a t t h e most
abat-ar, t o strike down / adminim-a, a t the least
abel-o, bee (honey-) administr-ar, to mailage, he a t head
abiet-0, fir of affairs (act)
abism-o, abyss (also fig. ) administr-ant-ar-e, adn~inistration
ablakt-ar, t o wean (not fig.) (whole)
abneg-ar, t o abnegate, deny oneself 1 admiral-o, admiral
something admis-ar, t o admit
abolis-sr, t o abolish 1 adolec-ar, t o be adolescent
abon-ar, t o subscribe ( t o a paper) ador-ar, t o worship, pay divine
abord-ar, t o get alongside (of ship, honours to (not fig.)
wharf) ados-ar, t o set the back o f . . . against
abort-ar, t o miicarry (intr.) adult-o, an allult; one of mature age
aboy-ar, t o bark (dog or fox) adres-o, address
abrevi-ar, t o abridge (of book, etc.) adulter-ar, to commit adultery
absolv-ar, to absolve advent-o, advent
abstrakt-ar, to abstract, separate
aceler-ar, t o accelerate
I advere, t o say the truth
adyunt-o, assistant (in some duty)
acend-ar, t o set alight aer-o, air (gaseous substance)
acens-ar, t o ascend, also in thought,
quality (not time)
aeept-ar, t o accept
1 afecion-ar, t o have a n affection for
afekt-ar, t o alfect (disease), also
acer-0, maple afeictac-o, aflectation
aces-ar, t o have access to ; (of afer-o, affair, any business of life
disease) to attack sfln-a, having affinity with ( r : / l i . m .
acesor-a, accessory (not essential) anil jzq.)
-ach-, dcpreciatiuc allsh-o, bill, pvslrr
acian-o, cornflower aflikt-ar, t o afflict
aeion-o, shave (finc4r?ce) , afrank-ar, t o sct free, pre!~ay
*a(d), to, towards ! (lpttri, c ! G . )
aiust-o, (gtln) carriage alianc-ar, to ally (by marriage)
agac-ar, t o irritate, to annoy (lit alienac-ar, to be lunatic or insane
and fig.) (not fig.)
ag-ar, t o act, effect alkemi-o, alchemy
agit-ar, t o shake, agitate alk-o, elk
agl-o, eagle almon-ar, to give alms
agnel-o, lamb aln-0, alder tree
agnosk-ar, t o recognise, admit ar alo-o, aloes
true *alonge, along
agoni-ar, t o be dying aloy-ar, t o alloy (?lot fig.)
agost-o, August alpak-o, alpaca
agreabl-a, pleasant, agreeable alt-a, high, lofty, of exalted quality
agr-0, field, pasture, tillage altar-o, altar
agul-o, needle, for sewing altr-a, other
-21-, thing made of, has quality of alud-ar, to allude to (tv.)
ov to which something is done alumet-o, match (Izrcifer)
ajfl-a, nimble, light and quick in alur-o, gait, pace, rate
motion am-ar, to love
ajlot-o, stock-jobbing amans-ar, to tame, render gentle
ajorn-ar, t o adjourn (beasts, etc.)
ajur-o, light, appearance (avt,archit.) amas-o, heap, pile
opening for admitting light ambici-ar, to be ambitious
akapar-ar, to forestall by buying up ambos-o, anvil
akar-o, mite, tick amik-o, friend
aklam-ar, t o acclaim (not shout) amil-o, starch (lit.)
akne-o, acne (wed.) amnesti-ar, to include in an amnesty
akolut-0, acolyte amor-ar, to be in love with
akompan-ar, to accompany (also amortis-ar, to deaden, to pay off
musically) amuz-ar, amuse, entertain
akont-o, instalment (sum) %n, at, on (of place)
akord-ar, t o be in tune, agree -an-, membev of
(gram.) anad-(in)-o, duck
akr-a, acrid (lit. and fig.) ancestr-o, ancestor
akrid-o, grasshopper anchov-o, anchovy
akroch-ar, t o hook on anex-ar, to annex, append to book,
akul-ar, t o bring to bay etc.
akurata (of pevsons), punctual angel-o, fish-hook
akush-ar, t o deliver (obst.) (child- angor-ar, to be in anguish
bivth) angull-0, eel, snake-like fish
akut-a, sharp, pointed, acute (also angul-o, angle
of ang'es, direases) anhel-ar, t o pant, gasp for breath
akuz-ar, t o accuse, indict anjel-o, angel
-al-, relating to 'anke, also
ale-o, alley, walk in garden, park, knkore, yet, still
etc. ankr-o, anchor
al-o, wing anm-o, soul
alabastr-o, alabaster snomal-a, anomalous, irregular,
alakt-ar, to suckle abnormal
alaud-o, lark xns-o, handle (of cup etc.)
alb-o, alb (vestment) .ant-, pves. pavticip., actiue
alberg-o, inn 'ante, before (of time)
alej-ar, to alleviate, lighten, lessen mtifon-o, anthem
sli-o, garlic mtropoid-a, anthropoid
anunc-ar, to announce, give first arki-, superior degree
notice of, be lpublished arkipelag-o, archipelago
apar-ar, to appear ark-o, arch, arc
aparat-o, apparatus armator-o, shipowner
apart-a, apart, separate arme-o, army
aparten-ar, belong to (not depend) arm-o, weapon, arm(s)
*apene, scarcely armor-o, cupboard
apert-ar, t o open (also of heart) I arm-iz-o, armament (act)
api-o, wild celery, smallage armistie-o, armistice
aplast-ar, t o crush arorut-o, arrowroot
aplik-ar, to apply, lay on arsen-o, arsenic
aplomb-0, assurance, self- artez-a, artesian (well)
possession artichok-o, artichoke
apog-ar, t o cause to lean for support artific-o, trick, artifice, contrivance
apostol-o, apostle artik-o, joint (aszat.)
apotek-o, chemist's shop aruf-ar, to ruffle (feathers, hairs)
april-0, April -as, indicative present
aprob-ar, t o approve (ratify, con- as-o, ace (cards)
firm) asalt-ar, to storm, make assault on
aprob-o, approval asekur-ar, to insure against loss
apr-(u1)-o, wild boar asel-o, wood-louse
apsid-o, apsis asembl-ar, t o assemble
*apud, by, beside, next to, near asent-ar, to assent t o
apunt-ar, to point, i.e., take aim asert-ar, to state, put forward as
aquafort-o, nitric acid true
aquafort-aj-o, etching asist-ar, to be present a t
aquir-ar, t o get for one's own asket-o, ascetic
aqu-0, water askolt-ar, to listen t o (not yield to)
-ar, infinitive present asn-0, donkey
-ar-, collection o f asoci-ar, t o associate into function
arach-ar, t o pull, snatch, or tear out or dignity
arane-o, spider asoci-it-aro, association (persons)
aran j-ar, t o arrange asom-ar, to knock down (not fig.)
aran j-0, arranging (act) asort-ar, t o match (with) (colozcr,
aranj-ur-o, arrangement (result) quality)
arbitr-ar, t o judge, decide (arhitra- asparag-o, asparagus
tor) aspekt-ar, to look (as i f )
arbitr-o, arbitration asper-a, rough
arbitri-o, free will aspers-ar, to sprinkle (holy water)
arbor-0, tree aston-ar, t o astonish, cause t o be
arbust-0, shrub astonished
arch-o, Noah's ark astrikt-ar, t o be astringent
ardez-0, slate asuncion-o, assumption (relig.).
ardor-ar, t o be ardent (also fig.) -at-, pres. particip. passive
are-0, area atenc-ar, t o pay attention t o
arest-ar, to arrest ( a prisoner) atent-ar, to make criminal attempt
argil-0, clay upon
ari-o, tune, air (mz~sic) ating-ar, to attain
arist-0, lawn, ridge of nose, moun- I -atr-, resembling
tains ; fish-bone atrakt-ar, to attract (lit. and fig.)
arlv-ar, to arrive atun-o, tunny
arjent-o, silver aturd-ar, t o stun
arkabuz-o, arquebus aucion-ar, t o bid for
aud-ar, t o perceive b y t h e ear
audac-ar, t o dare. have t h e face t o
aurikul-a, auricle (anat. med).
bart-0, whalebone
bas-a, low ( o f things only)
basament-0, basement
autun-o, a u t u m n basen-o, basin
av-o, grandparent bask-0, coat tails, skirt
*avan, i n front o f (spnce) baskul-ar, t o see-saw
avantaj-o, advantage ( n o t superi- basot-o, basset hound
ority) baston-o, stick, s t a f f
avantal-0, apron (also o f carriages)
avar-a, avaricious
bat-ar, t o beat. strike repeatedly
batel-o, boat
avari-o, average (inszir.) batist-o, cambric
avelan-o, hazelnut bav-ar, t o slobber
aven-o, oats bay-o, bay (geog.)
avers-o, right-side (e.g., o/ coin) baz-o, base, basis
avert-ar, warn, call attention o f i bazil-o, basil
avid-a, greedy, craving, eager be-ar, t o gape, be open-mouthed
aviz-ar, advise, give notice t o beat-a, blissful
ax-o, axle, axis bed-o, flower-bed
axel-o, arm-pit bedel-o, beadle, usher
bek-V, beak o f bird
B bel-a, beautiful
babil-ar, t o chatter (talk excessively) bend-o, band (cloth)
bagaj-o, baggage benedik-ar, t o bless
bagatel-o, trifle ( o f small impor- benign-a, kind, morally good
tance) benk-o, bench, form, seat
bak-ar, t o bake ( d r y h e a t ) benzo-o, benzoin
balanc-o, scales, balance ber-0, berry
bal-o, ball, dance berenjen-o, egg-plant
balay-ar, t o sweep berlok-o, trinket (01%watch chain)
balbut-ar, t o stammer, stutter bers-ar, t o rock ( t v . )
baldaken-o, canopy besti-o, beast
*balde, soon bet-o, beet
baldri-o, shouldcr-belt, baldrick beton-o, concrete ( m a s o ~ ~ r y )
balen-o, whale betrav-o, beetroot
balif-o, bailiff bezon-ar, t o need ( tI.)
baln-ar, t o bathe ( b a t h ) bicikl-o, bicycle
balot-ar, t o elect b y ballot bidon-o, can
balzam-o, b a l m biel-0, connecting rod
bandolier-o, bandolier, shoulder- bilanc-o, balance sheet
belt bilboket-o, c u p and ball (game)
baner-o, banner bilg-o, bilge (ship)
bankrot-ar, t o become bankrupt bil-o, gall, bile
bapt-ar, t o baptize biliet-o, ticket ; bill (fin.)
bar-ar, t o bar or stop u p I bind-ar, t o bind (books)
barak-o, wooden shanty. / binokl-o, spectacles, eye-glasses
barakt-ar, t o struggle I biret-o, biretta ( o f priests)
barb-o, beard birk-o, birch
barbel-o, barbel bir-o, beer
barbot-ar, t o dabble (ii~tr.,lit. a~irl *his ! encore !
fag.) biskot-o, rusk
barbuli-ar, t o splutter I bisquit-o, bihcuit ( h w a d , cake)
barel-o, cask, barrel bitr-a, bitter, opp. t o sweet (also
barok-a, o d d , queer
bizel-0, bevel 1 brokant-ar, to deal in secondhand
blank-a, white goods
blat-o, cockroach brokat-o, brocade
blaz-ar, t o pall, be tired o f (tr.) bronki-o, bronchial tube (auzat.).
blind-a, blind bronchia
blokus-ar, t o blockade bronkit-o, bronchitis
blotis-ar, t o crouch ( i l z a corner) bros-ar, t o brush, furbish
blu-a, blue brosh-ar, t o stitch (books)
bo- (father, etc.),-in-law brov-o, eye-brow
bobi-0, spool, bobbin bruet-o, wheelbarrow
bokal-o, glass-jar bruis-ar, t o m a k e a noise
bok-o, m o u t h (also fig.) brul-ar, t o b u m (tr., intv.)
boli-ar, t o boil (intr.) brusk-a, abrupt ( i l l address or
bolt-o, bolt o f iron w i t h head manners)
bon-a, good (simply good) brut-o, brute (animal or personj
bor-ar, t o bore (with revolvi+zgtool) bub-o, urchin (pet or roguish child)
borach-o, borage buch-ar, t o slaughter (animals),
borde-ar, t o t a c k , change ship's butcher
course bud-ar, t o pout
borgez-(u1)-o,burgess, one o f middle bufal-o, b u f f a l o
class bufr-o, b u f f e r
bors-o, exchange, bourse buket-0, bunch (nosegay), bouquet
bosk-o, a wood ( o f tvees) bulion-o, broth
botel-o, bottle bul-o, ball (ofany kind, not bullet)
bot-0, boot bunt-a, o f ill-assorted colonrs
bov-o, o x ( a n y bwuine anivzal) burask-o, squall o f wind
boy-o, buoy burdon-o, humble-bee
brach-o, breeches burel-0, coarse woollen cloth
brae-o, f a t h o m (nav. measurc) burg-0, borough
braki-o, a r m burjon-o, bud (hot.)
bram-ar, t o bellow ( o f any animal- bur-o, hair, flock, wad (material for
i t s characteristic call) ; not dog, padding)
fox, cat, cock, crow, frog, hen bus-0, box-tree
branch-o, bough, branch, genealogy bush-o, bush (not cut d u w ~ )
(not o f knowledge) bushel-0, bushel (meicsztre)
brandi-o, brandy busol-o, compass (mariners')
brand-o, fire-brand i busprit-o, bowsprit
bran-o, bran
brandis-ar, t o brandish (not fig.)
brankard-o, s h a f t of vehicle
1 butik-o, shop (store)
butr-0, butter
buvrel-o, bullfinch
branki-o, gill, branchia
bras-ar, t o stir (to m i x ingredients)
i bax-o, box
brech-o, breach, gap C
brek-o, wagonette *ca, this
bretel-o, braces, suspenders car-o, Tsar
brev-o, brief, Pope's eel-ar, t o hide, conceal ; keep
brez-o, ember ( o f wood) secret
brid-o, a bridle celib-a, celibate
brig-o, brig (?taut.) celul-o, cell (all senses)
bril-ar, t o be bright, glare (atid cement-o, cement (Portland)
k.) cen-o, scene (theatre)
brisk-a, brisk 1 cent-o, hundred
brod-ar, t o embroider ( ~ ofig.)
t centr-o, centre
centr-al-a, central cimas-o, ogee (arch.)
ceptr-o, sceptre cimitar-o, scimitar
cer-0, wax-taper cinam-o, cinnamon
cerebel-o, cerebellum cindr-o, cinders
cerebr-0, brain cintil-o, spark (also fig.)
ceriz-o, cherry ciraj-o, blacking (subst.)
cert-a, certain, sure (Itt.) cirkl-o, circle
ceruz-o, white lead *cirkum, round, around
cerv-(ul)o, stag, hart cirkum-ar, t o surround
ces-ar, to cease *cis, on this side of
ceter-a, (plural : ceteri) the rest, cistern-o, cistern, tank
the remainder ; ceter-e, beside?, citron-o, citron
moreover civil-a, civil (not milit., relig. or
chagren-ar, to grieve (ivztr.) crim.)
chambr-o, room, chamber civit-an-o, citizen
cham-o, chamois civit-o, city
champani-o, champagne wine ciz-o, scissors
chanj-ar, to change (wet exchaiige) *co, this (Ihing)
chapel-o, hat
chapitr-o, chapter of book D
char-0, chariot, car (two-wheeled) ' d a , by, agent after passive verb
charj-ar, to load, burden someone daim-o, fallow deer
or something with damask-o, damask (silk wtwen)
charnir-o, hinge, joint damzel-o, young lady, unmarried,
chas-ar, to chase, hunt miss
chast-a, pure, chaste dank-ar, to thank
*che, a t or t o the (house o f ) ,among, dans-ar, to dance
with darf-ar, t o have a right to, be
chef-o, chief, head permitted
cher-a, dear ( i n price) ' darn-ar, to darn
cherp-ar, to draw (water) (also fig.) date:-o, date ( f r u i t )
chiir-o, secret writing, cipher dax-o, badger (animal)
chik-a, chic *de, from ; of (quantity)
chinion-o, chignon De-o, God
chip-a, cheap deb-ar, t o owe, be under obligation
chopin-0, pint 1 debet-o, balance due (of debt)
chose-o, road-way (travellittg pn1.t)
chuv-o, jackdaw
*ci, these
11 deb-o, -aj-o, debt
deboch-ar, t o live dissolutely
debut-ar, to make one's first
cibol-0, kind of onion, shallot appearance, one's outset
cibori-0, pyx (eccl.) I dec-ar, t o be correct, decent
ciel-o, sky (also fig.) deeembr-o, December
cienc-al-a, scientific decens-ar, t o descend
cienc-o, ( a ) science decept-ar, t o disappoint, t o defeat
cifr-a, figure, cipher of expectation or hope
cigan-0, gipsy deehifr-ar, t o decipher (not depict)
cign-0, swan / decid-ar, to decide, settle, determine
cikad-o, cicada 1 dedik-ar, t o dedicate (temple, etc.)
cikatr-o, scar, cicatrix dedukt-ar, to deduce ( b y reasoning)
cikoni-0, stork I defekt-o, defect, imperfection
cikori-o, chicory
cikut-o, hemlock
cim-0, bug 1
deiens-ar, to defend
defi-ar, t o defy
defll-ar, march in file
degn-ar, to deign (intr.) diagnoz-ar, to diagnose
dejun-ar, to breakfast (at abovt
I diakon-o, deacon
diant-o, pink
dejur-ar, to he on duty die-ar, to say, express in words
*dek, ten dieern-ar, to discern
dekan-o, dean ( o f cathedral, etc.) dieipul-o, disciple, follower
dekolt-ar, to cut low (dress), bare difam-ar, to defame
the neck difer-ant-a, different
deleg-ar, to delegate as agent difer-ar, to differ
delekt-ar, to delight (tv.) difer-o, difference
delfin-o, dolphin, dauphin difuz-ar, t o diffuse, shed abroad
deliber-ar, to deliberate, take coun- dig-o, dam, dike
sel digest-ar, t o digest (food) ( t r . )
delie-o, delight (or its caztse) dign-a, worthy, deserving
delikt-ar, to commit an offence digres-ar, t o make a digression
against law (not cvime) from the subject
delir-ar, to be delirious dik-a, thick ( i n dimension)
demand-ar, to ask for a thing dilet-ar, t o be a lover of
demarsh-ar, to take steps dilut-ar, to dilute by thinning ( b y
dementi-ar, to give the lie to, to mixture )
deny diluvi-o, flood, deluge
demis-ar, to resign ( a post, ofice) diminut-ar, diminish
demokrati-ala, democratic din-a, thin (not thick)
demolis-ar, to demolish (also fig.) dind-o, turkey
denar-o, coin (ancient, denarius) dine-ar, t o dine
denigr-ar, t o disparage some one dine-o, dinner
dent-o, tooth diplas-ar, t o displace
dentel-0, lace direkt-ar, to direct (way, course)
depart-ar, to depart, go forth diret-a, direct, leading by the
depesh-o, dispatch (urgent message) shortest way
deplor-ar, t o bewail, deplore dis-, distributive, prefix (sepavation
depres-ar, t o depress (also fig.) and dissemination)
des-, contrary dish-o, dish (tood)
desegn-ar, to draw (represent object) disip-ar, to waste, squander
deser-o, dessert diskont-ar, t o discount, lend money
deskripbar, t o describe by words diskurs-ar, t o make a speech
despens-o, pantry, larder diskut-ar, to discuss (not consume)
despit-ar, t o be irritated by pre- dism-0, tithe
ference shown t o another dispon-ar, t o have a t o n e s disposal
ilestrukt-ar, t o destroy, break up disput-ar, to dispute (intr.)
detal-o, detail, minute item disput-(ad)o, a dispute
dev-ar, be obliged by duty dist-ar, t o be remote
devast-ar, to devastate, ravage disting-ax', distinguish (to set apavt).
develop-ar, t o develop, make fuller characterize
devoe-o, piety, devoutness distrakt-ar, to divert attention
devor-ar, t o devour, eat up greedily diten-ar, t o detain in possession
devot-a, devoted ditres-o, distress (severe)
dextr-e, to the right diven-ar, t o become (change state)
dezir-ar, t o desire, wish divers-a, diverse
*di, of, belonging t o divid-ar, t o divide (tr.)
di-o, day (of 24 hours) divin-ar, to guess (by any means)
diabl-o, devil dizastr-o, disaster (not ill luck)
diafan-a, transparent *do, then, so ( =therefore)
doari-0, jointure, dower eben-o, ebony (wood)
doe-ar, t o teach ( n subject) -ebb, ...d, that can be
dogan-0, customs, duty ebri-a, intoxicated
dole-a, sweet, mild ebuli-ar, t o form bubbles
dolor-ar, t o be in pain (body or ' ecel-ar, to excel, be pre eminent
mind) eeelene-o, Excellency
dom-o, house (building) ecept-ar, to except ( t r . )
domaj-ar, t o damage eees-ar, t o exceed limits
dominac-ar, to dominate (tu.), to eeit-ar, to excite
have commanding influence -ed-, quantity, -full
over edifik-ar, to edify
domt-ar, to tame (beasts) edit-ar, to issue copies of book,
don-ar, to give, bestow engraving, etc.
dome-ar, to make a present of edr-o, side (geom.)
*dop, behind eduk-ar, to educate (also of beasts)
dorlot-ar, to cuddle, pet efekt-o, effect, result
dorm-ar, to sleep (be asleep) eflk-ar, to be efficacious, produce
dorn-o, thorn, prickle marked effect
dors-0, back (of anyone or thing) -eg-, augmentative
dosel-o, canopy egal-a, equal (not impartial, etc.)
dragoman-o, dragoman egal-es-0, equality
draje-o, sugar-plum egar-ar, to mislay
drak-o, dragon ( m y t h . ) egard-ar, to pay regard to, take
dramat-o, drama into account
drap-o, cloth (woollen) *ego, (the) self
drapir-ar, to drape ( a v r a n ~ e in egorj-ar, to cut the throat of
folds) ek-o, echo
drash-ar, to thresh (grain) *ek, out of
dres-ar, to train, break in (anirnols) ekin-o, sea-urchin
drift-ar, t o drift (naut.) ekonomi-o, economy, management
dril-o, drill (rnechan.) (not saving)
drink-ar, t o drink (not fig.) ekonomik-o, economics, national-a
drol-a, droll, funny -political economy
dromedar-o, dromedary ekonomik-al-a, economic (pert. to
dron-ar, to drown ( t r . ) economics)
*du, two eklezi-o, church (soc.)
dub-ar, to doubt, hesitate to believe eklog-o, eclogue
duen-o, duenna, chaperon *el(u),she
duet-o, duet elekt-ar, to elect
duk-(ul)o, duke elektr-o, electricity
dukt-ar, t o lead, conduct elev-ar, t o elevate (eyes, face, etc.)
*durn, during *eli, they (fern.)
dung-o, manure elizion-ar, t o elide
dur-ar, t o last, continue -em-, inclined to
dur-iv-a, durable emali-o, enamel
durst-ar, thirst, be thirsty embrae-ar, to embrace, clasp in
dush-ar, t o douche (give a shower arms
bath) embrag-ar, to put into gear
embusk-ar, t o place in ambush
E emend-ar, t o free from fault or
*e(d), and error, change for the better
-8, adverb emers-ar, t o emerge ( f r o m a liqzcid)
-9-, coloured, or looking like emis-ar, to emit (also physics)
emoe-ar, to feel emotion, be moved eskudel-o, porringer
empirikism-o, empiricism -esm-, -th (ordi~zalnrlmbei)
empost-o, impost (arclz.) espad-o, broadsword
emuls-ar, to emulsify espaler-o, espalier
emund-ar, to prune, trim, pick espart-o, esparto
(salad, rtc.), also fig. espel-ar, to spell out letters
*en, in esper-ar, t o hope
-end-, that m u s t be ...d espinet-o, spinet
endetal-a, -e, retail ( c o w . ) espres-o, express ( t r a i n )
enemik-o, enemy esprit-o, wit ; -aj-o, a witticism
engros-a, -e, wholesale (com.) espruv-a, proof against
enigmat-o, enigma, riddle est-0, the east
enoy-ar, to be bored establis-ar, t o establish, set up
ent-o, being, entity estal-ar, to display (com.)
entraprez-ar, to undertake, engage estaneh-ar, to stanch ( t r . )
to perform estomp-ar, to stump ( d r a w i n g )
entraten-ar, t o support (with the -estr-, chief of
needs of life) estrib-o, stirrup (rider's)
entrav-ar, to shackle, put fetters on esvan-ar, to swoon away
envidi-ar, to envy (not court) -et-, diminutive
epistol-0, epistle etaj-o, storey of building
episkop-o, bishop etajer-o, set of shelves, what-not
equitat-o, equity (not l a u ~ ) etap-ar, to halt a t a stage ( i n travel)
er-0, era etat-0, statement, account (receipts
-er-, doing habitlta/l%f and e n p ~ n d i t u r e )roll
ere-0, ore etern-a, eternal
-eri-, establishmerit for etiket-o, label
erik-o, heather etik-o, ethics
ermin-o, ermine etuy-o, sheath, case for scissors, etc.
eror-ar, to be mistaken, err ( i n t r . ) evalu-ar, t o estimate the value of
*erste, not before ( t i m e ) evangeli-o, gospel
erud-ar, t o make erudite ev-ar, t o be (so m a n y years) old
-0s-, quality, state evident-a, evident
8s-ar, to be evier-o, kitchen sink
esam-o, swarm (bees) event-ar, t o happen, come about
esbos-ar, to rough-cast, sketch out evit-ar, to avoid, shun
esforc-ar, to make efforts ex-, former, ex-
eshafod-o, scaffolding, spectators' exajer-ar, t o exaggerate
stand exaue-ar, to hear and grant a
-esk-, to begin to, to become prayer or request
eskadr-o, squadron (nazrt.) exempl-o, example
eskal-ar, to touch a t (naznt.) / exhaust-ar, to exhaust (not con-
eskald-ar, to scald (not cause to boil)
eskaler-o, staircase 1 sume (also fig.)
exist-ar, t o exist
eskamot-ar, to perform conjuring
tricks I
exkav-ar, t o excavate by digging
exkluz-ar, to exclude
eskap-ar, to escape, find a way out i exkurs-ar, t o make an excursion
eskarp-a, steep ( o f slopes) 1 expans-ar, to expand (intr., tr.,
eskart-ar, to put aside ; to step / also fig.)
acide i expekt-ar, t o expect
eskombr-C, rubbish, useless frag- ' expert-a, expert
eskrok-ar, to swindle
expertiz-ar, to appraise, set a value
On (offic.)
expiac-ar, to expiate 1 far-o, lighthouse
farb-0, paint, colouring matter
explik-ar, t o explain
explor-ar, t o explore farin-o, flour
explot-ar, t o get the value out of. faring-o, pharynx
t o exploit (also persons) farm-0, farm (due payable by way
expoz-ar, to expose, exhibit / o f rent, etc.)
expres-ar, to express by symbols, I fars-0, farce (also cookery)
gesture, words, etc. fashin-o, fascine, bundle of sticks,
extens-ar, t o extend (tr.) etc.
*exter, outside, outside of fask-o, bundle of things bound
exting-ar, t o extinguish, quench together (flowers, carrots, etc.)
extors-ar, to extort fason-ar, t o fashion
extrakt-ar, to extract (ore, text, etc.) fast-ar, t o fast
not deduce fatig-ar, t o tire, fatigue
extrem-a, extreme fat-o, fate
extrem-aj-o, extremity, end fatu-a, foppish, self-satisfied
-ey-, place for fauc-o, throat, gorge
-ez, imperati~jc favor-ar, t o favour, treat kindly
fayeno-o, crockery
F fazan-o, pheasant
fazeol-o, kidney-bean
tab-0, bean fe-in-o, fairy (fabulous)
iac-ar, t o make, perform (also fig.)
facil-a, easy (not difficult) febr-o, fever
facil-ig-ar, t o facilitate, make easy
facin-ar, t o fascinate feder-ar, t o confederate
faoi-0, front of a person fek-o, excrement
facion-ar, t o be 011 sentry duty, fekund-a, fruitful, prolific
mount guard fel-o, skin, fell, hide (dressed)
fag-o, beech feld-o, sphere of activity (also
fair-o, fire elect., etc.)
fak-o, compartment, branch ( o f felg-o, felly, rim of wheel
knowled~le) felic-a, happy ( o f pwsons)
iakt-o, fact lelp-o, a kind of plush
fakultat-o, faculty (also of Univer- felt-o, felt ( s t u f f )
sity) femin-o, female ( o f animals only)
ial-ar, t o fall (not as i n battle) fend-ar, to split, cleave (lengthwise)
falang-o, phalanx (rzoi bot.) fen-o, hay
ialch-ar, t o mow (tr.) fenestr-o, window
fald-ar, t o fold ( t v . ) fenikul-o, fennel
fali-ar, to fail, be missing (intr.) fer-o, iron (metal)
fals-a, false, imitating (hair, teeth, ferdek-o, deck (of a s h i p )
etc.) feri-o, fair (market)
falset-o, falsetto ferma, solid, steady (compact)
ialv-a, fawn, reddish yellow fervor-ar, t o be fervent
fam-o, fame fest-ar, t o make festive ( e n fdte)
Ian-ar, t o winnow grain festi-ar, t o banquet
ianlar-o. flourish ( o f tncmpeti), festuk-o, a little bit of straw, stalk
let-0, f e t u s
fanfaron-ar, t o play the braggart ; feud-o, fief, feud
t o boast of *fl, oh fie !
fang-o, mud flakr-o, hackney coach
fantazi-ar, t o have a fancy for flal-o, phial
flbr-o, fibre folieton-o, serial story
fld-ar, t o irust, rely upon fond-ar, t o found, establish
fldel-a, true, faithful (not nccuvaie) font-0, spring (of water),source
fler-a, proud ( =proper sense of self- *for, far from
respect) forej-o, forage
81-0, thread, yam forj-ar, t o forge by heating
filas-o, tow forest-o, forest
flli-0, son or daughter fort-a, strong, (not firm)
filik-o, fern fork-o, fork (agric.)
film-o, film (photog.) formac-ar, t o form
!bar, t o finish, end (not die) formik-o, ant
fing-ar, to pretend, feign forn-o, oven ( f o rbaking bread, etc.)
flngr-0, finger, toe, digit *torsan, perhaps
flnk-o, finch fosat-o, ditch, moat
flrm-o, business firm fost-0, post, pillar (stake, stout pole)
fish-o, fish fox-0, fox
flt-ar, t o fit (suit as to shape, size) foyer-o, lobby (theatre), green-room
flad-o, custard foy-o, time, multa-foye, many times
flag-o, flag frag-o, strawberry
flagr-ar, to be flagrant, deflagfate frakas-ar, to shatter t o pieces
(chem.) frak-o, dress-coat
flaming-0, flamingo fram-o, frame, framework, of motor-
flan-ar, t o lounge, saunter car, etc. (not of picture)
flank-o, flank (anat. ; also mil. and Pramason-o, freemason
~zav.) framb-o, raspberry
flat-ar, t o flatter franj-o, fringe (not border or margin)
flar-ar, to smell ( t r . ) by scent, frank-o, franc (coin)
suspect frap-ar, t o strike, hit
flatu-ar, t o be affected with flatu- frat-o, brother or sister
lency fraxin-o, ash-tree
Bav-a, yellow fray-o, spawn (of aquatic animals)
flech-o, arrow, spire fraz-o, phrase, sentence
fleg-ar, t o nurse, wait upon the sick fremis-ar, t o shudder with horror
fleret-o, foil (fencing) frenezi-o, frenzy (delirious)
flex-ar, t o bend out of the straight fren-o, brake (for stopping motion)
flitr-o, spangle, tinsel frequ-a, frequent, often occurring
flog-ar, t o whip fresh-a, fresh, newly gathered
flor-o, flower ( l i t . ) frez-ar, t o countersink
Boron-o, flower (ounam~nt) friand-a, dainty, toothsome
flos-o, fin (of a fish) fricion-ar, t o rub
flot-o, fleet (nau.) frigor-o, cold (subst. tech.)
flotac-ar, to float on the surface of frip-o, old clothes
liquid fripon-o, petty thief, knave
flu-ar, to flow, run, glide (also o f frisk-ar, t o frisk about
blood) iris-o, frieze (archit.)
flug-ar, t o fly in air ; be driven by frit-ar, t o fry (tr. and intr.)
wind friz-ar, t o curl
flur-o, landing (on a staircase) fromaj-o, cheese
fluvi-o, large river frond-o, sling (for throwing stones)
flux-o, flood (opp. to ebb) frost-ar, t o freeze (intr.)
fok-o, focus frot-ar, t o polish by rubbing
fol-a, mad, insane fru-a, early ; adv., frue
foli-o, leaf or thin sheet frukt-0, fruit
Xrument-o, wheat garb-0, sheaf
fruns-ar. to gather (tzeedlework) garbanz-o, chick-pea
fug-ar, to flee, run away gard-ar, to guard
iuk-o, sea-weed garden-o, garden
fuligin-o, soot gargar-ar, t o gargle (Ir.)
fulmin-o, flash of lightning, fulmina- garit-o, sentry-box
ti.on garnis-ar, to complete by orna-
fumur-o, smoke menting, arming ; complete
fund-0, bottom part on which any- with what the object must bear
thing rests or contain
funel-o, funnel garson-o, waiter
luner-o, funeral garter-o, garter
funest-a, baleful gas-0, gas
fung-o, mushroom gast-ig-(em-es-)o, hospitality
fuort-o, Iort gast-o, guest
furgon-o, baggage cart, ammunition gay-a, gay
xvaggtjn gaz-0, gauze
furi-ar, to 1)e in a rage gazon-o, turf ( o f grass)
furnel-o, .ktove, kitchen range ge-, to include both sr ~ r s
furnis-ar, t o furtliqh, .;upply gebl-o, gable
fur-0, fur gem-0, gem
iurt-ar, to stcal gener-al-a, general
fush-ar, t o 1)unglc gener-o, genus
fueil-o, musket genit-ar, engender, t o breed (trans.)
fust-o, shaft ( n v c h i t . ) genr-0, gender (grammat.)
fusten-o, fustian gent-o, clan, gens (Roman)
futer-o, lining genu-o, knee
futur-a, future gerundi-o, gerund
fuz-ar, t o fuze gest-ar, to gesticulate
Puze-o, rocket (fir,zuork) getr-0, gaiter
gib-o, hump
gichet-o, wicket gate
G gigant-o, giant
gimnazi-o, secondary school
gaban-o, pilot coat ginest-o, broom (plant)
gagat-o, jet gips-o, plaster
gam-o, sheath gis-ar, t o cast, found molten meta
galimatias-o, gibberish glac-ar, t o gloss (tech.), glaze, make
gal-0, gall-nut glossy
gamb-o, leg glaci-0. ice
(shrss) A
gambit-ar, t o trip up and to gambit I Glan-0.' eland
glas-0,' ilass (for drinking)
gambol-ar, to gambol glat-a, smooth
gamel-0, metal vessel for soldiets' glav-o. sword
rations gleb-o; clod (lump o f earth)
gan-ar, t o win, gain glez-ar, to glaze (pottery, etc.)
gans-o, goose glikos-o, glucose
ganso-pel-o, creeping of the flesh glin-ar, to g1ea.n
gant-o, glove glir-o, dormouse
gap-ar, to open the mouth in glit-ar, to slide, to slip
wonder or surprise glori-o, glory
garanti-ar, t o guarantee, warrant glu-o, glue
garanti-o, guarantee glut-ar, t o swallow
glute-o, buttock guf-o, horned owl
glutin-ar, t o paste, glue guid-ar, t o guide
gobi-0, gudgeon gum-0, gum
gond-o (door), hinge gurt-o, girth
gorgol-ar, gurgle gust-ar, t o taste
got-0, gout gut-o, drop
grab-ar, t o engrave gutur-o, throat
grac-0, grace (theolog.)
graci-o, grace, charm
gracil-a, slender, slim
grad-0, degree, step habil-a, skilful
gramatik-o, grammar habit-ar, t o inhabit (tr. and zntr.)
gramin-o, gramineous plant habit-ant-ar-o, total population,
grand-a, great (lit. and fig.) I inhabitants
gran-0, grain (of seed, stone or s t u f f ) hach-ar, t o chop, cut up; cross-hatch
granari-o, granary hak-ar, to cut with an axe
granat-o, garnet hal-o, hall
grant-ar, to grant halt-ar, to stop (rntr.)
gras-a, f a t ; gras-o, fat, grease halter-o, dumb-bell
grat-ar, t o scratch (so as to allay hamak-o, hammock
itching) hanch-o, hip, haunch
gratitud-ar, t o be grateful hangar-o, shed
gratul-ar, to congratulate han-o, fowl, cock ( o f n ,own)
grav-a, heavy, serious, grave han-ul-o, cock (fowl)
gravi-o, gravel har-o, hair
gravid-a, pregnant hard-a, hard
greft-ar, t o graft haring-o, herring
grel-ar, t o hail harnes-o, harness
gremi-o, lap (of sitting person) harpun-o, harpoon
grenad-o, pomegranate, grenade hast-ar, t o make haste
gres-0, sandstone haul-ar, t o haul
gret-o, grate hav-ar, t o have
grili-o, cricket (insect) heder-o, ivy
grinc-ar, t o grate, rub with grating hei-o, yeast
noise heg-o, hedge
grip-o, influenza helie-o, propeller ; helix (geom.)
griz-a, grey helik-o, snail
grond-ar, t o roar; growl help-ar, t o help
grop-o, croup, rump hem-o, home
gros-a, thick hepat-o, liver
grozel-o, gooseberry herald-o, herald
gruch-o, crutch herbari-o, herbarium (collection of
gruel-o, gruel, oatmeal dried plants)
grum-0, groom herbor-o, herb (used for medicinal
grumel-o, clot, clod (of blood, salt, purposes)
etc.) herd-o, hearth
grun-ar, t o grunt (pers.),growl hered-ar, t o inherit (tr.)
gru-o, crane (bird) heris-ar, t o bristle up
guard-o, guard (milit.) herpet-o, herpes
guat-ar, t o lie in wait for, waylay, hers-o, a harrow : herse, portcullis
watch for, spy hidrops-o, dropsy
guberni-o, government (area) hier-e, yesterday
gudr-o, t a r hike, here
hip-ar, t o hiccup ignor-ar, to ignore (disregard wil-
hipnot-ar, be in a hypnotized state fully)
hirund-o, swallow -ik-, ill with
histori-o, history 41-, znstrument for
hoboy-o, oboe ilex-o, holly
hok-o, hook *ili, they (masc.)
hold-o, hold (of a ship) iliterat-a, illiterate
hom-o, man (human being) *il(u),he, him
homard-0, lobster -im-, fractional
hom-ar-o, mankind, human race, iman-ar, to be immanent
humanity (whole) imbast-ar, to baste, tack (sewing)
hom-es-o, human nature imers-ar, immerse
hom-in-0, woman imobl-o, real estate
hom-ul-0, man (male) imped-ar, t o hinder, impede
honest-a, honest imper-ar, t o order
honor-o, honour imperfekt-a, imperfect (gram.)
horde-o, barley imperi-o, empire
hor-o, hour impetu-o, impetus, impetuosity
horloj-o, clock import-ar, t o matter
hornis-o, hornet impost-o, tax
horor-ar, t o abhor, hold in abhor- impotent-a, impotent (physiolog.)
rence imprek-ar, utter imprecation
host-(ul)o, host (who receives) impres-ar, t o impress
hotel-o, hotel imprim-ar, t o print
hui-o, hoof imun-a, immune
human-a, humane -in-, feminine
human-es-o, humanity (feelzng) inat-a, innate
humid-a, wet, humid incendi-ar, t o set fire t o
humil-a, humble incens-o, incense
humor-o, morbid fluid ; humour -ind-, worthy of being -d
(disposition of mind), temper indemn-o, indemnification, indem-
humur-0, jocose imagination (less nity
intellectual and more sympathetic indic-o, token, that guides in in-
than wit) tricate matters
hund-(ul)o, dog indign-ar, t o be indignant
hungr-ar, to be hungry indij-ar, t o lack, need
hurd-0, hurdle indijen-a, indigenous
indolent-a, indolent, sluggish, sloth-
I ful
indos-ar, to endorse (fin.)
-i, plural indukt-ar, t o induce, opposite of
-1-, domain of deduce ( p h y ~log.)
*ibe, there indulg-ar, t o be indulgent, spare
* h a , this indut-ar, t o coat, do over with
* i d , these infalibl-a, infallible, not liable t o
*ice, this (thing) fail
-id-, descendant of infant-o, little child
Ide-o, idea infern-o, hell
ident-a, identical infl-ar, t o inflate, swell (tv.)
idili-o, idyll inflam-ar, t o inflame (tr.)
-ier-, holder influ-ar, t o influence
-if-, to produce inform-ar, to inform
-ig-, to make. cause, vender infr-e, down (opfi. to supr-8)
inglob-ar, to join, unite (tech.) *ito, that (thing)
ingran-ar, t o throw into gear -iv-, tha! can...
inguin-0, groin (anat.) ivor-o, ivory
inici-ar, to initiate -iz-, to furnish wzth, coosr with
injeni-ar, t o contrive (tax one's
inkas-ar, receive (money) (fin.) J
inkastr-ar, t o let in or fit in *la, already
inklin-ar, t o incline jabot-o, (shirt-) frill
inkluz-ar, t o include jac-ar, t o lie (position)
ink-o, ink jaluz-a, jealous
inkombr-ar, to encumber (hinder januar-0, January
passing) je-0, lay
inkurs-ar, to make incursion jelat-o, jelly
inquest-ar, t o inquire into jelozi-0, venetian blind
insidi-ar, t o lay snares for !em-ar, to moan, groan (intr.)
insign-o, badge jemel-o, twin
Instant-o, instant, moment jeneroz-a, generous
instig-ar, to instigate jeni-0, corps of engineers
instituc-ar, t o institute jen-ar, to embarrass, incommode
instrukt-ar, to instruct jenjiv-o, gums of the mouth
insul-o, island jentil-a, daintily pleasant
-in&, past pnrticip., active jer-ar, t o manage
integr-a, whole, entire, integral jerm-o, germ
intenc-ar, to intend (purpose) jet-ar, t o throw
*inter, between, among jilet-o, waistcoat
interces-ar, intercede jilflor-o, gillyflower
interdikt-ar, t o forbid jin-o, gin
interes-ar, t o be interesting, interest jinjer-o, ginger
interest-o, interest (advantageous jir-ar, t o turn about, veer round
thing ; also finance) jok-ar, t o joke
intermit-ar, to be intermittent lorn-0, day (not ~cighl)
intern-a, inside, internal jovdi-o, Thursday
inton-ar, t o strike up (hymn, song, joy-o, joy
etc.) p a r , t o enjoy (tr.)
intrik-ar, t o tangle jud-(ul)o, Jew
intuic-o, intuition judici-ar, t o judge judicially
invad-ar, t o invade judik-ar, to judge
ips-a, self juli-0, July
-ir, past infinitive jung-ar, t o ,put horses t o yoke,
ir-ar, to go " inspan
irac-ar, t o be arigry juni-o, June
irg-u, anyone junior-a, younger
irid-o, iris (bot). juniper-o, juniper
irigac-ar, t o irrigate junk-0, rush (plant)
irit-ar, t o irritate junt-ar, t o join
-is, past indicative jup-o, skirt
-ism-, systtm, doctrine jur-ar, swear (not blaspheme)
-ist-, professing, adhere~zt jurnal-0, journal
-it-, past particip., passive *jus, just now
*ita. that just-a, right (exact, well-grounded)
itere, again justiflk-ar, to justify
*iti, those juvel-o, jewel
K kanel-o, channel
kankr-0, crayfish ; cancer
*ka(d), (shows interuogation) kanonik-o, canon (persow)
kab-o, cape (geog.) kanson-o, song, ditty, glee
kabr-ar, t o rear (horse) kant-ar, to sing
kadr-o, frame (also fig.) ; staff kantor-o, chorister, precentor
(milit.) kap-0, head
kaduk-a, in decay, near falling kapae-a, able t o contain
kafe-o, coffee kapel-o, chapel
kait-o, kite kaper-o, caper ( b o t a ~ ~ . )
kaj-0, cage kapitel-o, capital (archit.)
kakatu-o, cockatoo kapon-o, capon
kal-o, corn (on foot) kapr-o, goat
kaldier-o, boiler ; copper kapreol-o, roebuck
kaldron-o, caldron kaprifoli-o, honeysuckle
kalembur-0, pun kapriol-ar, t o cut capers
kalendari-o, calendar kapstan-o, capstan
kalendul-o, marigold kaptae-ar, t o obtain by ur~derliand
kalfat-ar, t o calk ( a boat) means
kalie-o, cup, clialice kapt-ar, to catch, capture
kalkane-o, calcaneum kapue-o, hood, cowl
kalk-o, calx, lime kar-a, dear (beloved)
kalkol-o, calculus (medic.) karat-o, decanter
kalkul-o, calculus (math.) karambol-ar, t o make a cannon
kalm-a, calm (without comn;otio~z) (billiards)
kalor-o, heat ( p h y s . qitantity) karb-o, carbon
kalson-o, drawers karbon-o, coal
kalumni-ar, to calumniate karbunkl-o, carbuncle (disease),
kalv-a, bald precious stone
kalz-o, stocking kareer-o, prison
*kam, than, as kardel-o, goldfinch
kambi-ar, t o barter, swap, exchange kardon-o, thistle
kambi-o, exchange ; liber-kambi-o, kardun-o, Fr. cardon (plant)
free trade kare-ar, to do without
kamel-0, camel karel-o, slab, tile, diamonds (cards)
kamen-o, chimney and chimney karesm-0, Lent
piece karez-ar, t o caress
kamer-o, camera (photog.) karg-ar, t o place goods, etc., on or
kamfor-o, camphor in a cart (for carriage)
kamil-o, stretcher, litter, hand- karikat-ar, t o caricature
barrow kariofll-o, clove
kamion-0, dray karitat-o, charity (not alms)
kamizol-o, camkole karnaeion-o, carnation
kamiz-o, chemise, shirt karn-o, flesh, meat
kampani-ar, t o campaign karos-o, coach
kanab-0, hemp karpent-ar, t o work timber
kanape-0, couch karpin-o, hornbeam
kan-o, cane, reed kart-o, a card
kanali-o, rascal, scoundrel, scamp kartav-ar, to pronounce one's r's
kaneeler-o, chancellor (not secretary) gutterally
*kande, when kartoeh-o, cartridge
kandel-o, candle karton-o, cardboard
kandi-o, sugar candy karusel-o, carousal, tilting match
kask-o, helmet, casque klar-a, clear
kasac-ar, to quash, annul ( l a w ) klarion-o, military bugle
kas-o, cash-box, till klaudik-ar, to limp
kason-o, caisson for sub-aqueous klaun-o, clown
work (eng.) klav-0, key (of a key hoard), clef
kasrol-o, saucepan (rnzts.)
kasquet-0, cap for men or boys klavikord-o, clavichord
kastan-o, chestnut klef-o, key ( o f a lock)
kastel-o, castle klem-ar, t o tighten, squeeze, clench
kaston-o, bezel ( o f ring) klematid-o, clematis
kastor-o, beaver klerik-a, ecclesiastical
kastr-ar, t o castrate, geld klif-o, cliff
kat-0, cat klik-o, catch, click ( n ~ e c h a n . )
katedr-o, chair (professor's), pulpit klikt-ar, t o click, clang, clash
katekism-o, catechism klim-ar, t o climb
katekiz-ar, t o catechise klink-o, latch (of door)
katen-o, chain kloak-o, sewer ; cloaka (anat.)
kaucion-o, caution, surety ( l a w ) klok-0, o'clock
kaud-o, tail klosh-o, bell
kaul-o, cabbage klostr-o, cloister
kauz-o, cause klov-o, nail
kav-a, hollow kloz-ar, to close (ti..)
kaval-o, horse kluk-ar, to cluck
kavalk-ar, to ride on horseback koakt-ar, t o force, compel
kavalier-o, knight kobold-o, elf, sprite
kavern-o, cave, cavern kocinel-o, lady-bird
kay-o, quay kodex-o, code (laws)
kayer-o, stitched blank book kofi-o, woman's bonnet, cap, coif
kazern-o, barracks kofr-o, chest, trunk, coffer
kaze-0, cream-cheese kok-0, coke
kaz-o, case (not casing) kokle-o, cochlea (anat )
kazual-a, casual koklush-o, whooping cough
*ke, that (conjunc.) kokos-o, cocoa-nut
kegl-o, skittle kol-o, neck
kel-o, cotter pin, linch pin (much.) kolaret-o, cellarette
keler-o, cellar koleai-o, college
kelk-a, some, a little kolekt-ar, to make a collection
kemi-o, chemistry koler-o, cholera
kerl-o, fellow, blade kold-a, cold
kern-o, kernel, core koli-ar, to gather, pluck
kerub-o, cherub koliar-o, collar ( a n y k i n d )
kest-o, box, chest kolimb-o, diver (bird)
kik-ar, to kick, fling ( o f hovse) kolm-o, zenith, culminating point
kili-o, keel (of s h i p ) kolofon-o, colophony
kimer-o, chimera kolok-ar, t o invest money
*kin, five kolomb-o, turtle-dove
kirk-o, church (buildin?) kolon-o, column, pillar
kirurgi-o, surgery koloni-o, colony
kis-ar, t o kiss kolor-o, colour
klad-o, rough draft, rough copy kolorit-o, colourinl;
klam-ar, t o shout kolport-ar, to hawk about (lit.
klap-o, flap-valve, leaf of folding and fig.)
door, table or shutter kolubr-0, ring or grass snake
kolum-o, collar (of coat, shzrf) konfes-ar, to own up, confess
kolz-0, rape, colza konfid-ar, t o confide (a thing to)
*kom, as, in the capacity of konfldenc-ar, to tell in confidence
komat-o, coma konfidencal-a, confidential
kombust-ar, t o burn konfisk-ar, t o confiscate
komenc-ar, to commence konflt-ar, t o preserve by boiling
komenc-0, commencement with sugar
komend-ar, to order (commerc.) konflikt-ar, to be conflicting
komerc-ar, t o trade, traffic konlund-ar, t o confuse one thing
komis-ar, t o entrust with another
komis-o, commission, command, kongres-o, congress
charge koni-o, wedge
komis-it-ar-o, commission (asse~)z- konjed-ar, to cause or permit t o go
bly) konjekt-ar, to conjecture, surmise
komisari-o, commissary konjunt-ur-o, conjuncture
komitat-o, committee bonk-o, shell (of a molZusc)
komlz-o, clerk, shop assistant konkluz-ar, to conclude, bring t o an
komon-o, parish community (local) end
kompan-o, companion konkord-ar, t o agree, be in har-
kompat-ar, t o have pity, com- mony, concord, concordance
passion, be compassionate with
kompetent-a, competent konkurs-ar, t o compete
komplez-ar, to please, adapt oneself konoc-ar, to know, be acquainted
t o another's taste or temper with
kompost-ar, t o set up (type) konoc-o, knowledge
kompot-o, stewed fruit konquest-ar, t o conquer
kompr-ar, t o buy konquest-o, conquest (act.)
kompren-ar, to understand konquest-aj-o, conquest (thirzg)
kompres-ar, t o compress konsakr-ar, t o consecrate
kompromls-ar, to compromise konsent-ar, to consent, give consent
komt-(ul)o, count, earl Ikonsequ-ar, to ensue, t o result
komun-a, common, pertaining 1 konserv-ar, t o conserve
equally to more than one konsil-ant-ar-o, council
kon-o, cone konsil-ar, to advise, offer counsel
koncept-ar, t o conceive, become konskript-ar, to conscript, enroll by
pregnant conscription
konces-ar, t o concede, grant konsolac-ar, t o console
koncl-ar, t o be conscious of konsonant-o, consonant
koncienc-o, conscience konsput-ar, t o treat (publically)
koncill-ant-o, conciliator most contemptuously
koncili-ar, t o conciliate with, cause konstituc-ar, t o constitute, estab-
to become friendly again lish, make up, constitution
konclli-o, conciliation konstitucion-o, constitution (phy-
kondamn-ar, condemn siol.)
kondicion-ar, t o stipulate, make konstrukt-ar, t o cotistruct
one's conditions konsum-ar, t o consume (tr.)
kondlcion-o, condition kontant-o, cash, ready money
kondol-o. condolence kont-ar, t o count
kondukt-ar, t o conduct (heat, etc.) konten-ar, t o contain
kondut-ar, t o behave kontent-a, content, satisfied
konlekt-o, confectionery, sweetmeat kontent-lg-ar, to satisfy
konfer-ar, to confer (intv.) kontor-o, office (administr.)
konfer-a, conference kontraband-o, contraband
I 06
kontrafakt-ar, t o counterfeit (for kot-o, quotation ( f i n, comm.),
deceiving) quota, proportional part
kontrafort-o, buttress, counterfort kov-ar, t o brood, hatch (not fig.)
kontrakt-ar, t o shrink. draw to- kovr-ar, t o cover
gether (trans.) koz-0, thing
kontrat-ar, t o make a contract krag-o, band (clolhing)
kontrat-o, treaty, contract krak-ar, to crack, creak (noise)
kontre, against kraknel-o, cracknel
kontribut-ar, t o contribute (not kran-0, crane (wzach.)
literary work) krani-o, skull, cranium
kontrol-ar, to control, check krecent-o, crescent
kontur-0, outline, contour krapul-ar, t o live in debauchery
kontuz-ar, t o bruise kras-o, layer of dirt which gathers
konvalec-ar, t o be convalescent on skin, linen, etc.
konven-ar, t o suit, be fitting, be in krateg-o, hawthorn
conformity with the demands kravach-0, riding-switch
of society krayon-o, pencil
konvencion-ar, to make an agree- kre-ar, t o create
ment bred-ar, t o believe
konvink-ar, t o convince krem-o, cream
konyak-0, cognac kremac-ar, to cremate
koordin-ar, to co-ordinate krenel-o, battlement
kooper-ar, to co-operate (society) krep-0, crape
kops-o, coppice krepuskul-o, twilight
kopulac-ar, to couple sexually (intr.) kres-o, water-cress
koqu-ar, t o cook kresk-ar, t o grow
kor-o, choir kresp-o, pancake
korali-o, coral krest-o, coch's comb, crest, top
*koram, in the presence of kret-o, chalk
korb-o, basket krev-ar, to burst (tr.. ttnd zlit~.)
kordi-o, heart krevet-o, shrimp
kordon-o, tape, chain of soldiers krevis-ar, to crack, chap
(cordon), ribbon of an order kri-ar, t o cry out
korekt-a, correct kribl-o, riddle, sieve
korelat-ar, t o be in correlation k~imin-ar, to commit a crime
kork-0, cork krin-o, (horse-) hair
kornamuz-o, bagpipe krip-o, crib
kornel-o, dogberry kripl-a, crippled, deprived of use of
kornic-o, cornice a limb
kornik-o, carrion crow krisp-a, (hair) crisp, woolly
korn-o, horn Krist-o, Christ
korp-o, body of man, animal, krist-an-eso, Christianity (qualily)
troops krist-an-ismo, Christianity (doctrine)
korsaj-o, bodice kroch-ar, to crochet
korsar-o, corsair krok-ar, to crunch, make a noise
kors-o, promenade, public walk of crunching
kort-o, court (justice, s ~ l t ~ e r e i g ~ )kron-o,
, crown
yard krop-o, crop (of birris)
kortic-o, bark (of a tree) kroz-ar, t o cruise
korund-o, corundum kruc-o, cross
korupt-ar, to corrupt kruch-o, pitcher, jug
korv-o, crow krud-a, raw, in unwrought state
kost-0, rib (anal.) krug-o, wooden or tin mug
krul-ar, to fall, give way
krumpl-ar, to rumple
krup-0, croup (disease) *la, the
krur-o, thigh, leg labi-o, lip
krust-o, crust labor-ar, to work, labour (tr., int.)
kruzel-o, crucible lacer-ar, t o tear, lacerate
kuaf-ar, t o dress (hair) lacert-o, lizard
kud-o, elbow laciv-a, lascivious
kugl-0, bullet (of musket, rifle) lac-0, lace (stays, boots, etc.)
kuk-0, cake lad-0, tm (-plate)
kukul-o, cuckoo lag-o, lake
kukumbr-o, cucumber lake-o, footman, lackey
kukurbit-o, pumpkin lak-o, lacquer, japan
kulbut-ar, to turn a somersault lakrim-o, tear
kulc-o, gnat lakt-o, milk
kulier-o, spoon lamen-0, knife blade, sheet of metal
kul-o, bottom (hunznn) lampir-o, glow-worm
kulis-o, side-scenes (Ihcsut.) lampred-o, lamprey
kulp-ar, to commit a fault langust-o, spiny lobster
kultel-o, knife land-o, country, land
kult-ar, to worship, idolize lang-o, tongue (anat.)
kultur-o, culture (intel. and mural) langor-ar, to pine away, languish
kumpres-o, compress (med.) lanj-o, swaddling clothes
*kun, with lan-o, wool
kun-labor-ar, to co-operate, work lans-ar, t o hurl, fling
together lanug-0, down (wool)
kun-feder-it-o, ally lapid-o, precious stone
kunikl-o, rabbit, lard-o, bacon
kupe-o, coupe, front seats ; laric-o, larch
brougham laring-o, larynx
kupl-ar, t o couple (mechan.) larj-a, wide, broad
kuplet-o, stave, stanza (in song) las-ar, to leave, let, permit
kup-o, prize cup (not ternup) lash-o, splint (chir.),fish-plate (rails)
kupr-o, copper last-a, last
kur-ar, t o run later-o, side
kurac-ar, to treat (medic.) lat-0, lath
kuraj-ar, t ? have courage latrin-o, w.c., latrine
kuras-o, cuirass latug-o, lettuce
kurat-ar, be guardian, trustee, latun-o, brass
curator laub-o, arbour
kurs-o, course (studies, commerc.) laud-ar, t o praise
kurt-a, short laur-o, laurel
kurtaj-o, brokers' business laus-o, louse
kurten-o, curtain laut-a, loud (strongly audible)
kurtez-ar, t o pay court to, woo lav-ar, t o wash
kurv-a, curved, bent lava-0, lava
kusen-o, cushion, pillow lax-a, lax, loose, slack (opp. of
kush-ar, to lay down tense, taut, also med.)
kust-ar, to cost laz-o, lasso
kustum-ar, t o be in the habit of 10, the plur. of la before adj. without
kuv-0, tub no ail^.
kuvert-o, envelope lecion-o, lesson
kuz-o, cousin led-a, ugly
ledr-o, leather 1 Iokac-ar, to rent, hire
leg-o, law lokl-0, curl, lock of hair
legac-ar, t o bequeath lok-o, place
legum-0, vegetable lokust-0, locust
lejer-a, light (in weight, also fig) loll-0, darnel, tares
lek-ar, t o lick lombard-o, pawnbroker
lekt-ar, t o read lombrik-o, earthworm
leni-0, log (rough timber) loneh-o, slice (of bread, meat, etc.)
lens-0, lentil, lens long-a, long
lent-a, slow *lor, a t the time of
leon-o, lion lorn-o, telescope
lepor-o, hare lotri-ar, to cast lots for
lepr-o, leprosy loyal-a, loyal
lern-ar, t o learn *lu, he, she or i t
lesiv-ar, t o wash in lye luci-o, pike (fish)
letr-o, letter lud-ar, t o gamble, play games
lev-ar, to lift (tv.) lug-ar, t o let or hire, lease
lever-o, lever Iukt-ar, t o wrestle, struggle
lez-ar, to injure (law a r ~ dplzys.) lul-ar, t o lull to sleep
*li, they (mas., fem., neu.) lum-ar, t o shine, light
liber-a, free lumb-o, lumbar region (anat.)
liber-es-o, freedom, liberty lun-o, moon
liber-kambi-o, free trade lundi-o, Monday
libr-o, book lupul-o, hop (plant)
lie-o, list (/or combat) lut-o, lute (tech.)
lietnant-o, lieutenant lur-ar, t o allure, entice
Iig-ar, t o tie, bind lutr-o, otter
lign-o, wood, timber lux-0, luxury
liken-0, lichen (tot.) luxac-ar, t o luxate, dislocate (limb)
lik-ar, t o leak (tr. and iv~tv.)
lilac-o, lilac M
lili-0, lily *ma, but
lim-ar, t o file, rasp maestr-o, master (one who excels i n
limak-o, slug (zool.) art, etc.)
limit-o, limit, boundary magnet-o, magnet
lineh-ar, to lynch magr-a, lean, meagre
line-o, lynx mahagon-o, mahogany
line-o, line maiflor-o, lily of the valley
lineal-o, ruler (drawing) maiz-o, maize
lingu-o, language makrel-o, mackerel
lin j-o, linen makul-o, stain, discolouring (also
lin-o, flax fig.)
liquidac-ar, to liquidate mal-a, bad
lir-o, lyre malad-a, ill, sick
lit-o, bed maldieens-ar, to disclose (gratui-
liter-o, letter, alphabetical sign tously) a fault or defect in
litor-o, shore someone
liut-o, lute maledik-ar, t o curse (tr.)
liv-ar, t o leave, quit maleol-o, ankle
liz-o, dregs, lees Xmalgre, in spite of
*lo, that, it, that which is . . malic-o, malice
loj-ar, t o lodge, live malign-a, evil, wicked
loji-o, box (theatre) malv-o, mauve
malvavisk-o, marshmallow mason-ar, to build masonry about,
malyot-o, bathing costume over
mam-o, udder mast-o, mast
mana-o, manna mastik-ar, to masticate
manch-o, handle, shaft, haft mastr-o, master
mandel-o, almond mat-o, mat
manet-o, hand-lever matin-o, morning
mani-o, mania materi-o, matter (not p u s )
manier-o, manner, way, mode ( n o t matid-a, dull (colour, light, sound),
habit, custom, conduct) unpolished
manik-o, sleeve matr-o, mother
manivel-o, crank matrac-o, mattress
manj-ar, t o eat matur-a, ripe
mank-ar, to be lacking, wanting, mayuskul-0, capital letter
missing maxil-o, upper jaw
manot-i, handcuffs *maxim, most
manovr-ar, to manceuvre, handle an may-o, May
army, ship (tv. and intr.) mayor-o, major (milit.)
mansard-o, garret maz-o, club, mace
manshet-o, cuff, wrist-band *me, I, me
mante-ar, to toss in a blanket meeh-o, wick, match
mantel-o, cloak medali-o, medal
manten-ar, t o hold (of thi?zgs), keep medi-o, medium, circle, set, one's
in the same position ( t ~ . ) surroundings (also nut. sciences)
manu-o, hand mediae-ar, to mediate, be mediator
map-0, map medik-o, doctor, physician
mar-o, sea medul-o, marrow, pith
marchand-ar, to bargain for (not fig.) mefit-o, noxious exhalation, choke-
march-ar, t o walk (by stepping) damp
mardi-o, Tuesday meger-o, shrew, visen
mare-o, tide, ebb and flow melzs-o, treacle, molasses
margrit-o, daisy melk-ar, t o milk
mariaj-ar, to marry, join in wedlock melolont-o, cacBcha.fer
(tr.) *mem, even
marin-ar, t o pickle membr-o, limb, member (all senses :
marjin-o, margin ( o n page) of body, society, party, place,
mark-o, a mark eqzlation)
markez-o, marquis memor-ar, to remember
markot-ar, t o layer (garden) menaj-o, housekeeping
marmit-o, porridge-pot mendik-ar, t o beg one's bread
marmor-o, marble menti-ar, to tell a lie
marn-o, marl menton-o, chin
maron-o, chestnut (edible) ment-o, kind, seat of consciousness,
marquiz-o, marquee thought, volition and feeling
marsh-o, marsh, morass, feu menuz-ar, to do joiner's work
marshal-o, marshal mercer-o, haberdashery, mercery
mart-o, March merin-o, merino (auzinzal)
martel-o, hammer merit-ar, l o deserve, merit
marvel-o, marvel, wonder meriz-o, wild cherry
masaj-ar, to massage merk-ar, to memorize
mash-o, mesh, link (in k x i t t i q , ctc.) merkat-o, market
mashinac-ar, machinate merkurdi-o, Wednesday
maskul-o, male merkuri-o, qnicksilver, mercury
I I0
merlan-o, whiting (fish) monak-o, monk
merl-o, blackbird monat-o, month
meskin-a, paltry, shabby ( f i g . ) mond-o, world (~zortn)
mes-o, mass (R.C.) mond-al-a, world (adj.)
mestic-o, half-breed mondum-0, world (society)
mestier-o, handicraft monet-o, coin
met-ar, put on (clothes) mont-o, mountain
mez-a, middle montr-ar, t o show
mezur-ar, measure (with fixed unit mor-i, manners, morals
of known size) morb-o, disease of any nature
mi-, half morbil-o, measles
miel-o, honey mord-ar, t o bite
mien-o, mien, look, appearance of morg-e, to-morrow
face morili-o, fire-dog
migr-ar, to migrate from one place mort-ar, t o die, become dead
to another within one's country morter-o, mortar (#or bliildin,o)
mikr-a, small, little mors-o, bit (hnrse's)
*mil, thousand moru-o, cod-fish
mili-o, mile morus-o, mulberry
milit-ar, to make war mos-o, cabin-boy
*min, less mosk-o, musk (perfztme)
min-ar, t o mine, undermine moskit-o, mosquito
minac-ar, t o threaten, menace most-o, must, unfermented juice of
*minim, least fruit, new wine
minion-a, nice, small and dainty mot-o, motto of a book or chapter
minoritat-o, minority (nitmcrical) motor-o, motor (mecJ~an.)
mint-o, mint (plant) mov-ar, t o move (tv. and intr.)
minus, less (arith.) moyen-o, instrument, way t o do
minuskul-o, small letter anything
minut-o, a miiiute mu-ar, t o mew, moult, break (of
miop-a, short-sighted voice)
miozot-o, forget-me-not muel-ar, to @nd (by mill)
mirmekofag-0, ant-bear muev-o, sea-gull
mirtel-0, bilberry muf-o, muff (woman's) ; casing
mis-, wvongly (mech.)
mispel-o, medlar muj-ar, t o bellow, roar (winds,
mistel-o, mistletoe waues, thzhndcr, cannon)
miten-o, mitten muk-o, mucus
mitrali-o, grape-shot mul-o, mule
mix-ar, t o m u (tr.) mulat-o, mulatto
mizer-ar, t o be in distress, in want muld-ar, t o mould (trans.)
mizerikordi-o, mercy, mercifulness mult-a, many
mobl-o, piece of furniture, table, mumi-o, mummy
etc. mung-ar, to wipe one's nose
moder-ar, t o moderate (tr.) municip-o, municipality, munici-
modiflk-ar, t o modify, make partial pium (antiq.)
changes munt-ar, t o fit, mount (techn.)
modl-ar, t o model, fashion, shape in mur-o, wall
clay or wax mus-o, mouse
mok-ar, to make fun of mush-o, fly (insect)
mol-a, soft muskad-o, nutmeg
mold-ar, t o turn mouldy (intrans.) musk-o, moss (plant)
moli-o, mole ( j o r t i f . ) muskul-o, muscle (anat.)
musl-o, mussel neutr-ig-ar, t o neutralize
must-ar, must ( v . ) neutr-ig-o, neutralization
mustard-o, mustard (food) nev-o, nephew or niece
mut-a, dumb *ni, we, us
muton-o, sheep nigr-a, black
muzel-o, muzzle (also $4. and nihil-ig-ar, t o annihilate
metaph.) niv-ar, t o snow
myel-o, spinal marrow nlvel-o, level, horizontal plane
*no, no
N nobel-a,-o, noble (by birth)
nobl-a, noble (morally)
nab-o, hub, nave noc-ar, t o harm, damage, injure,
nacion-al-a, national wrong
nacion-al-0s-0, nationality (of in- noch-o, notch, indentation, nick
divid.) nod-o, knot ( o f thread, cord, rope)
nacion-al-ig-ar, nationalize (Ir.) and naut.
nacion-es-0, nationality (of p e o p l ~ ) nokt-0, night
nacion-o, nation noktu-o, barn-owl
nab-a, artless, naive nom-ar, t o name, call by name
naktigal-o, nightingale nombr-o, number
*nam, for, because nomin-ar, to nominate for office
nan-o, dwarf *non, nine
nap-o, turnip notor-a, notorious, well known
narac-ar, t o narrate notari-0, notary
narkot-ar, t o be in the state pro- nov-a, new
duced by narcotics novel-o, novelette
nas-0, bow net novembr-o, November
nask-ar, t o be born *nu, well !
nat-ar, t o swim a t or below surface nuanc-o, shade (of colozlr)
of water nub-o, cloud
naufraj-ar, t o be (ship-) wrecked nuc-o, walnut
(intr.) nud-a, naked, bare, nude
nauze-ar, t o feel sick, accompanied nudl-o, German vermicelli
by nausea (intr.) nuk-o, nape of the neck
nav-o, ship nul-a, no, not any
naz-o, nose numer-o, number (written No.)
*ne, not *nun, now
nebul-ar, t o be foggy nunci-o, nuncio
neces-a, necessary *nur, only
neg-ar, t o deny, declare untrue or nutr-ar, t o nourish
neglij-ar, t o neglect, be remiss about
negoci-ar, t o negotiate, procure or 0
arrange for by negotiating
*nek .. . nek, neither ... nor
nepoto, grandchild
*o(d), or
-0, noun sing.
nervatur-o, nervure (bot., zool.), obedi-ar, t o obey
rib, arch objekt-al-a, objective
nerv-o, nerve (anat.) objekt-o, object (plesented to senses),
nest-o, nest of bird material thing observed with
net-a, neat, clean optical instrument ; personal
neutr-a, neutral object ; subject of thought
neutr-es-o, neutrality oblat-o, wafer (for sealing letters)
oble-o, thin pastry (fr. plaisiv) orfan-o, orphan
oblivi-ar, to forget organ-0, organ, part of animal or
obstrukt-ar, to obstruct (tr., intv.) vegetable body adapted for
obsed-ar, to obsess
obus-o, shell ( g u n )
I special function, viz., heart,
medium of communication,
oei-ar, to idle, pass time in idleness language, magazine (not voice)
ocid-ar, t o murder Organ-iz-es-o, organization (stale)
ocident-o, west organ-izo, organizabon (act.)
ocil-ar, t o oscillate (not fg ) organ-iz-ur-o, organization (product)
ocit-ar, to yawn orgen-o, organ ( m u s . )
* o ( d ) ,or oriol-o, golden oriole
odi-ar, to hate orl-ar, to hem, turn down and sew
odor-ar, t o have a smell or scent. edge
ofens-ar, to offend orn-ar, t o adorn, deck with orna-
oflc-o, office, post, charge, duty ments
oflci-o, services, office ( l i ~ l i q . ) or-o, gold
oficir-o, officer ort-a, rlght (angle)
ofr-ar, to offer ( / r . ) -os, future indicative
oft-e, oiten ostent-ar, to show off
ogl-ar, t o ogle ost-o, bone (anat.)
*ok, eight ostr-o, oyster
okazion-o, occasion, opportunity -0t-, future particip. passive
oktobr-o, October ov-o, egg
okul-o, eye oxal-o, sorrel (plmzt)
okup-at-a, busy, occupied -0z-, full of . . . . . .
old-a, old
ole-o, oil
*OM, they (neut. only)
*olim, once, formerly
*ol(u),i t pac-ar, t o be in peace
ombr-o, shadow pac-if-ist-o, pacifist
omis-ar, t o omit pac-0, peace
omn-a, every (pl. omni, all, every- pad-o, pad (for doors, windows)
body) padel-o, pan, frying-pan
ond-o, small wave, swell on surface padlok-o, padlock
of a liquid, undulation (physics) paf-ar, t o shoot with fire-arms
*on@), one, they, people pagan-o, heathen
-0nt-, fztture particip. active pag-ar, t o pay
onyon-o, onion plant, also its pagin-o, page (book)
edible bulb pal-0, page (boy)
-op-, . . a t a time, distributive pak-o, package, parcel, bundle
opinion-ar, t o have t h e opinion paketbot-o, packet-boat
opinion-o, opinion pakotili-o, venture (commerce)
oper-o, opera pakt-ar, t o make a compact
operac-ar, t o operate (surg.) palac-o, palace
-0~1-, ... fold, ~ ~ l t i p l e palat-o, palate (anat.)
oport-as, i t is necessary pali-o, straw
opres-ar, to oppress palis-o. stake, pale ( f ~ n c e )
-or, futuve infinitive palm-o, palm of hand, palm branch
orden-o, order (velir., chivalry) palp-ar, t o feel ( b y touch)
ordin-ar, t o put in order, arrange palpebr-o, eyelid
ordinar-a, ordinary paltot-o, overcoat
orel-o, ear panch-o. belly of animals, paunch
pane-0, state of being stopped, pee-0, piece, fragment
hove t o pech-0, pitch
panel-o, panel, wainscot pedik-o, louse
pan-o, bread ped-0, foot
pans-ar, t o dress ( a sure) peg-0, woodpecker
panse-o, pansy peizal-o, scenery, landscape
pantalon-o, trousers pek-ar, t o sin
pantofl-o, slipper pekt-ar, to comb
papagay-o, parrot pektor-o, chest, breast
papaver-o, poppy (the plant) pekuni-o, money
paper-o, paper pelerin-o, tippet
Pap-0, Pope pelis-0, fur-cloak, pelisse
papilion-o, butterfly pel-o, skin
papir-o, papyrus pelot-o, ball (of thread)
papl-o, formless mass, mash, pap pelv-o, pelvis (anat.)
paprik-0, Cayenne pepper pen-ar, to toil hard, labour a t ,
par-, completely trouble oneself about
par-a, even (numbers) penach-o, plume, tuft
para-, warding off pend-ar, t o hang (tr. and intr.)
paraf-o, flourish in writing, paraph pens-ar, t o think
parament-o, cuff of a sleeve pent-0, slope, declivity
parent-o, relative, kinsman pentekost-o, Whitsuntide
pari-ar, t o bet peoni-o, peony
pariet-o, partition wall *per, by, by means of
parlament-o, parliament percept-ar, t o perceive through the
par-o, pair senses
parok-o, parish priest perd-ar, t o lose
parol-ar, t o speak, talk perdrik-o, partridge
parom-o, ferry-boat peren-a, perennial (bot.)
parquet-o, inlaid floor, parquet perfekt-a, perfect
parter-o, pit (theatre) pergamen-o, parchment
partis-o, party, faction peris-ar, t o perish
part-o, part (of a thing or number) perk-o, perch (fish)
parto-pren-o, participation perlomatr-o, mother-of-pearl
partur-ar, t o give birth t o perman-ar, t o be permanent
paru-o, tomtit perme-ar, t o permeate (of fluids and
paser-o, sparrow gases)
pask-o-(festo), Easter permis-ar, t o allow
pasment-o, lace, trimming of gold per-0, peer (of England, etc.)
or silk peron-o, flight of steps (outside a
pastet-o, (meat) pie, pasty house)
past-o, paste perpendikl-a, perpendicular
pastur-ar, t o graze, t o feed (off persequ-ar, t o pursue, prosecute
grass), persien-o, venetian shutter
patel-o, knee-cap persik-0, peach
patri-o, fatherland peruk-o, wig
patr-o, parent, father or mother pervink-0, periwinkle
patrie-o, patrician pesk-ar, t o fish
patroli-o, patrol petris-ar, t o knead
pav-o, paving stone petr-o, stone
pavon-o, peacock petrosel-0, parsley
pavor-ar, to be afraid petul-a, of turbulent vivacity
paz-o, step, pace pez-ar, t o weigh (intrans.)
pi-a, pious *plu, more
pice-0, spruce fir plug-ar, t o plough ground
pig-o, magpie plum-o, pen, feather
pikl-0, spice (pikl-i, pickles) plump, puff !
pikon-o, pick-axe plump-a, dolt, dullard, blockhead
pikt-ar, t o depict (lit.), paint (lit.) plunj-ar, t o plunge (intrans.)
pilgrim-ar, t o go on a pilgrimage plur-a, several
pil-o, hair ; bristle (bot.) *plus, plus-e, further
pilul-0, pill plush-0, plush
pinch-ar, t o pinch, nip pluv-ar, t o rain
pingl-o, pin *PO, a t , for (price), in exchange for
pini-o, silvered pine pok-a, few
pinion-o, cog-wheel, pinion polar-eso, polarity
pinsel-o, brush, paint-brush polex-o, thumb
pint-o, point (tapering sharp end) polis-ar, t o polish (not fig.)
pioeh-o, pick, pick-axe politik-0, politics, policy
pion-o, pawn (chess) polit-a, polite, civil, courteous
pionir-o, pioneer polip-0, polyp, polypus (zool.)
pipi-ar, t o pipe, chirp (birds) polster-aj-o, material with which
pipr-0, pepper anything is padded
p!ps-o, pip (birds) polut-ar, t o pollute
plr-0, pear polv-o, dust
pist-ar, t o pound, crush pom-o, apple
pistol-o, pistol pomel-0, pommel (of saddle, etc.)
piz-0, pea pompon-o, top-knot (soldier's), t u f t
plad-o, plate (table) ponder-ar, t o weigh (tr.)
plafon-o, ceiling poniard-0, dagger, poniard
plag-o, sore ; plague pons-a, poppy colour
plaj-o, beach (sands, etc.) pontifik-o, pontiff
plak-o, plate, sheet (metal, etc.) pont-0, bridge
pland-o, sole (of foot) ponyet-o, wrist-band
plank-o, plank popl-o, poplar
plantac-ar, t o plant in ground poplit-o, back of knee-joint
plantag-0, plantain popul-0, people, pl. peoples, nations
plastr-o, sticking plaster (medic.) popul-iz-o, peopling
plat-a, flat popul-02-es-0, population (density)
plaud-ar, (of water) to break, beat popurit-o, hotch-potch (dish) ; con-
against, splash (intr.) fused mixture
ple-ar, t o play (mus.), t o act *por, for
(!heatre) pord-o, door
pleblcit-o, plebicite, referendum porel-o, leek
plekt-ar, t o intertwine, plait (hair pork-o, .pig
or straw) porkespm-o, porcupine
plen-a, full portal-o, doorway, portal
plend-ar, t o complain port-ar, t o carry, convey in vehicles,
plet-o, (tea-) tray, (pin-) tray ship, hand, on person ; aLso of
pleuronekt-o, brill (fish) wind, water, etc. (as agent)
plevrit-o, pleurisy portu-o, harbour
plez-ar, t o please, be agreeable *pos, after
plezur-o, pleasure posed-ar, t o possess, hold as pro-
plomb-o, lead (metal) perty, own, have faculty or
plor-ar, to weep, cry quality
plis-ar, t o plait (fold zn plaits) posh-o, pocket
posibl-a, possible primroz-o, primrose
posibl-aj-o, something possible printemp-o, spring (season)
pos~bl-es-o, possibility (qualitv) prismat-o, prism
post-0, post (for letters, etc.) privac-ar, t o deprive, bereave (!tot
posten-o, post, station ( m i l . ) depose)
postern-0, postern (fort) privat-a, private
postig-o, casement priz-ar. t o prize, to like
postul-ar, to reluire, need, call for, prizent-ar, t o present
depend for success on *pro, because of, on account of
postnrar, t o pose (intr.), a:;sume prob-ar, to try, test
an attitude probabl-a, probable
potene-o, power ( ~ ~ z a t l ~ . ) problem-o, problem
potent-a, powerful, mighty, potent procent-0, percentage
potent-es-o, might, potency proces-ar, to bring an action against
pov-ar, to l)e able, can prod-eso, prowess ; -ajo, feat
povr-a, poor I produkt-ar, to produce
poz-ar, to lay, set, place prognoz-ar, (med.) t o prognosticate
pragmat-o, real fact (e.g., what's d o w program-0, programme ; definite
and can't be ttndone) plan
prat-o, meadow progres-ar, t o make progress
pre-, before : pre-dicar, to predict progres-0, progress
prec-o, price projekt-ar, t o project (geom., optics)
preced-ar, t o precede projet-ar, to scheme, plan
precipu-a, principal projet-o, scheme, plan
predik-ar, t o preach prokurator-o, procurator
preciz-a, precise promen-ar, to go for a walk
prefer-ar, t o prefer (choose rather) promis-ar, t o promise
prefer-al-a, preferential promoc-ar, to promote, advance
preg-ar, to pray, beg of (God or m a n ) pront-a, ready
premic-o, first fruits pronunc-ar, to pronounce
prerni-o, prize, premium pronunc-o, pronunciation
pren-ar, t o take, lay hold of with propoz-ar, t o propose, offer for
hand, or instrument consideration or adoption
presbiteri-o, council of parish church propoz-0, proposal (act.)
*preske, almost propoz-aj-o, proposition
preskript-ar, t o prescribe, advise proprya, own (ad?.)
use of (medicine, tveatment) propnet-ar, t o own (not to confess)
prest-ar, to lend proskript-ar, to proscribe
*preter, beyond, just past . . . prospekt-o, prospectus
prevent-ar, to prevent, make im- prostern-ar, t o prostrate one's
possible of occurrence self
prevost-o, provost prostrac-ar, t o be reduced t o
prezent-a, present (not past or extreme physical weakness
future, opp. to absent) protekt-ar, to protect
prezid-ar, t o preside protokol-o, report, minutes of a
prezid-ant-o, -er-o, president
prezunt-ar, to have undue con-
meeting .
proviz-ar, t o provide, supply
fidence in oneself *proxim, near, close to
*pri, about, regarding prud-a, prudish
prikl-ar, to prickle (tr.) pruin-o, hoar-frost
prim-a, primary, first in order of prun-o, plum
development or time (not prunt-ar, t o borrow
d~rivrd) prurit-ar, t o itch
I 16
pruv-ar, to prove, demonstrate, quant-a, how much, how many,
make certain how great ; -esma (dio), what
paalm-o, psalm day of the month 2
psik-o, the human soul (agent of *quar, four
conscious functions) quarc-o, quartz
puber-a, pubescent quarter-o, quarter, part of a town
pudel-o, poodle quartet-o, quartet
pudor-ar, t o be modest, decent quaz-e, so t o speak
pudr-o, toilet powder quer-ar, t o fetch (fv.)
puer-o, boy or girl (fr. 7 to 1 5 ) querk-o, oak
puf-0, large cylindrical stuffed foot- quest-ar, t o collect (alms)
stool question-ar, t o question (somebody)
pugn-o, fist quiet-a, quiet, not anxious, peaceful
pulc-0, flea *quik, immediately, a t once
pulchinel-o, Punch quing-o, quince
puli-0, pulley *quo, what (rel. and intelrog.), which,
pulmon-0, lung that (thine)
puls-ar, t o push, throb, beat ( I ~ e a l t ) quot-o, share, quota
pultr-o, poultry
pulver-o, powder (pharnz. ; mzl.) R
pumic-o, pumice
pump-ar, to pump rabat-ar, to make an allowance
pune-ar, to punch, perforate, stamp rabi-o, rabies (cani*ze),hydrophobia
with punch or die rabot-0, plane (tool)
punis-ar, t o punish racion-o, reason, faculty of compre-
puns-ar, to trace, pounce (dramin:) hending
punt-o, point radi-ar, t o radiate (intr.)
pupe-o, doll radi-o, ray, beam (light), radius ;
pupitr-o, desk (not pulpit) spoke
pup-o, stem, poop radik-o, root
pur-a, pure (air, water, soul, etc.) rad-0, roadstead (nau.)
pure-0, mash rafan-o, horse-radish ; 40, radish
purpur-o, purple raft-o, raft
pus-0, pus rag-o, rag, waqte piece of cloth
pute-o, well, shaft sunk in ground ragut-0, ragout
(water, oil) rajunt-ar, t o overtake, catch up
putor-o, polecat rak-ar, t o draw off from the lees
putr-ar, t o rot (intr.) (liquids) rack
rakont-ar, t o relate, tell (a story)
ram-o, branch, ramifying, springing
from bough
Q ramn-o, buckthorn
*qua ( p a r . qui), who (interrog. and rang-o, rank, row, turn (in a series)
relat.), which, that (relnt.) ran-o, frog
quadr-o, freestone rankor-ar, t o bear spite
quadrat-a, square, of square shape rapec-ar, t o patch
qual-a ; -0, what, of what kind, rap-o, a kind of cole with edible root
quality ; how ; tala quala, such rap~d-a, rapid
as ; quale se, as rapt-ar, t o rob or kidnap
qnali-o, quail rar-a, rare
qualiflk-ar, t o qualify, attribute rar-e, rarely
some quality to, style raskal-o, rogue, rascal
*quankam, although ras-o, race (of men or animals)
rasp-ar, t o grate, rasp relat-ar, t o have reference to, stand
rast-ar, t o rake in some relation t o
rasteler-o, rack for holding fodder religi-o, religion
ratifik-ar, t o ratify rel-o, rail (of railway)
rauk-a, hoarse rem-ar, t o row (boat)
raup-o, caterpillar remedi-ar, t o remedy (fig.)
ravis-ar, t o enrapture, ravish remis-ar, t o remit (debt, sins)
ray-o, skate, ray (fish) remonstr-ar, t o make a remon-
raz-ar, t o shave strance
reakt-ar, t o react (intr.) remork-ar. t o haul, tow (by water)
real-a, real (also in math., optics) remors-ar, t o feel remorse (intr.)
recens-ar, t o review (book) rempar-0, rampart
recept-o, recipe (med.) reneg-ar, t o disown
recev-ar, to receive renesanc-0, Renaissance
red-a, red renkontr-ar, meet, come by accident
redakt-ar, to draw up, write out, or design into the company of
edit ren-o, kidney
redemt-ar, t o redeem, ransom rentir-o, reindeer
redukt-ar, t o reduce, lessen rent-o, income, annuity
reluj-ar, t o take refuge renvers-ar, t o throw down
reflekt-ar, t o reflect (all senses) repar-ar, t o repair, restore building,
ref-o, reef of a sail machine, etc.
reluz-ar, t o refuse repartis-ar, t o distribute in due
regard-ar, t o look a t proportion
regf-o, administration, excise, go- repast-ar, t o take a meal
vernment monopoly repent-ar, t o repent
regn-ar, t o reign repet-ar, t o repeat
regolis-o, liquorice repoz-ar, t o rest, be still, repose
regol-0, wren repres-ar, t o repress
regres-ar, t o go back, retrograde reprezal-ar to make reprisaLs
regret-ar, t o regret reprezent-ar, t o represent, stand in
regul-ar, t o regulate (a machine) ; the place of, fill a place
-bar, t o regulate (not terh.) reprezent-ant-o, a representative
regul-o, rule reprimand-ar, t o scold
rej-o, sovereign, king or queen rept-ar, t o crawl, creep
rekalk-ar, t o ram home (techn.) repuls-ar, t o repulse (not refuse)
reklamac-ar, t o claim, demand as requizit-ar, t o requisition
due, debt, reward, compensation reskript-o, rescript
rekolec-ar, t o commune with one's resortis-ar, t o be under the juris-
own heart diction of, be amenable t o
rekoli-ar, t o gather in in order t o respond-ar, t o answer, make an
save from loss answer, respond
rekolt-ar, t o gather in, reap respons-ar, t o be responsible
rekort-ar, to clip, pare rest-ar, t o stay, remain (be left
rekt-a, straight, without curve or over), stay in the same place or
bend condition
rektiflk-ar, t o rectify restor-ar, t o refresh (with meals)
rekuper-ar, t o recover, get again, restrikt-ar, t o restrict
regain possession or use of ret-o, net
rekurs-ar, t o have recourse reten-ar, t o retain
rekuz-ar, t o challenge, t o decline t o retort-o, retort (chem.)
accept the authority of (juror, retrakt-ar, t o retract, withdraw,
etc.) disavow
I 18
retret-ar, to beat a retreat, retreat, rov-o, bramble
to retire oneself (intr.) rovr-o, English oak
retro-, backwards roz-0, rose
retush-ar, to touch up, retouch ruband-o, ribbon
reumatism-o, rheumatism rubi-o, madder
revanch-ar, to take one's revenge mbin-o, ruby (precious stone)
rev-ar, to day-dream, imagine as rud-a, rude, uncultivated, unedu-
in a dream cated
rez-a, level with (reze del q u o ) rut-a, red-haired
rezed-o, mignonette rug-o, wrinkle of face
rezolv-ar, t o make up one's mind ruk-o, distaff
about, resolve on, determine mkt-ar, t o belch, eructate
rezolv-o, resolution rul-ar, t o roll by turning over (of
rezon-ar, t o reason planets i n their courses)
ri-, again rum-o, rum
rib-o, currant rumor-o, rumour
ricin-o, caster-oil plant rump-o,rump
rid-ar, to laugh rupt-ar, to break into parts by con-
rig-aro, rigging (naut.) cussion or stress (also fig., of
rigl-o, bolt fast, hope, heart)
rigor-0, exactness, rigorousness rur-o, country (not toum)
rimbors-ar, t o reimburse rust-o, rust
rimen-o, strap ; belt (mech.) rum-o, routine (unvarying per-
rim-o, rhyme formance of certain acts)
rinforc-ar (mil.), t o reinforce ruz-ar, t o use low craft, statagem,
ring-o, ring, circular band or hoop, t o dodge
rism-o, ream (of paper)
risort-o, (metal) spring S
rib-0, rite (liturgy)
riv-o, b y k , coast, shore sabelik-o, Savoy cabbage
river -0, nver sabl-o, sand
riz-09 rice sacerdot-o, nest
mblnet-o, cock, t a p for draining of? saci-esu (&),to content one's self
liquids with
rod-ar, to gnaw saim-o, lard
rog-o, stack of wood (funeral p i k ) saj-a, wise, sage (not grave)
rok-o, rock (in situ) ; jutting-out sakr-a, sacred
rock (sea) =rockajo sakrfflk-ar, to sacrifice
roman-o, a novel saliv-o, spittle
romb-o, lozenge, rhomb salarl-ar, to pay (salary, wage)
rondel-o, rondeau, roundelay sald-ar, to balance, settle (account)
ronk-ar, to snore salt-ar, t o project, jut out
ros-0, dew salik-o, willow
rosmarin-o, rosemary salmon-0, salmon
rosp-o, toad sal-o, salt
rost-ar, to roast ( t r . ) salt-ar, to jump (ifltr.)
rostr-o, trunk, proboscis (of some salut-ar, t o greet, salute
insects, of elephant) salv-ar, t o save ( t r . )
rot-o, wheel salve-ar, to fire a volley
rotac-ar, to turn as a wheel about an salvi-o, sage (plant)
axis, rotate (intv.) sam-a, (the) same
rotan-o, rattan sambuk-o, elder (tree)
= 19
san-a, healthy send-ar, to send
sang-o, blood senior-a, elder, eldest, senior
sanguisug-0, leech sens-0, sense (the five)
sant-a, holy sent-ar, t o feel (a sensation)
santuari-o, sanctuary *sep, seven
sapon-0, soap separ-ar, t o separate
sapor-ar, t o have a certain flavour sepi-o, cuttlefish
(taste) septembr-o, September
sapt-o, sap (also fig.) septet-o, septet
saracen-o, bush-wheat septik-a, septic
sark-0, coffin sepult-ar, t o bury (corpse)
sarsaparel-o, sarsaparilla sequ-ar, t o follow
*sat, enough, or sat-e serin-o, canary (bitd)
satirus-0, satyr ser-o, serum (natural)
satisfae-ar, satisfy, fulfil hope or seraf-o, seraph
desire, promise, obligation, serch-ar, t o search (not try or test)
comply with command, make seren-a, serene (also fig.)
atonement for sin sering-0, syringa
satur-ar, t o fill beyond the natural serioz-a, serious
desire or appetite, saturate serpol-0, wild thyme
saturdi-o, Saturday serur-0, lock
sav-ar, t o know sesg-ar, to cut deeply
sav-o, knowledge sextet-o, sextet
*so, if (not whether) sext-o, sixth (mus.)
seb-o, tallow sexu-0, sex
sed-0, bottom, hinder part or seat sezon-o, season
(of body) shablon-o, pattern, model (dress-
sedici-o, riot, disturbance, revolt maker's)
sedukt-ar, t o seduce shaft-o, shaft of lance, musket,
seg-ar, t o saw hair broom
segl-o, sail (of a ship) shak-0, chess (game)
*segun, according to shak-lud-ar, t o play chess
sek-ar, t o cut shakt-0, shaft (of a mine)
sekal-o, rye shal-o, shawl
sekrec-ar, to secrete (biolog.) shalm-0, stalk of straw, pipe ;
sekretari-o, secretary blowpipe
sekular-a, secular, opposed t o r e p - / shalot-o, shallot
lar clergy 1 shalup-0, ship's boat, launch
sekund-o, second (of time ov arc) sham-ar, to be ashamed
sekur-a, safe I shampun-o, shampooing
selakt-o, whey ' shancel-ar, t o totter
selekt-ar, t o select, choose ' shapk-0, cap (lined with fur)
sel-o, saddle j shark-0, shark (fish)
sem-ar, to sow (lit., fig.) , sharpi-o, lint
seman-o, week sharp-0, scarf, sling (bandage)
sembl-ar, t o seem shel-o, shell, peel, hard outer case
semid-o, Semite (nuts, etc.)
semin-o, seed shibr-0, slide valve, sluice (tech.)
semol-o, semolina shifon-0, bit of fabric, paper, etc.,
semperviv-o, house-leek crumpled up
*sempre, always shikan-ar, t o quibble, chicane (legal
*sen, without proceedings)
sene-o, meaning, sense shild-o, shield
shindol-o, shingle (wood) skapul-o, shoulder-blade, scapula
shink-o, ham (for food) skarabe-o, scarab or dung beetle
shirm-ar, t o shelter skarlat-a, scarlet
shovel-o, shovel skars-a, scarce, not plentiful
shok-ar, t o shock (giae shuck t o ) , skem-0, a scheme (9zot project)
cause t o shake (also fig.) skeptik-a, sceptic
shov-ar, t o shove (anything) skerm-ar, t o fence (pmctise sword
shu-o, shoe (for human foot) play)
shultr-o, shoulder (of body) sket-ar, t o skate
shutr-o, shutter (of window) skis-ar, t o sketch
sid-ar, t o sit, be seated skism-o, schism
siej-ar, to besiege skist-o, schist
sifl-ar, t o whistle sklav-o, slave
sigl-ar, t o seal, t o affix seal, mark skol-o, school
with seal skop-o, target, object aimed at,
signifik-ar, to mean, signify aim, purpose, objective, scope
sik-a, dry (not wet) skrach-ar, t o scratch (tr.)
sikl-o, sickle skrap-ar, t o scrape (with tool)
silenc-ar, to be silent skren-o, (fire) -screen, (window)
silk-o, silk -screen
silv-o, grove, wood of lofty trees skrib-ar, t o write
silvi-o, warbler (bird) skrub-0, screw
simi-o, monkey skud-o, crown (money) ; escutcheon
simil-a, like (similar) skur-ar, t o scour ( t r . ) , cleanse by
simp]-a, simple, not complex friction
simui-ar, t o simulate skurel-o, squirrel
sinap-o, mustard (plant) slam-o, slime, fine oozy mud
singl-a, each slang-o, slang
singlut-ar, t o sob sling-o, loop (cord, thread, etc.)
singular-a, singular (gram., logic) slip-o, slip (of a scvew, tech.)
remarkable (not strange) sluz-0, sluice
sinior-(ul)o, lord smerald-o, emerald
sinistr-a, left-hand smeril-o, emery
sink-ar, t o sink, fall in level (fig.) snap-ar, t o snap, snatch (with teeth)
sin-o, inward parts, bosom (fig.) snifl-ar, t o sniff
sins-o, direction snort-ar, t o snort, (of horse)
sinu-o, winding, bend soci-o, society (in general)
sior-ul-o, sir, Mr. ; -in-o, madam, soci-et-o, a society (special)
Mrs. socis-0, sausage
siring-o, syringe sod-0, soda
*sis, six sok-o, ploughshare
sis-ar, t o hiss , sokurs-ar, t o come t o aid of when in
danger, t o succour
sitel-0, pail. bucket I
siv-o, sieve (not riddle) sol-a, only
*she . . . sive, either . . . or ; sold-ar, to solder
whether . . . or sole-0, sole ( F s h )
siz-ar, to seize, lay hold of suddenly solen-a, solemn, ceremonious,
skabel-o, stool senous, weighty
skabi-o, scab, itch solidar-a, binding upon every one
skabin-o, alderman soli-0, door-sill, threshold
skali-o, shell (of oyster, tortoise) solv-ar, to solve
skal-o, ladder ; scale (drawing, map, solv-o, solution (act.)
Plan) solv-ur-o, solution (result)
solvent-a, solvent (com.) spring-ar, to spring (intr.), leap,
somer-0, summer start, rise suddenly (not rush)
somit-o, summit (geom. ; m o u n t a i ~ , spros-0, shoot (of a plant), sprout
tree and fig.) spul-ar, t o wind (tr. ; roll round
somnol-ar, t o be sleepy a spool)
son-ar, to sound, make a sound spum-o, scum, foam, froth
sonali-o, small bell (for dogs, etc.), sput-ar, t o spit, eject saliva
toy-bell squadr-o, square (instrument)
sond-ar, t o fathom (lit. and fig.) squam-o, scale (skin, fishes,
sonj-ar, t o dream (asleep) reptiles)
soport-o, bearing squat-ar, t o squat down
sorb-o, sorb-apple stab-o, staff (officers)
sorc-ar, t o practise witchcraft stabl-0, stable for cattle
sorg-ar, t o take care of, look after stac-ar, t o stand up ; be standing
sospir-ar, t o sigh staclon-o, station
sovaj-a, savage (not rude or cruel) stadi-o, stadium (Greek antiq.)
spac-o, space (not of time), interval stagn-ar, stagnate (liquid), t o be a t
between points a standstill (intr.)
spad-o, spade (tool) stal-o, steel
span-o, shaving (made by a plane) stamp-ar, t o stamp, impress with a
spaniel-o, spaniel mark
spanyolet-o, window-fastening stan-0, tin
spar-ar, t o save for future use stand-ar, t o be in . . . health
sparvier-o, sparrow-hawk standard-o, standard (distinctive)
spec-o, species, kind stang-o, bar
spegul-0, looking glass stapl-o, mart, emporium, market (of
spekt-ar, t o look on town or puvt)
spens-ar, t o spend ( t r . ) by pur- starch-ar, t o starch, stiffen (also fig.)
chasing, consume start-ar, to set going (tr., intr.) of
spic-0, spice (peppev, nutmeg, ginger, machine
etc.) stat-o, State (political)
spik-o, ear (covn, etc.) steb-ar, t o stitch (sewing)
spin-o, back-bone, spine stek-ar, to thrust point in, drive in,
spinat-o, spinach stick
spindel-o, spindle ( i n hand spinning, stel-o, fixed star
spinning wheels) stele-0, stela (arch.)
spion-ar, to spy (not to watch fov) stelt-o, stilt ; stelti, stilts
spirit-o, spirit, thinking being stenograt-ar, to take down in short-
spis-o, spit (for cook) hand
splen-o, spleen (anat.) stenografl-0, shorthand
splin-ar, t o have the spleen, low sterk-o, dung
spirits stern-ar, t o lie down a t full length
splint-o, pin (tech.) sternut-ar, t o sneeze
splis-ar, t o splice (naut.) stertor-ar, t o rattle (at death)
split-0, splinter from wood or stift-0, peg (of wood or metal for
stone frames)
spoli-ar, to despoil, spoil, spoliate stip-o, stem of plant; flower stalk
sponj-0. sponge stipendi-o. scholarship, maintenance
sporn-o; @urU(of horseman) - for a scholar
spot-o, mole (on skin) stipul-ar, t o stipulate for
spoz-o, spouse (of married couple) stow, as in vessel's hold
spric-ar, t o spout forth or gush out
(of liquid) stoi-o, stuff (any woven fabric)
stol-o, stole submis-ar, to submit ( t t . ; *rot refer
stomak-o, stomach (anat.) or present)
ston-o, pebble, small stone submis-it-0, subject (polit.)
stop-ar, t o stop up subsidi-ar, t o subsidize, aid with a
stor-0, (roller-) blind subsidy
stoter-ar, to stammer, stutter substituc-ar, t o replace, substitute
strab-a, squint-eyed (tr. of persons, things)
strad-o, street subvers-ar, t o overthrow, upset
strand-ar, t o run aground, strand suces-ar, t o succeed, accomplish
(intr. ; also fig.) one's purpose
strangul-ar, t o strangle by squeezing sucin-o, yellow amber
windpipe sud-o, the south
stranj-a, strange, queer sudor-o, sweat, perspiration
stranjer-a, foreign sufic-ar, t o suffice (intr.)
strat-o, layer, stratum sufl-ar, to blow ( w i n d , a i r ) , t o
strek-o, stroke, dash ( o f pen) prompt (hesitating speaker)
stret-a, narrow sufok-ar, t o stifle, choke (tr.)
strig-o, barn-owl sufr-ar, t o suffer
strigl-o, curry-comb (horse) sug-ar, t o suck (not suckle, nor draw
strik-ar, t o strike (intr.), quit air)
work sugest-ar, t o suggest
stri-o, streak, stripe, stria suk-o, juice (also fig.)
strip-o, trouser strap sukr-0, sugar
strok-o, stroke. feat ( o f pen, chess, sukus-ar, t o shake (tt.), cause
billiards, cards, piston, wing, violent vibrations
stroke o/ policy, luck, coup or sul-o, ground, soil
cunning) sulf-o, sulphur
struch-o, ostrich sulk-o, furrow, made by plough,
student-o, student, learner ship's track ( a k o fig.)
studi-ar, t o study, make a study of sum-o, sum, total amount
stuf-ar, t o stew, cook in closed sumn-ar, t o summon
vessel sundi-o, Sunday
stul-o, chair sun-0, sun
stult-a, foolish, silly suol-o, sole ( o f boot)
stump-o, stump (tree, limb, column, sup-0, soup
cabbage) supe-ar, t o take supper
stunt-ar, t o stunt (tr.) supe-o, supper
stup-o, tow *super, above, higher than
sturg-o, sturgeon superstic-o, superstition
sturm-o, storm, with thunder and suple-ar, t o be a substitute for
lightning (also fig.) suplik-ar, t o entreat
sturn-o, starling suport-ar, t o support (tr.)
stuv-o, stove supoz-ar, to suppose
*su, (him-, her-, it-) self, themselves, supr-a, upmost, highest in degree
oneself or place
*sub, under (rest or motion) supres-ar, t o suppress, do away with
subis-ar, to undergo *sur, on ; ad-sur, on to
subit-a, sudden (not abnormally sur-o, calf ( o f leg)
rapid) surd-a, deaf
subjekt-o, subject (only gram. log.) surkruto, sour krout (Sauarkraut)
subjekt-aka, subjective surmen-ar, t o overwork, or cause to,
subjunktiv-o, subjunctive work beyond one's strength (tr.)
submers-ar, t o submerge (tr.) surogat-o, succedaneum, substitute
surpriz-ar, to surprise, take un- tarok-0, tarot (cards)
awares tartar-o, tartar
surtut-o, overcoat tas-0, cup (for tea or coffee)
survey-ar, t o keep an eye on task-0, task, work imposed, or
suskript-ar, t o subscribe, contribute undertaken
specified sum tast-ar, to grope (lit. and fig.)
suspekt-ar, t o suspect, imagine t o taur-o, bull
be guilty taxus-o, yew tree
suspens-ar, t o suspend, debar tem- tay-o, waist (of body)
porarily from office or function ted-ar, t o bore (fig.), tire, weary (tr.)
susur-ar, to whisper, say under the teg-ar, to cover up (a bed, piece of
breath furniture)
susten-ar, to keep up, sustain, keep tegul-0, roof tile
from falling, sinking tekt-o, roof
sustracion-ar, t o subtract (arith.) tel-o, cloth, fabric of linen fibre
sustrakt-ar, to embezzle tem-0, theme, topic, subject (treated
sutau-o, cassock of)
sut-ar, to sew temat-o, theme (mus. and gram.)
suveren-a, sovereign temp-o, time
tempest-o, tempest
T tempor-o, temple (forehead)
*ta, t h a t ten-ar, t o hold ; keep in a given
taban-o, gad-fly, ox-fly, breese situation
tabel-o, table, list (of contents. etc.) tenali-o, pincers (of joiner)
tabl-o, table (furnitztre) tench-o, tench (fish)
tabul-o, shelf, slab tendenc-ar, t o tend, be directed to
taburet-o, footstool an object or purpose
tac-ar, t o keep silence (on) tendin-o, tendon
taft-o, taffeta tend-o, tent (portable lodging)
tag-o, tag (of a lace) tendr-0, tender (loco.)
tak-o, (tech.) cleat, whelp, wedge tenebr-o, gloom, darkness
takt-o, tact, use of sense of touch, tener-a, tender, susceptible t o love
sensitive mental perception or kindness
tal-a, such tens-ar, t o stretch, strain (tr. ;also
tal-e, in such a way, so fig.)
tali-ar, to cut (out), shape from tent-ar, to tempt, entice
talior-o, tailor tenu-a, fine, small, thin
talon-o, heel (of foot) tepid-a, lukewarm, tepid (lit. and
talp-o, mole (animal) fig.)
talus-o, embankment, slope, bank, teplic-0, hothouse
talus (fortif.) terin-o, earthenware pan
*tam . . . kam, as . . . as ter-o, earth
tambur-o, drum terakot-o, terra-cotta
*tamen, however, nevertheless terapi-o, therapeutics
tampon-o, stopper, plug, tampion terc-o, tierce (mzts., ~rtath., cards,
tang-ar, to pitch (ship) ferzcing)
tank-o, tank tercet-o, trio (mus.) ; triplet (poetry)
tant-e, so much (adv.) teren-o, ground, soil
tap-ar, to tap (for screws) teritori-o, territory
tapet-o, hangings, tapestry termin-o, term (gram., logic) ; boun-
tapis-o, carpet
tard-a, late
tarii-o, tariff
I teror-ar, to be terrified
dary turpentine
test-0, a witness trakt-ar, t o deal with, treat
tex-ar, t o weave
*ti, those
tibi-o, tibia (anat.)
tif-o, typhus fever
I tram-o, hollow rail
trampl-ar, t o stamp (with feet)
trampolin-o, spring-board
tran-ar, t o draw, drag, pull along
tifoido, typhoid, enteric fever tranch-ar, t o cut off
tik-o, wry motion, tic *trans, across. beyond
*ti& till, until transakt-ar, t o compromise.
tili-o, lime-tree, linden compound (intr.)
tim-ar, t o fear transakt-o, compromise
timbal-o, kettle-drum transfer-ar, t o transfer
timbr-o, clock-bell translac-ar, t o have a movement of
timinan-o. thyme translation (mech.)
timon-o, carriage-pole transmis-ar, t o transmit
tindr-o, tinder transpar-ar, t o appear through
tine-o, moth (worm) tras-ar, t o trace, draw, delineate
tini-o, scurf, scald-head trat-ar, t o draw ( a bill of exchange)
tinkl-ar, t o tinkle, jingle (zntr.) (com.)
tint-ar, t o dye traur-ar, t o mourn (for dead)
tir-ar, t o draw, pull *treyvery
titil-ar, t o tickle (tr.), titillate tref-o, clubs (cards)
titul-o, title trek-o, track, path, footway
tizan-0, herb-tea, ptisan, tisane trelis-o, trellis, lattice work
*to (pron.), that (thing) trem-ar, t o tremble
tof-o, tufa tremp-ar, t o dip,soak, steep(&.. intr.)
tombol-o, charity lottery, raffle tremul-o, tremolo (mzcs.)
tond-ar, t o shear tren-o, train (railway)
tondr-ar, t o thunder tresay-ar, t o start (intr.), t o feel a
tonsil-o, tonsil thrill
top-0, top (naut.) trest-o, trestle, easel (not trestle
torak-o, thorax work)
tord-ar, t o wring, twist trezor-0, treasure
torf-o, peat, turf *tri, three
tormentar, t o torture, torment tribon-o, tribune (person)
(also fig.) tribul-ar, t o cause tribulation
torn-ar, t o turn (in a lathe) trifoli-0, clover
tornasol-0, litmus trikot-ar, t o knit a fabric (not
torped-o, torpedo crochet)
torpor-ar, t o be benumbed, or in trimestr-o, quarter of year
state of torpor trist-a, sad, a£flicted with grief
torsad-o,, twisted fringe *tro, too, too much
tort-o, pie (food) trog-o, trough, hod
tortug-o, tortoise tromb-o, water spout (at sea)
tost-ar, t o drink . . 's health tromp-ar, t o deceive, mislead
tot-a, whole trotuar-o, pavement, sidewalk
*tra, across, through trov-ar, t o find, discover, come
trab-o, beam (bttilding or s h ~ p ) across (not judge)
trac-0, trace, track tru-o, hole, hollow, excavation
traduk-ar, t o translate (language) trufl-o, truffle
trahiz-ar, t o betray trul-o, trowel
trait-o, feature (of face), trait (of trump-o, trump (cards)
character) trunk-o, stump (of tree), frustum
trake-o, wind-pipe (of cone)
trus-ar, tuck up unt-o, swarf, cart grease
trut-o, trout upup-o, hoopoe
tu, thou -ur-, result of action, product of
tuber-o, knot ( i n wood) uragan-o, hurricane
tubul-0, tubulure (chem.) urb-o, town
tuert-a, one-eyed urd-ar, t o warp (weaving)
tuf-o, tuft, puff (for applying urj-ar, t o be urgent
powder) urogal-o, capercailzie
tuk-0, piece of cloth or linen U~OX-0, aurochs
tumor-o, tumour urs-o, bear
tun-o, ton (mar.) urtik-0, nettle
tupi-0, (peg-)top -us, conditional
tur-0, tour utensil-o, utensil
turb-o, crowd (persons) util-a, useful
turd-o, thrush (bird) -uy-, receptacle for
turkez-o, turquoise uz-ar, t o use, avail oneself of, em-
turm-o, tower P~OY
turnir-o, tournament uzuirukto, usufruct ( k w )
turt-0, oil cake, . . . cake uzur-ar, t o practise usury
turtur-o, turtle-dove
tus-ar, t o cough
tush-ar, t o touch, be in contact with
(also geom. not to concern) vab-0, honey comb
tutel-ar, t o be the guardian of vaein-0, cow-pox
(someone) vacini-o, red bilberry, whortle
tuy-0, arbor vitae berry
vad-ar, t o ford, wade
u vafl-o, wafer (used for mass)
vagon-o, railway carriage
*ube, where ; ad-ube, whither vajis-ar, t o wail, t o cry (of child)
ubiqu-a, ubiquitous vak-ar, t o be vacant (of office)
ueel-o, bird vakano-ar, t o have a holiday
-ul-, masculine vaku-a, empty
Ul-a, some, a certain one ; 111-0, val-o, valley
something ; ul-u, someone ; ul-i, valiz-o, suit case, portmanteau
some (person, things) valor-ar, t o be worth
ulan-o, Uhlan van-a, vain, without value
ulm-0, elm vanel-o, peewit, plover, lapwing
uln-o, ell (measure) vang-o, cheek (of face)
Ultramar-a, ultramarine ( a d j . ) vango-frapar, t o cuff on the head
*ultre, (prep. and adv.), beyond vanitat-o, vanity (desire t o show off)
~ 1 ~ 1 - atro, howl (of animals) vant-o, shroud (naval)
-urn-, indefinite s u e vapor-o, steam
~mbilik-0, navel, umbilicus var-0, ware ; -i, wares
umbr-0, umber varik-o, varices, varix (med.)
*un, one varm-a, warm (also fig.)
unanirn-a, unanimous vars-ar, t o pour (liquids or grain)
uncion-ar, to anoint vart-ar, t o wait for
ungl-0, nail, claw vask-o, basin ( a s of fountain)
unguent-o, ointment vaskul-o, blood vessel
unik-a, unique vast-a, vast, stretching far in extent
unikorn-o, unicorn vat-o, wadding, prepared sheets of
univers-al-a, universal , carded cotton
vax-0, wax ( o f a n y kind, nut. or veter-o, weather
artific.) vetrin-o, glass-case
vaz-0, vessel, vase vetur-0, carriage, wheeled vehicle
*ve ! alas ! vex-ar, t o vex, irritate
veh-ar, t o go about, drive in a vehicle vex-es-o, humiliation (state)
vein-o, vein vezik-0, bladder (anal., 2001.)
vek-ar, t o wake (intr., also fig.) *vi, you (plur.)
vekt-o, beam ( o f scales) vi burn-0, viburnum
vel-0, veil, t o hide an object (anat. *vice, vice, instead of
also) vicer-i, viscera
velin-o, vellum vici-0, vice, depravity, immorality
velk-ar, t o fade (intr.), lose fresh- vicin-o, neighbour
ness vicin-a, ueighbouring
velur-o, velvet vid-ar, t o see ( b y eye or m i n d )
ven-ar, t o come (not reach) vidv-a, widowed
vend-ar, t o sell vidv-111-0, widower
venen-o, poison (also fig.) vidv-in-o, widow
venerac-ar, t o venerate vigil-ar, t o be awake
veneral-a, venereal vikari-o, vicar, curate
venerdi-o, Friday vikun-o, vicuna ( a n i m a l )
venial-a, venial (only theol.) vil-o, (anat.) villous (hairy)
venj-ar, t o avenge vild-o, game (sport), animals
vent-ar, t o be windy ; -as, i t blows hunted, their flesh
ventr-o, belly (also fig.) vimpl-0, wimple (dress)
ventuz-o, cupping glass vin-o, wine
ver-a, true (all senses) vinagr-o, vinegar
verbask-o, mullein (bot.) vind-ar, t o hoist, lift with tackle
verben-o, verbena (bot.) vink-ar, conquer, overcome
verd-a, green (of colour o n l y ) vink-0, victory
verdigris-o, verdigris vink-es-o, defeat
verg-o, rod, birch vintr-o, winter
veriflk-ar, t o verify, establish truth violac-ar, t o violate (law, or a
verk-0, work (artistic, or in a n y but woman)
phys. sense) violin-o, violin
verm-o, worm, maggot viol-o, violet (bot.)
vermut-o, bitters, vermouth vir-o, adult man in his prime
vern-o, varnish (not f i g . ) virg-a, virgin, maiden (also soil, etc.)
*vers, towards, in direction of vis-ar, t o screw, by means of screws
vertic-o, sinciput (opp. o f occiput) vish-ar, t o wipe dry by rubbing (not
vertij-ar, t o feel dizzy fig.)
vertu-o, virtue (moral, not chastity) viskomt-(ul)o, viscount
veruk-0, wart viskoz-a, viscid, viscous, sticky
vesp-0, wasp vist-ar, t o examine and sign, to vise
vesper-o, evening vit-o, vine, (plant)
vespertili-o, bat (creature), flitter- vitel-o, yolk ( o f a n egg)
mouse (colloq.) vitr-o, glass (material)
vespr-i, vespers vitrali-o, stained-glass window (of
vest-0, garment, vestment church, etc.)
vesti-0, jacket, loose with sleeves viul-0, viol
(for men only) viv-ar, t o live (not reside)
veston-o, jacket. close fitting (for vivac-a, lively
men) vizaj-o, face, front of human head
vet-ar, t o veto viz-ar, t o aim a t , have in view
vizel-o, weasel
voc-o, voice (human)
vok-ar, t o call, shout (also fig.) *ya, truly, indeed (used to confirm
vokal-o, vowel a statement)
vol-ar, t o wish, will, exercise yakt-o, yacht
volition yar-0, year
volt-0, wolf *ye, a t (indef. prepos.)
volumin-o, volume (geom.) *yen, behold, lo ! here
volunt-ar, t o be willing, be so kind as *yes, yes
volupt-o, voluptuousness yodl-ar, to yodel
volv-ar, t o roll up yol-o, yawl
vom-ar, t o vomit yuft-o, Russia leather
vort-o, word (as a z~nitonly) yug-0, yoke of wood (also fig.)
vortie-ar, t o whirl, rotate rapidly yun-a? young (applied to living
vov-ar, t o vow solemnly thzngs otzly)
voy-o, way, road yur-o, right, implying just claim,
voyaj-ar, t o travel, voyage vested power
*vu, you (sing.) yust-a, just, (equitable)
vult-o, vault, arched roof (only) yust-es-o, justice (+totjzrdge or court
vultur-o, vulture 4)
vund-ar, t o wound (not f g . )

warf-o, wharf (for discharging cargo)

weld-ar, t o weld zek-o, tick (insect)
west-0, the west zel-ar, t o be zealous
wlst-o, whist zeze-ar, t o lisp
zibelin-o, sable (animal)
zink-o, zinc
zan-o (geom., geog.), belt for waist
xilograf-ar, t o engrave on wood zum-ar, to buzz, hum
In t h ~ svocabulary the composite parts of the Ido words are
separated by hyphens' to help beginners to d~stinguish the unvarying
root from thy different affixes which add to it new shades of meaning.
In using the language these hyphens are omitted.
Combinations of roots and affixes not appearing in this short list of
words can, of course, be used without restriction, provided always that
the composite parts of the new words have not to sacrifice their
true meanings to express intelligible ideas.

A to absorb, absorb-ar to. accustom, kustum-

to abstain, absten-ar ~ g - a ;r become ac-
a, an (not tranilated) I to abstract, .111~tr.:Icl I: customed, kustum-
to abandon, abandon- 1 absurd, absurd-a esk-ar
ar to abuse, mi,-urar, ace ( ~ o , d $ \C,L T - O
to abase, ( / e l doCi11 ), tro-UZ-ar ache, dolor-o ; to ache,
aba5-nr to abut, abut-ar dolor-ar
abbey, abad-ey-o
abbot, al)aJ-c,
I abutmen+, . ~ I ~ u t m i n f - nto achieve, erekut-ar.
abyss, ahi5nl-o par-fac-ar
to abbreviate, abrevi-ar academy, akademi-o acid, acid-a, -0
to abdicate, abdik-ar to acceierate, a ~ e l r ~ - , ~toi acknowledge (own
to abhor, horor-ar accent, acent-o up), agnosk-ar ;-
ability, takultat-o to accept, acept-ar receipt of, atestar
to abjure, ablur-ar to have access to, recevo di
able, habil a ; kapabl-a aces-ar acolyte, dkolut-o
to be able, pol -ar
able to contain,
,accessory, aceqor-a
accident, acident-o
to acclaim, aklam-ar
to acquire, aquir-ar
to acquit, pag-ar, ab-
to abnegate, al~ncg-:ir aklimat- acrid, akr-,I (lit. and
to abolish, abolli-ar If,..)
abortion, abort-o (act), alcnm across, *trans
abort-ur-o (thzng) jjan-ar (also nzvs.) to act, ag-ar, ( t h ~ o t ~ r ) .
to abound, abund-ar to be in accord, akord- ple-ar
about, *prl, (n?ouiid), 1 a r ; of one's own action (deed), ag-(ad-)
"clrkum accord, vol-e, liber-e o ; (legal) proces-o
above, "super, sup]-e according to, *segun active, ag-iv-a, -em-a ;
to abrade, exkori-ar account (payment on), (opp. of passrue),
to abridge (epztow~z-r), akont-o amv-a
abrm I-ar account, etat-o (state- actor, aktor-o
abroad, exter-land-e nzrnt) actual, real-a ; (of the
abrupt, bruqk-a I accountant, kont-1s t-o present tzme), aktual-
to absolve, al)iolx-ar to accumulate, aku- a
absent, absent-a ; mul-ar acute, akut-a
-minded, dlstrakt- accurate, just-a, to adapt, adapt-ar
at-a exakt-a to add, ad-junt-ar;
absolute, absolut-a to ~.ccuse,akur-a1 (arzth.) adicion-ar
address, adres-o ; to have an affection alder (tree), aln-o
(speech) diskurs- for, afecion-ar alderman, skabin-o
(et-)o; (skill), habil. afflnity, afin-es-o alert, alert-a
es-o ; to address (c having affinity with, alienation, (mental),
letter), adres-iz-ar afin-a alienac-o
adherezt, -ist to afflrm, afirm-ar alike, sirnil-a
adieu, adi-o to afflict, aflikt-ar all, omn-a
adjective, -a to afforest, arbor-iz-ar to allege, deg-ar
adjoining, *apud to be afraid, pavor-ar to alleviate, alej -ar
to adjourn(tr.), ajorn-a] after (behznd), *dop alley (walk), ale-o
to adjudge (award), after, *pos alliance, feder(-ur)-o
adjudik-ar afternoon, pos-di-mez- to allot, repartis-ar
to adjust, aranj-ar ; 0 to allow, permls-ar
ajust-ar (tech.) afterwards, pose to make an allowance
to administer (manage), again, *ankore, itere, (cow.), rabat-ar
adrninistr-ar ri- to alloy, aloy-ar
administration (act), against, * k o ~ ~ t r e to allude to, dud-ar
administr-o age, ev-o to allure, lur-ar
administration (wl~ob), agent, agent-o to ally (by marvzn<e),
administr-ant-ar-o agile, ajil-a alianc-ar
admiral, admiral-o to agitate, a p t - a r ally, feder-ito, kun-
to admire, admir-ar ago (beforenow), ant-e feder-it-o
to admit, admis-ar, nun almond, mandel-o
agnosk-ar agony, agoni-o almond-cake, marci-
to admonish, exhort-ar to agree, konkord-ar pan-o
to be adolescent, to agree to, konsent- almost, "preske
adolec-ar ar alms, almon-o
to adopt, adopt-ar agreeable (pleasing), aloes, alo-o
to adore, ador-ar agreabl-a alone, sol-a
to adorn, om-ar agreement, konven- along (prep.), *alonge
adult, adult-a, -0 cion-o to get alongside (ship,
adultery, adulter-o agreement (elzterlte), wharf, etc.), abord-ar
to advance, avanc-ar konkord-o, kot:- alpaca, alpak-o
advantage, avantaj-o sent-o alphabet, alfabet-o
advent, advent-o to make an agreement, already, *ja
adventure (to seek), konvencion-ar also, *anlre
aventur-ar ground (to run). altar, altar-o
ad~~evb, -e strand-ar (intr.) although, *quankam
adverse, advers-a ahead, a v a n e , ad- sltogether, tot-e, en-
to advertise, avert-ar, avane tot-e
reklamac-ar aide-de-camp, adju- always, *sempre
advertisement (puff), tant-~ ;o amass, amas-ig ar
reklam-o aim, skop-o (lit. and mateur, amator-o
advice (information), iu.1 iO be ambitious (seek
aviz-o ;o aim at, viz-ar after ambitiously),
to advise, konsil-ar; lir, aer-o ambici-ar
~VIZ-ar isle, later-o tmbulance, ambu-
advocate, advocat- rkin to, afin-a lanc-o
(u1)-0 ilabaster, alabastr-o to ambush, embusk-ar
affable, afabl-a ,o alarm, alarm-ar bmendment, emend-o
affair, afer-o ilas ! *ve ! %mid, mez-e (di)
affectation, afekt-0, tlchemy, alkemi-o among, *inter
-BS-0 rlcohol, alkohol-o &mount, sum-o
aron, arc, ark-o

ample, ampl-a apart (adj.), separ-ita,
to -amputate, amput- apart-a;(adv.),aparte archbishop, arki-epis-
aDe. simi-o
to amuse, amuz-ar to apologise, exkuz-ar -
analogy, analog-eso su architect, arkitekt-o
to analyse, analiz-ar apology, apologi-o ; architecture, arkitek-
anarchy, anarki-o exkuz-o tur-o
ancestor, ancestr-o apostle, apostol-o archives, arkiv-o
anchor, ankr-o apparatus, aparat-o ardent (to be), ardor-ar
anchovy, anchov-o appeal ( i n law), apel-o ; (lit. and fig.)
ancient, antiqu-a (charity, etc.), ad- area, are-o
and, * e ( d ) vok-o arena, aren-o
anecdote, anekdot-o to appear, apar-ar ; to argue, argument-ar
angel, anjel-o (seem),, sembl-ar ; to arise, stac-eskar ;
anger, irac-o (look lzke), aspekt-ar lev-ar su
angle, angul-o to appear through, aristocratic, aristo-
to be angry, irac-ar transpar-ar krat-a
anguish, angor-o appetite, apetit-o arithmetic, aritmetik-o
animal, besti-o to applaud, aplaud-ar ark, arch-o
to animate, anim-ar apple, pom-o arm (part of body,
annals, anal-i application (for place, b r a h - o ; (weapon),
to annex, anex-ar ; etc.), demand-o arm-o ; fire-, paf-ilo
annex, anex-ajo to apply (on),aplik-ar ; armament. arm-12-0
to announce, anunc-ar (address oneself), arm-chair, stul-ego
to annoy, agac-ar; turn-ar su armistice, armistlc-o
i n t-ar to appoint (to a post), arm-pit, axel-o
annuity, rent-o nomin-ar army, arme-o
to annul, kasac-ar appointment (with around (pre*.), *cilh-
to anoint, uncion-ar someone), rendevu-o um
anonymous, anonim-a to apportion, repartis- to arouse, vek-igar
another, altr-u, -a, -0 ar arquebus, arkabuz-o
to answer, respond-ar to appraise, evalu-ar to arrange, arranj-ar
ant, formik-o to appreciate (tr.), arrangement, aranj-
anthem, antifon-o priz-ar ur-o, -es-o
anthropoid, antro- apprentice, aprentis-o arranging (act.),arani-o
poid-a approval, aprob-o to arrest, halt-igar ;
to anticipate, a n t i c i p to approve, aprob-ar (tech.) arest-ar
ar approximate, proxim-a to arrive, ariv-ar
ant-lion, mirmeko- to approximate (tr.), arrow, flech-o
leon-o ( a d ) proxim-igar ; arrow-root, arorut-o
antiquated, arkaik-a (intr.) proxim-eskar arsenic, arsen-o
anvil, ambos-o (ad) art, art-o
anxiety, anxi-o, ne- apricot, abrikot-o artesian (well), artez-a
quiet-eso April, april-o artful (crafty), ruz-oza
anxious to, dezir-ema apron, avantal-o (also artichoke, artichok-o
any, ul-a (indetermi- of carriage) article (newspaper,
nate), irg-a ; -one, apse, apdd-o grammar), artikl-o ;
irg-u aquatic, aqu-ala (commerce), var-o
anybody, irg-u to arbitrate, arbitr-ar artifice, artific-o
anyhow, irg-e arbitrary, arbitri-ala artillery, artileri-o
anything whatever, arbor, laub-o artizan, mestier-isto
~rg-o arbor vitte, tuy-o artless, naiv-a,
anywhere, irga-lok-e arcade, arkad-0 kandld-a
as, qual-e ; ( i i t th at (someone's house of averse, antipati-oza
capacity o f ) , *kom place), che ; (pvice) (ad)
(because),pro Ire ; ( i f po ; !of place). *an to avert, deturn-ar
comparison), kam ( ; f i e f . pvep.),, ye avidity, avid-eso
..., tam kam at a tlme (distrrbutivs) to avoid, evit-ar
as though, quale se -0p- to awake, vek-ar ; to
such as, tala quala at once , *quik be-, vigil-ar
to ascend, acens-ar at the earliest, maxin aware(to be-of), sav-
ascent, acens-o frue (posible) ar
to ascertain, cert-igal at the time of, *lor away ( f a r ) , for-e
su pri ; konstat-ar atheist, ateist-o awful, teror-iganta
ascetic, asket a, -0 athletic, atlet-ala axle, ax-o
to be ashamed, sham-a atlas, atlas-o axe, hak-ilo
ash(es), cindr-o to atone for,penitenc-a:
ash-tree. fraxin-o to attack, atak-ar
aside, later-e (di) to attain, ating-ar
to ask for, demand-a1 to attempt, atent-ar
asparagus, asparag-o to attend (be pvesen
aspect, aspekt-o at), asist-ar
aspen, tremul-o attention (to give, pay)
to aspire, aspir-ar atenc-ar
ass, asn-o to attest, atest-ar
to assassinate, asasin. attic, mansard-o
ar dtitude (posture of
to assault, asalt-ar body), postur-o
to assemble, (tr.) ;o attract, atrakt-ar to babble, balbut-ar
kolekt-ar, asembl- ;O attribute, atribu-a1 baby, infant-et-o
ar ;(intr.)kun-ven-a1 ruction sale, aucion-o bachelor, celib-o
assembly, asembl-o, rudacity, audac-o back (of body), dorso ;
-aj-o SO augment, augment- (of coin, etc.), revers-
to assert, asert-ar ar o ; (adv.), retre;
assiduous, asidu-a &ugmentntive, -eg (adj.,of behind), dop-
assistance, help-(ad)o bugust, aqost-o a
assistant, adyunt-o runt, onkl-ino back-bone, spin-o
to associate, asoci-ar rurochs, uros-o backgammon, trik-
association, asoa-o, ~uthor, autor-o trak-o
-111-0 : (pevsmsl ruthority, autoritat-o 5ack, retro-
a3oci-it-aro o authorize, (pevson to bacon, lard-o
to assort ( t r . ) , asort-ar do), yur-izar bad, mal-a
to assume, asum-ar ; ~utomobile, auto- badge, insign-o
(suppose), supoz-ar mobil-o badger, dax-o
assumption (vehg.) rutumn, autun-o bag, sak-o
asuncion-o ,uxlllary (adj.), help- )aggage, bagaj-o
assurance (cevtainty), ant-a ( n . ) help-anto baggage-cart, furgon-o
cert-es-o ; (self con- ,vailable, valid-a ; dis- )agpipe, kornamuz-o
fidence), aplomb-o pon-ebla )ail, kaucion-o
to assure, cert-ig-ar ; valanche, avalanch-o ~ailiff,balif-o
(insure), asekur-ar ,varicious, avar-a baker, pan-if-ist-o
asthma, astm-o o avenge, venj-ar o bake, bak-ar
to astonish, aston-ar venue, avenu-o balance (equilibrium),
astringent (to have the verage (value), mez- equilibr-o ; (scales),
effect of), astrikt-ar valor-o ; (damage), balanc-o ; (account),
(ty.1 avari-o bilanc-o
to balance (accounts) basin, basen-o bed, lit-o : Gourden),
sald-ar badn (of fountai~cj, bed-o
balance-sheet, bilanc-c vask-o bed-room, dormo-
balcony, balkon-o basket, korb-o chambro
basset-hound, basot-o bed-sheet, lit-tuk-o
bald, kalv-a bat (creature), vesper- bee, abei-o
ball, bul-o : ( t o y ) ,balon- tili-o beech, fag-o
et-o ; (dalzce), bal-o; to bathe, baln-ar (tr. beef, bovo-karn-o ;
(of thread), pelot-o and intr). -steak, bifstek-o
ballast, balast-o bathing costume, beer, bir-o
balloon, balon-o malyot-o beet, bet-o
balm, balzam-o battalion, batalion-o before ( i n time), *ante ;
balm-mint, melis-o battery, bateri-o ( i n space), *avan
battle, kombat-o ; beetle, skarabe-o
banana, banan-o (great), batali-o ; (to beetroot. betrav-o
band, ligil-o ; rimen-o ; gave-to), batali-ar ; to beg (ask), preg-ar ;
(company), band-o ; (battlefield), batali- -for, demand-ar
(cloth), bend-o ; agr-o, kombat-agr-o beggar, mendik-isto
(clothing), h a g - o battlement, krenel-o to begin, komenc-ar
bands (botan.), bay (~eog.),bay-o t o behave, kondut-ar
nervatur-o bazaar, bazar-o behind (prep.), *dop
to banish, exil-ar to be, es-ar ; ( i n health, behold, * y e n
i n condition), stand- being (entity), ent-o
bank, eskarp-aj-o,pent- to belch, rukt-ar
o , ramp-o ; (river, ar
etc.), r ~ v - o; (establ.) to be (so many years) to believe, kred-ar
old, ev-ar bell, klosh-o (also bell-
bank-o glass, dish-cover)
beach, plaj-o
bankrupt (to become a ) , beadle, bedel-o to bellow, muj-ar
bankrot-ar beak, bek-o bellows, sufl-ilo
bankruptcy, bankrot-o beam (house,ship, etc.), belly, ventr-o
banner, baner-o trab-o ; (of scales), to belong, aparten-ar
banquet, festin-o vekt-o belonging to, *di
to baptise, bapt-ar )can (bean-stalk), fab-o beloved, kar-a
bar (of iron, etc.), kidney, fazeol-o ; )elow (prep.), infr-s
stang-o French, verda fazeo- (di)
to bar, bar-ar lo mlt, 'zon-o ; (mach-
barbarous, barbar-a bear (animal), U ~ S - o inery), rimen-o
barbel, barbel-o o bear, port-ar ; (toler- )enoh, benk-o
bare, nud-a ate), toler-ar ;o bend (tr.), flex-ar
to bargain lor, mar- )card, barb-o )end (bending, curve),
chand-ar bearing (children), kurv-o
barge, bark-o partur-o ~eneath, *sub
to bark, aboy-ar least, besti-o benediction, benedik-o
bark (of a tree), kortic-o to beat (materially) benefaction, bon-fac-o
barley, horde-o bat-ar o benefit (by), bene-
barn-owl, noktu-o to beat a retreat, fic-ar
baron, baron-(ul)o retret-ar ~enevolence,bon-vol-o
barracks, kszern-o beautiful, bel-a o be benumbed,
barrel (cask),barel-o beaver, kastor-o torpor-ar
barrier, bar-il-o mause, pro k e ; ~enzoin,benzo-o
base, basis, baz-o m a u s e of, *pro 1;o beaueath.
. leaac-ar
basement, basament-o ;o become, diven-ar ; berry, ber-o -
basll, bazil-o -esk- (suffix) beside, *apud
besides. ultr-e
to besiege, sreg-ar
best, maxim bon-a
block, blok-o
to block UD. inkombr-ar
to blockade, blokus-ai
1 bouquet. buket-o
bourse, . bors-o
to bow,flex-ar; salut-ar
to bet, pxi-ar blonde, blond-a bowl, bul-o ; (vase),
to betray, trahiz-ar blood, sang-o bol-0
better (adj.), plu bon-a blood-vessel, vaskul-c bow net, nas-o
between, inter to bloom, flor-if-ar bowsprit, busprit-o
bevel, bizel-o to blot out, efac-ar box (cardboard), bux-o,
to bewail, deplor-ar to blow, sufl -ar ( t r u n k ) , kofr-o ; (of
to bewitch, sorc-ar blowpipe, shalm-o theatre), loji-o
beyond, *trans ; blue, blu-a to box (pugilism), box-
(further), *ultre blunt (nbrupt, brusque), ar
bicycle, bicikl-o brusk-a boxwood, bus-o
to bifurcate, bifurk-ar board ( p l a n k ) , plank-a boy or girl ( f r . 7 to 15),
big, gros-a, grand-a to boast, fanfaron-ar puer-o
bigam-ous, -ist, bigam- boat, batel-o to boycott, boikot-ar
a , -0 bodice, korsaj-o bracelet, bracelet-o
bilberry (ved), vacini-o body, korp-o braces, bretel-o
bile (gall), bil-o t o boil (intr.), boli-ar brain, cerebr-o
bill (account), faktur-o ; boiler, kaldron-o ; brake (tech.) fren-o
(poster), afish-o (steam), kaldier-o bramble, rov-o
billet, leni-o boldness, audac-o bran, bran-o
billiards, biliard-o bolster, polster-aj-o; to branch, branch-o
to bind, lig-ar; (books), bolster, polster-iz-ar brandy, brandi-o
bind-ar bolt (door), rigl-o ; brass, latun-o
binding upon everyone, ( p i n ) , bolt-o brave, brav-a
solidar-a bond . (finance), obli- breach, brech-o
birch (tree), betul-o ; gacion-o bread, pan-o
(rod), bisk-o bone, ost-o to break, rupt-ar
bird, ucel-o bonnet (women's) kofi-o to break in (animals),
birth, nask-o book, 11br-o dres-ar
biscuit, hisquit-o book-case, bibliotek-o breakdown (stoppagu),
bishop, episkop-o book-seller, libr-ist-o, pane-o
bit (horse's), mors-o libro-vendist-o to breakfast, dejun-ar
to bite, mord-ar boot, bot-o ; half-, breast, pektor-o ;
bitter, bitr-a botet-o (gland), mam-o,
bitters, vermut-o borage, borach-o breastplate (armour),
bitumen, bitum-o to bore (pierce),bor-ar ; plastron-o
to bivouac, bivak-ar (afflict wzth enlzui), lo breathe, respir-ar
black (adj.), nigr-a ted-ar breeches, brach-o
blackbird, merl-o to be born, nask-ar to breed, genit-ar
blacking ( f o r boots). borough, burg-o ~reeze, briz-o
c~raj-o to borrow, prunt-ar )rick, brik-o
blade, lamen-o to botch (work),fush-ar bride, spa-in-o ;
t o blame, blam-ar both, la du, due (ni, -groom, spoz-ul-o
t o blaspheme, blasfem- vi, li) bridge, pont-o
ar bottle, botel-o to bridle, brid-iz-ar
to blaze up, flam-if-ar bottom, fund-o ; (of brief (Pope's), brev-o
to blend, mix-ar bodv), kul-o, sed-o brigand, rapt-ist-o
to bless, benedik-ar boudoir, buduar-o brill, pleuronekt o
blind, blind-a ; (cur- bough ( b m n c h ) , ~rilliant (adj.), bnl-
tain), kurten-o branch-o ant-a ; (diamond),
blissful, beat-a boundary, limit-o briliant-o
to bring, ad-port-ar ; to burst, krev-ar to call, vok-ar
to bav. akul-ar to bury, sepult-ar calm, kalm-a
briquette, brik-et-o bush, bush-o to calumniate, kalum-
brisk, brisk-a (of per bushel, bushel-o ni-ar
sons only) business, afer-i calx, kalk-o
to bristle up, heris-ar business firm, firm-o cambric, batist-o
broad, larj-a busk, bu sk-o camel, kamel-o
brocade, brokat-o busy, okup-at-a camera, kamer-o (tech.)
brokers' business, but, *ma ; (except) camisole, kamizol-o
kurtaj-o ecept-e camp (place),kamp-ey-
bronchial tube, butcher, buch-ist-o o ; to-out, karnp-ar
bronki-o butter, butr-o campaign (to go o n a ) ,
bronchitis, bronkit-o butterfly, papilion-o kampani-ar
bronze, bronz-o buttock, glute-o camphor, kaml'ur-u
brooch (jewellery) button, buton-o can, bidon-o
broch-o buttress, kontrafort-c can {to he able), pov-nr
to brood (over),kov-a]L' to buy, kompr-ar canal, kanal-o
brook, river-et-o to buy up, akapar-ar canary bird, serin-o
broom (plant), ginest-cI to buzz, zum-ar candid, kandid-a
broth, bulion-o by (after passive verb) candle, kandel-o ;
brother or sister, frat-c, *da ; ( b y means o f ) , (taper), cer-o
brougham, kupe-o *per; (before),*ante ; cane, ka11-o (bot.)
brow, brov-o (near), *apud to make a cannon
brown, brun-a (billiards), karam-
to bruise, kontuz-ar bol-ar
to brush, bros-ar; a cannon, kanon-o ;-ball,
brush, bros-il-o ; kugl-eg-o
(painting), pinsel-o canoe, kano-o
brute, brut-o canon, kanonik-o
bubble, aer-, gas-, bul- canopy, dosel-o
o ; to-up, ebuli-ar caoutchouc, kauchuk-o
bucket, sitel-o cap (joy men and boys,!,
buckle, bukl-o kasqnet-o ; (for
buckthorn, ramn-o cab, kabriolet-o women or infants),
bud, burjon-o cabbage, kaul-o kofi-o; (lined with
buffalo, bufal-o cabin-boy, mos-o f u r , etc.), shapk-o
buffer, bufr-o cabinet, kabinet-o :apable, kapabl-a
buffet, bufet-o cable (telegraph), kabl- :apacity, kapac-es-o
bug, cim-o o ; (rope), kord-eg-o :ape (geog ), kab-o
bugle (mil.), klariou-o cafe, kafe-ey-o :aper (bota~z.), kaper-o ;
to build, konstrukt-ar cage, kal-c, (to cut a ) , kabriol-ar
bull, taur-o caisson, kason-o xipercailzie, urogal-o
bullet, kugl-o ,ake, kuk-o :apital (archit.),
bulletin, buletin-o :alamity, kalamitat-o kapitel-o ; (town),
bullfinch, buvrel o ,o calculate, kalkul-ar chef-urb-o ; ( m o ~ z e y ) ,
bunch, buket-o, grap-o, :aleulus (mrdzc.), kapital-o
fask-o, lig-aj-o kalkol-o :apital letter, mayus-
bundle, fask-o, pak-o, :alendar, kalendari-o kul-o
lig-aj-o :alico (printed), o capitulate, kapitu-
buoy, boy-o indien-o lac-ar
to burden, charj-ar 'alf ( o f leg), sur-o :apon, Icapon-o
burgess, borgez-o o calk, kalfat-ar aprice, kapric-o
burn, brul-ar (naut.) mapstan, kapstan-o
captain, kapitan-o casual, kazual-a ; challenge, defi-o
to captivate, charm-ar (profit),kazual-o to challenge ( ~ u r o re,f c . )
facin-ar, ravis-ar cat, kat-o rekuz-ar
car, char-o catalogue, katalog-o chamber, chambr-o
carbine, karabin-o catarrh, katar-o chamois, chani-o
carbon, karb-o catch (mechan.),klik-c champagne wine,
carbuncle (dzsease) to catch, kapt-ar champani-o
karbunkl-o to catechise, katekiz-a1 chance (good or bad),
carcase, kadavro catechism, katekism-a chanc-o
card, kart-o caterpillar, raup-o chancellor, kanceler-o
cardboard, karton-o to cause, efekt-ig-ar to change, chanj-ar ;
cardon (Fr.! (plant) cause, kauz-o (money), kambi-ar
kardun-o caution, prudent-es-o ; channel, kanel-o
cardoon, kardun-o (money), kaucion-o to chap, krevis-ar
care, sorg-o ; to-foi cave, kavern-o chapel, kapel-o
(miad), sorg-eg-ar to caw, kroas-ar chaperone, duen-o ;
to caress, karez-ar cayenne pepper, protekt-ant-in-o
to caricature, paprik-o chapter (of book),
karikat-ar to cease, ces-ar chapitr-o
caries, kari-o to cede (give u p ) , ced-ar character, karakter-o
carnation, karnacion -0; ceiling, plafon-o charade, sharad-o
(flower),diant-o celibate, celib-a, -0 to charge (with), charj -
carnival, karnaval-o to celebrate, celebr-ar ar ; ( a ~ Y Z ' C P ) , kont ar
to carpenter, karpent- celebrity (fame),fam-o, charity(nota1msgiing).
ar OZ-es-o; (person), karitat-o
carpet, tapis-o fam-oz-o, glori-oz-o charity lottery, tom-
carriage, vetur-o ; (rail- cell, celul-o bol-0
way), vagon-o cellar, keler-o chariot, char-o
carriage (gun), afust-o cello, violoncel-o charity, karitat-o
carriage-pole, timon-o cement, cement-o charlatan, sharlataii-o
to carry, port-ar cemetery, tomb-ey-o charm (quality),
to carry off by force, to cense (incense), in- charm-o ; (spell),
rapt-ar censig-ar sorc-o
cartridge, kartoch-o !o censure (tr.),censur- to charm (delight),
to carve (meat, etc.), ar charm-ar ; (bewitch),
tranch-ar :ensus, cens-o sorc-ar
cascade, kaskad-o :entral, centr-al-a chart, map-o ; (sheet),
case, kaz-o :entrey centr-o tabel-o
case (needle), etuy-o :eramics, ceramik-o to chase, chas-ar
easement, postig-o :erebellurn, cerebel-o chaste, chast-a
cash (payment), :erebrum, cerebr-o to chatter, babil-ar
kontant-a :eremany, ceremoni-o cheap, chip-a
to cash, inkas-ar :ertain (sure),cert-a ; to cheat, tromp-ar (fri-
cash-box, kas-o (some particular one), pone), fraud-et-ar
cashier, kasist-o, -er-o ul-a to check (chess), ech-
cask, barel-o :ertificate, diplom-o ek-ar
cassock,. sutan-o :hafing-dish (plad-), cheek, vang-o
to cast, jet-ar; (metal), varm-ig-il-o to cheer (acclaim),
gis-ar :hain, katen-o aklam-ar
to cast lots lor, lotri-ar :hair, stul-o ; (profes- cheese, fromaj-o
caste, kast-o sor's), katedr-o cheesecake, fromaj-
castle, kaqtel-o :halice, kalic-o kuk-o
to castrate, kastr-ar :halk, kfet-o chemise, kamiz-o
(dispensing), far-
kemi-ist-o : to churn. plaud-ar ;
(make bwlicr), butr-
cllff, klif-0
to climb, klim-ar
maci-ist-o I if-ar to clip, tranch-ar, re-
chemist's shop, cicada, cilcad-o kort-ar
apotek-o cider, cidr-o cloak, mantel-o
cheque, chek-o cigar, sigar-o clock, horloj-o
to cnerish, entraten-ar cigarette, sigaret-o clock bell, timbr-o
cherry, ceriz-o cinder, cindr-o clod, gleb-o
cherub, kerub-o cinnamon, cinam-o cloister, klostr-o
chervll, cerfoli-o circle, cirkl-o close, *proxim ; -by,
chess, shak-o circular (adj.), cirkl-a, *apud ; -to, rez-e ( d i )
chest (trunk), lcofr-o ; -al-a, -atr-a ; (notice) to close, kloz-ar
(breast), pektor-o cirkuler-o clot, grumel-o
chestnut (edible), to circulate, cirkul-ar cloth, tuk-o ; (woollen)
maron-o to qircumcize, cirkon- drap-o
chic, chik-o c~z-ar clothes, vest-i, vest-
chick-pea, garbanz-o circumspect, cirkon- ar-o
chicory, cikori-o spekt-a clothes-press, armor-o
chief (head), chef-o circumstance, cirkon- cloud, nub-o
chief o f , -estr- stanc-o clove, kariofil-o
chiefly, precipu-e circus, cirk-o clover, trifoli-o
chignon, chin~on-o cistern, cistern-o clown, klaun-o
child (little), infant-o citadel, citadel-o club (association),
chimera, kimer-o to cite, cit-ar klub-o ; (mace),maz-
chimney, kamen-o citizen, civit-an-o o ; (cards), tref-o
chin, menton-o city, civit-o clue (clew), guid-fil-0.
to chirp (birds),gorge-ar civil (not milit., relig., tras-o
chip (wood, efc.), span-o or crim.), civil-a clumsy, plump-a
to chisel, cizel-ar to civilize, civiliz-ar coach, karos-o
choaolate, chokolad-o to clack, klak-ar coal, (ter)-karbon-o
choice, selekt-o ; to to claim, postul-ar ; coarse, vulgar-a,
make a-, selekt-ar pretend-ar grosier-a
choir, kor-o ; (place), clamour, klam-o coast, riv-o
kor-ey-o clan, klan-o coat, vest-o
cholera, koler-o to clank, clash, klikt-ar to coat, indut-ar
choleric, irac-em-a to clap, aplaud-ar cochlea (anat.),kokle-o
to choose, selekt-ar clasp, agraf-o cock (fowl).han-(ul)o;
chop (mutton,etc.), kot- class, klas-o (of a gun), han-o;
let-o to classify, klasifik-ar (for pipes), robinet-o
to chop, hack-ar clavichord, klavikord-o cockatoo, kakatu-o
chorister, kantor-o claw, ungl-o cockchafer, melolont-o
Christ, Krist-o clay, argil-o cockroach, biat-o
Christianity (doctrins), clean, net-a cocoa-nut, kokos-o
krist-an-ismo clear, klar-a (lit. and code, kodex-o, legaro
Christianity (quality), k.) codex, kodex-o
krist-an-eso cleave, fend-ar cod-fish, moru-o
Christmas, Kristo- clematis, klematid-o coffee, kafe-o;-pot,
nask-o clement, klement-a k a f e-krucho
church (building), to clench, klem-ar coffer, kofr-o
kirk-o ; (institution), clergyman, klerik-o coffin, sark-o
eklezi-o clerk, klerk-o cognac, konyak-o
churl, rustik-ach-o, cliche, klish-o cog-wheel, pinion-o
grosier-o client, klient-o coin, monet-o
coke, kok-o to commit, fac-ar to concede, konces-ar
cold (adj.), kold-a to commit a crime conceited, superb-a
(n.), frigor-o (tech.) krimin-ar t o conceive, koncept-ar
collar (coat, shirt, etc.) to commit a fault t o concern, koncern-ar
kolum-o; (round th, kulp-ar concerning (about), pri
neck), koliar-o committee, komitat-c concert, koncert-o
cellarette, kolaret-o common, komun-a concession, konces-o,
oollation, repast-et-o to communicate -aJ-0
colleague, koleg-o komunik-ar to conciliate, koncili-ar
t o collect (alms), communion, komu (not reconcile)
quest-ar nlon-o conciliator, koncili-
to make a collection community (state), ant-o; -er-o
kolekt-ar komun-es-o t o conclude, konkluz-ar
to collect one's community (goods) conclusion, konkluz-o
thoughts, rekolec-ai komun-aj-o concord, concordance,
colldctiue. -ar- companion, kompan-c konkord-o
college, kolegi-o to compare, kompar-a] concrete, beton-o
colonel, kolonel-o compartment, fak-o to condemn, kondamn-
colony, koloni-o compass, busol-o ar
colossal, kolos-al-a compassion, kompat-c to condense,kondens-ar
-atr-a to compel, koakt-ar condition (state),stand-
colour, kolor-o ; (tha, compensation, k o m - o ; (stipulation),kon-
which i s used to givc pens-o dicion-o
colour), farb-o to compete, konkurs-ar to be in a . . . condition,
colouved, -e- competence, kompe- stand ar
colouring, kolorit-o tent-es-o conditional, -us
column, kolon-o competent, kompe- t o condole (with), kon-
coma, komat-o tent-a dol-ar (tr.)
to comb, pekt-nr competition (business), to conduct (lead),dukt-
t o combine, kombin-ar konkur-o ; (fov ar ; (heat, etc.), kon-
combustion, kombust prize), konkurs-o dukt-ar ; (behave),
-(ad)-o to compile, kompil-ar kondut-ar
to come, ven-ar;- to complain, plend-ar conductor (person),
back, retro-ven-ar;- complete, komplet-a dukt-er-o ; - k t - o ;
in, en-irar to complicate, kom- (of omnibus, train,
to come to terms, plik-ar etc.), konduktor-o
konvencion-ar to compliment, k o m - cone, kon-o
comma, kom-o pliment-ar confectioner, konfit-
to command, dispon-ar to complot, komplot-ar ist-o
t o commence, komenc- to compose, kompoz- confectionery (fv., fon-
ar ar ; (set u p type), dant), konfekt-o
commencement, kom- kompost-ar confederation, feder-
enc-o :ompote, kompot-o ur-0
t o commend, laud-ar compress (nzed.), k u m - ;o confer (discuss),kon-
t o comment, koment-ar pres-o fer-ar ; (bestow),
to commerce, komerc- to compress, kompres-. grant-ar
ar ar :onference (not be-
commerce, komerc-o :ompromise (surrender stowal), konfer-o
commission, komis-o of one's principles), ,O confess(tr.),konfes-ar
commission (assembly). kompromis-o ; (settle o confide (entrust),
komis-it-ar-o went), transakt-o konfid-ar ; (impart
commissioner, komi- .omrade, kamarad-o confidentially), kon-
sit-o o conceal, cel-ar fidenc-ar
confidential, konfi-
to be confined (child
1 tototo consider,
I to genuity),
contrive (invent, de-
vise, make b y h-
birth), partur-a.r to console, Ironsolac-ar to control (check, veri-
to confirm, konfirm-ar consonant, konsonant-o f y ) , kontroi-ar
to confiscate, kon- to conspire, konspir-ar to controvert, kontro-
fisk-ar constant, konstant-a vers-ar
conflict (to be in), to consternate, kon- to contuse, kontuz-ar
konflikt-ar stern-ar contusion, kontuz-o,
to. conform, konform- to constitute, Bonsti -uro
ig-ar tuc-ar convalescent (lo be),
to confront,konfront-ar constitution (physiol.), konvalec-ar
to confuse (mistake for konstitucion-o convenient, komod-a
another), konfund-ar constitution (polit.), convent, kuvent-o
( m i x ) , intermix-ar ; konstituc-o convention, konven-
(render indistinct, to constrain, koakt-ar clon-o
disconcert), konfuz- to construct, kon- to converse, konvers-ar
ig-ar strukt-ar to convert, konvert-ar
contused (phys, and consul, konsul-o to convey, transport-ar
mor.), konfuz-a to consult, konsult-ar conviction (belief),kon-
to confute, refut-ar to consume, konsunl-ar vink-eso ; (act of con-
to congeal (tr.), konjel-

ar, glaci-ig-ar, frost-
ig-ar ; (intr.). konjel-
es-ar, glaci-esk-ar,
I contact (to be i n ) , kon-
to contain, lionten-as
to contemplate, kon-
templ-ar ; medit-ar,
vincing), konvink-o
to convince, konvink-
to convoke, kun-vok-ar
to convoy, konvoy-ar
to cook, koqu-ar
grat111-ar content, kontent-a cool, kold-eta ; (of per-
congestion, konjes- to be content (with), son), kalm-a
tion-o sacies-ar to CO-operate, kun-
congress (to w e t i n a to contest, kontest-ar labor-ar ; (society),
congress), kongres-ar contiguous, kontigu-a kooper-ar
to connect, konekt-ar continent ( n . ) , kon- to co-ordinate, koordin-
connecting rod, biel-o tinent-o ar
to connive, konivenc-ar continuance, -a<!- copper (metal), kupr-o
to conquer, konquest- continuation, dur-(ad)o coppice, copse, kops-o
ar, vink-ar to continue, dur-ar to copy, kopi-ar
conquest (act), kon- continuous, kontinu-a coquetry, koket-eso
quest-o ; (that which contraband, Bontra- coral, lrorali-o
is conquered), kon- band-o cord, kord-o
quest-aj-o contract, kontrat-o cordon, kordon-o
conscience, koncienc-o to contract, kontrakt- cork, kork-o ; to-(a
conscious of (to be), ar ; (to make a ) , kon- bottle), stop-ar
konci-ar trat-ar corn (on foot), kal-o;
conscription, kon- contradiction, kontre- (wheat), frument-o
skript-o dic-o corn flower, acian-o
to consecrate, lion- contrary, kontre-a ( a d ) cornice, kornic-o
sakr-ar contrary, des- corps, of engineers,
to consent, konsent-ar to contrast, kontrast-ar jenl-o
consequence, kon- to contravene, kontra- corpse, kadavr-o
sequ-o venc-ar corpulent, korpulen t-a
conservation, kon- to contribute, lrontri- correct, korekt-a
serv-(ad)o but-ar to correct, korekt-igar
correlation, korelat-o coward, poltron-o crown, kron-o ; to-,
to correspond,
cowardice. des-kurai-o. kron-izar.
crucible, kruzel-o
to corrupt, korupt-ar COW-pox,vacin-o cruel, kruel-a
corset, korset-o to crack, krevis-ar cruet, oil-, ole-uyo
corundum, korund-o cracknel, kraknel-o to cruise, kroz-ar
to cost, kist-ar cradle, bers-ilo to crumble, krul-ar
costume, kostum-o cramp, kramp-o to crunch, krok-ar
cotter, kel-o (bch.) cramp (-iron), kram- to crush, aplast-ar
cotton, cottonwool, pon-o crust, krust-o
koton-o crane (bird), gru-o ; crutch, gruch-o
to cough, tus-ar (much.), kran-o to cry (shout) kri-ar ;
could (was able), pov- cranium, krani-o (weep), plor-ar
is ; (would be able), crank, manivel-o crystal, kristal-o
pov-us crape, krep-o cube, kub-o
council (of the church), crash (fig.), krak-o cuckoo, kukul-o
koncil-o ; (of a city, to crawl, repl-ar cucumber, kukumbr-o
county, etc.), konsil- crayfish, kankr-o to cuddle (tr.), dorlot-ar
ant-aro to creak (intr.), krak-ar cuff, parament-o ;pug-
to counsel, konsil-ar cream, krem-o no-frap-o
count (earl), komt-(ul)o cream-cheese, kaze-o to cuff (tr.), pugno-
to count, kont-ar to create, kre-ar frap-ar
countenance, vizaj-o, creche, infant-azilo cuirass, kuras-o
vizaj-expres.0 to credit, kredit-ar to cull, koli-ar
to counterfeit, kontra- creed, kred-ajo cult, kult-o
fakt-ar to creep, rept-ar to cultivate, kultiv-ar
counterfort, kontra- creeping of the flesh, culture (intel. and
fort-o ganso-pel-o moral), kultur-o
country (opp. of town), to cremate, kremac-ar to cumber, incombr-ar
rur-o ; (land), land-o cremation, kremac-o cup, kalic-o ; kup-o ;
county, komt-i-o crescent, Icrecent-o tas-o
couple (of animals or cress (water), kres-o cup and ball, bilboket-o
symmetrical objects), crest (cock's comb, brow, cupboard, armor-o
par-o ridge), krest-o cupping glass, ventuz-o
to couple (link), lig-ar ; crib, h i p - o curator,kurat-anto,-ero
union-ar ; mariaj-ar : cricket (insect), grili-o cure, kurac-o ; (rem-
(sexually), kopulac- crime, krimin-o edy), remedi-o
a r ; (tech.), kupl-ar crippled, kripl-a, -0 curious (pers.), kurioz-
courage, kuraj-o crisis, kriz-o a ; (thing), vid-inda,
courier, kurier-o crisp, krisp-a atenc-inda, stranj-a
course (studies, com- to croak, kroas-ar curl, lokl-o
merc.), kurs-o to crochet, kroch-ar to curl, friz-ar
court (of a sovereign, crockery, fayenc-o curly, lokl-oza
house, justice), kort- crop (of birds), krop-o currant, rib-o
o ; (homage), kurtez- cross, kruc-o ;to -,tra- current, flu-o
(adlo ; to+a lady), ir-ar ; (roads, etc.), curry-comb (horse),
kurtez-ar kruc-um-ar strigl-0
courteous, polit-a to cross-hatch, hacli-ar to curse, maledik-ar
cousin, kuz-o to crouch, blotis-ar to curtail, rekort-ar
to cover, kovr-ar ;-up croup (rump), grop-o ; curtain, kurten-o
(a bed, a piece of (disease), krup-o curve, kurva lineo,
furniture), teg-ar crow, kornik-o kurv-o
cow, bov-in-o crowd, turb-o cushion, kusen-o
custard, flad-o day (of 24 hours), di-o; decrepit, dekad-ant-a,
oustom, kustum-o (day-time); jorn-o kaduk-a
austomer, klient-o to day-dream, rev-ar to dedicate, dedik-ar
customs (dutv),dogan-o deacon, diakon-o to deduce, dedukt-ar
to cut, sek-ar; -off, dead, mort-int-a to deem, reput-ar
tranch-ar ; -deep, to deaden, des-fort- deep, profund-a
sesg-ar ; -down, igar ; febl-igar ; ne- deer, cerv-o
low, dekolt-ar ; -out sent-iv-igar to defame, difam-ar
tali-ar ; -throat, deaf, surd-a; and defeat, vinkes-o
egorj-ar ; -UP, dumb, surda-muta to defeat, vink-ar
hach-ar to deafen, aturd-ar defect, deiekt-o
eutlet, kutlet-o deal, quant-o, part-o defective, defekt-oz-a ;
cuttlefish, sepi-o to deal, don-ar, dis- (gram.), defektiv-a
czar, car-o tribut-ar ; (with a to defend, defens-ar
subject), trakt-ar deference, deferenc-o ;
dealer in second-hand (to show), deferenc-ar
goods, brokant-ist-o, (tr.1
-er-o deflanee, defi-o
dean, dekan-o to define, defin-ar
dear (beloved), kar-a ; to deform, deform-ar
( i n price), cher-a to defraud, fraud-ar
death, mort-o to defy, defi-ar
to debate, debat-ar to degrade, degrad-ar
to dabble, barbot-ar debauchery, deboch degree, grad-o
daffodil, narcis-o (+)-o to deign, degn-ar
dagger, poniard-o deblle, debil-o delegate, deleg-it-o
dally, omna-di-a debit, debet-o to delegate, deleg-ar
dalnty (dish), friand-a debt, deb-o, deb-aj-o to deliberate, deliber-ar
daisy, margrit-o decanter, karaf-o delicate, delikat-a
dam (dike), dig-o decay, dekad-o delighted (to be), joy-ar
to damage, domaj-ar to deceive, tromp-ar delightful, delic-oz-a
Pr.1 December, decembr-o delinquent, delikt-ant-
damask ( f d r i c ) , dam- decent (to be), dec-ar a, -0
ask-o to decide, decid-ar to deliver (foods),
.- . livr-
to damn, damn-ar to decimate, decim-ar ar
damp (adj.), humid- to decipher, dechifr-ar deluge, diluvi-o
et-a decision (act.), decid-o; to demand, postul-ar
to dance, dans-ar (decided characfer), demented, dement-a
to dare, audac-ar decid-em-eso ; (re- democratic, demo-
dark, obskur-a solve), rezolv-o krat-ala
darling, liar-ulo, -in0 deck (of a ship), to demolish, demolis-ar
to darn (up), darn-ar ferdck-o demon, demon-o
darnel, loli-o to declare, deklar-ar to demonstrate, de-
dash (stroke of pen), declension (gram., phys. monstr-ar
strek-o deklin(-ad)-o den, k a v e m - o
to dash (oneself), pre- to decline (refuse), re- denial, neg-o, refuz-o
cipit-ar ( s u ) fuz-ar to denounce, denunc-
date (fnrit), datel-o ; to declutch, des-em- ar
(time), dat-o brag-ar dense, dens-a
to darn, darn-ar to decorate, dekor-ar dentifrice, dentrifric-a,
daughter, fili-in-o to decoy, lur-ar, ruze -0
dauphin, delfln-o atrakt-ar dentist, dentist-o
dawn, auror-o to decree, dekret-ar to denude, nud-ig-ar
to deny, neg-ar, des- to diagnose, diagnoz-ar to disavow, reneg-ar
agnosk-ar, des-kon- diamond, diamant-o ; to disband, konjed-ar
fes-ar, refuz-ar (cards), karel-o to discern, dicem-ar
to depart, depart-ar diarrhcea, diare-o disciple, dicipul-o
to depend, depend-ar dice, lud-kub-i to discipline, diciplin-ar
to depict, pilct-ar; des- to dictate, dikt-ar to discount, diskont-ar
kript-ar did (with verb), -is ; to discourage, sen-kur-
to deplore, deplor-ar (question), ka(d) aj-ig-ar
to deport, deport-ar to die, mart-ar discourse, diskurs-o
to depose (tr.), revok- to differ, difer-ar discreet, diskret-a
ar, des-tron-iz-ar ; difference, difer-o to discuss, dlskut-ar
(bear witness), atest- different, difer-ant-a discussion,diskut-(ad)o
ar to differentiate, difer- disease, morb-o
to deposit, depoz-ar enci-ar disembark, des-em-
d ~ p r e c i o t ~ v -acll-
r, diWcult, des-facil-a bark-ar
to depress, depres-ar to diffuse, difuz-ar to disgust, repugn-ar
to deprive, privac-ar to dig, spad-ag-ar (tv.)-
to derive, deriv-ar to digest, digest-ar dish, dish-o
to descend, decens-ar to digress, digres-ar dishonest, des-honest-a
descendant o f , -id- dike (embankment), to dishonour, sen-
t o describe, deskript-ar dig-o ; (water-way), honor-ig-ar
description, protokol-o dren-o, flu-ey-o to dislocate, dislok-ar
desert (adj.), dezert-a ; diligent, diligent-a to dismiss, konjed-ar
(n.), dezert-o to dilute, dilut-ar disorder, des-ordin-o
to desert, desert-ar dimension, dimension-o to disparage, denigr-ar
to deserve, merit-ar diminution (act.), despatch, depesh-o
design, desegn-o diminut-o ; (state), to dispense with (tr.),
to desire, dezir-ar diminut-eso dispens-ar ; (intv.),
desk, pupitr-o diminutive, -et- kare-ar
to desolate (make to dine, dine-ar to displace, diplas-ar
wretched), dezol-ar dinner, dine-o to display (corn.), estal-
to despair, des-esper-ar to dip, tremp-ar (tr.) ; ar
to despoil, spoli-ar plunj-ar (intr.) to dispose (prepare),
dessert, deser-o direct, diret-a dispoz-ar ; -01, dis-
to destine, destin-ar to direct, direkt-ar pon-ar (not to sell)
to destroy, destrulct-ar direction ( a straight line disposition (tempera-
detail, detal-o between two points), ment), humor-o
to detain, diten-ar direcion-o ; (towards dispute, disput-(ad)-o
to determine, deter- one point), sins-o ; to dispute (intr.), dis-
min-ar in the direction of, put-ar
t o . dethrone, des-tron- *vers to dissemble, disimul-ar
iz-ar directions (fay doing to dissolve, .solv-ar
to devastate, devast-ar things), instrucion-o, distaff, ruk-o
to develop (tr.), de- -i listance, dist-o
velop-ar directly (at once), quik listinct, disting-at-a,
development, develop-o dirt, fang-o, kras-o -ebl-a ; (not the
60 deviate, deviac-ar dirty, sordid-a same), distint-a
devil, diabl-o to disappear, des-apar- to distinguish, disting-
to devise, injeni-ar ar ar
devoted, devot-a to disappoint, decept-ar iistraction, distrakt-o,
devotion, devoc-o to disarm, des-arm-iz- -es-o
to devour, devor-nr ar listress, ditres-o ; to be
dew, ros-o disaster, dizastr-o in-, mizer-ar
to distribute, distribut- double, du-opl-a ; drop, gut-o
ar eye-glass, naz-bin- dropsy, hidrops-o
district, distrikt-o okl-0 to drown (tu.), dron-ar
to disturb, trubl-ar to doubt, dub-ar drowsiness ( f v o m nar-
disturbance (riot), douche, dush-o cotic!, narkot-o
sedici-o doughty, prod a drug (med.), drog-o
ditch, fos-at-o down (below), infr-e ; drugget, druget-o
to dive, plunj-ar (wool), lanug-o ; t o drum. tambur-o
diver (havd), kolimb-o go-, decens-ar drunk (person), ebri-a
diverse, divers-a to drag, tran-ar dry, sik-a
to divert, distrakt-ar dragon, drak-o duck, anad-ino
to divide, divid-ar to drain, dren-ar duel (to fight a ) , duel-ar
divine, de-a, de-al-a ; drake, anad-ul-o duet, duet-o
to-, divin-ar drama, dramat-o duke, duk-(ul)o
to divorce, divorc-ar to drape, drapir-ar dull ( o f colozcr, souizd),
dizziness, vertij-o draughts (game),dam- matid-a
do (before verb), -as ; 0, -1 to (be) dull, blaz-ar
(question), ka(d ) to draw ( p u l l ) , tir-ar ; dumb, mut-a
to do, ag-ar ; ( a thinp), (pictures),desegn-ar ; dumbbell, halter-o
fac-ar ; (be suit- (water), cherp-ar ; dung, sterk-o
able), konven-ar (corn.), trat-ar ; -off durable, dur-iv-a, -ema
to do away with, (liquids), rak-ar ; during (prep.), *durn
eskart-ar -up, redakt-ar dust, polv-o
to do without, kare- drawer, tir-kest-o ; -s duty (to be on), dejur-ar
ar (garment), kalson-o dwarf (adj.), nan-a
doctrine, -ism- arawing, desegn-o ( n . ) ,nan-ul-o, -in-o
docile, docil-a drawing-room, salon-o to dye, tint-ar
dock, dok-0 to dread, tim-ar dying (to be), agoni-ar
doctor, doktor-o to dream (asleep),
doctrine, doktrin-o sonj-ar
to dodge, ruze eskap- to dredge (clean out
ar, dud-ar with dredger), drag-
dog, hund-o ar
dogberry, kornel-o dregs, liz-o
dog-days, kanikul-o to dress ( a n animal),
doing habitually, -er- dres-ar ; ( a sore),
dogma, dogmat-o pans-ar ; (hair),
domain, domen-o kuaf-ar ; (attire),
doll, pupe-o vest-iz-ar
dolphin, delfin-o dress (n.),vest-ar-o
domain o f , -i- dress-coat, frak-o each, singl-a
to dominate, dominac- to drift, drift-ar eagle, agl-o
ar drill (mechan.), dril-o ear, orel-o; ( o f corn),
donkey, asn-o to drink, drink-ar spik-o
don't (bejore verb), ne .
to drink . 's health, earl, komt-(ul)o
early (adj.), fru-e
-as ; (command), ne tost-ar
-ez to drive ( i n a vehicle) earth, ter-o
door, pord-o veh-ar earthworm, lombrik-o
door-sill, soli-o droll, drol-a earwig, forfilrul-o
doorway, portal-o drollery, drol-ajo, bu- east, est-o
dormouse, glir-o fon-ajo Easter, pask-o
dose, doz-o dromedary, drome- easy, facil-a
dot, punt-o dar-o to eat, manj-ar
ebb and flow. mare-o to elect by ballot. emulate, emul-es-ar
ebonist, eben-ist-o balot-ar (ad) ; rival-es-ar (ad,
ebony, eben-o electricity, elektr-o pn)
ecclesiastical, klerik-a elegant, elegant-a emulation, emul-es-o
echo, ek-o element, element-o (ad)
to eclipse, eklips-ar elephant, elefant-o to emulsify, emuls-ar
ecloque, eklog-o to elevate, elev-ar enamel, emali-o
economic (of econo- elf, kobold-o to enamel, emali-iz-ar
mics), ekonomik- to elide, elizion-ar enamoured, amor-ant-
al-a ; (household). elite, eminent-ar-o a, -oz-a, -em-a
ekonomi-al-a elk, alk-o encore ! bis !
economical (saving), ell (measure), uln-o to encounter, ren-
spar-iv-a, -em-a elm, ulm-o kontr-ar
to economise, spar-ar eloquent, eloquent-a to end, fin-ar
economy (manage- to elude, elud-ar to endeavour, esforc-ar
ment, system). to emanate, eman-ar to endorse (fan.),
ekonomi-o ; (act), toembalm,balzam-iz-ar indos-ar
spar-o, -aj-o ; (dis- to embank, reten-ar, enemy, enemik-o
position), spar-em- protekt-ar per ter- energy, energi-o
es-o ; political-, plen-aj-o ; dig-iz-ar to engage (a servant),
politikala ekon- embankment, ter-plen- engaj-ar ; (oneself),
omik-o ajo ; protekt-o per amuz-ar su
edifice, edific-o ter-plen-aj-o to engender (trans.),
to edify, edefik-ar to embarass, embaras- genit-ar
edition, edit-o, -ur-o ar engine, mashin-o, loko-
editor (of a book), edit- to embark, embark-ar motiv-o
ant-o, -ero, -isto ; embellish, bel-ig-afr engineer, injenior-o
(newspaper and embers, brez-o, -1 to engraft, greft-ar
magazine), chef-re- to embrace, embrac-ar to engrave, grab-ar
dakt-ist-o, direkt- to embroider, brod-ar to engrave on wood,
ist-o, -er-o to emend, emend-ar xilograf-ar
to educate, eduk-ar emerald, smerald-o enigma, enigmat-o
eel, anguil-o to emerge, emers-ar to enjoy, ju-ar;-one-
to efface, efac-ar emery, smeril-o 5311, amuz-ar su
effect, efekt-o to emigrate, ek-migr-ar to .enlarge, (p1u)grand-
to effect, efekt-ig-ar eminent, eminent-a ig-ar
efficacious (to be), to emit, emis-ar enough, *sat, sat-e
efik-ar emotion (to feel), emoc- to enounce, enunc-ar
effort (to make an), ar to enrish, rich-ig-ar
esforc-ar to empale, empal-ar to ensue, konsequ-ar
egg, 0%'-0 emperor, imperi-estr-o to entangle, intrik-ar
egg-plant, berenjen-o empire, imperi-o entente, konkord-o
eiderdown, ederdun-o empiricism (method), to enter, en-ir-ar
eight, *ok empirik-o ; (doc- enterprise, entraprez-
either . . . or, *sive . . . trine), -ism-o 0, -a]-0
sive to employ (means), uz- to entertain (amuse),
to eject, ejekt-ar ar ; (person), em- amuz-ar
elastic, elastik-a, -0 ploy-ar enthusiasm, entuzi-
elbow, kud-o employee, employ-at-o asm-o
elder, eldest (adj.),sen- employer, employ- enthusiastic (to be)
ior-a ;senior(u1)o($1.) ant-o, mastr-o es-ar entuziasm-oz-a
elder (tree), sambuk-o emporium, stapl-o (pri, por) ; entuzi-
to elect, elekt-ar empty, vaku-a asm (-esk)-ar
to entice, lur-ar even (adv.), *mem ; expense, spens-o
entire, tot-a ; (mntlz.) (numbers), par-a expensive, kust-oz-a
integr-a evening, vesper-o experience, experienc-o
entity, ent-o event, event-o experiment, experi-
entrance (act), en-ir-o ; eventual, eventual-a ment-ar
( a way), en-ir-ey-o ; ever, ul-temp-e expert, expert-a
(permission, power), every, omn-a to expiate, expiac-ar
en-ir-yur-o everybody, omn-u to explain, explik-ar
to entreat, suplik-ar evident, evident-a to export, export-ar
to envelope, envelop-ar evil (adj.), mal-a, ma- to expose, expoz-ar
envelope (of letter), lign-a ; ( n . ) , mal- to exploit, explot-ar
kuvert-o aj-o express (train),es-
to envy, envidi-ar to evoke, ek-vok-ar pres-o
epic, epik-a, -atr-a evolution, evolucion-o to express, expres-ar
episode, epizod-o exact, exakt-a expression (phrase),ex-
epistle, epistol-o exactness, exakt-es-o, pres-ur-o
epoch, epok-o rigor-o expulsion, ek-puls-o
equal, egal-a to exaggerate, exajer- to extend, extens-ar
equality, egal-es-o ar extent (space), extens-
eq%p, eqwp-ar to exalt (intensify), ex- es-0, -a]-o ; (large
eyultabie, yust-a alt-ar space), ampl-es-o,
equality, egal-es-o to examine, examen-ar vast-es-o
equitable, equitat-oza (person) to extenuate, extenu-ar
equity, equitat-o sxample, exempl-o exterior (adj.), exter-a
equivocal, du-senc-a, to excavate, eskav-ar to extinguish, exting-ar
ambigu-a to exceed, eces-ar to extort, extors-ar
era, er-o to excel, ecel-ar to extract, extrakt-ar
to erect, erekt-ar Excellency, ecelenc-o extraordinary, exter-
ermine, ermin-o to except, ecept-ar ordinar-a
to err, eror-ar sxcept (prep.), ecept-e extreme, extrem-a
BROr, eror-o exchange, bors-o extremity, extrem-aj-o
erudite (adj.),erud-it-a to exchange, kambi-ar to exult, exult-ar
(n.), erud-it-o to excite, ecit-ar eye, okul-o
to erupt, erupt-ar to exclude, exkluz-ar eye-brow, brov-o
to escape, eskap-ar sxcrement, fek-o eyelid, palpebr-o
escort, eskort-o sxcursion (to make an),
escutcheon, skud-o exkurs-ar
espalier, espaler-o to excuse, exkuz-ar ;
esparto, espart-o (pardon), pardon-ar
esplanade, esplanad-o to execute, exekut-ar
essence, esenc-o sxereise book, kayer-o
to establish, establis-ar to exhaust, exhaust-ar
establishment (act), io exhibit, expoz-ar
establis-0.; (thing), ;o exhort, exhort-ar
-ur-0, -en-o ;o exile, exil-ar fable, fabl-o
to esteem, estim-ar ;o exist, exist-ar lapade, fasad-o
to estimate, evalu-ar ,xotic, exotik-a lace, vizaj-o
eternal, etern-a ;o expand, expans-ar lacet, facet-o
ethlcs, etik-o ;o exnect, expekt-ar lacile, facil-a
to etiolate, etiol-ar ,xpedition (milit., nav.) to facilitate, facil-ig-ar
to evacuate, vaku-ig- expedition-o lact, fakt-o
a r ; (milit. tech.), o expel, ek-puls-ar lactious, sedici-ant-a,
evaku-ar o expend, spens-ar -em-a
faculty (all senses), fat (adj.), gras-oz-a ; fern, filik-o
fakultat-o (n.) gras-o, -ajo ferocious, feroc-a
to fade, velk-ar fatal, fatal-a ; (de- ferry-boat, parom-o
to fail, fali-ar structive), funest-a fertile, fertil-a
fair (market), feri-o ; fatality, fate, fat-o fervour, fervor-o
(beautiful), bel-a ; father, patrul-o ; -in- to fetch, quer-ar
(iust), yust-a ; law, bo- fete (to be e n ) , fest-ar
(clean),net-a ; (clear) fatherland, patri-o fever, febr-o
klar-a ; (unblem- fathom (measure), few, pok-a
ished), sen-makul-a ; brac-o flanc6, -c6e, fianc-it-o,
(abundant), abund- to fathom, sand.-ar -111-0, -in-o
ant-a ; (blonde), to faint, esvan-ar fiction, fing-o, -ur-o
blond-a ; (cloudless), to fatigue, fatig-ar fief, feud-o
sen-nub-a, seren-a fault, kulp-o field, agr-o
fairy, fe-(i11)o favour, favor-o ; to-, field (magn., elec.,opt.),
faith, fid-o ; (one's favor-ar f eld-o
belief), kred-(aj)-o ; favourite, favor-at-o ; Efe, fifr-o
fidelity), fidel-es-o -at-ul-o, -at-in-o to flght, kombat-ar
faithful; fidel-a to fear, tim-ar flgure, figur-o ; (arith.)
falcon, falkon-o feast, fest-o ; (ban- cifr-o
to fall, fal-ar quet), festin-o filament, filament-o
fallow, falv-a feat (exploit),prod-aj -0
fallow-deer, daim-o (di fort-es-o, habil- Ale (line),seri-o ; (tool),
false (not true), ne- es-o) lim-10 ; to- (rub
ver-a ; (sham, spztri- feather, plum-o down with a fzle),
ous, artificial), fals- feature, trait-o lim-ar ; (documents,
a ; -note, ne-just-a, February, februar-o etc), seri-ig-ar
not-o fecundity, fekund-es-o film (photo<.), film-o
to falsify, fals-ig-ar federation, feder-o, -uro to fllter, filtr-ar (tr..
fame ( Y ~ I Z O W I Z ) ,iam-o fee, honorari-o intr.)
familiar, familiar-a feeble, febl-a filth, kras-o
family, famili-o to feed (tr.), nutr-ar ; fin (of a fish), flos-o
famine, famin-o (pasture), pastur-ar flnance, financ-o
famous, fam-oz-a to feel, sent-ar ; ( b y [inch, fink-o
to fan (winnow), fan-ar touch), palp-ar ; to find, trov-ar
fanatic, fanatik-a, -0 -one's way, tast-ar; flne, rafin-it-a, di alt-a
fancy (phantasy), fan- -sick, nauze-ar ;
qual-es-o, pur-a,
tazi-o -emotion, emoc-ar delik-at-a, subtil-a,
to fancy (take the to feign (pretend), fing- alt-a, grand-a, bel-a,
fancy o f ) , fantazi-ar ar
fantastic, fantastik-a fell, fel-o bel-et-a ; (thin), ten-
felloe, felly, felg-o u-a ; ( a money
far away, for-e penalty), amend-o
far from (prep.). *for fellow, kerl-o, kompano
farce, fars-o felt, felt-o [inger, fingr-o
fare-Well, adi-o female, femin-o to finish, fin-ar
farm (house), farmo- feminine, -in- fir, abiet-o
dom-o, farm-aj-o fence ( a n enclosure), lire, fair-o ; (house),
fascinate, facin-ar fenc-o ; to- (sport), incendlo
faseine, fashin-o skerm-ar to fire a volley, salve-ar
fashion, mod-o, fason-o fennel. fcnikul-o Ere-brand, brand-o
to fast, fast-ar ferment, ferment-o ; to Cire-dog, morili-o
to fasten, lig-ar, fix- -, fermentac-ar (also fireside, herd-apudajo,
igar, ferm-igar fig.) herno-vivo
firm (opp. to loose, to flourish, paraf-ar forget-me-not, mio-
flabby), ferm-a (lit. flourish (of trumpets), zot-0
and fin.) ; (business) fanfar-o to forgive, pardon-ar
firm-d .
' to flow, flu-ar
flrst, un-esm-a flower, flor-o fork, fork-o ; (table-),
first fruits, premic-o flower-bed, bed-o fork-eto
fish, fish-o fluid, fluid-a, -0 form (shape), form-o ;
to fish, pesk-ar flute, flut-o (seat), benk-o : to-
fishplate, (rails) lash-o fly (ilzsect), mush-o (to make), formac-ar;
fist, pugn-o to fly, flug-ar (give a particular
flt (adj.), konven-ant-a ; foam, spurn-o form to), form-iz-ar ;
(healthy), en bona fodder, forej-o (person), eduk-ar ;
stand-o foetus, fet-o (animal), dres-ar
to fit ( o f dress, jewel), fog, nebul-o ; it is former, ex-, ex-
fit-ar (intr.)
. . foggy, nebul-as
five, *kin to fold, fald-ar formerly, *olim
to fix, fix-ig-ar folding door, klap-oz-a formula, formul-o
fixed, fix(-it)-a pord-o to forswear, reneg-ar
flag, flag-o to follow, sequ-ar fort, fuort-o
flagon, flakon-o folly, fol-es-o to fortify, fort-ig-ar ;
flame, flam-o fond of (to be), afecion- (town), fortifik-ar
flamingo, flaming-o a r (tr.) fortress, fortres-o
flank, flank-o food, nutr-iv-o forward, ad-avan-e ;
flannel, flanel-o foolish, stult-a to- (letter, etc.) ,trans-
to flash, fulmin-ar foot (all senses), ped-o send-ar
flat (adj.), plat-a footman, lake-o fossil, fosil-a, -0
flat car, kamion-o lop, dandi-o to found, fond-ar ;
to flatter, flat-ar lor (prep.) *por ; (at (metal), gis-ar
flatulence, flatu-o the rate o f ) , *po foundation (basis), fun-
flavour, sapor-o ; to-, ( i n order that), por dament-~
sapor-ar ke ; *nam ; (because fountain, fonten-o
flax, lin-o o f ) , *pro four, *quar
flea, pulc-o forage, forej-o ox, fox-0
to flee, fug-ar, eskap- to forbid, interdikt-ar fractional, -im-
ar (tr.) force (mechan.), forc- fragile, frajil-a
fleet, flot-o o ; (strength), fort- frame (picture),kadr-o;
flesh, karn-o es-o (machine), fram-o
flight of steps, peron-o to force (door, key, etc.), franc, frank-o
to fling (tr.), lans-ar; fors-ar ; (constrain), frank, honest-a, sincer-
(intr.), kik-ar koakt-ar a ; (naive), naiv-a
to float (be afloat), to ford, vad-ar free, liber-a; (gratis),
flotac-ar ; (trans.), lore- (prefix), pre-, gratuita
flotac-ig-ar ante- freedom, liber-es-o
flock, bur-o (fov pad- foreign, stranjer-a freemason, framason-o
din?) forest, forest-o freestone, quadr-o
to flog, flog-ar to forfeit, perd-ar la free trade, liber-
to flood, inund-ar ; yur-o ; privac-es-ar ; kambi-o
flood, inund-o, di- mustar pag-ar ; (to to freeze (ilztr.), frost-ar
luvi-o (lit. and fig.) take a s forfeit), kon- to freight, fret-ar
floor (story), etaj-o; fisk-ar frenzy, frenezi-o
(floor of room), plank- forge, forj-eyo frequent, frequ-a
0-snl-0 to forge, foj-ar to frequent, frequent-ar
flour, farin-o to forget, oblivi-ar fresh ( n e w ) , fresh-a
Friday, venerdi-o future, futur-a garret, mansard-o
friend, amik(-u1)-o, future indicative, -0s garrison, gamizon-o
-in-o future infinitive -or garter, garter-o
future pavticip. active, gas, gas-o
frieze, fris-o -out- gate, pord-eg-o
fright, teror-o future particip. passive, to gather, kolekt-ar ;
to frighten, teror-ig-ar -0t (flowers, fruit), koli-
frill (shirt), jabot-o ar; -in, rekolt-ar
fringe, franj-o gauze, gaz-o
frippery, frip-o gay, gay-&
gazette, jurnal-o
to frisk about, frisk-ar gear (mech.), dento-
frivolity, frivol-es-o rot-ar-o
frock, frok-o to. gear (put into),
frog, ran-o ingran-ar
from, *de to geld, kastr-ar
front, front-o ; in of, gable, gebl-o gem, gem-o
gad-fly, taban-o gendarme, jendarm-o
frontier, frontier-o gage, gaj-0 gender (grammat),
frost, frost-o galety, gay-es-o genr-o
to frown, kontrakt-ar to gain over, atrakt-ar, general (adj.), general-
(la brovo) ad-dukt-ar ( a d ) ,per- a ; (officer),general-
frugal, frugal-a suad-ar, aquir-ar(por 0
fruit, frukt-o sua interest0 o judiko) generous, jeneroz-a
fruitful, fertil-a to gain, gan-ar genius, geni-o
to fry, (tr.) frit-ar gait (pace), alur-o gentle, lentil-a
frying pan, padel-o gaiter, getr-o gentleman, sior(-u1)-o
to fulfll, plen-ig-ar ; gall (bile), bil-o geography, geografi-o
(satisfy),satisfac-ar gall-nut, gal-o geometry, geometri-o
full, plen-a gallant (to ladies), gal- germ, lerm-o
to full, ful-ar ant-a ; (brave), brav- to germinate, jerm-if-
to fulminate, fulmin-ar a ar
fulvous, falv-a gallery, galeri-o to gesticulate, gest-ar
fun, amuz(-es)-o to gallop, galop-ar gerund, gerundi-o
funeral (ceremony), gallows, jibet-o to get, obten-ar, aquir-
fuller-o to gamble, lud-ar ar (see also become,
funnel, funel-o to gambol, gambol-ar buy, catch, have, etc.);
funny, drol-a game (pla?), lud-o ; -out, ek-ir-ar
fur, fur-o (wzld), vlld-o giant,. gigant-o
fur-cloak, fur-mantel-o gang, gang-0 gibberish, gallmatias-o
furious, furioz-a gap, lakun-o, brech-o gibbet, jibet-o
furnace, furnaz-o to gape, be-ar ; (yawn), giddy (to feel), vertij-ar
to furnish (provide), ocit-ar gift, donac-o
furnis-ar ; (house), garden, garden-o to gild, or-iz-ar
mobl-iz-ar to gargle (tr.), gargar- gill (branchia),branki-o
furniture, mobl-ar-o ; ar gilly-flower, jllflor-o
( a piece o f ) , mobl-o garlic, ali-o gin, jin-0..
furrow, sulk-o garlic (kind of), cibol-o ginger, l~njer-o
garment, vest-o gipsy, cigan-o
further (adv.), ultr-e garnet (gem),granat-o girdle, zon-o
fury, furi-o to garnish, orn-ar, dek- girl, puer(-in)-o ; (mai-
to fuse, fuz-ar or-ar, (p:u)bel-ig-ar den), yun-in-o. celib-
fustian, fusten-o garniture, garnitur-o in-o
girth, gurt-o
to give, don-ar: -a start,
tresay-ar ; -alms,
1 togourd, gurd-o
gout (dzsrasc), got-o
govern, guvern-ar
1 to grieve (itztv.), chag-
to grill, gril-ar
almon-ar ; -way, government, guvern to grimace, grimas-ar
(fall), fal-ar, krul-ar (-ad)-o ; country), to grind (corn, etc.),
-birth to partur-ar ; guberni-o muel-ar ; (metal),
-the lie to, dementi- gown, rob-o grind-ar ; (noise),
ar grace (charm), graci-o ; grinc-ar
gland, glan-o (theolog.), grac-o to groan, jem-ar
glass ( f o r drinking), gracef ul, graci-oz-a grocer, spic-ist-o
glas-o ; (material), to graduate, grad-iz-ar groin, inguin-o
vitr-o grain, gran-o groom, grum-o
glass-case, vetrin-o grammar, gramatilc-o groove, kulis-o
glass-jar, bokal-o granary, granari-o to grope, tast-ar
to glaze, glac-ar, grandchild, nepot-o gross, grosier-a ; (qara~z-
glez-ar grand-daughter, nepot- t i t y ) , gros-dek-duo
to glean, glin-ar ~n-o ground (soil), sul-o ;
to glide, glit-ar grand-father, av-ul-o (for building, tilling),
globe, glob-o ; (the grand-mother, av-in-o teren-o
earth), la ter-glob-o grand-son, nepot-ul-o group, grup-o ; to-,
gloom, tenebr-o to grant, grant-ar ; grup-ig-ar
glory, glori-o (prayer), exauc-ar ; to grow, lrresk-ar
to gloss (tr., nzake -amnesty, amnesti- to growl, grun-ar
glossy), glac-ar ar grub, lombrik-o
glove, gant-o grape, vit-ber-o grudge, rankor-o
glow-worm, lampir-o grape-shot, mitrali-o to grunt, grun-ar
glucose, glikos-o grass (turf), gazon-o guarantee, garanti-o
glue, glu-o grasshopper, akrid-o to guarantee, warrant,
to glue, glutin-ar to grate, rasp-ar garanti-ar
glutton, gurmand-o grate, gret-o guard (milit.), guard-o
gnat, kulc-o to gratify, kontent-ig- to guard, gard-ar
to gnaw, rod-ar ar to be the guardian of
to go, ir-ar gratis, gratuit-e (someone), tutel-ar
to go back, retro-ir-ar ; gratitude, gratitud-o gudgeon, gobi-o
(fig.), regres-ar gratuitous, gratuit-a to guess, divin-ar
to go for a walk, gratuity, gratifik-o guest, gast-o
promen-ar grave (ad?.), grav-a; to guide, guid-ar
goat, kapr-o (tomb), tomb-o guillotine, gilotin-o
God, De-o gravel, gravl-o guilty, kulp-oz-a
god-son, bapto-fili (-ul) to graze, pastur-ar gulf, golf-0
-0 grease,. gras-o ; to-, gum (adhesive),gum-o ;
gold, or-o gras-iz-ar (of teeth), jenjiv-o
golden oriole, oriol-o great, grand-a gun (cannon), kanon-o
goldfinch, kardel-o great horned owl, to gurgle, glug -ar
good, bon-a, benign-a guf-0 guttling, krapul-o
goods, var-i greedy, avid-a ; ( f o r gymnastics, gimnastik-
goose, gans-o food), gurmand-a 0
gooseberry, grozel-o green, verd-a
gorge (geog.), fauc-o green-house, teplic-o
gospel, evangeli-o to greet, salut-ar
to gossip, babil-ar grenade, grenad-o
got (after have not :rey (adj.), griz-a
translated) rreyhound, levrier-o haberdashery, mercer-o
= 49
to be in the habit of, harsh (rough to the heat, varm-eso, ( k c h . ) ,
kustum-ar touch), asper-a ; (to kalor-o
hackney coach, fiakr-o the taste), akr-a ; (to to heat ( t r . ) , varm-
had (with past parti- the ear), akr-a (fig.), igar ; ( i n t r . ) , varm-
c i p b ) ,esis -inta, -abis acerb-a, akr-a, rigid- eskar
had to, dev-is a, sever-a heathen, pagan-a, -o
to hail, grel-ar to harvest, rekolt-ar heather, erik-o
hair, har-o ; (collec- hash, hach-aj-o heavy, grav-a, pez-oz-n
tion), har-aro ; (of to hash, hach-ar Hebrew, hebre-a, -0
animal), pil-o to hasten, hast-ar hedge, heg-o
hair-dressing, kuaf-o, hat, chapel-o hedgehog, herison-o
-ur-0 to hate, odi-ar heel, talon-o
half, du-imo ; (prefix), to haul, haul-ar hell, infern-o
mi- haunch, hanch-o hem, orl-ur-o ; to-,
half-breed (person), haunted, obsed-at-a orl-ar
mestic-a, -0 to have (possess),hav- helmet, kask-o
hall (all senses), hal-o a r ; (as auxiliary, to help, help-ar,
to halt, halt-ar not translated, see hemlock, cikut-o
ham (food), shink-o grammar) ; -to, hemp, kanab-o
hammer, martel-o (ought), dev-ar her (acc. of she), el(u) ;
hammock, hamak-o to have a holiday, (possessive), elu-a
hand, manu-o vakanc-ar herald, herald-o
handcuff, manot-o to have a horror of, herb, herb-o
handicraft, mestier-o horor-ar herb-tea, tizan-o
handkerchief, naz- to have a movement of herbarium, herbari-o
tuko translation, trans- herb-tea, tizan-o
handle, manch-o ; lac-ar here, hike ; -is, yen
(round), ans-o ; to-, to have a smell, odor-ar heresy, herezi-o
manu-agar ; (man- to have in view, viz-ar hero, hero(u1)o
age), dukt-ar, direkt- to hawk (goods), kol- herpes, herpet-o
a r ; (treat o f ) , trakt- port-ar ( f i g . ) herring, haring-o
a r ; (trade i n ) , hawthorn, krateg-o hers, (e)lu-a ; su a
komerc-ar ( p r i ) hay, fen-o herself, (subject of verb),
hand-lever, manet-o hazard, hazard-o ipsa ; (object of verb),
handwriting, skrib- hazelnut, avel-o SU
manier-o he, him, *il-(u) to hesitate, hezit-ar
to hang, pend-ar he, she, or it, *lu to hew (with a x e ) ,
hangings, tapet-o head, kap-o ; (chief), hak-ar
to happen, event-ar chef-o to hiccup, hip-ar
happy, felic-a to heal, (tr.), ri-san- hide (dressed skin), fel-o
harbour, portu-o igar ; (inlr.), ri-san- to hide, cel-ar
hard, hard-a ; (severe). eskar high, alt-a
sever-a health (state of), stand- hill, kolin-o
to harden, hard-ig-ar o ; good-, san-eso ; to hinder, imped-ar
hare, lepor-o bad-, malad-eso hinge, charnir-o ;
harl, filas-o healthy (person),san-a ; (door), gond-o
to harm, noc-ar (thing), salubr-a hip, hanch-o
harmony, harmoni-o heap ( p i l e ) , amas-o to hire, lokac-ar,
harness, harnes-o to hear, aud-ar his, (i)lu-a
to harness, harnes iz-ar to hear and grant, to hiss, sis-ar
harp, harp-o exauc-ar history, histori-o
harpoon, harpun-o heart, kordi-o to hit, frap-ar
harrow, hers-o hearth, herd-o hoar frost, pruin-o
hoarse, rauk-a
to hoax, tromp-ar, rnis.
- 1 houseleek, semperviv-t
how, qual-e ; -many I
tifik-ar -much, quant-e I, *me
hoe, hau-o (adj.), quant-a ice, glaci-o
to hoist, his-ar however, tamen idea, ide-o
to hold, ten-ar (meanwhile), dum-I ideal, ideal-a, -0
hold (of a ship), hold-c how great, quant-a identical, ident-a
hole, tru-o to howl, ulul-ar idiom (language), idi-
holiday, vakanc-o hub, nab-o om-o ; (peculiar
hollow, kav-a to hum, zum-ar form), idiotism-o ;
hollow rail, tram-o human (of m n ~ z ) , (special character),
holly, ilex-o horn-al-a spec-al-a karakter-o
hollyhock, malvaroz-c human being, hom-o idiotic, idiot-a, -0
holy, sant-a human nature, idle, van-a, sen-baz-a ;
home, hem-o hom-es-o (not employed), ne-
honest, honest-a humane, human-a uz-at-a, ne-okup-at-
honey, miel-o humanity (feeling) a ; (slothful), indo-
honeycomb, vab-o human-eso; (whole), lent-a, oci-em-a, -er-
honeysuckle, kapri- homar-o a ; to-, oci-ar, flan-
foli-o humble, humil-a ar
honour, honor-o humble bee, burdon-c idol, idol-o
hood, kapuc-o humid, humid-a to idolise, idol-ig-ar ;
hoof, huf-o humiliation (state), (fig.), am-eg-ar,
hook, hok-0 vexes-o amor-eg-ar, ador-
to hook on, akroch-ar humour, humor-o ; (ach)-ar
hoopoe, upup-o (wit), humur-o ; to-, idolatry, idol-kult-o,
hop (plant), lupul-o konform-ig-ar su, -ism-o ; (fig.), a m -
to hope, esper-ar konlorm-esk-ar. in- eg-o, amor-eg-o,
horn, korn-o dulg-ar, konces-ar, ador(-ach)-ad-o
horn beam, karpin-o komplez-ar a (la idyll, idili-o
hornet, hornis-o humoro d i ) i.e. (that i s ) , t.e. (to
horse, kaval-o hump (on body), gib-o esas)
horse-hair, krin-o hundred, cent-o if, se ; (whether),*kad
horse-radish, rafan-o hungry (to be), hungr-ar to. ignore (wilfzrlly),
horse-tail (botan.), io hunt, chas-ar ignor-ar
equiset-o hurdle, hurd-o ill, malad-a
hospice, hospic-o hurricane, uragan-o (11 with, -ik-
hospital, hospital-o ,O hurt ( t r . ) , vund-ar, illiterate, iliterat-a
hospitality (act), gast- lez-ar ; (zntr.), dolor- llusion, iluzion-o
!go ; (quality), gast- ar ;o illustrate? ilustr-ar
~g-em-es-o o hurtle, shok-ar (tr.) mage, 1ma1-o
host (who receives), iusband, spoz-ul-o ;o imagine, imagin-ar
host-o iygiene, higien-o ;o imitate, imit-ar ;
hostility (act.), Iymn, himn-o (corn.), kontra-fakt-
enemik-aj-o ; (state). iypnotic state, hip- ar
enemik-es-o not-o o immerse, imers-ar
hot, varm-eg-a o hypnotize, hipnot- mmune, imun-a
hotch-potch, popurit-o ig-ar mpartial, sen-partis-a
hotel, hotel-o ~ypocrite, hipokrit-o, o impede, imped-ar
hothouse, teplic-o -a mpel, impuls-ar
hour, hor-o mperative, -ez
house, dom-o mperfect (gmm.),
housekeeping, menaj-o imperfekt-a
impetuous, impetu-oz. income, revenu-o to inherit, hered-ar
a indeed, ver-e, *ya to injure, lezar, domaj-
implement, instru- indemnity, indernn-o ar, noc-ar
m e n t - ~ ,utensil-o independent, ne-de- ink, ink-o
to implicate, implik-ar pend-ant-a inlaid floor, parquet-o
to implore, implor-ar india-rubber, kau- to inlay, inkrust-ar
to import (mean), signi- chuk-o inn, alberg-o, hotel-o
fik-ar ; (express), ex- to indicate, indik-ar innate, inat-a
pres-ar ; (concern), indicative present, -as innocent, inocent-a ;
koncern-ar; (be oj indifferent, inclifere~lt- (not guilty), sen-
importance), im- a kdp-a
port-ar ; (introdz6ce, indigenous, indijen-a to inoculate, inokul-ar
com.), importac-ar indigent, indij-ant-o inquest, inquest-o
import(ance), import-o indignant (to be), in- to inquire, inquest-ar
important, import-ant- dign-ar (pri) insane, dement-a
a indirect, ne-diret-a insanity, dement-es-o
to impose, impoz-ar individual, individu-o ; insect, insekt-o
impossible, ne-posibl-a (adj.), -al-a to insert, insert-ar
impost, impost-o ; indolent, indolent-a inside (adj.), intern-a ;
(arch.), empost-o to indorse, indos-ar (adu.), intern-e ;-of,
impotent (physiolog.), to induce, persuad-ar ; interne di
impotent-a (give rise to), genit-ar to insinuate, insinu-ar
imprecation, imprek-o efekt-ig-ar ; (log., insipid, insipid-a
to impregnate, im- phys.), indukt-ar to insist, insist-ar
pregn-ar to indulge, indulg-ar insolent, insolent-a
to impress, impres-ar indulgent, indulg-ant- to inspect, inspekt-ar
to imprison, en-karcer- a, -em-a to inspire, inspir-ar
ig-ar industry, industri-o ; to install, instal-ar
to improve (tr.), plu- (of a person), labor- instalment (part pay-
bon-ig-ar ; (intr.), em-es-o ment) akont-o
plu-bon-esk-ar inert, inert-a instance (for),exempl-e
to improvise, im- infallible, ne-eror-iv-a; instant, instant-o
proviz-ar (unfailing),infalibl-a instead of, *vice
impulse, impuls-o infamous, infam-a instinct, instint-o
to impute, imput-ar infantry, infantri-o to institute, instituc-ar
in, *en ; -exchange to infect, infekt-ar to instruct, instrukt-ar
for, *po ; -order to infer, infer-ar instrz~mentfor, -il-
to, *par ; -spite of, inferior, sub-a, inferior- insular, insul-an-a
*malgre ; -such a a; (person), in- to insulate, izol-ar
way (so), tal-e ferior-~ to insure, aselrur-ar
infinitive present, -ar infinite, infinit-a
to incarnate, korp-ig- inflrm, infirm-a integrity, integr-es-o
ar ; (theol.), inkar- to inflame, inflam-ar intellect, intelekt-o
nac-ar to inflate, infl-ar intelligent, inteligent-a
incense, incens-o to inflict, impoz-ar to intend, intenc-ar
incest, incest-o to influence, influ-ar intense, intens-a
incident, incident-o influenza, grip-o intention, intenc-o
to incite, incit-ar to inform, inform-ar
to incline (tr.), inklin- to infringe, violac-ar intercede, interces-ar
a r ; (intr.), inklin- ingenuity, injeni-o to intercept, intercept-
es-ar ingenuous, kandid-a ar
inclined to, -em- to inhabit (tv. and i n f r . ) to interdict, interdikt-
to include, inkluz-ar habit-ar ar
interest (taken in a inward, intern-a jointure, doari-o
thing), interes-o ; iris, irid-o to joke, jok-ar
(advantage and o n iron, fer-o journal, jurnal-o
money), interest-o irony, ironi-o journey, voyaj -0
to interfere, interfer-ar to irrigate, irig-ar joy, JOY-0
interior, intern-a to irritate, irit-ar to judge, judik-ar
intermittent (to be) island, insul-o to judge judicially,
intermit-ar to isolate, izol-ar judici-ar
internal, intern-a to issue (tr.), emis-ar ; jug, kruch-o
to interpellate, inter- (publish), edit-ar ; to juggle, jongl-ar
pel-ar (intr.), ek-ir-ar juice, suk-o
to interpose, inter- it, *ol(u) July, juli-o
poz-ar to itch, prurit-ar to jump, salt-ar
to interpret, interpret- its, (o)lu-a juncture (of events),
ar ivory, ivor-o konjuntur-o
Interpreter, interpret- ivy, heder-o June, luni-o
ant-o, -er-o, -kt-o jungle, jungl-o
to interrupt, inter-rupt- junior, junior-a
ar juniper, juniper-o
interspace (intervening jurisdiction, judici-o ;
space), inter-spac-o to be under the juris-
interval (time), inter- diction, resortis-ar
temp-o ; (space), in- jurist, yur-isto
ter-spac-o ; ( m u s i c ) , jury, jurl-o, judici-ant-
intimate (adj., n . ) , in- ,
J ar-o
just (just n o w ) , *jus ;
tim-a, -0 ! jackdaw, chuv-o (correct), just-a ;
to intimate, notifik-ar, / jacket (loz*nge, tight), (rightful), yust-a
deklar-ar I veston-o justice, yustes-o
to intone, inton-ar jaconet muslin, to justify, justifik-ar
to intoxicate, ebri-ig-ar jakonet-o to jut out, sali-ar
to intricate, intrik-ar jail, karcer-o
to intrigue, intrig-ar jam, konfit-ajo
to introduce, en-dukt- January, januar-o
a r ; (make known in jar ( j u g ) , kruch-o

intuition, intuic-o
to inundate, inund-ar
formal manner one : jargon, jargon-o
person to another), jaw, maxil-o
introdukt-ar jay, je-o
jealous, jaluz-a
jelly (cookery), jelat-o
to invade, invad-ar i jersey (garment), jerze- keel, kil-o
invalid, invalid-a, -0 ; o keen, akut-a
(not valid), ne-valid- Jesus, Jesu to keep, konserv-ar ;
a jet, gagat-o (guard), gard-ar ;
invective, invektiv-o Jew, jud-o (manage), direkt-ar ;
to invest, invest-ar ; jewel, juvel-o (support), nutr-ar.
(money), kolok-ar i jeweller, juvel-isto entraten-ar ; -an eye
investigation, explor- I to jingle (intr.), tinkl- on, survey-ar ; -In
(ad)-o ar ; (tr.), tinkl-igar mind, -up, manten-
invidious, ofens-ant-a ; to join (tr.), junt-ar ar; -silence ( o n ) ,tac-
odi-ind-a joiner-work (to do), ar (tr.)
to invent, invent-ar , menuz-ar kernel, kern-o
invoice, faktur-o 1 joint (anat.), artik-o / kettle-drum, timbal-o
key (uf a lock), klef-o to lacerate, hcer-ar law suit, proces-o
(of a keyboard) to lack (tv.), indij-ar lax, lax-a
klav-o ; (much.) lackey, lake-o lay (adj.), laik-a
kel-o lacquer, lak-o to lay (tr.), poz-ar ;
to kick (beast), kik-a] ladder, skal-o kush-ar, stern-ar ;
kidney, ren-o lady-bird, kocinel-o -down (deposit),de-
kidney-bean, fazeol-c lake, lag-o poz-ar ; -over, in-
to kill, ocid-ar lamb, muton-yun-o ; dut-ar
kind (adj.), afabl-a ; (fig.), agnel-o layer (stratum),strat-o
benign-a ; (sort), lame, klaudik-ant-a, to layer (oines),
sort-6 -er-a ; to be-, to go-, markot-ar
kindly, afabl-e klaudik-ar layman, laik-ul-o
king, rej-(u1)o to lament, lament-ar lazy, oci-er-a, indo-
kinship, parent-eso lamp, lamp-o lent-a
kiosk, kiosk-o lamprey, lampred-o lead (metal), plumb-o
to kiss, kis-ar lance, lanc-o to lead (guide),guid-ar,
kitchen, koqu-eyo land (country), land-o ; dukt-ar
kitchen sink, evier-o (ground), teren-o to lead a dissolute life,
kite, kait-o landing (staircase), deboch-ar
knave, fripon-o, ras- flur-o ; (place for leaf, foli-o
kal-o Zandi?zg),desembark- league, feder-o, -ur-o ;
to knead, petris-ar ey-o (covenant), pakt-o
knee, genu-o ; knee- landlord, propriet-ant- to leak (tr. and intr.),
cap, patel-o 0, -er-o lik-ar
knickerbockers, brach- landscape, peizaj-o lean (meagre), magr-a
0 language, lingu-o to lean one's back,
knife, kultel-o to languish, langor-ar ados-ar su
knight, kavalier-o lap, gremi-o leap (year), bisextil-a ;
to knit, trikot-ar larch, laric-o ( a jump), salt-o
to knock down, lard, saim-o to learn, lern-ar
asom-ar larder, despens-o learned, cienc-oz-a
knot, nod-o; ( i n wood), lark, alaud-o to lease (only, grant
tuber-o larynx, laring-o I. o f ) , (farmo-)lug-ar
to know (by acquaint- lascivious, laciv-a ( o n l v : take 1. of),
ance), konoc-ar ; (by assitude, fatig-es-o (farmo-) lokac-ar;
learning), sav-ar ; asso, laz-o farme-don-ar, farme-
let me-, inform-ez ast (adj), last-a; at-, pren-ar
me fine least, minim-a, -e ; at-,
knowledge, sav-o ,o last, dur-ar ad-minim-e
atch, klink-o leather, ledr-o
ate (adj.). tard-a to leave, las-ar, liv-ar
ately, nov-e, recent-e leek, porel-o
ater (adj.), pos-a leech, sanguisug-o
ath, lat-o to leer, ogl-ar
Latin, latin-a lees, liz-o
,o laugh, rid-ar left, sinistr-a
label, etiket-o aunch (boat),shalup-o leg, gamb-o
to labour (tr., intr.), ;O launch, lans-ar legacy, legac-aj-o ; to
labor-ar aurel, laur-o leave a-to, legac-ar
laboratory, laboratori- ava, lava-o egal, leg-al-a
0 o lavish, prodig-ar egend, legend-o
lace, dentel-o ; (fov aw, leg-o ; (science), eggings, cetr-i
shoe, etc.), lac-o yur-o-cienc-o egion, legron-o
legitimate (adj.), legi- light, lum-o ; (in litmus, tornasoi-o
tim-a ; (to make I.), weight), lejer-a, to-, litter, litier-o
legitim-ig-ar (lamp, slc.), acend-ar little, mikr-a ; (not
leisure, liber-temp-o ; lighthouse, far-o much), pok-e ; a-,
to be at-, havar lightning, fulmin-o kelk-e
liber-temp-o like, -atr- littoral, litor-o
leisurely, sen-hast-e like, (similar), simil-a to live, viv-ar ; -dis-
lemon, limon-o (ad) solutely, deboch-ar
lemonade, limonad-o to like, p ~ i z - a r lively (active), vivac-a
length, long-es-o likely, probabl-a liver, hepat-o
to lend, prest-ar liking for (to have a livid, livid-a
lens, lens-o great), dilet-ar lizard, lacert-o
lent, karesm-o (relig.) lilac, lilak-o to load (person or thing
lentil, lens-o lily, lili-o with something),
leprosy, lepr-o lily of the valley, charj-ar (per);
less, * m i n ; (arith.), maiflor-o (something on to a
minus limb, membr-o boat, vehicle, person
to lessen, diminut-ar lime, kalk-o or animal), barg-ar
lesson, lecion-o lime-tree, tili-o (sur)
to let (allow to be), limit, limit-o ; to-, to loaf, flan-ar
las-ar ; ( a house), limit-izar ; restrikt- to loan, prest-ar
lug-ar ; -down, ar lobby, (green-Ioonl),
abas-ar ; -in the to limp, klaudik-ar foyer-o
clutch, embrag-ar linden (lime-tree), tili-o lobster, homard-o
letter, letr-o ; (of line, line-o ; (series), local (adj.), loli-al-a
alphabet), liter-o ; seri-o to localise, lok-iz-ar
capital-, mayuskul- linen ( f l a x article), lin- locomotion, lokomoc-o
o ; small-, minu- a]-o ; (cloth), tel-o ; lock (for key), serur-o ;
skul-o (a piece), tub-o ; (of hair), lokl-o ; (in
lettuce, latug-o (clothes), linj -0 river), sluz-o
level (n.), nivel-o ; (in- lingual, lang-al-a to lock (door, etc.),
strument), libel-o, linguist, lingu-ist-o klef-kloz-ar ; -agar
nivel-iz-il-o ; (adj.), linguistic, lingu-al-a, locust, lokust-o
plat-a, sen-inklin- linguistik-al-a to lodge, loj-ar
es-a, horizont-al-a, linguistics, linguistik-o lodgings, loj-ey-o
sam-nivel-a ( k u n ) lining, futer-o log (wood), leni-o
lever, lever-o links ( c u f f ) ,buton-i loin(s), lumb-o, -i
lewd, laciv-a linnet, kanabin-o lonely, sol-a
lexicon, lexik-o lint, sharpi-o long, long-a ; a-time
liar, menti-er-a, e r - o ; lion, leon-o (adv.), longa-temp-e
-em-a, -em-o lip, lahi-o longboat, shalup-o
liberty, liber-es-o liqueur, liquor-o to look at, regard-ar ;
library, bibliotek-o liquid (adj.), liquid-a ; -like, aspekt-ar
to license, licens-ar (F.), liquid-o (quale); -on (as a
lichen, liken-o to hquldate, liquidac-ar spectator), spekt-ar ;
to lick, lek-ar liquorice, regolis-o -after, sorg-ar ; sur-
to lie (position), jac- to lisp, zeze-ar vey-ar (tr.),; -for,
ar ; -down, kush-ar list (roll), list-o serch-ar
su ; (tell lies), menti- list(el), listel.-o looking glass, spegul-o
ar to Iisten lo, askolt-ar lord, sinior-(ul)o
lieutenant, lietnant-o literature, literatur-o to lose, perd-ar
life, viv-o to lithograph, lito- lot (allotment, share
lift (clt.vator),awns-il-o graf-ar allotted to one), lot-o
lottery, lotri-o magic, magi-o mankind, hoin-ar-o
loud (voice), laut-a magnet, magnet-o manna, mana-o
to lounge, flan-ar magpie, pig-o manner, manier-o
louse, laus-o mahogany, mahagon-c manners, mor-i
to love, am-ar ; (have maiden, virgin-o mannikin, manekin-o
tender and passiorz- maid servant, servist- to manoeuvre,
ate affection for owe in-o manovr-ar
of the opposite sex), to maintain, manten-a1 mantel, mantel-o
amor-ar maize, maiz-o manure, dung-o,
loving, am-oz-a, amor- majesty, majest-o sterk-o ; to-, dung-
oz-a ; (tender) major (avnzy), mayor-o izar
tener-a majority, major-es-o ; many, mult-a
low, bas-a (ralzk o f a major), map, map-o
to lower, abas-ar mayor-es-o ; (greater maple, acer-o
lower part, bas-o number or part o f ) , to maraud, marod-ar
low spirits, depres-es-o majoritat-o marble, marmor-o
loyal, loyal-a to make, fac-ar ; (ren- March (month), mart-o
lozenge (geom.), romb-o der), ig-ar ; -a to march, march-ar
lubric, laciv-a noise, bruis-ar ; -a margin, marlin-o
luck, chanc-o compact, pakt-ar ; marigold, kalendul-o
luggage, bagaj-o konvencion-ar ; -a marine, mar-al-a
lukewarm, tepid-a mistake, eror-ar ; marjoram, maloran-o
to lull, lul-ar -fun of, mok-ar (tr.); mark, mark-o
lumbar region, lumb-o -the most of, spar- to mark, mark-iz-ar ;
luminous, lum-oz-a ar ; -one's first (to observe), remark-
lump, mas-o, blok-o appearance, debut- ar
lunch, dejun-o ar ; -up one's mind, market, merkat-o
luncheon, repast-et-o rezolv-ar ; -war, marl, marn-o
lung, pulmon-o milit-ar marmalade, marme-
lute (chem.), lut-o ; male, maskul-a, -0 lad-o
(mus.), liut-o malice, malic-o marquee, marquiz-o
luxury, lux-o mall(&), mali-o, malio- marquis, markez-(ul)-0
to lynch, linch-ar lud-o, malio-plac-o to marry ( t r . ) , mariaj-
lynx, linc-o man ( h u m a n being), ar ; (get nzarried),
lyre, lir-o hom-o ; ( a male). mariaj-ar su (bun)
hom-ul-o ; (adult
male), vir-o marsh, marsh-o
manacle, menot-o marshal, marshal-o
;o manage, direkt-ar. marshmallow, mal-
administr-ar, jer-ar ; vavisk-o
( a n i m a l ) , dres-ar mart (trade-centre),
nane, krin-ar-o stapl-o
mace (club), maz-o nanege, manej-o marten, martr-o
machination, mashi- nangsnese, mangan-o martyr, martir-ul-o,
nac-o nanger (crib), krip-o -in-o
machine, mashin-o nania, mani-o Imarvel, marvel-o
mackerel, makrel-o ,o manifest, manifest- 1rzasculzne, -ul-
mad, fol-a ar 1mash, pure-o
madam, sior-in-o ; nanifold, diversa- 1nass (quantity), mas-o;
(noble l a d y ) , sinior- form-a, divers-aplik- (R.C.) mes-o
in-o a, multa e diversa : 1,O massacre, masakr-ar
madder, rubi-o (multifarious), mult- 1,O massage. masai-ar
madness, fol-es-o opl-a mast, maitio
master, maestr-o ; (of meat-pie, pastet-o mien, mien-o
the house, etc.), mas- mechanics, mekauik-o method, metod-o
tr-ul-o medal, medall-o tO mew ( a s a cab),
to masticate, mastik-ar to mediate, mediac-ar miaul-ar
mastiff, dog-o mediation, mediac- microbe, mikroh-o
mat, mat-o (-ad)-o mid-day, di-mez-o
match (Zlscifer), medium, mez-3 middle, mez-a, -0
alumet-o medicine (art), niecli- midnight, nokto-mez-o
to match (tr.), mariaj- cin-o ; (drug), medi- might (could, perhaps),
ar (asorte) ; lukt-ar kament-o pov-uq ; (power,
(kun) ; egal-es-ar ; to meditate, medit-ar strength), potent-o
(tr.) asort-ar ; (intr.) medlar, mispel-o mighty, potent-a
mariaj-ar su ; es-ar to meet, renkontr-ar ; mignonette, rezed-o
asort-it-a, inter-kon- (intr.), kun-ven-ar to migrate, migr-ar
ven-ar meeting, asembl-o mile, mili-o
material ( n . ) , materi-o, melody, melodi-o milk, lakt-o
-ar-o ; melon, melon-o to milk, melk-ar
matter, materi-o ; -of to melt (tr.), fuz-ar mill, (machine), muel-
fact, fakt-o ; it does member, membr-o 1 0; (building),
not matter, ne im- membar o f , -an- muel-ey-o; to-,
port-as membrane, membran-o muel-ar
mattress, matrac-o memory (the act), to mimic, mim-ar
mature, matur-a memor-o ; (the ;o mince, hach-ar
mauve, malv-o ; (adj.) , faculty), -ad-o ; ( a mind, ment-o
mnlv-a good, bad, elc., mem- ;o mind, atenc-ar ;
maxim, sentenc-o ory), memor-es-o ; ( a (look after), sorg-ar
maximum, maxlm-o, recollection), memor- nine (of m e ) , me-a
-a aj-o ;o mine, min-ar
May (month), m a y o to menace, minac-ar ,o mingle, mix-ar
may (verb),forsan-s ; to mend, repar-ar ninimum, minim-o
(have a right to-), mental, ment-al-a ninister, ministr-o ;
darf-as ; (can), pov- to mention, mencion-ar (eccl.), pastor-o
as menu, menu-o ninor, minor-a
mayor, komon-estr-o mercenary (soldier), ninority (numerical),
me, *me mercenari-o minoritat-o
meadow, prat-o mercer, mercer-ist-o nint, monet-if-eri-o ;
meagre, magr-a merciful, mizerikordi- (plant), mint-o
meal, repast-o ; (grain) oz-a ; klement-a ninute, minut-o ; (adj.,
farin-o mercy, mizerikordi-o, small) mikr-a,tenu-a
mean, tro spar-ema, klement-es-o niracle, mirakl-o
avar-em-a ; (poor), mere, pur-a, nur-a nirage, miraj-o
povr-a ; (bad tem- merely, *nur nirror, spegul-o
pered), mal-humor-a merino ( a n i m a l ) , mer- o miscarry, abort-ar
to mean, signifik-ar ; in-o ; (material), nischievous, petul-
(person), oplnlon-ar merino-lan-o, mer- ant-a (person)
meaning, senc-o ino-drap-o niser, avar-o
means, moyen-o to merit, merit-ar nisery, mizer-o
meanwhile, dum-e merry (adj.), gay-a nisfortune, des-for-
measles, morbil-o mesh, mash-o tun-o
meaSUr8, mezur-o message, mesaj-o o mislay, egar-ar
(also m u s . ) ; to-, messenger, kurier-o Kiss, damzel-o
mezur-ar Messiah, Mesi-o o miss, fali-ar, indij-ar
meat, karn-o metal, metal-o, -a ( i n t r . ) , mauk-ar
mission, mision-o to multiply (tr.), ( p l u )
mist. nebul(-et)-o
mistake, eror-o ; to
1 moreover, ceter-e
morning, matin-o
Morocco leather, moro-
mult-igar ; (math.),
multiplik-ar ; (intr.),
make a-, eror-ar kin-o (v1u)mult-eskar
.A .
mistletoe, mistel-o mortal (a), mort-iv-o ; mummy, mumi-o
to misuse, mis-uz-ar (adj.), -a municipality, muni-
mite, akar-o mortar (for buzlding), cip-0
mitten, miten-o morter-o muscle, muskul-o
to mix up, mix-ar to mortify, mortifik-ar museum, muze-o
to moan, jem-ar mosquito, m o s k ~ t - o mushroom, fung-o
mob, popul-ach-o moss, musk-o music, muzik-o
mobile, mov-em-a most, * m a x i m ; the-, musk (perfume),
to mock, molc-ar maxim-e mosk-o
mode, mod-o moth, tine-o musket, I~isil-o
model, model-o mother, patr-ino, muslin, muslin-o
to model, modl-a]. matr-o mussel, musl-o
to moderate, moder-ax mother-of-pearl, must ( n w wine), most-
modern, modern-a perlomatr-o o ; (to be obliged).
modest, modest-a motion, mov-o must-ar ; (have to).
modesty, modest-es-o ; motive, motiv-o dev-ar
pudor-o motley, bunt-a mustard (food), mus-
modification (act.), motor (nzechalz.), t a r d - ~; (plant),
modifik-o ; (effect). motor-o sinap-o
modifik-ur-o motor-car, automo- to mutilate, mutil-ar
to modify, modifik-ar bil-o mutton, muton-o
moist, humid-a motto, mot-o mutual, mutual-a
mole (animal), talp-o ; to mould (cast i n plas- muzzle, muzel-o
(on skin), spot-o ter, etc.), muld-ar my, mea
moment, instant-o mouldy (musty), mold- mystery, misteri-o
momentum, moment-o inta, -oza
Monday, lundi-o to moult, mu-ar
money, pekuni-o ; to mount (tech.),
(coin), monet-o n~unt-ar
monk, monak-ul-o mountain, mont-o
monkey, simi-o mourning (to be i n ) ,
monopoly, monopol-o traur-ar
monster, monstr-o ; mouse, mus-o
(great, immense), moustache, labio-bar-
grand-eg-a bo nail (of nzetal), klov-o ;
month, monat-o mouth, bok-o (on finger), ungl-o ;
monument, monu- to move, mov-ar to- (fasten with
ment-~ movement, mov(ad)-o nails), klov-agar
moon, lun-o to mow, falch-ar klovo-fix-igar ; (fur-
moor, marsh-o, vild- Mr., sior-(u1)o nish, bedeck wzth
ey-o Mrs., sior-(in jo nails), klov-izar
moral, mor-al-a ; (mor- mucus, muk-o naive, naiv-a
ally good), etik-al-a ; mud, fang-o naked, nud-a
(n.), etik-o muff (for hands), m u f - o name, nom-o ; to-
more, *plu ; no more, mulatto, mulat-o (call, mention, by n.),
ne plus ; the-, the-, mulberry, morus-o nom-ar ; (give a
quaute plu, taute plu mule, mul-o distinctive n . to!,
morel (kind of mush- mullein (hot.), ver- nom-izar ; (nomz-
room), morel-o bask-o nate), nomin-ar
nape of the neck, nuk-o new, nov-a ; recent-a, I nowhere, nul-loke
napkin, bok-tuko fresh-a noxious exhalation,
to narrate, narac-ar newspaper, jurnal-o fume, mefit-o
narrow, stret-a next,sequ-ant-a, -ant-e; nude, nud-a
nasal, naz-ala la maxim proxim-a, number (quantity),
nasty, des-agreabla la apud-a nombr-o ; (order),
nation, nacion-o nib, bek-o numer-o
national, nacion-al-a nice (dish), friand a ; numerous, mult-a
nationality, nacion- (perhon),afabl-a nun, regulier-ino
eso ; (nation), na- nickel, nikel-o nuncio, nunci-o
c~on-o niece, nev-(in)o to nurse (infant,
to nationalize, nacion- night, nokt-o patient), fleg-ar
al-ig-ar nightingale, naktigal-o nut, nuc-o
native, indijen-a, -0 nimble, ajil-a nutmeg, muskad-o
nature, natur-o nine, *non
nausea, nauze-o to nip, pinch-ar
to nauseate, ; nitric acid, aquafort-o
(affect with n.), no, *no
nauze-igar no more, ne plus
naval, nav-ala no, not any, nul-a
nave, nab-o no one, nul-u
navel, umbilik-o noble (by bzrth), nobel-
to navigate, navig-ar a,-o; (nzornlly),nobl-a
nobody, nul-u oak, querk-o ; (Eng-
near (prep.), *proxim ; noise, bruis-o lish), rovr-o
(adv.), proxim-e ; to nominate, nomin-ar oar, rem-ilo
(adj.), proxim-a oath, jur-o
none, nul-a
nearly (almost), preske noon, di-mez-o oatmeal, gruel-o
neat, net-a north, nord-o oats, aven-o
necessary, neces-ar nose, naz-o ; to blow to obey, obedi-ar
neck, kol-o one's-, mung-ar su object, objekt-o
to need, bezon-ar (tv.) not, *ne to object, objecion-ar
needle, agul-o notary, notari-o objective (adj.), ob-
negative, neg-ala notch, noch-o jekt-ala ; (n.), ob.
to neglect, neglij -ar note, not-o (also mus.) jekt-a10 (opt.),
to negotiate, negoci-ar to note, not-ar ; (an- skop-o
negro negr-o, -a notate), not-iz-ar to oblige (to force),
neighbow, vicin-o notice, aviz-o, notic-o ; oblig-ar ; (to serve),
neither . . . nor, *nek to-, remark-ar sew-ar
... nek
nephew, nev-(u1)o
notion, nocion-o obliging, sew-ema
oblivion, oblivi-o, -eso
notorious, uotor-a
nerve, nerv-o nought, nul-o ; (arith.), oblong, oblong-a
nest, nest-o zer-o oboe. Iloboy-o
net, ret-o noun sing., -0 obscene, obcen-a
nett (price, etc.), net-a to nourish, nutr-ar obscure, obskur-a
nettle, urtik-o novel, nov-a ; a-, observatory, observa-
neutral, neutr-a novelette, novel-o, tori-o
neutralization, roman-o to observe, observ-ar
neutr-ig-o November, novembr-o to obsess, obsed-ar
neutrality, neutr-es-o now (at present), *nun ; obstacle, obstakl-o
to neutralize, (in argument), or ; obstinate, obstin-era,
neutr-ig-ar, lore. ..lore ; -ema
never, nul-tempe -then !, n u I to obstruct, obstrukt-ar
to obtain, obteu-ar one-eyed, tuert-a outline, kontur-o
obvious, evident-a onion, onyon-o outside ( p ~ e p . ) ,*exter
occasion, okazion-o only (adv.), *nnr ; oven, forn-o
occident, westo, oci- (adj,) sol-a over (prep.), *super
dent-o to open, apert-ar overcoat, surtut-a
occult, okult-a opera, oper-o overcome, vink-ar
to occupy, okup-ar to operate, operac-ar to overtake, rajunt-ar
to occur, event-ar opinion, opinion-o ; to to overthrow, renvers-
ocean, ocean-o hold the-,opinion-ar ar
o'clock, klok-o, -i opportune, oportun-a to overwork, surmen-ar
October, oktobr-o to oppose, opoz-ar (tr.) to owe, deb-ar
octopus, polp-o to oppress, opres-ar owing to, *pro
odd, barok-a ; ( n u m - optics, optik-o owl (Savn), strig-o
ber), ne-para or (conj.), o(d) own, propr-a ; to-
odoriferous, odor-anta oracle, orakl-o (possess), posed-ar,
of (possession), *di ; oral, parol-a,, -al-a propriet-ar
(mode of or contain- orange, oranl-o owner, propriet-er-o
i n g ) , *de ; concern- orator, orator-o OX, bov-o
i n g ) , *pri orchestra, orkestr-o oyster, ostr-o
offence (unlawful act), to order (goods),
delikt-o komend-ar ; (com-
to offend, ofens-ar m a n d ) , imper-ar
to offer, ofr-ar order (relig., chival.),
office ( d u t y , function), orden-o
ofic-o ; (local), kon- ordinary, ordinar-a
tor-o ; (relig.),ofici-o ore, erc-o
officer (milit.), oficir-o organ (of body, etc.),
official, ofic-isto ; (adj.) organ-o ; (music),
ofici-ala orgen-o pace, paz-o ; (gait),
offspring, genit-uro organization (act.), alur-o
often, oft-e organ-iz-o; (arrange- pacific, pac-em-a
ogee, cimas-o m e n t ) , organ-iz-ur-o; to pack, pak-ig-ar
to ogle, ogl-ar (state), organ-iz-es-o packet, pak-o, -et-o
oh fie ! *fi ~rient, orient-o packet-boat, paketbot-
oil, ole-o wigin, origin-o 0
oil-cake, turt-o ~rnament, om-iv-o, to pad (door, window),
ointment, unguent-a ornament-o pad-iz-ar
old (in years), old-a ; lrphan, orfan-a. -0 pad (for doors, win-
(in date), ancien-a ; lrthography, ortografio dows), pad-o, pol-
how - are you ? o oscillate, ocil-ar ster-o
qnant-e vu ev-as )sier, ozier-o pad, pad-o
olive, oliv-o Istentation, ostent-o to paddle, barbot-ar
omelet, omelet-o lstrich, struch-o padlock, padlok-o
to omit, omis-ar Ither, altr-a pagan, pagan-o
omnibus, omnibus-o Itherwise, altr-e page ( o f book), pagin-o ;
on, sur ; -account of, Itter, lutr-o (boy), paj-o
Pro. ~ught,dev-us pail, sitel-o
on this side of, *cis lunce,. unc-o pain (to be in-, to
once (one time), un- Iur, nl-a feel-), dolor-ar
foy-e ; at-, *quik ; ~ u tof, *ek pains, pen-o
-upon a time, *olim ~utlandish, altra-land- painstaking, sorg-er-a,
one, un(a) ; (indefinite a ; (fig.), stranj-a, -em-a
protzoun), on(u) barok-a to paint, pikt-ar
I 60
paint, farb-o ; (for parlour, salon-o, kon- pavement, pav-ar-o
face), fard-o vers-eyo 1 pavilion, pavilion-o
paint brush, pinsel-o to parody, parodi-ar paving stone, pav-o
pair, par-o parquet, parquet-o to paw, trampl-ar;
palace, palac-o parrot, papagay-o (horse), piaf-ar
palate, palat-o to pamy, pare-ar pawn, pion-o
pale, pal-a ; ( n . ) ,palis-c parsley, petrosel-o pawnbroker, lombard-o
paling, palis-ar-o, palis parsnip, pastinak-o to pay, pag-ar ; -at-
fenc-o part, part-o tention to, atenc-ar;
palissade, palisad-o to partake, partc -court to, knrtez-
to pall, blaz-ar pren-ar (tr.) ar ; -a salary to,
palm, palm-o (also o, participation, partc salari-ar ; -regard
hand) pren-o to, egard-ar (tr.)
to palp-ar particulars, detal-i
to palpitate,, palpit-ai partridge, perdrik-o pea, piz-o
paltry, m e s h n - a partisan, partis-ano peace, pac-o
pamphlet, pamflet-o partner, partener-o to be in peace, pac-ar
(booklet), brosh-ur-c party, partis-o peach, ( f r u i t ) ,persik-o
pan (frying), padel-o to pass (tr., intr.), pas peacock, pavon-o
panel, panel-o ar pear, pir-o
panic, panik-o passable, pasabl-a pearl, perl-o
pansy, panse-o passage ( i n house),kori peat, torf-o
to pant (gasp for dor-o ; (on ship) peasant, rur-an-o
breath), anhel-ar pasaj-o pebble, ston-o
pantry, despens-o lassenger, pasaj-ant-o peculiar, partikular-a
pap, pap]-o er-o pedal, ped-al-o
paper, paper-o ; (news- lassion, pa~ion-o; (o, pedant, pedant-o
paper), jurnal-o Christ), sufr-ad-o pedestal, piedestal-o
papyrus, papir-o 'assover, Pask-o pedigree, genealogi-o
to parade, parad-ar lassport,, pasport-o pedlar, kolport-kt-o
paradise, paradiz-o last indzcatzve, -is peel, shel-o
paradox, paradox-o last infinitive, -ir peer,. per-o
parafin, parafin-o last particip., active, leew~t, vanel-o
paragraph, paragraf-o -int- leg, s t i f t - o
parallel, paralel-a, -0 'ast particip:, passive, leg-top, t u p - o
to paralyse, paraliz-ar -it- )elisse, pelis-o
parasite, parazit-o ast, pasint-a, -0 lellet, bul-et-o
parasol, para-suno aste, past-o bell-mell, pelmel-e
Parca ( f a t e ) , Parc-o D paste, glutin-ar lelvis, pelv-o (anat.)
parcel, pak-o, -eto astor, pastor-o ten, plum-o
parchment, perga-
astry, kuk-aj-o lenance (to do for),
3 pasture (tr., intr.),
to pardon, pardon-ar pas tur-ar lencil, krayon-o
to pare (tr.), sen-shel- patch, rapec-ar enetrate, penetr-ar
igar ; (clip),rekort-ar atent, patent-o eninsula, peniusul -0
parent ( f a t h ~ ror ath, voy-et-o enitence, penitenc-o
mother), patr-o atient, pacient-a ension, pension-o
parents, ge-patri atriarch, patriark-o eony, peoni-o
parish, komon-o ; atrician, patrici-o eople, popul-o; horn-i ;
parok-i-o atriot, patriot-a, -0 (one, anyone), o n ( u )
parish priest, parok-o atrol, patroli-o epper, pipr-o
parliament, parla- attern, shablon-o perceive, percept-ar
ment-o I pause, pauz-ar ercentage, procent-o
to perch, perch-ar philately, filateli-o pineapple, ananas-o
perch (/or n bzrd), philosophy, filozofi-o pink (flower), diant-o ;
perk-o phonograph, fonograf- (adj.), roz-ea
to percuss, perkut-ar il-o pint, chopin-o
perennial (bot.), peren-a phosphorus, fosf-o pioneer, pionir-o
perfect, perfekt-a photograph, fotograf- pious, pi-a
perfidious, perfid-a uro pip (poultry disease),
to perforate, perfor-ar phrase, fraz-o pips-o ; (in fruit).
to perform, (nzus., etc.), to physic, drog-iz-ar kern-et-o ; (on dice,
exekut-ar physician, medik-o dominoes, etc.), punt-
perfume, parfum-o physics, fizik-p 0
perhaps, *forsan pianoforte, plan-o to pipe (birds), pipi-ar
period, period-o to pick (gather), koli-ar
to perish, peris-ar
periwig, peruk-o
pickaxe, pikon-o -
to pickle (vegetables),
pipe (smoking), pip-o ;
(tube), tub-o ; (mus.),
periwinkle, pervink-o vinagre, konserv-ar ; pipette, pipet-o
permanent,permanant- (fish, meat), marin-ar pirate, pirat-o
a pickles, pikl-i pirouette (to perform
to permeate, perme-ar pic-nic, piknik-o a), piruet-ar
to permit, permis-ar p!e, pastet-o piscene, balno-basen-o
permitted (to be-, piebald, bunt-a pisciculture, fish-eduk-
may), darf-ar piece, pec-o; (cotton or ad-o
perpendicular, per- linen), tuk-o pisciform, fish-form-a,
pendikl-a to piece up, rapec-ar -atr-a
perpetual, perpstu-a to pierce (bore), bor-ar pistol, pistol-o
perplexed, perplex-a piety, pi-eso piston, (much.), piston-
to persecute, perse- p!g, pork-o 0
kut-ar pigeon, kolomb-o pit, fos-o ; (thedre),
to persevere, persever- Bike, piquo ; (fish) parter-o
ar luci-o pitch (tar), pech-o
to persist, persist-ar pile (heap), amas-o pitcher, kruch-o
person, person-o lilgrim, pilgrim-anto,
to perspire, sudor-if-ar -ero place, (town square),
to persuade, persuad-ar Iilgrimage (to go on a), plac-o ; (spot), lok-o ;
pert,liber-ega,temerara pilgrim-ar (for person), plas-o ;
to pertain, resort-es-ar )ill, pilul-o (suffix), -ey-
(ad ) ~illar,pilastr-o to plagiarize, plaji-ar
to peruse, lekt-ar ;o pilot, pilot-ar plague, pest-o ;
Peruvian bark, quin-o ~imento,piment-o (plague-spot), plag-o
perverse, pervers-a Bimple (acne), akue-o (also fig.)
pet, favor-at(ul)o, ;o pin, ad-lig-ar, ad-
-(inlo ; to- dorlot-ar junt-ar, fixig-ar (per plain (n.), plan-aj-o ;
to petition, petition-ar pinglo) ; tra-pik-ar (adj.), (distinct),
petroleum, petrol-o (per pinglo, lanco, klar-a, evident-a ;
petticoat, sub-jupo etc.) ; (tech.). stift- (simple), simpl-a ;
petulant (to be), petul- ag-ar, stift-union-ar (flat), plat-a ; (not
ar )in (ordinary), pingl-o ; ornamented), sen-
phalanx, falang-o (cotter), splint-o ; ornament-a
phantom, fautom-o (tech.), stift-o plain-chant, plan-
pharmacy, farmaci-o hoe-nez, naz-binokl-o kant-o
pharynx, faring-o ,o pinch, pinch-ar plaintiff, plend-ant-o
pheasant, fazan-o o pine away, langor-ar plaintive, plend-ant-a,
phial, fial-o pine, pin-o -em-a, -atr-a
plait, plis-ur-o ; to-, plural (adj.), plural-a ; POPPY, papal'er-o
~115-ar; plekt-ar, in- ( t i . i?if lexion), -i populace, popul-ach-o
ter-plekt-ar ; (hnzr) plus (wath.), *plus popular, popular-a
tre,-ig-ar plush, plush-o population (prople),
to plan, prtljct-ar pocket, posh-o popul-o ; (peopl-
plane (ad? ), plan-a ; poem, poem-o z9zg). popul-iz-o ;
(tool), rabot-o poet, poet-o (densitv), popul-oz-
planet, planet-o poetry, poezi-o ey-o
plank ( n . ) , plan1;-o to point ( t o ) , apun1.-a1 porcelain, porcelan-o
plant, plant-o ; to-, point (sharp), pint-o ; porch, p o r t ~ k - o
plantac-ar (dot, place), punt-o porcupine, porkespin o
plantain, plantag-o pointed, pint-a, -oz-a, pork, pork-o(-kam-o)
plaster, p p s - o -atr-a ; (shavp), porous, por-oz-a
plate ( e a l i i ? ~ )pla.1-o
, ; akut-a porridge-pot, rnarmll-o
(photo, of metal, etc ), poison, vencn-o porringer, eskudel-o ;
plak-o polarized, pol-ar-(ig- (of soldzers), gamel-o
platform, platform-o it)-a port (harbour), portu-o
to play, lutl-ar ; ( m l ~ s z c , ole (qeog.), pol-o ; portal, portal-o
theatre), ple-as ; (stick) stang-o portion ( a part), part-o;
( ~ a m b l t lml-ar,
), lutl- polecat, putor-o ( a heleing of food,
riik-ar polemics, polemik-o etc ), porcion-o
play, lutl-o ; (dv, m a ) , police? polic-o ; -man portrait, portret-o
dramat-o pollc-1st-0 to pose, po,tur-ar
to plead, pled-ar policy, politik-o positive, pozitiv-a
pleasant, agreabl-a to polish, polis-ar position, lok-o, punt-o ;
to please (gzue plea- polite, polit-a situ-es-o ; rang-o ;
sztre), plez-ar ; be politics, politilr-o ofic-o, employ-es-o ;
pleased u~zth), esar to pollute, polut-ar poz-e-;-o ; postur-o ;
kontenta ( d e ) ; if poltroon, poltron-o propozicion-o
you-, m e preg-a\ ; polygamist, poligam-
-write, volunt-ez a , -0 to possess, posed-ar
5krib-ar polyglot, poliglot-a, -0 possibility (qzhality),
pleased, kontent-a ( d e ) polygon, poligon-o posibl-ey-o ; (what
pleasure, plezur-cl polynomial, polinomi-o i s possible), -aj-o
plebiscite, plebic~t-o polype, polip-o possible, posibl-a
plenty, abund-o polysyllable, plur-silab- post, fost-o ; ( f o r lrt-
pleurisy, p l e v r ~ t - o a, -o t ~ r s )post-o
, ; (milit.),
plomb, plomb-o ; -line, polytheism, politeism-o posten-o
aplomb-o pomade, pomatum, postage, airank-o
to plot, komp!ot-ar pomad-o poster (placard), afish-o
to plough, plug-ar posterity, decedent-ar-
ploughshare, sok-o pomegranate ( f l u i t ) , 0
t o pluck, koli-ar grennd-o postern, postern-o
plug, t a m p o n - o (spec. ~ o m m e l ,pomel-o postilion, postilion-o
sure.) lamp, pomp-o posture, postur-o
plum; 'prun-o (iiot a ~ o n d e r , ponder-ar pot, pot-0
raisin ) )oniard, poniard-o potato, ter-pom-o
plume, penach-o )ontiff, p o n t ~ f i k - o poultry, pultr-o
plummet (plz~mb-lirze), )oodle, pudel-o to pound, pist-ar
aplomb-o loop, pup-0 to pour, vars-ar
plump, plump-a loor, povr-a, -0 to pout, bud-ar
to plunge (intrntzs.), powder, pulver-o ;
plunj-ar (toilet), pudr-o
power, pov-o ; (influ- pres. pnrticiple, passive. proboscis, rostr-o
ence, aztthority, as- -at- proceedings (legal),
cendancy), potent-es- preponderance, pre- proced-ur-o
0 ponder-o process, proces-o ;
powerful, potent-a to prescribe, preskript- (way), proced-o
practical, praktik-al-a ar procession, procesion-o
to practise (use prac- prescription (recipe), to proclaim, proklam-
tically), praktik-ar ; recept-o ar
(exercise), exerc-ar presence of (in the), to procure, prokur-ar
to praise, laud-ar *koram prodigal, prodig-ant-a.
to prance, kabr-ar present (adj.), prezent- -em-a; -ant-o em-o
to pray, preg-ar a ; (y~ft),donac-o ; to produce, produkt-ar
to preach, predik-ar at-, nun ; -time, profane (atij ) profan-a
precaution(s), pre- prezent-o ; to make to profane, profanac-ar
sorg-o a-, donac-ar to profess, profes-ar
precedence, preced-o to present, prizent-ar profession, profesion-o
precedent, precedent-o present a t (to be), professional (adj.) pro-
precentor, kantor-o asist-ar fesion-al-a ; (%.)
precept, precept-o to preserve, prezerv- profesion-an-o ;
precious, prec-oz-a ; ar, konserv-ar (suffix) -kt-
-stone, lapid-o to preside, prezid-ar professor, profesor-o
precipice, precipis-o president, prezid-ant-o, to proflt, profit-ar
precise, preciz-a -er-o profound, profund-a
precocious, prekoc-a to press, pres-ar prognostic, prognoz-o
predecessor, preced- to presume, supoz-ar (med.)
ant-o presomption, prezunt-o programme,program-o
to predict, pre-dic-ar pretence, pretext-o to progress,.progres-ar
to predominate, pre- to prevent, prevent-ar ; to prohibit, interdikt-ar
dominac-ar, pre- impecl-ar project, projet-o
ponder-ar previous, ante-a to project (tr.) projekt-
pvr-~minencc, arki- price, prec-o ar ; (ft:.) projet-ar ;
pre-eminent, super-a, to prick, prikl-ar (intr.), sali-ar
ecel-ant-a, pre- pride, fier-es-o projectile. projekt-il-o
valor-ant-a, pre- priest, sacerdot(-u1)-o prolix, prolix-a
ponder-ant-a primary, primar-a to prolong, prolong-ar
to prefer, prefer-ar primitive, primitiv-a ; promenade, kors-,o
preferential, prefer-al-a (not derived), prim-a to promise, promis-ar
preflx, prefix-o primrose, primroz-o to promote (~levatc,
preynant, gravid-a principal, precipn-a advance), promoc-ar
prejudice, (pre-judg- principle, principo prompt, quik-a, rapid-a
went), pre-judik-o to print, imprim-ar to prompt (thent ), sufl-
preliminary, prelimi- prism, prismat-o ar
nar-a prison, karcer-o to pronounce, pro-
to prelude, pre-lud-ar private, apart-a, nunc-ar
(intr.) privat-a proof, pruv-o
premature, pre-matur- privateer, korsar-nav-o proof against, espruv-a
a privilege, privilej-o to prop up, apog-ar
premise, premis-o prize (vewavd), premi-o to propagate, propag-ar
premium, premi-o to vrize, priz-ar propeller (scfew),
to prepare, prepar-ar probable, probabl-a helic-o
to prepay, afrank-ar to probe, sond-ar (also proper, just-a, korekt-a
pres. particip., active, fig.) dec-ant-a
-ant- problem, problem-o property, propr-aj-o
prophet, profet-o to pull, tir-ar quadrant, quadrant-o
proportion, propor- to pull out, arach-ar quadrature (math.),
clon-o pulley, puli-o quadrat-ig-o ; (astr.),
proposal (act.), pro- pulp (of fruit), pulp-o quadratur-o
poz-0 pulpit, katedr-o quadrille, quadril-o
to propose, propoz-ar to pulsate, puls-ar quadrumane, quadri-
proposition, propoz- to pulverise, pulver-ig- manu-o
a]-o ar quadruped, quadri-
proprietor, propriet- pumice-stone, pumic-o ped-o
er-0 to pump, pump-ar to quadruple (tr.),
to proscribe, proskript- pumpkin, kukurbit-o quar-opl-ig-ar: lintr.)
ar pun, kalembur-o quar-opl-esk-ar
prose, proz-o Punch, pulchinel-o quail, quali-o
to prosecute, per- to punch, punc-ar to quake (shakf with),
sequ-ar punctual, akurat-a trem-ar (pro, de)
prospectus, prospekt-o to punish, punis-ar to qualify (as), qualifik-
to prosper, prosper-at pupU (school), lem-ant- ar (kom).
to prostrate one's self, o ; (eve), pupil-o . qualitative, qual-es-al-a
prostern-ar puppet, pupe-o, mario- quality, qual-es-o ;
prostration (great net-o ( s u f f i x ) , -es-
depression), pros- to purchase, kompr-ar quantitative, quant-
trac-o pure, pur-a (also es-al-a
to protect, protekt-ar nzorally) quantity (couc~cte),
to protest, protest-ar purgatory, purgatori-o quant-o ; (abstract),
protestant, protest- to purge, purg-ar quant-es-o .
ant-0 to purify, pur-ig-ar quantum (appointed,
proud, fier-a purple, purpur-o prescrihpd), quant-o
to prove, pruv-ar purport, skop-o ; quarantine, quaran-
proverb, proverb-o (sense), senc-o ten-o
to provide, proviz-ar purpose, skop-o to quarrel (dispute).
providence, providenc- purse, burs-o inter-dis nut-ar
0 to pursue, persequ-ar quartan, quartan-a
providing that, se nur pus, pus-0 quarte (l~?tci?zg), quart-
province, provinc-o to push, puls-ar, o
provisional, provizor-a shov-ar quarter (year), tri-
to provoke, provok-ar to put, POZ-ar; -off, mestr-o ; (town),
provost, prevost-o ajorn-ar ; -on quarter-o ; (arith.1,
prowess, prod-aj-o (clothes), met-ar ; quar-im-o
proximity, proxim-es-o -out (Eight), exting- quartet, quartet-o
prudent, prudent-a ar ; -in gear, in- quartz, quarc-o
prudish, prud-a gran-ar ; -in order, to quash { l a w ) ,kasac-ar
to prune, emund-ar ordinar quasi (used as an
psalm, psalm-o to putrefy, patr-ar adj.), quaz-a, quaz-e
psychic, psik-ala puzzle, enigmat-o
pubescent, puber-a pyx, cibori-o quaternary, quater-
public, publik-a, -0 nar-a
public-bouse, tavern-o quatrain, quatren-o
to publish, publik-ig- quay, kay-o
ar ; (book, etc.), edit- queen, rej-in-o
ar Q queer, drol-a, barok-a
pudding, puding-o quack, sharlatan-o question, question-o
puff ! plump quadrangle, quadri- questions btgin by kad
puff, puf-0 angul-0 to quibble, shikan-ar
quick, rapid-a ; race (running), kur-o to rasp, rasp-ar
quicksilver, merkuri-o
(at I -ad-o ;
to race, kur-lukt-ar
raspberry, framb-o
rat, rat-o
rate (o/ iutevest, dis-
G O Z ~ procent-o
quicunx, quikunc-o racer, kur-lukt-er-o rather, prefer-e ; ( i n -
quid pro quo, quipro- rack, roto-tornieirt-o terj.), cert-eg-e !
quo tre,t-o ; ra.,telier-o to ratify, ratifik-ar
quiet (not a,%xin*ts), trofe-o ; hurd-o ration, porcion-o
quiet-a ; (?tot ~ L I Y - to rack off, ralr-ar rational, raciou-al-a
bulent), tranquil-a racket, raket-o (also math.), racion-
to quilt (stitch), stch-ar to radiate, 1x5-ar oz-a
quince, quing-o radiograph, radiograf. rattan, rotan-o
quinine, quinin-o ur-o to rattle (to h.ave tlid
quinquagenarian, kin- radiography, ralio. death--). stertor-ar
a-dek-yar-a graf(-a[!)-o to ravage, dtvast-ar
quint ( m z ~ s . ,cards), radish, to rave, delir-ar
quint-o rafi, raft-o raven, li-orv-o
quintal (metric), quin- rzg, I-as-o ravine, raven-o
tal-o rage, furi-o to ravish, ravis-ar
quintessence, quin- to rage (be i7? a v q e ) , raw, krud-a
tesenc-o (lit. and fig.) furi-ar ray ( o f light), radi-o
to quintuple ( t ) ragout, ragut-o razor, raz-il-o
kin-opl-ig-ar ; (z?ztr.), raid, inkurs-o to reach, ating-ar
-esk-ar rail, rel-o to react, I-eali-t-a.r
to quit (ieave), liv-ar, railway, fer-voy-o to read, lekt-ar
for-las-ar railway carriage, readily (willi~~@'~~)
quite, tot-e, plen-e, 1 vagon-o volun t-e
komplet-e to rain, pluv-ar ready, pront-a ;
quittance, quit-ig-o, rainbow, pluv-ark-o ; -money, kontant-o
-1g-ur-o ciel-ark-o real, real-a ; -estate,
to quiver, fremis-ar ; to raise, (lift), lev-ar imobl-o
to quiz (ridicule), rid-
, to rake (collect, gather
up with rake), rast-ar
i to ram (tech.), rekalk-ar
reality (ahst.), real-es-
o; ( C O I I C Y .real-
aj-o ; in-, real-e
quorum, minima nom- to ramble, divag-ar to realize, real-ig-ar ;
bro (11ece;a por va11- rampart, rempar-o (conoevt ,i?zto fact),
deho di voto) rancid, ranc-a uz-ebl-ig-ar ; exeknt-
quota, quot-o rancour, rankor-o ar, fakt-ig-ar ; (con-
quotation (conz.. /in .), rank ( p l a : ~ ) ,rang-o ceive c l ~ a ~ l v )con- ,
kot-iz--o rape, li-olz-o cept-ar, kompren-ar
to quote (corn., fill.), rapid, rapid.a imagin-ar klar-e
kot-iz-ar rare ( ~ z o t frcquelzt. ream (01 ~ ( ~ I I Pl'lsm-0
seldonz jozigzd), rar-a ; to reap, relrolt-ar
I1 (/lot nhulzdnnt), rear, (adj.), dop-a
skars-a ; (?rotdclzse), to rear (horse, etc.),
(lei-dens-a kabr-ar
, to rarefy, des-dens-ig- reason, racion-o ; (for
ar, --esk-ar doing a thing), mo-
rascal, raskal-o tiv-o , to -, rezon-ar
to rase, frol-ar rebate, rahat-o
rabbit, kunikl-o rash (reckless), tern- rebel, rebel-o ; to-,
rabies, rabi-o erar-a revolt-ar
I 66
to rebuke, repdmanrt reef ( o f sail), r e f - o ; to relieve (make light),
ar (vocks, aand), rif-o alej-ax
to recapitulate, re. io refer, refer-ar religion, religi-o
kapitul-ar reference to (in), *pri to relish, savur-ar
receipt, quit-ig-o ; on- to reflne, rafin-ar to rely (on, upon), fid-
of, ye recev-o di to reflect, reflekt-ar ar (ad)
to receive, recev-ar ; to reform, reform-ar to remain, rest-ar
-(nzoney), inkaq-ar ; to refract, refrakt-ar ; to remark (not s+enk),
(person appointea to be refracted, re- remark-ar
to-), recev-irt-n frakt-es-ar to remedy, remedi-ar
receiver, recev-ant-o, to refrain (intr.), reten- to remember, memor-
-int-o ar su, absten-ar ( d e ) ar
recent, recent-a to refresh with meals, to remlnd, (ri-) memor-
vrceptacle for, -uy- restor-ar ~g-ar
recipe, recepk-o refreshment room to remit (sin),remis-ar
reciprocal, reciprok-a bufet-o remonstrance, re-
to reciprocate (mech.), refreshments (to take), monstr-o
altern-ar ; (person,). restor-ar su remorse (to feel), re-
ag-ar reciprok-e (acl) refuge (to tnke), refuj- mors-ar
to recite reprat aloud), ar remote (to be), dist-ar
recit-ar ; (dcclnim), io refuse, refuz-ar (per, d e )
rleklam-ar to refute, relut-ar to remove (tr.), for-ig-
to reckon, kalkul-ar to regale, regal-ar ar, de-pren-ar ;
to reeognise, ri-konoc- regard, egartl-o; to, (push uside), eskart-
ar; (~o'mit),agnosk-ar pay-to, egard-ar ; ar ; (intr.), for-ir-ar,
to recollect, to-, regaru-ar liv-ar ; depart-ar
to recommend, reko- .egarding, *pri We)
mend-ar .egards (hind), salut-i Renaissance,
to recompense, lrom- .egent, regen t-o Renesanc-o
pens-ar : rekom- 'egiment, regiment-o to render, ig-ar; (suffix),
pens-ar or punis-ar ; -egion, region-o -1g-
inclemn-iz-ar 'egister, regis tr-o rendez-vous, rendevu-o
to reconcile (vestore to ,o regret, regret-ar to renounce, renunc-
harn~onv),ri-lroncili- 'egular, regul-oz-a ar
ar ; (harmonize, o regulate, regul-iz-ar ; renown, fam-o
vnake coentible), (tech.), regul-ar rent, lokac-o prec-o ;
koncili-ar o reign, regn-ar (periodical profit),
record ( s p ~ e dc, ~ c . )re-
, o reimburse, rimbori- rent-o ; to-, (tnke
kortl. o ar at a-), lokac-ar ;
recourse (LO haae-), eindeer, rentir-o (grant use lor-), lug-
rek~lrs-dr o reiterate, iter-ar ar
to recover, rekul~eral- o rejoice, joy-ar .o repair, repar-ar
to recruit, rekrut-ar o relapse, recidiv-ar *epast, repast-o
rectangle, rekt-angul-o o relate, rakont-ar ,o repay, rimbors-ar
to rectify, rectifih-ar (tr.); -to, lroncern-ar o repeat, repet-ar
rector, rektor-o elated to (to be), relat- o repent, repent-ar
red, red-a ar .o repercuss, reperkut-
red-haired, r u f - a , -o a l a t l ~ t gto, -al- ar
red tape ( f i g . ) , paper- elative (pcrs.), parent- ;o replace (put back i n
ach-1, burokrat-lsm-o 0 Place), ri-poz-ar, ri-
lo redeem, redempt-ar elaxed (phvsiol.),lax-a lok-iz-ar ; (take the
to reduce, redukt-ar elic (of saints), reliqm- place of, st@@& the
reed, kan-o o ; rest-aj-o want of), remplas-ar
replete, replet-a rest. (vemainrler), rest- revolver, revolver-o
to reply, respond-ar ; &]-o; (the others), to reward, rekompens-
(to a rep!y), replik-ar ceter-i ; to-, repoz- ar
report, raport-o ar rheumatism, reuma-
to report, raport-ar restaurant, restor-eri-o tism-o
to repose, repoz-ar to restore, repar-as. rhyme, rim-o
to represent, repre- restaur-ar rib (a%&.), kost-o
zent-ar to restrict, restrikt-ar ribbon, ruband-o
representative (Person) to result, rezult-ar rice, riz-o
reprezent-ant-o result, reziilt-aj-o, re- rich, rich-a
to repress, repres-ar zult-0 ridge, arist-o (anat,
reprisals (to wmke), resurrection. ri-viv-ig- geom.)
reprezal-ar o ; (one's self-), riddle. kribl-o
to reproach, reproch-ar ri-viv-esk-o ; (fig.), to ricle, kavalk-ar
republic, republik-o ri-nask-o ridiculous, rid-ind-a
to repudiate, repudi-ar retail ( n . ) detal-o ; riding switch, kravach-
repugnant (to 5 e ) , re- (adj.) detal-a ; by- 0
pugn-ar (tr.) iletal-e rigging, rig-o
to repulse, repuls-ar to retain, reten-ar ; (not right (handside),rlextr-
reputation, reput-es-0 fovget) memor-ar a ; (correct),just-a ;
to repute, reput-ar retipence, tac-o, tac- (morally), yu5t-a ;
to request, demand-ar
to require, postul-ar
to retire, retret-ar
-angle, ort-o ; -
side, avsrs-o ;to the-,
to requisition, re- retort (vessel), retort-o ( a d ) dextr-e ; a
quisit-ar to retract, retrakt-ar right, yur-o
rescript, reskript-o to retreat, retret-ar rigid, rigid-a
research, explor-(ad)o to return ( c o w back), rim, felg-o
to resemble, simil-es-ar retro-ven-ar ring, ring-o
(tr.1 reunion, ri-union-o ; to. ring ( a bell), son-
to reaerve, rezerv-ar (state),ri-union-es-o ; ig-ar ; (intr.),son-ar
to reside, rezid-ar (assembling), asem- to rinse, rim-ar
residue, rezidu-o bl-o, -uro riot, sedici-o
to resign ( a post), to reveal, revel-ar ripe, matur-a
demision-ar revenge, revanch-o ; to rise (cet n p ) , lev-ar
resigned (to be), rezign- to take-, revanch- su
ar ar to risk, risk-ar
resin, rezin-o to revenge, venj-ar rite, ritu-o
to resist, rezist-ar (tr.) (tr.) ; to-one's self river, river-o ; (large),
resolution, dis-wlv-o ; on, veuj-ar su (ad, fluvi-o
(sol~~ing of doubt, pro- person ; pri, thing) roach, gardi-o
blem, elc.), ~ o l v - o , revenue, revenu-o road, voy-o
-ur-o ; (resolve), reverse, revers-o roadstead, rad-o
rezolv-o ; (deter- to reverse, invers-ig-ar road-way, chose-o
wtnsd temptr). review (publication), to roar (animals),bram-
rezolv-cm-es-o revu-o ; to-, (book),
to resolve, dis-solv-ar ; recens-ar ; (milit.), ar ; (winds, sea),
(solile), solv-ar ; (de- revu-ar muj-ar ; (thunder,
cide), rezolv-ar to revile, insult-ar cannon), tondr-ar ;
to respect, respekt-ar to revise, reviz-ar (of horse : disease),
to respire, respir-ar to revolt, revolt-ar ror-ar
responsible, respons- revolution, revolu- to roast, rost-ar
anta, -iva ; to be- cion-o robber, rapt-ist-o
respons-ar to revolve, turn-ar robe, rob-o
I 68
rock (solid part of to rule, guvern-ar, salad, salad-o
earth's crust under- direkt-ar salary, salari-o
lying soil), rok-o ; ruler (drawing),lineal-o sale, vend-o
(mass of this project- rum, rum-o saline, salin-o, -a
ing or standing u p ) , to rumble, grond-ar salmon, salmon-o
rok-aj-o to ruminate, rumin-ar saloon, salon-o
to rock, bers-ar rump, rump-o salt, sal-o
rocket, fuze-o rumour, rumor-o salubrious, salubr-a
rod, verg-o to rumple, Brumpl-ar salutary, salutar-a
roebuck, kapreol-o to run, kur-ar ; (of to salute, salut-ar
rogue, fripon-o, ras- water. etc.), flu-ar salvage (act), salv-o ;
kal-o to run aground, (malerial), salv-aj-o
roll, volv-aj-o ; list-o ; strand-ar (intr.) same, sam-a ; the
(bread), pan-et-o to run away, fug-ar same (thing),la sam-
to roll (intr.), rul-ar ruse, ruz-o o ; in the - way,
to roll UD, volv-ar rush ( b ont), junk-o sam-e
roller blind, stor-o to rush, precipit-ar su the same, sam-o
rondeau, rondel-o rusk, biskot-o to sanction, sancion-ar
roof, tekt-o Russia leather, yuft-o sanctuary (the most
rook, frugileg-o rust, rust-0.; to-, rust sacred part of any
room (extent of space), -mar, -1g-ar ; (tr.), religious building),
lok-o ; (clear space --esk-ar. -iz-es-ar santuari-o
for person), plag-o ; rye, sekal-o sand, sabl-o
(part of house), sandal, sandal-o
chambr-o sandstone, gres-o
root, radik-o sap, sapt-o
rose, roz-0 to sap, sap-ar
rosemary, rosmarin-o sarcophagus, sarko-
to rot (intv.), putr-ar; fag-o
(tv.), pub-ig-ar sardine, sardin-o
rough, rud-a sardonic, sardonik-a
to rough-cast, esbos-ar sarsaparila, sarsa-
rough cony, klad-o parel-o
round (adj.), rond-a ; Sabbath, sabat-o sash (silk, etc.), zon-o ;
(prep. around), sable, zibehn-o (window), fram-o
*cirkum sabre, sabr-o satan, satan-o
roundelay, rondel-o sack, sak-o satchel, skol-sak-o
routine, rutin-o sacrament, sakrament- satellite, satelit-o
row (line), rang-o ; 0 to satiate, satur-ar
(tumult), tumult-o sacred, sakr-a satin, satin-o
to row (intr., use oars to sacrifice, sakrifik-ar satire, satir-o
i n rowing a boat), sacrilege (to commit satisfied, kontent-a (de)
rem-ar a), sakrilej-ar to satisfy (fulfil desire,
sacristy, sakrist-i-o request, obligation,
royal, rej-al-a sad, trist-a etc., make atonement
to rub, fricion-ar saddle, sel-o for sins), satisfac-ar
rubbish, eskombr-o safe ( a i l . ) , sekur-a to saturate, satur-ar
ruby, rubin-o sage (plant), salvi-o Saturday, Saturdi-o
rude, grosier-a sail (01 a shifi), segl-o satyr, satirus-o
to rufae (turn u p ) , to sail, navig-ar sauce, sauc-o
aruf-ar sailor, navist-o sauce-boat, sauc-uy-o
to ruin, ruin-ar sainfoin, esparset-o saucepan, kasrol-o
rule, regul-o saint, sant-o. -1110, -in0 sausage, socis-o
savage, qovaj-a, -0 scissors, CIZ-o 1 sea-weed, f u k - u
to save ( f o r future use) to scold, reprimailil at second (of tz111eov w c ) ,
spar-ar; (from de scope (end a i m d at), sekund-o ; (adj.),
structzon), salv-ar skop-o ; vid-o-felcl-o tlu-esm-a
saviour, calv-ant(u1)c ag-o-feltl-o, ag-o- to second (irz a duel or a
-into, ---onto, --ere sfer-o ; atiilg-o, - marvinge), sekoucl-ar
to savour. 5avur-a] aj-o, -+list-o ; liber- secondary, sekuntlar-
Savoy cabbage, sabc a spac-o, feld-o ; a
lik-o oportun-a okaziou-o secondary school, gin!-
to saw, seg-as scoundrel, kanali-o naz1-o
to say, die-ar to scour, skur-ar secretary, seliretari-o
scab, skabi-o scourge (fig.), plag-o secret (adj.), sekret-a ;
scaffold, eshafod-o to scourge, flog-ar ( i t . ~ e k r e t - a j - o;
to saald, eskald-ar to scout (milit.), e x - (mystery), mi:-teri-o;
scale (measure, prices), plor-ar moyen-o
skal-o ; (music, to scowl, regard-ar secret writing, chifr-o
clzromatic), garn-o ; tlesafabl-e, sever-e, sect, sekt-o
(tartar), tartar-o ; irac-oz-e, mal- section, secion-o
(fish,shiia), squam-o; humor-e ; lrontrakt- secular (not S ~ L L I , C I / ) .
scales, Irralanc-o ; on ar la brov-i seklllar-a
a large-, grantia- scrap, pee-o, rezi(1u-o, t o secrete, selirec-at
skal-e ; on a small- fragment-o, rest-aj-o secure, sekur-a
mikra-skal-e to scrape, skrap-ar sedentary, setiei~tar-a
scapula, skapul-o to scratch, sltrac11-ar sedition, setlici-o
mar, cikatr-(I screech-owl, noktu-o to seduce, >edukt-ar
scarce (not abundauzt), screen, skrcn-o to see, vid-ar
hkars-a ; (?lot fre- to screen (shelter), seed, scmin-o
quent), rar-a shirm-ar to seem, sembl-ar
scarcely, *apene screw, skrub-o to seesaw, baskul-ar
scarf, sharp-o to screw (fastell, to seize (to lay I~old ot
to scarify, skarifik-ar tighter1 by meavls of folflciblj! or si~ddcirly),
scarlet, skarl:tt-a s ) skrub-ag-ar, hiz-ar ; (luzw), e m -
to scatter, tlis-sem-ar, skrub-lig-ar ; ( t i r ~ , ~ ~ barg-ar
dispens-ar -), vis-ar to select, selekt-ar
scene, cen-o scrupulous, .\ksupul- self, ipsa ; the-, ego ;
scenery, (b%xdsmafi~), oz-a oneself, himself, her-
peizal-o ;O sculpture, skult-ar self, itself, them-
sceptic, skeptik-a, -o scum, spum-o ; to-, selves, su
sceptre, ceptr-o (ti,.),.en-spurn-ig-rtr ; ;elfish, egot-ist-s
scheme (pla~a), projet-o (intr.), spum-if-ar to sell, vend-ar
scheme, skem-o scurf, tini-o to sell by auction,
schism, skism-o scurvy, skorbut-o nuciori-ar
schist, skist-o sea, mar-o semestrer, ~ e n l c s t r - o
scholar, cieiic-ist-o, iea-gull, muev-o Semite, Semid-o
erud-it-o leal, mar-hunti-o semolina, scmol-o
scholarship, stipendi-o o seal, sigl-ar senate, sellat-o
school, skol-o ,earn, sut-ur-o ,o send, sellcl-ar ; -
sciatic (adj.), ciatik-a #earnan, mar-ist-o for, quer-ig-ar ; -off,
sciatica, ciatik- o search (for), serch-as expedi-ar
nevralgi-o ~eason, sezon-o senile, (wed.), senil-a
science, cienc-o ,eat (to sit o n ) , sid-il-o ; sensation (feelk~zg), sen-
scientific, cienc-al-a to -, sid-ig-ar t o ; (eager ilztcrest),
rdentist, cienc-ist-o ea-urchin, cliiri-u seasacion-o
sense (the five-s),sens severe, sever-a to shear, tond-ar
o ; (sense, percep to sew, sut-ar sheath, galn-o
tion, fetling), senc-o sewer, liloalr-o shed, hangar-o
(judgment), saj-a sex, sexu-o sheep, muton-o
rekt-a, bon-a judik-c sextet, sestet-o sheer, pur-a
sensible (reasonable) shabby, meskin-a sheet, foli-o
sal-a to shackle, cntrav-ar shelf, tabul-o
sensual, sensual-a shade, ombr-o ; (dark- shell, shel-o ; (of
ness), obskur-es-o, oystev, tortozse),
sentence (wise saying) 5kall-o ; ( o f cannon),
5enteac-o ; to - tenebr-o ; (of colour)
nuanc-o obus-o
kondamn-ar to shelter, s111in1a1
to shade off, nuanc-iz-
sentiment, sentiment-c ar, grad-iz-ar shelves (set o'), et'ljcr-o
sentry, sentinel-o shadow, ombr-o shepherd, pastor-o
sentry-box, garit-o shield, shild-o
to be 021 sentry duty: shaft (of a carriage), to shine, bril-ar
lacion-ar brankartl-o ; (of a shingle, sh~ndolcr
to separate, scp;~r-ar lance), shaft-o ; (of a shio, nav-o
September, >eptembr-L mirze), shakt-o ; (of ship-boy, mo5-o
septet, septet-i) a colt~mlz),fu3t-o shio-owner, iim,rtr~c
septic, s(*pt-:t to shake, agit-ar, shipwreck, 11aufraj-o;
sepulchre, tomb-o sulius-ar to be -d, naufraj-ar
sepulture, sepult-o to shake ( t v e ~ l ~ b l e ) , shirt, kamlz-o ; -front,
seraph, seraf-o t ~ ~ l l lL.- R plastron-o
serene, seren-a shall (ftrttrre in-as) ; to shock, shok-ar
serf, serf-o shall be, es-os shoe, shu-o
serial story, folieton-o shallot, shalot-o shoot ( o f a ' h u t ) .
series, seri-o to sham, tromp-ar, spros-o
serious, scrior-a simul-ar to shoot, paf-ar
sermon, predik-o to shame, sham-ar (pri) shoo, butik-o
serpent, serpent-o shampooing, s11ar11- shore, riv-o ; (spec
serum (7iattcral),ser-o ; pun-o land skzrtzng sea),
(med.), serum-o shanty, kaban-o litor-o
servant, serv-ist-ul-o ; to shape, fason-ar short, kurt-a
maid-, serv-ist-in-o to shape (tr.), kre-ar, shorthand, ytenograf-
to serve, serv-ar form-ig-ar ; (corr- art-o, -ad-o
serviette, bok-tuk-o ceive), imagin-ar ; short-siqhted, miop-a
session, se,ion-o (adapt), adapt-ar
to set, pox-ar 1 h 0 ~ 1 (ought),
d dev-uz ;
to set alight, ;t(:cncl-al- ihare, part-o, porcion- (condzt~onal mood),
to set fire to,incrndi-ar o ; (finance), acion- -us
o ; (of n. pZozigA), ihoulder, shultr-o ;
to set up (,ti8pi>),liom- sok-o ; (iprota),ri uoi -
post-ar -belt, baildolier-o
to settle (tr., esticblisic). ihark, zl~;l~.h-o skapul-o
ehtablis-ar ; (quiet), ;harp, aku t-a ;o shout, klam-ar
kalm-ig-ar, cert-ig- ,o shatter (tr.), frakas- ;o shove, shov-ar
ar ; (pacify), pac- itr ;hovel, shovel-o
ig-ar ; (arvalzge), .O shave, raz-ar .o show, nlontr-ar,
ara~ij-ar; (-an ac- ;having (I k i p ) , span-o pru~,-ar
count), sald-ar ihawl, shai-o 1.o show off, ostent-ar
seven, *sep ;he *el(u) shrew, meger-o
several, plur-a ,heaf, garb-o shrimp, krevet-o
to shrink (tr.), stret-ig- to simulate, simul-ar ; sleepy (to be), somnol-ar
ar ; (intr.), kontrakt- (imitate),. fing-ar . sleeve, manik-o
es-ar to sin, psk-ar slender (thing),tenu-a ;
shroud (supporting since (prep.) de-pos ; (pers.), gracil-a
nzast), vant-o -(co~zj.), de-pos ke ; slice, lonch-o
(because), pro ke to slide (intr.), glit-ar
shrub, arbust-o sincere, sincer-a slide valve, shibr-o
to shudder, fremis-ar sinciput, vertic-o slime, slam-o
to shut, kloz-ar to sing, kant-ar sling ( f o r thvowing
shutter, shutr-o single (not double ov stoner), frond-o ; (to
sick (ill), malad-a ; to multiple), un-opl-a ; support the a r m or
feel-, nauze-ar simpl-a ; unik-a ; hand), sharp-o
sickle, s~kl-o apart-a ; privat-a ; slip (of a screw), slip-o
side, later-o ; ( f l a n k ) , (unmarried), celib-a to slip (intr. slide),
flank-o ( m i l . and singular, singular-a glit-ar ; in a furtive
nav.) ; (geom.), edr- to sink, sink-ar manner), insinu-ar
o ; (of coin, etc.), sink (kitchen), evier-o su ; (tr.), glit-ig-ar
avers-o, revers-o ; sinuous, sinu-oz-a siipper, pantofl-o
(face, back) ; -scenes, sir, sior-fu1)o to slobber, bav-ar
kulis-o ; -walk, siren, (math. instr.), slope, pent-o
trotuar-o siren-o slow, lent-a
siege (to lay-to), siej- sister, frat-in-o slug, limak-o
ar to sit, sid-ar sliiice, sluz-o
sieve, siv-o ; (riddle), site, situ-o, --so sly, ruz-oz-a
kribl-o situation, situ-o, -es-o ; to smack (intr., of
to sift, siv-ag-ar, kribl- (employee's office), whip or lips), klak-
ag-ar employ-es-o ar ; (tr.), klak-ig-ar
t3 sigh, sospir-ar six, %is small, mikr-a, tenu-a
sign, sign-o sixth (n ), sexto; (ov- small bell, sonali-o
to sign (tr., a f f i x one's dzna ) , sis-esm-a smart (chic), chik-a
signature to), signat- size, dimension-o smell, odor-o ; (sense
ar ; (make a-), to skate, sket-ar of-), flar-ad-o ; to
sign-if-ar ; (mark skate (,fish), rap-o -(tr.), flar-ar ; (intr.),
with a sign), sign-iz- to sketch, slris-ar odor-ar
ar skilful, habil-a smith, forj-ist-o
signal, signal-o skin, pel-o smoke, fum-ur-o ; to
signature, signat-ur-o -, (emit s.), fum-ar ;
to signify, 5ignifik-ar to skin (tr.), sen-pel- (smoke a pipe, etc.),
silence, silenc-o ; (ab- ig-ar ; cover as with. fum-ar pip-o, etc. ;
sence of mention), skin), pel-iz-ar ; (apply s. to), fum-
tac-o (intr.), pel-iz-es-ar ag-ar
to silence, silenc-ig-ar skirt, jup-o smooth, glat-a
silent, silenc-oz-a ; ( u n - skittle, kegl-o to smuggle, kontra-
uttered), tac-it-a ; to skull, krani-o band-ar
be-, silenc-ar ; to skull cap, kalot-o snail, helik-o
be-about, tac-ar (tr.) sky, ciel-o snake, serpent-o
silk, s~lk-o slang, slang-o to snap up, snap-ar
silly, spirit-febl-a, slate, ardez-o to snare, insidi-ar
stult-et-a, stult-a to slaughter, masakr- to snatch, siz-ar
silver, arjent-o ar ; (butcher), buch- to sneeze, sternut-ar
silvered pine, pini-o ar to sniff, snifl-ar
similar, simil-a (ad) slave, sklav-o snob, fatu-o
simple, simpl-a to sleep, dorm-ar to snore, ronk-ar
to snort, snort-ar (only son. fili-ul-o to spend, spens-ar
of a horse) song, kanson-o 8pherq sfer-o
snow, niv-o, -ad-o ; sonorou6, sonor-a spice. spic-o
(spec. the thing), niv- soon, bald-e to spice, spic-iz-ar
ur-o ; to -, niv-ar soot, fuligin-o spider, arane-o
so (in such a way), sorb-apple, sorb-o spigot, stopil-et-o
tal-e ; (in compari- sorcery, sorc-o. - a d - o spike, spik-o
son), tam ; -as to, sore (to be), dolor-ar to spin, iil-ig:ar, -if-ar
Par sorrel, oxal-o spinach, sp~nat-o
to soak (saturate, and sort (kind), sort-o spinal marrow, myel-o
be saturated in a soul, anm-o spindle, sp~ndel-o
fluid), tremp-ar sound (n.) son-o ; (adj.) spine, spin-o
soap, sap011-0 san-a spiny lobster, langust-o
to sob, singlut-ar to sound (intr.), son-ar ; spiral (adj.), spiral-a ;
sober, sobr-a (tr.), son-ig-ar (n.), spiral-o
social, soci-al-a soup, sup-0 spirit, spirit-o
society (natural), soci- sour-krout, surkrut-o spirits, alkohol-aj-o
o ; (special group), south, sud-o spiritual (of spirit as
soci-et-o sovereign, suveren-a ; opposed to matter),
sock (garment), kalz- (fzg.),supr-a,-eg-a ; ment-al-a
et-0 (person). suveren-o to spit, spnt-ar
soda, sod-o space, spac-o spit (fop cooking).spis-o
sofa, sofa-o
soft, mol-a ; (gentle,
spade, spad-o
spangle, flitr-o
spite, despit-o ; in
of, malgre
sweet, not harsh), je~i- spaniel, spaniel-o spittle, saliv-o
til-a, dolc-a to spare, spar-ar ; (per- to splash, (of water),
soil (suvfacc), sul-0 ; sons), indulg-ar plaud-ar
(earth), teren-o spark, cintil-o spleen, splcn-o
to solder, sold-ar sparrow, paser-o splendid, splendid-a
soldier, soldat-o ; milit- ~parrow~hawk, to splice (two ropes or
ist-o sparvier-o parts of a rope),
sole (adj.), sol-a ; (a., to spawn (of fish, frog, splis-ar
fish), sole-o ; (of mollusc, crustacean). splinter, split-o ; (surg.),
shoe), suol-o fray-if-ar lash-o
solemn, solen-a to split, fend-ar
to solicit, solicit-ar to speak, parol-ar to splutter, barbuli-ar
solid, solid-a special, specal-a to spoil, spoli,-ar
solidary, solid-ar-a species, spec-o sponge, sponj-o
solitary, solitar-a (loko) specimen, specimen-o spontaneous, spontan-
solution (nct.), solv-o ; specious, bon-, ver- a
(result), solvnr-o sembl-ant-a spool, bobin-o ; to -,
to solve, solv-ar speckled, makul-(et)- spul-ar
solvent (finan.), sol- oz-a
spectacles, binokl-o spoon, kulier-o
some (quantity), kelk- to speculate, spekul-ar sport, sport-o ; sports-
a ; (indeterminate), to make a speech, man, sport-ist-o
ul-a ; (a little), kelk diskurs-ar spot, lok-o ; (stain).
-e speech (to make a-), makul-o
somebody, someone, diskurs-ar
ul-u speed, rapid-es-o ; hast- spouse, spoz-o
somersault, kulbut-o 0 to spout (intr., gush
something, ul-o to spell, espel-ar out), spric-ar ; (tr.),
sometimes, kelkafoy-e spelling, ortografi-o spric-ig-ar
to spread (tr.), extens. stall (stabk), fak-o ; steamer, paketbot-o
a r ; (p1u)vast-ig-ar (seat), klap-sid-il-o steamship, vapor-nav-
difuz-ar ; (intr.), to stammer, balbut-ar 0
extens-es-ar, extens. stamp, stamp-il-o, steel, stal-o
ar- su, difuz-es-ar -uro ; (postage), steep, abrupt-a,
spring (leap, bound), posto-mark-o, mark eskarp-a
spring-o ; (season), -0 post-al-a steeple, klosh-turm-o
printemp-o ; (metal), to stamp (with i n k stem, stip-o
risort-o ; (of match), stamp), stamp-ar ; step (walking), paz-o ;
font-o ; -blind, stor-o ped-o-frap-ar ; (staircase), grad-o ;
trampl-ar -(brother), stif-a
to spring (leap, bound), to stanch (tr., blood,
spring-ar ; ( a stream (frat-ul-o)
etc.), estanch-ar
from its source), to stand (be set u p - steppe, step-o
spric-ar ; (grow), right), stac-ar sterile, steril-a
nask-ar, ven-ar (de) standard (distinctive stern (poop), pup-o
to sprinkle, aspers-ar flag), standard-o ; sternum, sternum-o
sprite, kobold-o (rule, model), norm-o stew, ragut-o
spruce-fir, pice.-o standpoint, vid-punt-o; to stew, stuf-ar
spur, sporn-o !fig:), opinion-o, stewed fruit, kompot-o
to sputter, barbuli-ar lu~llk-o stick, haston-o
to spy, spion-ar standstill (to be at a-), to stick (tr.), pik-ar,
squadron (milit.), es- atagii-ar (politics, stek-ar ; (with a n ad-
kadron-o ; (naval), trade) hesive), glutin-ar
eskadr-o star, stel-o ; astr-o sticky, glutin-em-a,
squall, I-lurask-o starch, amil-o visk-oz-a
square, quadrat-a, -0 ; to starch, starch-ar stiff, rigid-a
(instr)., squadr-o starling, sturn-o to stifle, sufok-ar (tr.,
to squash, aplast-ar ;o start (surprise, sud- intr.)
to squat down, squat-ar den fear), tresay-ar ; still (adv.), ankor-e;
to squeeze, klem-ar (go o f f ) , depart-ar ; (quiet), kalm-a
squint-eyed, strab-a start-ar (tech.) stilt, stelt-o
squirrel, skurel-o to stimulate, stimul-ar
stable ( f o r lodging itate (condition of beiuzg) to stink, mal-odor-ar
cattle), stabl-o stand-o ; (nation, to stipulate, stlpul-ar
stack of wood, lign- part of feder : resp :), stirrup, estrib-o
amas-o ; (stake), rog- ehtat-o ; (suffix), to stitch, steb-ar;
-es-o (hooks), brosh-ar
stadium, stadi-o ; ( o f o state, asert-ar, stock (corn.), stok-o
disease), periotl-o ; afirrn-ar stockade, estakatl-o
etap-o, grad-o ,tatement (of accottlzt, stocking, kalz-o
staff (milit.), stab-o etc.) , etat-o Stock Exchange, Bors-
stag, cerv-(u1)o (genus tation, stacion-o, 0
ceruus) posten-o stock-jobbing, ajiot-o,
to stagnate, stagn-ar tationer, paper-ist-o -ad-o
(not of persons) tatue, statu-o stole, stol-o
stain, makul-o tature, statur-o stomach, stomak-o
stained-glass window, tatute, statut-o
vitrali-o D stay, rest-ar stone, petr-o ; (ronnd
staircase, cskaler-o teady, ferm-a pebble), ston-o ; pre-
stake, palis-o ; !fig., teak, lonch-o cious-, lapicl-o
death by burnzng), o steal, furt-ar stool, skabel-o ; (sflec.
rog-o team, vapor-o for feet), taburet-o
to stop (intr.), halt-ar strike (to obtain morc to submerge, submers-
(a hole, etc.), stop pay, etc.), strik-o ar
a ; ( r ) halt-ig to strike, frap-ar- (lit to submit (tv.), sub-
ar ; (tech.), arest-a and fig.) ; strik-ar mis-ar
stopper, tampon-o string, kord-et-o to subordinate, sub-
storey (floor), etaj-o string-board, trampo. ordin-ar
stork, cikoni-o lin-o to subscribe, suskript-
storm, tempest-o stripe, stri-o ; bend-c ar ; (-to a paper),
thunder-, sturm-o to strive (make efforts), abon-ar (journal)
to storm (tr. milit.) esforc-ar ; (con. to subsidize, subsidi-ar
adt-ar ; (intr.) tend), lukt-ar ( k o n - to subsist, exist-ar, dur-
furi-ar tre) ar ; nutr-es-ar
story, rakont-o ; (0, stroke, bat-o, frap-o ; substance, substanc-o
past events), histori-c (single effort put substitute (to serve as
stout (corpulent), kor fovth ; feat), strok-a -for), remplas-ar
pulent-a, obez-a strong, fort-a to substitute, substi-
stove (for heating an6 strophe, strof-o tuc-ar
cooking), furnel-o to struggle, lulit-ar subterfuge, subterfuj-o
(tech.), stuv-o stud (shirt),buton-o subtle, subtil-a
to stow, stiv-ar student, student-o to subtract (arith.).
straight, rekt-a studious, sbudi-em-a sustracion-ar
to strain (tr.), tens-ar ; ;o study, studi-ar suburb, suburb-o
(constrain), koakt- $tuff, materi-o ; stof-o to subvention, subven-
ar ; (intr. strive), to stuff, polster-iz-as cion-ar
es forc-ar io stumble, mis-paz-ar, succedaneous, suro-
straits, stret-aj-o fal-et-ar gat-a
to strand (rutz aground) ~tump, stump-o succedaneum, suro-
strand-ar ,o stun, aturd-ar gat-o
strange, stranj-a ,o stunt, stunt-ar to succeed (be success-
stranger, straujer-o itupid, stupid-a ful), suces-ar ; (fol-
to strangle, strangul-ar ~tupor, stupor-o low), suced-ar
strap, rimen-o iturgeon, stusg-o
stratagem, milit-ruzo- o stutter, stoter-ar success, suces-o
stratum, strata, strat-o, ityle, stil-o ; tO-, to succumb, sukomb-ar
-1 qualifik-ar ( k o m ) such, tal-a
straw, pali-o o subdue, submis-ar ; to suck, sug-as
strawberry, frag-o vink-ar to suckle, alakt-ar
streak, stri-o sudden, subit-a
stream, flu-o, aqu-o ubject (gram., log.), to suffer, sufr-ar
flu-o ; fluvi-o, river- subject-o ; matter to suffice, sufic-ar
treated of), tem-o ; sumx, sufix-0
street, strad-o (of study, love, etc.), to suffocate, sufok-ar ;
to strengthen, plu- objekt-o ; (member asfixi-ar
fort-ig-ar ; (milit.), of a State), regn-at-o,
submis-it-o ; (ndj.), suffrage, v o t - o ; (right
rinforc-ar submis-it-a, expoz- of voting), vot-yur-o
to stretch, tens-ar it-a ; to-, submis- iugar, sukr-o
stretcher (for carrying ar, expoz-ar iugar-candy, kandi-o
disabled person ow), iugar-plum, draje-o
kamil-o ubjective, subjelc-
tal-a ;o suggest, sugest-ar
to strew, dis-sem-ar, ubjunctive, subjunk- luicide, su-ocid-o
tra-sem-ar (sur) tiv-o suit (at law), proces-o ;
strict, strikt-a ;exakt-a ublime, sublim-a (of clothes), vest-ar-o
to suit (be suitable), to survey, konsider-ar, syndicate, sindikat-o
konven-ar ; (be pro- examin-ar ; inspekt- synod, sinod-o
per), dec-ar ar, survey-ar synonymy, sinonim-es-
sulphur, s ~ ~ l f - o susceptible, kapabl-a 0
sum (amount), sum-o ( d e ); sent-iv-a,- synoptic, sinoptik-a
to sum up, rezum-ar em-a (pri) (also gospels)
summer, somer-o to suspect, suspekt-ar syntactic, sintax-al-a
summersault (to throw to suspend (hang u p ) , synthesis, sintez-o
a-), kulbut-ar suspend-ar ; (defer), syringe, sering-o
summit, somit-o; kolm- ajorn-ar ; (debar), system, sistem-o ; (suf-
o (lit. and fig.) suspens-ar fix),-ism-o
to summon, sunin-ar suspici~us, suspekt-
sun, sun-o ind-a, suspekt-em-a
Sunday, snndi-o to sustain, susten-ar
sunflower, tornasol-o suzerain, suzeren-o
to sup, supe-ar swaddling clothes,
superficial, surfac-al-a; lanj-o
ne-profund-a, ne- to swagger (intv.),
serioz-a fanfaron-ar
superfluous, superflu-a swallow, gutur-o ;glut-
superior, super-a (ad) ; ed-o ; (bird),hirund- tabernacle, tabernakl-o
(pew.), superior-o o ; to-, glut-ar table (furnilure), tabl-
superstition, super- swan, cign-o o ; (on which an in-
stic-o swart ( ~ i land dirt), scviptiolz, drawinf,
supper, supe-o : to unt-o etc., may be produced;
take , supe-ar
to supplant, suplant-ar
swarm (hem), esam-o
to swarm, pulul-ar
list, table of con-
tents), tabel-o
supplement, suplement to swear, jur-ar to tack (sewing), im-
-0 sweat, sudor-o bast-ar ; to-about,
to supplicate, suplik-ar to sweep, balay-ar borde-ar
to supply, furnis-ar to swell (tr.), infl-ar tact, takt-o (lit. and
to support, suport-ar sweet, dolc-a fig.)
(lit. and fig.) to swim, nat-ar taffeta, taft-o
to suppose, supoz-ar t!, swindle, eskrok-ar tag (of a lnce), tag-o
to suppress, suprm-ar to swing (intr.), ocil-ar tail, kaud-o
sure, cert-a sword, glav-o tailor, talior-o
surety (thing), kau- syllable, silab-o to take (lay hold of),
cion-o ; (person), syllogism, silogism-o pren-ar ; (cavry),
garanti-ant-o symbol, simbol-o port-ar ; -care of,
surface, surfac-o to symbolize (tr.), sim- sorg-ar (tr;); -one's
surge, ond-o, ond-eg-o bol-iz-ar ; (intr.), revenge, revanch-ar ;
ond-agit-es-o simbol-es-ar (da) -steps, demarch-ar ;
surgery, kirurgi-o symmetry, simetri-o -down in short-
to surmise, konjekt-ar sympathetic, simpati- hand, stenograf-ar
al-a ; simpati-oz-a ; tale, rakont-o
to surmount (fig., harmoni-ant-a, kon- talent, talent-o
crown), kron-iz-ar ; kord-ant-a ( k u n ) ; to talk, parol-ar
(conquer), vink-ar -nerve, simpabk-a tall, grand-a
surname, sur-nom-o, (nerv-o) -0 tallow, seb-o
to-, sur-nom-iz-ar symphony, sinfoni-o to tame, domt-ar ; (do-
to surprise, surpriz-ar symptom, simptom-o mesticate), amans-ar
to surrender, renunc-ar syncope, sinkop-o tamtam, tamtam-o
to surround, cirkum-ar (gvam., mus.) tan, tan-0
tandem, tandem-vetur- temerarious (rash), term, termin-o (boun-
o ; tandem-bicikl-o temerar-a dary, gram., log.) ;
tangent (adj.), tangent- temper, humor-o terms (conditions),
a ; (n.), tangent-o to temper, temper-ar kondicion-i
tangible, tush-ebl-a, temperament, tem- termite, termit-o
palp-ebl-a perament-~; (mus.) terrace, teras-o
to tangle, intrik-ar temper-o terra-cotta, terakot-o
tank, tank-o ( a large temperance, temper- terrible, teror-ig-ant-a,
closed, artificial re- em-es-o, moder-em- -1v-a
ceptacle for Izqzdids) es-o ; (zn eatzng and to be terrified, teror-ar
tap, robinet-o drinking), sobr-es-o territory, teritori-o
to tap (screzer), tap-ar temperate, moder-at- to test, prob-ar
tape, lin-ruband-o, a ; (abstemious i n testament, testament-o
hoton-ruband-o food and drink), testimony, atest-o,
tapestry, tapet-o sobr-a -ur-0
tapioca, tapioka-o temperature (of the tetanus, tetan-o
tar, gudr-o atmosphere), tem- text, text-o
tardy, tard-a ; (slow), peratur-o texture, tex-ur-o ; (fig.)
lent-a tempest, tempest-o lig-es-o, junt-es-o
tariff, t a r ~ f - o temple (building), -th (orri?nal ?:ulnber),
tarot (cards), tarok-o templ-o ; (anat.), -esm-
tart (fruit pie), tort-o tempor-o than, *kam
tartar, tartar-o temporal, temp-al-a, to thank, dank-ar
task, task-o pens-iv-a, --em-a thankful (to be), grati-
taste (flavour), sapor-o (opp. to eternal) tud-ar
to taste, gust-ar temporary, kelk-a- thankfulness, grati-
tavern, tavern-o temp-a, provizor-a, tud-o
tax, tax-o ; (zmpost), ne-kons tant-a that (copzj.), ke ; (212
impost-o to temporize, temporis- order that), por ke ;
tea, te-o; -pot, te- ar (adj.), ita, ta ;
kruch-o to tempt, tent-ar (thing),ito, to ; (who,
to teach, instrukt-ar ten, *dek which), qua ; (sing.),
(person) ; doc-ar tenacious, tenac-a qui (plur.) ; (thing
( a subject) tenant, 1okac-ant-0,- which), quo.
teal, sarcel-o er-o that can . . . -1r-
tear, lakrim-o tench ( f z s h ) ,tench-o that must be . . d,
to tear, lacer-ar ; to tend to, tendenc-ar -end-
-away, arach-ar tendency, tendenc-o to thaw, des-frost-ar
to tease ( f i g . ) ,vex-et-ar tender (of locomotive), (tv.), des-frost-ig-ar
technique ( n . ) ,teknik-o tenclr-o ; (adj.), mol- the, la ; (le, plural,
tedious, ted-ant-a a ; (sensitive), sent- only to be used when
telegram, telegraf-ur- iv-a, -em-a ; (affec- there zs no other sign
o, telegram-o tionate, lovzng), ten- of the plural, e.g.,
to telegraph, telegraf-ar er-a the ayes and the
telepathy, telepati-o tendon, tendin-o nays, le yes e le n o )
to telephone, telefon-ar tennis (lawn), tenis-o theatre, teatr-o
telescope, lorn-o ; (as- tenor, tenor-o (voice thelr, lia
tron .), teles kop-o and person) theme (mzts. and grnm )
to tell (a story), rakont- tense (n.), temp-o temat-o; (treated o f ) ,
ar ; -me, dicez a tent, tend-o tem-o
me ; -a lie, menti- tentacle, palp-il-o themselves, *su
ar ; -a secret, kon- tenuous, tenu-a then (at that time), lore ;
fidenc-ar tepid, tepid-a (therefore), do
theocracy, teokrati-0 three, *tri to tinkle, tinkl-ar
theology, teologi-o threshold, soli-o tip,. pint-o ; extrem-
theorem, teorem-o thrifty, spar-em-a a]-0
theory, teori-o throat, gutur-o tippet, pelerin-o
therapeutics, terapi-r to throb, puls-ar tired, fatig-it-a
there, *ibe ; -is (point- throne, tron-o ; to en-, tithe, dism-o
ing), *yen en-troll-ig-ar title, titul-o ; to-,
thermal, term-al-a through (prep.), *tra ; titul-ie-ar ; qualifik-
these, ci, ici ; (followeii ( b y means of), * p e r ; ar ( k o m )
by noun), ca, lca (adw.),tra-e to, *aid)
they, li, ili (masc.), eli to throw, jet-ar ; to- toad, rosp-o
(fern.),oli (neuter) down (overthrow), toast, rostita pan-o
thick, dik-a ; (big), renvers-ar toast (to give a), tost-ar
gros-a thrush, turd-o tobacco, tabak-o
t o , thicken (plu-)dik- thumb, polex-o to-day, (i)ca-di-e
~g-ar; (plu-)dens- to thunder, tondr-ctr together, kun-e
ig-ar ; (intr.), (plu-) Thursday, joi~di-(1 toilet, tualet-o ; (al-
dik-eik-ar, tiens- thus, tal-e tire), vest-ar-o
esk-ar thyme, timinart-o to tolerate, toler-ar
thicket, dens-a kop5-o; tibia, tibi-n tomb, tomb-o
bush-ar-o tic, tik-o to-morro w, morg-e
thief, furt-ist-o tick (insect), zek-o ; tomtit, parn-o
thigh, krur-o (mite), akar-o ton ( m n ~ . )tun-o
thimble, (sewing), to tie, lig-ar tongs, tonali-o
fingr-o chap-o ticket, biiiet-o to-night, (i)ca-nokt-e
thin, din-a (not thick) ; to tickle (I?.), iitil-nr tone, ton-o, son-o
tenu-a, (of small tide, mare-o tongue (anat.), lang-o
diameter) ;iger, tigr-o tonic ton-ala ; tonic
thing, koz-o :o tighten, klem-ar accent, acent-o to-
to think, pens-ar ile, karel-o ; (roof), nik-a
third, tri-esm-a ; (n.) tegul-o tonnage, tun-ar-o, tun-
terc-o (of time or ,ill ( n.), kas-(tir-keit) konten-o
angular mensure- -0 ; (prep.), *ti1 ; tonsil, tonsil-o
melzt ; mus.) : tri- (conj.),t i 1 ke too (also), *anke ; (too
im-o ;o till, plug-ar mztch), *tro
thirst, durst-o ; to be lit, vetur-teg-il-o, tego- tool, utensil-o
thirsty, durst-ar tel-o, gudr-o-tel-o tooth, dent-o ; -pick,
this, *ca, *ica imber, lign-o dento-pik-il-o
this ( t h i ~ g )*CO,
, *icn ime, temp-o ; (repeti- top (summit),somit-o ;
thistle, kardon-o tiotz of act . . . . . (naut.), top-o ; -of
thorax, torak-o times),fay-o ; (Izour), a carriage, em-
thorn, dorn-o klok-0 perial-o ; top-knot,
thoroughly, komplet- imely, oportun-a, -e pompon-o
e ; (prefix),par- imid, timid-a topic, tem-o
those, *ti, *iti ;(followed in (metal), stan-o ; toque, tok-o
by noun), *ta. *ita (tin-plate), lad-o torch, torch-o
though, *quankam incture (pharm.),dis- to torment, torment-ar
thousand, *mil ; (noun) solv-ur-o ; (fig.), torpor, torpor-o
mil-o nuanc-o ; quant-et- torrid, torid-a
to thrash, drash-ar o, nocion-et-o tortoise, tortug-o
thread, fil-o (filametrt), inder, tindr-o LO torture, torment-ar
filament-o o tinge, tint-ar ; kolor- to toss in a blanket,
to threaten, minac-ar mar mante-ar
total ( a d j . ) , tot-a ; (n.), LO transfer, transport- trifle, bngaiel-o, min-
sum-o ar ; (corn. law). uci-o
to totter, sliancel-:ir transfer-ar to trim, 1:ortl-iz-ar,
to touch, tush-ar to transform, trans- reko:t-ar
to touch up, retush-ar form-ar trimming ((7; :old or
touchy, des-afabl-a ; to transgress, violac-ar; silk), p a s r n c ~ ~ t - ( I
~rac-em-a ( s i n ) , pek-ar Trinity, Tri-un-o
tough, hard-a ; (tena- transit (corn.),tranzit-o trinket, berlolc-o
cious), tenac-a to translate (into a n - trio ( ~ I z z ~ tcrcet-o
tour (short joztrney, other language), tra- to trip up, jiaml~it-nr
walk), tur-o tluk-ar tripe, trip-o
tournan~ent, turnir-o to transmigrate, trans- triple, tri-opl-a
tow, filas-o : (oakzinz), migr-ar triplet ( p o e i r ~ , )tercet-I)
stup-0 to transmit, tranymis- to triturate, tritur-ar
to tow, remorlc-nr ar to triumph, triumf-ar
toward(s) (prep.), *vers transparent, dia fan-n trivial, trivial-a
towel, tualet-tnk-o to transport, trans- troop, trup-o
tower, tnrni-o port-ar tropic, tropik-o
town, urb-o to transpose, trans-poz- to trot, trot-ar
toy, lutl-il-o (lit. nnd a r (also nztrs.) t o . trouble, irulll-nr,
fig.) transverse, transvers-a ]en-ar
trace ( t m c k ) , trac-o trap, kapt-il-o ; -door, trough, trog-o
to trace, tras-ar ; ( d m w trap-o trousers, pantalon-o
through tratzsparent to travel, voyxj-at. trout, trut-o
paper), kalgu-ar to traverse, tra-ir-ar trowel, trul-o
track, trac-o, -i ; to-, to travesty, traveqti-ar truck ( a n oprn railroad
sequ-ar la trac-o (c!i), tray, plat-o !wight cav), truk-o
sequ-ar (animal, per- treacle, melas-o true, ver-a, sincer-a
son, thing) segun- treason, trahiz-o truffle, trufl-o
trac-e treasure, trezor-o truly, ver-e, *ya
trade, komerc-o ; to-, to treat (act towards, trump (cnrds), trump-o
komerc-ar behave to ; subject i n trumpet (inst.), trum-
tradition, tradition-o liter. or art), trakt-ar pet-o
trafRc (vehicznlar, etc.), treaty, kontrat-o trunk (of t r e , ~ )trunk-o;
trafik-o tree, arbor-o (box), kofr-o; (PIP-
trefoil, trifoli-o $ha.nt, insfct .t' oitr-o
train (railway),tren-o ; trellis, trclis-o to, truncate, stump-
(of dress, etc.), trau- to tremble, trem-ar ig-ar ; (grow.),
aj-o ; to-, (break trench, tranche-o trunk-ig-ar
ilz), dres-ar trepan ( s u r f . ) , trepan-
trait, trait-o ag-ar trust, fitl-o (ad) ; (com-
trestle, trest-o mission), lromis-o ;
trajectory, trajektori-o (pers., thing i~cwhich
tram-car, tram-vetur-o trial, prob-o ; (at lnw). confidence i s w-
to trammel, etltrav-ar jud~ci-o
triangle, tri-angul-o posed), fitl-ind-aj-o ;
to trample, ful-ar, pede- fconz. cvedit), lcredii-
prey -ar (also mzrs.)
tribulation, tribulac-o o; (association),
tramway, tram-voy-o trust-o ; on-, kredit-
tranquil, trauquil-a ; tribune (pers.), tribon- e ; to-, fid-ar (ad.)
o ; (thing), tribun-o
kalm-a ; (not tributary, tribut-ant-a to try, prob-ar
a?zxious), quiet-a (ad); (n.), -ant-o, tub, kuv-o
to transcribe, trans- --er-o tube, tub-o
skrib-ar, kopi-ar trick, artific-o tubercle, tuberkul-o
tuberculosis, tuber- unity, un-es-o ; (con-
klos-o cord), konkord-o,
to tuck-up, trus-ar ubiquitous, ubiqu-a harmoni-o ; (thing
Tuesday, rnardi-o ugly, led-a that forms a com-
tufa, tof-o uhlan, ulan-o plete whole), un-aj-o ;
tuft, tuf-o ; (bird's) ulcer, ulcer-o (the number I ) , un-o
penach-et-o ultramarine, ultra- universal, univers-al-a
tulip, tulip-o mar-o, -a universe, univers-o
to tumble down (intr.), umber, umbr-o university, universitat-
krul-ar umbrella, para-pluv-o 0
tumour, tumor-o unanimous, unanim-a unless, sen ke, se ...
tune, ari-o ; akord-o ; unarmed, sen-arm-a, ne ; ecept-e se

to (tr.), akord-ig ne-arm-iz-it-a
uncle, onkl-(u1)-o
unmarried, celib-a
unpolished, matid-a ;
tunic (also milit., anat.), unclean, des-net-a, sor- (fig.),grmier-a, brut-
tunik-o did-a, des-pur-a a
tunnel (subterranean uncooked, krud-a until (prep.), *ti1 ;
passage way), tunel- under (prep.), *sub (conj.),ti1 ke
o ; funel-o to undergo, subis-ar unusual, rar-a, ne-kus-
tunny, atun-o to undermine, min-ar ; turn-al-a, ne-orcti-
turblne, turbin-o ( f i g . ) , sub-destrukt- nar-a
turbot, turbot-o ar up (upstairs), supr-e ;
turbulent, petul-em-a to undersign, sub- to go-, acens-ar
tureen, terin-o signat-ar to uphold, susten-ar
turf, gazon-o to understand, kom- upper, supr-a
turkey, dind-o pren-ar upright, rekt-a
to turn (tr., intr.), to undertake, entra- to uproot, extirp-ar
turn-ar ; (with ro- prez-ar to upset, renvers-ar
tary motion), rotac- underwear, linj-o upstairs, supr-a, -e
ar ; (--about, veer upstart, par-ven-int-o
to. undress, des-vest- urohin,
round). jir-ar ; mar bub-o, - - 4 - 0 ;
(mech.), torn-ar ; to undulate (intr.),ond- (animal),heris-on-o
-aside, sustrakt-ar ; if-ar, fluktu-ar ;(tr.), urgent (to be), urj-ar
-up tras-ar, (hair), ond-iz-ar US, nl
aruf-ar unfortunately, regret- usage, use, uz-ad-o
to use, uz-ar
turnio, nap-o ind-e
turnspit spis-o-turn- unicorn (the fabulous useful, util-a
il-o animal), unikorn-o useless, ne-util-a
turquoise, turkez-o miform, uniform-a ; usher, bedel-o
turtle-dove, turtur-o ( n . ) , uniform-o usual, ordinar-a, kus-
twelve o'clock (day), ;o unify, un-ig-ar tum-al-a ; uz(ad)
di-mez-o at-a
twilight, krepuskul-o inion, union-o ; -ur-o,
twin, jemel-o --es-o ; Postal usufruct, uzufrukt-o
twist, torsad-o Union,Post-Union-o, to usurp, uzurp-ar
to twist ( f r . ) ,tord-ar ; postal-union-o usury (to practise),
iord-e-volv-ar mique, unik-a uzur-ar
two, *du init, un-o utensil, utensil-o
type, tip-o ;o unite (tr.),union-ar ; utmost, extrem-a ;
to typewrite, mashin- (materially), junt- maxim alta, grand-a
skrib-ar ar ; (intr.), union-ar utopian, utopi-al-a,
typhus, tif-o su, union-es-ar ; kimer-al-a
tyrant, tiran-o juntes-ar utopbt, utopi-ist-o
to utter, emis-ar (also vapour, vapor-o ventricle, ventrikul-o
phys. and f i n . ) ; ex- to varnish, varnis-iz-ar ventriloquist, ventr-o-
pres-ar, pronunc-ar various, divers-a parol-er-o
uvula, uvnl-o varix, varik-o venture, risk-entra-
to vary (tr.), alter-ar, J prez-o ; (corn.),
chanj-ar vari-ar ; pakotili-o
( i f . ) , alter-es-a.r, to venture, risk-ar
chanj-ar, vnri-ar verb, verb-o (also the
vase, vaz-o word)
uassal, vaeal-a, --o verbal, verb-al-a ;
vast, vast-a I (oral), voc-al-a,
vat, knv-o parol-a
V vault, vult-o 1 verbatim, vort-op-a,
veal, bov-yun-karn-o 1 vort-ope
vacancy, lakun-o, vedette ( m i l . ) , vedet-o, verbena, verben-o
vakn-aj-o ; (leisztre), ( T I U P . )veciet-batel-o
, verbosity, paroI-
sen-okup-es-o, liber- to ,,veer (intr.. naut.), abund-o, parol-oz-
tenlp-o 11r-ar es-o, ---em-es-o
vacant (to be), vak-ar vegetable, legum-o ; verdant, verd-a, verd-
to vacate, las-ar vakn- ( ) 1-ejet-ant-~, aspekt-a
a, ne-okup-at-a ; -1v-o verdict, verdikt-o
valtu-i g-ar vegetarian, vejet-ar- verdigris, verdigris-o
vacation ( h o l i d ~ y ) , ant-o, -ant-ul-o, to verify, verifik-ar
vakanc-o , -ant-in-o vermicelli, vermicel-o ;
to vacillate vacil-ar to vegetate, vejet-ar German-, nudl-i
(lit. and iz:.) 1
vegetation (act ou pro- vermilion, cinabr-o
t o , vaccinate, vacin- cess), vejet(ar1)o ; versatile, van-em-a
12-ar (plantr rollt.ctiveZy), verse, liuplet-o
vacuum, vaku-o vejet-ant-ar-o to versify ( t u r n ,$rose
vagrant (n.), vag-er-o ; vehement, impetu-oz- into u.), vers-ig-ar ;
(adj.), vag-em-a, a, ---em-a (make vevses), vers-
-ant-a vehicle, veh-il-o if-ar
vain (irzritless),van-a ; veil, vel-o vertebra, vertebr-o
(conceited), superb-a vein, vein-o vertical, vertik-al-a
to validate valjtl-ig-ar vellum, velen-o verve, verv-o
valley, val-o velocipede, velocipecl-o very, *tre ; -much
value, valor-o, merit- velvet, velur-o (before verb), *tre ;
o; prec-o ; to- velveteen, koton-vel- ( b y itself), mu1t.e
evalu-ar ; ( p r i z ~ ) , ur-o ' vesicle, vezik-et-o
priz-ar vendor, vend-ist-o, vespers, vespr-i
valve, valv-o (tech,, komerc-ist-o vespiary, vesp-ey-o,
bot., 2001.) to venerate, vcnerac-ar vesp-o-nest-o
vanguard, avan-guard- venereal, vener-al-a ; vessel, vaz-o
o -ilc-a (nzrd.) to vest, vest-iz-ar
to vanish, des-apar-ar ; venetian blind, jelozi-o vestibule, vestibul o
(be annihilatrd cr venetian shutter, per- vestige, trac.0, (re-
lost), nihil-ig-es-ar. / slen-o m a i n s ) , rest-aj-o
nihil-eik-ar, - perd- vengeance, venj-o
es-ar venial, v e n d - a
I veteran, veteran-o
vanity, van-e,-o ; ( o f venom, venen-o (Zd. veterinarian veteri-
perscn : empty and f i q . ) nar-o
pride), vanitat-o
to vanquish, vink-ar
to ventilate, ventil-ar
ventral, ventr-al-a
I to veto, vet-ar
vexed (to be), despit-ar
viable, viv-iv-a, viv. visionary, vizion-er-a, to wade, vad-ar (only
kapabl-a --em-a ; ( n . ) , vizion walk throztgll wotev)
viaduct, viadukt-o -er-o wafer (cookery),vafl-o ;
viaticum, viatik-o to visit, vizit-a! ( f o r sealing letters).
(prof. and relig.) to vitiate, VICI-iz-ar, ohlat-o
to vibrate, vibr-ar korupt-ar, alter-ar wages, salari-o
viburnum, vibern-o vitreous, vitr-atr-a wagon (railway),
vicar, vikar-o to vitrify (tr.), vitr-ig- vagon-o ( f o r goods
vice, vici-o ar ; (antr.), vitr-esk- or persons)
victim, viktim-o ar wagonette, brek-o
victory, vink-o vitriol, vitriol-? wagtail, motacil-o
victuals, viktuali-o vivaflous, vlv-oz-a, waif, abandon-it-o
vicuna, vikun-o auim-oz-a to wail, vajis-ar
to vie (intr.), rival-es- vixen, meger-o wain, chariot-o
ar, lukt-ar (pri) vocabulary, vort-ar-o wainscot, panel-0,-ar-
view (act), vid-o ; vocation, vok-es-o 0
(scene), vid-aj-o voice, voc-o waist ( o f borl,,), tay-o
opinion-o ; to-, volcano, volkan-o waistcoat, jilet-o
vid-ar, regard-ar, volley, salve-o to wait for, vart-ar
konsider-ar volume (book), tom-o ; waiter, garson-o
vigil (being awake), (geom.), volumin-o to wake (vigil),vigil-ar ;
vigil-o ; (eccl.), vigi- voluntary (not cox- (cease to sleep), vek-
li-o ; (religious strained) volunt-al-a ar
seruice), vigili-ofici-o volunteer, voluntari-o to walk ( f o r pleasure),
vigilant, .;urvey-em-a, voluptuousness, o- promen-ar ; (not
observ-em-a, atenc- upt-0 r u n ) , march-ar
em-a to vomit, vom-ar wallet, ledr-o-sak-et-
vignette, vinyet-o vortex, vortic-o o ; utensil-uy-o
vigorous, vigor-oz-a to vote, vot-ar wall, mur-o
vile, sen-valor-a ; des- to voyage, voyaj-ar walnut, nuc-o
nobl-a, abjekt-a navlg-ar to waltz, vals-ar
vine, vit-o to vow, vov-ar to wander, vag-ar
vinegar, vinagr-o rowel, vokal-o to want (tr.), inaij-ar
viol, viul-o vulgar ( n t d e ) trivial-a (be deficieqit i n ) ; de-
to violate, violac-ar vulture, vultur-n zir-ar
violence (act),violent-o to war,milit-ar(kontre)
(qunlrty), violent- warbler (hedge), silvi-o
em-e5-o to ward (guard), gard-
violet, vio!-o ; ( a d j . ) , ar defens-ar (dt3,
viol-e-a kontr?)
violin, vinlin-n wardship, tutel(ad)-o
virgin (adj.)! virg-a ; ware, var-o
( n . ) , virg-in-o warehouse, magazin-o
virtue, vertu-o warm, varm-a
virulent, virulent-a to warn ( p u t on gltard),
virus, viru.;-o avert-ar ; (notify,
visa, vist-o inform), aviz-ar, in-
viscera, vicer-o wad, fen-, pali-o-, vat- form-ar ; (admoaish),
viscount, viskomt-(ul)n o--, filas-maset-o ; exhort-ar
viscous, visk-oz-a (in g u n ) , bur-o, felt- to warp, urd-ar
vision, vid(ad)-o; (thing o-disk-o ; to-, bur- to warrant, garanti-ar
seen), vid-aj-o ; (ap- iz-ar ; warrantee, garanti-ari-
parition), vizion-o wadding, vat-o 0

I 82
warranter, garanti-ant- weary ( o / ) , ted-at-a ; whey, selakt-o
0 (tiresome), ted-ant- which, qua, qui (subj.),
warranty, garanti-o a ; to be weary, quan, quin (obi.)
warrior, mlit-ist-o enoy-ar ; tea-es-a1 while, temp-o ; after
wart, veruk-o weasel, vizel-o a-, kelka tempe
wary, cirkonspekt-a weather, veter-o pose ; between -s,
to wash, lav-ar weatherboard, shin- inter-tempe. dume ;
to wash in lye, lesiv-ar dol-0 (cowj.),dum ke
washerwoman, lavist- to weave, tex-ar to whip, flog-ar
in-o to wed, niariaj-ar (tr.), to whisper (tr.), mur-
wasp, vesp-o mariaj-ar s u mur-ar ; susur-ar
to waste, disip-ar wedge, koni-o whist, uist-o
watch (i+~strztment), Wednesday, merkur- to whistle, sifl-ar
horloj-et-o, posh- di-o white, blank-a
horloj-o week, seman-o white lead, cernz-o
to watch ( s p y ) , guat- to weep, plor-ar whiting (fish),merlan-o
ar ; -over survey- weft, weft-o Whitsuntide,
ar to weigh ( i n t m n s . ) , pentekost-o
water, aqu-o pez-ar ; ( t ~ . ) ,pon- who (sing.)! qua ;
water-cress, Itres-o der-ar (plur.), qul
waterfall, aqu-o-fal-o, weight (of a thing), whole, i~itegr-a,lot-a
kaskad-o pez-o wholesale, engros-a. -e
waterproof (adj.), aqu- welcome ( P I . ) , bou-ven- wholesome, salubr-a,
espnlv-a o ; (adj.), bo~i-ven- (fig.), salutar-a
water-spaniel, pudel-o ant-a ; -, you are-, whom, quan (object),
waterspout, tromlj-o vu esas plezure a qua
water-sprite, nix-o acept-at-a wick, mcch-o
wave (hair, etc.), ond- welcomer, boil-ven- wicked, malign-a
o ; (sea), ontl-o- ant-o wicker, ozier-o
eg-o ; to-, (inlr.), to weld, weld-ar wicket, gichet o
ond-if-ar, fluktu-ar well ( a d i . ) , Don-e ; -! wide, laria
wavy, ond-if-ant-a, (znterj.), nu ! widow (ad?.), viclv-a ;
-oz-a well, a, pute-o ( n . ) , vidv-in-o
wax, vax-o ; -candle, west, west-o wife, spoz-in-o
light, buji-o ; -taper, wet, humid-a wig, peruk-o
cer-G whale, balcn-o wild, sovaj-a
to wax and polish, whalebone, bart-tr wild-boar, apr-<I
frot-ar wharf, xvarf-o wild celery, api-o
way (road or track, lit. what, quo (subject) ; wild cherry, meriz-o
or /ig.), vcy-o ; (man- quon (object) wild thyme, serpol-o
ner, method), man- whatever, irgo-quo will (act of willing),
ier-o, metod-o whatnot, etajer-o vol-o ; (faculty of
w.c., latrin-o wheat, frunienl-o willin.;), vol-ad-o ;
we, ni wheel, rot-o free--, arbitri-o ;
weak, febl-a wheelbarrow, bruet-o (testament), testa-
wealth, rich-es-o when, *kande ment-~
to wean, ablakt-ar where, *ube to will, vol-ar ; (with
weapon, arm-o whereas, koiltre ke ; zerb), -0s ; -be,
to wear (tr.), port-ar (law), konsiderite es-os ; will have
( a s a garment, a he, pro ke -ed, ea-os-int-a, or
weapon, jewellery), whether (in indirect . . . ab-os
etc.) ; to-out, kon- questions), kad ; willing (be), volunt-ar
sum-ar . .
-. .or, sive . .sive willingly, volunt-e
willow. salik-o work (rrrtisfir, etc.),
wimple (dvess), verk-o
vimpl-o to work, labor-ar yacht, vakt-o
to win, gan-ar to work timber, Bar- yard, kort-o
wind, vent-o pent-ar yawl, yol-o
to wind (from), tles- workman, labor-ist-o to yawn, ocit-as
spul-ar (de) world, mond-o ; (soci- year, yar-o
winding (adj.), +u- ty), montl-um-o yeast, hef-o
oz-a world (adj.),mond-al-a; yellow, flav-a
windlass, vind-il-o mond-um-sl-a yellow-amber, sucin-o
window, fenestr-o worm, verm-o yes, *ycs
window-fastener, worship, kult-o yesterday, hier-e
spanyolet-o ' to worship, kult-ar yet, tamen ; (in time),
wind-pipe, trake-o worth valor-o ; (ndj.), ankore
windy (to be), vent-ar valor-ant-a yew-ti'ee, t s s u s - o
wine, vln-o to be worth, valor-ar to yield, produkt-ar,
wing (all senses), al-o worthy, dign-a (ye, de) furnis-ar ; (acknow-
to winnow, fan-ar 7c~ovtlq~u/ beilig . . . ,-<I
ledge), agnosk-ar
winter, vintr-o -in d-
to yodel, yotl1.-ar
to ripe, vish-ar would,-US yoke fharifcss), vng-o
to wipe one's nose, to wound, v ~ ~ n t l - a r to yoke (tr.), jung-ar
mung-ar su to wrangle inter-dis- yolk ( o f a?: r,cr). vitel-n
wise, saj-a put-ar you, vu ; (plz~ral),vi
to wish, dezir-ar wreath, girlaiid-o young, yun-a
wit, esprit-n to be wrecked, nau- young lady, damzei-o
witchcraft, sorc(ad)o fraj-ar younger, junior-a
with, *Bun wren, regol-o
your(s), vu-a ; vi-a
within (prep.), en, in- wrench, tord-ur-o
tern-e di to wrestle, lukt-ar
without (prep.), sen ; to wring (tv.), tord-ar ;
(adv .), exter-e (press), pres-ar,
witness, test-o klem-ar
wolf, volf-0 to wriggle, frisk-ar
woman, homin-o wrinkle, rug-o
wonder, marvel-o ; wrist-band, ponyet-o
(amazement), aston- to write, sksib-ar
es-o ; to- aston- to write out, redakt-a!.
es-ar wrong (adj.), ne-just-a
wood (the matter), lign- wry motion, tik-o zeal, zel-o
o ; (treeland), bosk- zealous, zel-oz-a
0 zero, zer-o
woodland, silv-o to zigzag (ilztv.),zigzag-
wood-louse, awl-o ar
woodpecker, peg-o cinc, zinlr-r)
wood-plgeon, palum- X cocle, sokt-o
b-0 done, zon-o
wool, lan-o tilography, xilograf- coologist, zoolagi-ist-o
word, vort-o ad-o, -art-o zoophyte, zoofit-o

Abisini-a, Abyssinia ; -ano, Asturi-a, Asturias ; -ano, As-
Abyssmian. turian.
Acori (insuli), the Azores. Atlantik-a, -0, Atlantic (oceavt).
Adriatik-a, Adriatic. Australi-a, Australia ; -ano, Aus-
Adriatika, -0, Adriatic. tralian.
Atgano, Afghan. Austri-a, Austria ; -ano, Austrian.
Afganistan, Afghanistan. Azi-a, Asia ; -ano, Asiatic ;
Afrik-a, Africa ; -ano, African. Avan-Azia, Asia Minor.
Albani-a, Albania ; -ano, Alba-

nian. Badeni-a, Duchy of Baden.
Alenti (i~zszllz),Alentian (islands). Bahama, Bahama (islands).
Algarvo, Algarve. Baleari, Balearic Isles.
Aljer, Algiers (the town) ; -ano, Baltik-a, -0, Baltic (sen).
of Algiers. Barbados, Barbadoes.
Aljeri-a, Algeria ; -ano, Algerian. Bavari-a, Bavaria ; -ano,
Alpi, Alps. Bavarian.
Alzaci-a, Alsace ; -ano, Alsatian. Belgi-a, Belgium.
Amerik:a, America ; -an0 (a%), Belgo, Belgian.
Amer~can. Beludjo, Beloochi.
Anatoli-a, Anatolia. Beludjistan, Beloochistan.
Andaluzi-a, Andalusia ; -ano, Bengal, Bengal.
Andalusian. Berberia, Barbary.
Andl, (the) Andes. Berbero, Berber.
Andoro, Andorra. Bermudi. Bermudas.
Angli-a, England. ~esarabia,Bessarabia.
Anglo, English(man). Biskay, Biscay.
Angola, Angola Blanka Monto, Mont Blanc.
Anam, An(n)am ; -ano. Bohemi-a. Bohemia ; -ano, Bo-
Anhalt, Anhalt. hemian:
Antili, (the) Antilles. Bolivi-a, Bolivia ; -ano, Bolivian.
Apenin-i, (the) Apennines. Borneo, Borneo.
Arabia, Arabia. Bosni-a, Bosnia ; -ano, Bosnian.
Arabo, Arab. Brabant, Brabant ; -ano, Bra-
Aragon, Aragon ; -ano, of Aragon bantese.
Arden-o, -i, Ardennes. Brazili-a, Brazil ; -ano, Brazilian.
Argentini-a, Argentine (Republic) Bretonia, Brittany.
-ano, of the Argentine. Bretono, Breton.
Armeni-a, Armenia ; -ano, Britani-a, Great Britain.
Armenian. Britano, a Briton.
Brunsvig-o, Brunswick (Duchy o f ) Flandr-o, Flanders ; -ano,
Bukhari, Bokhara. Flemish.
Bulgari-a, Bulgaria : -ano, Bul- Formoza, Formosa.
garian. Francia, France.
Burgundi-a, Burgundy ; -ano, Franeo, French(man).
Burgundian. Frizi-a, Friesland ; -ano, Fries-
Burm-a, Burmah ; -ano, Burmese. lander.
Ceylon, Ceylon ; -ano, Cingalee. Galici-a, Galicia ( A ustuia) ; -ano,
Champani-a, Champagne (pvo- Galician.
z~ince); -ano, of Champagne. Galile-a, GaliIee ; -ano, Galilean.
Chili, Chili ; -ano, Chilian. Galisi-a, Galicia (Spain): ; -ano,
Chini-a, China ; -ano, Chinese. Galician.
Chipr-0, Cyprus ; -ano, Cyprian. Gailia, Gaul.
Cirkasi-a, Circasia ; -ano, Cir- Gall-i, Gauls.
casian. Gambia, Gambia.
Gaskonia, Gascony,
Dalmati-a, Dalmatia ; -ano, Gaskono, Gascon.
Ddl matian.
Germania, Germany.
Dania, Denmark. Germano, German.
Dano, (a) Dane. Glacial-a,-o, Glacial.
Danubin, Danubc. Gold Coast (ocenrr), Ora Rivo.
Dardaneli, Dardauclles. Gotia, Gothiand.
Dominga Republiko, San Domln- Goto, Goth.
go (in Havti).
Doming-ano, Don1:n:can (oi the Grekia, Greece.
Greka, Greek.
IlepttOlic o/ Donzzlzgo).
Dominika, Dominica ( Islar~d). Grenland-o, Greenland : -ano,
Egadi (i~lsnlz),Egadcs (islaiid\., Guadelupa, Guadeloupe.
Sicily). Guatemala, Guatemala.
Guayana, Guiana.
Egipti-a, Egypt ; -ano, Egyptian. Guinea, Guinea.
Epir-o, Epirus ; -ano, Epirot.
Equador, Ecuador.
Eritrea, Erythrea. Haiti, Hayti.
Eskipok-o, -i, Eskimos. Havayi, Hawaii.
Estoni-a, Esthonia ; -ano, Es- Hebridi, Hebrides.
thonian. Helveti, Helvetians.
Etiopi-a, Ethiopia ; -ano, Ethio- Helvetia, Helvetia.
pian, Ethiop. Hesi-a, Hesse ; -ano, llcssial~.
Etruri-a, Etruria ; -ano, Etrurian Herzegovina, Herzegovina.
Europ-a, Europe ; -ano, European Hinduo, Hindoo.
Hispania, Spain.
Fair-tero, Tisrra drl J'uego. Hispano, Spaniarcl.
Falkland (itzstilr), Falltlarid Holand-o, Holland ; -ano, Ilutch
(isl~izris). (man).
Fernandopo ( i l ) Fcrnan- Honduras, Honduras.
tlopu. Hungari-a, Hungary ; -ano,
Fidji, Fiji. Hungarian.
Filipin-i, Philippines ([~i~i/s)
-ano, Philippine (nzu~z). Indi-a, India ; -ano, Lndiar~.
Finland-o, Finland ; -ano, Fin- Ioni-a, Ionia ( 'lsia Miliov) ;
lander. -ana, Ionian,
Irland-o, Ireland ; -ano, Irish Lago di quar Kantoni, Lake of the
(man). Four Cantons (Switzerland).
Istn-a, Istria ; -ano, Istrian. Lagos, Lagos.
Itali-a, Italy ; -ano, Italian. Laponia, 1,apland.
Ivora rivo, Ivory coast. Lapono, Laplander, Lapp.
Jamaika, Jamaica. Leman-a,-o, Lake Leman.
Japoni-a, Japan ; -ano, Japanese. Libano, Lebanon.
Jav-a, Java ; -ano, Javanese. Liberi-a, Liberia ; -ano, Liberian.
Jude-a, Judea ; -ano, Judean. Libi-a, Libya ; -ano, Libyan.
Judo, a Jew. Liguri-a, Liguria ; -ano, Ligu-
Kab-lando, Cape Colony. Lituani-a, Lithuania ; -ano,
Kabo de Ban-Espero, Cape of Lithuanian.
Good Hope. Livoni-a, Livonia : -ano,
Kaboverdo, Cap Verd. Livonian.
Kalabri-a, Calabria ; -ano, Cala- Lomhardi-a, 1,ombardy ; -ano,
brian. Lombard.
Kalde-a, Chaldza ; -ano, Lotringi-a, Lorraine ; -an0
Chaldean. (man) of Lorraine.
Kaliforni-a, California ; -ano, Luxemburgi-a, Luxemburg
Californian. ( O u r h ? ~ 01) ; -ano, Luxem-
Kambodj-a, Can~bodia; -ano, burger.
Cambodian. Luxemburg, Luxemburg (town) ;
Kamchatka, Kamtchatka. -ano, Luxemburger
Kamerun, Cameroons.
Kampania, Campania, Madagaskar, Madagascar.
Kanad-a, Canada ; -ano, Cana- Madeira, Madeira.
dian. Makedoni-a, Macedonia ; -ano,
Kanal-0, (English) Channel. Macedonian.
Kanarii, Canary ( Isla??d.q). Malay o, Ma!ay.
Karpati, Carpathian EIountains. Malt-a, Malta ; -ano, Maltese.
Kashmir, Cashmere. Mandjuria, Manchuria.
Kaspfa, Caspian (Sea). Mariani, Mariana Islands.
Kastili-a, Castile ; -ano, Castilian. Marok-o, Wrorocco ; -ano, Mo-
Kataluni-a, Catalonia ; -ano, roccan.
Catalonian. Marquesas, 1LIarcluesas Islands.
Kaukazia, Caacasia. Martinika, Martiniclue.
Kaukazo, Caucasus. Maurioo, Xlauritius.
Khiva, Khiva. Mayorka, RIajorca.
Kolumbi-a, Co1uml)ia ; -ano, Medi-a, Media.
Columblan. Med-i, Medes.
Kongo-lando, Congo ; -&no, Mediterane-a, -0, &Ieclilerranean
Congolese. (Sen).
Kordilieri, Cordilleras. Mexiki-a, Mexico (ru1(11tvi) ; -ano,
Kore-a, Korea ; -ano, Icorean.
Kornwal, Cornwall.
Korsik-a, Corsica ; -ano, Car-
1 Mexican.
Mexiko, Mexico Ciiu ;
scan. Mezopotamia, Mesopotamia.
Koshinchini-a, Cochin-China ; Minorka, Minorca.
-ano, Cochin-Chinese. Moldavi-a, Moldavia ; -ano,
Kostarika, Costa-Rica. Moldav~an.
Kroati-a, Croatia ; -ano, Croatian. I Monak-o, &Ionaco; -ano, (man)
Kub-a, Cuba ; -ano, Cuban. of Monaco.
Mongolia, Mongolia. Pomerani-a? Pomerania ; -sno,
Montenegr-o, Montenegro ; -ano, Pomeranian.
(man) of Montenegro. ' Porto-Riko, Porto-Rico.
Moravi-a, lMoravia ; -ano, Portugal, Portugal ; -ano, Portu-
Moravian. guese.
Mortinta Maro, Dead Sea. Posni-a, Posen (province) ; -an0
Mozambik, Mozambique. (man) of Posen.
Prezidii, Presides (islands).
Natal, Natal. Principe, Principe (island).
Navara, Navarre. Provenc-o, Provence (in France) ;
Nederland-o, Netherlands ; -ano, -ano, Provenpl.
Dutch. Prusi-a, Prussia ; -&no, Prussian.
Nigeria, Xigeria.
Nigra Maro, Black Sea. Quinsland-o, Queensland ; -ano,
Nikaragua, Nicaragua. Queenslander.
Normandia, Normandy.
Normando, Norman. Reda Maro, Red Sea.
Norvegi-a,, Norway ; -ano, Reunion, Reunion or Bourbon
Norwegian. (island).
Nova Guinea, New Guinea. Reus, Reuss.
Nova Kaledonia, New Caledonia. Rheno, Rhine.
Nov-Land-o, Newfoundland ; -ano, Rodezia, Rhodesia.
Newfoundlander. Rokoza Monti, Rocky Mountains.
Nov-Sud-Wals, New South Rumani-a, Rouniania ; -ano,
Wales. Roumanian.
Nov-Zelando, New Zealand. Rumeli-a, Roumelia ; -ano,
Nubi-a, Nubia ; -ano, Nuhian. Roumelian.
Rusia, Russia.
Ruso, Russian.
Oceania, Oceania.
Ora Rivo, Gold Coast. Sahara, Sahara.
Oranjia, Orange River Colony. Samari-a, Samaria ; -ano,
Orkadi, Orkncy Islands. Samaritan.
Samoa, Samoa (islands.)
Paeifik-a, -0, Pacific (Ocean). San Domingo, San Domingo.
Palatenio, Palatinate. San-Gall, Sain Gall.
Palestina, Palestine. San-Marino, San Marino.
Panama, Panama. San-Salvador, San Salvador.
Paraguay, Paraguay. San-Thome, San Thomas (island).
Partia, Parthia. Sant-Helena, Saint Helena.
Parto, Parthian. Sardini-a, Sardinia ; -ano,
Patagonia, Patagonia. Sardinian.
Persia, Persia. Sarmatia, Sarmatia.
Perso, Persian. Sarmato, Sarmatian.
Peru, Pern ; -ano, Peruvian. Savoy-a, Savoy ; -ano, (man) of
Piemont, Piedmont ; -ano, Pied- Savoy.
montese. Saxonia, Saxony.
Pikardia, Picardy. Saxono, Saxon.
Pirenei. Pvrenees. Senegal, Senegal ; -ano, Sene-
~olinezia,* ~ o l y n e s i;a -ano, galese.
Polynesian. Serbi-a, Serbia ; -ano, Serbian.
Polonia, Poland, Siam, Siam ; -ano, Siamese.
Polono, Pole. Siberi-a, Siberia ; -ano, Siberian.
Sieili-a, Sicily ; -ano, Sicilian. / Transilvani-a, Transylvania ;
Sierra-Leone, Sierra Leone. 1 -ano, Transylvanian.
Silezi-a, Silfsia ; -ano, Silesian. Transval, Transvaal ; -an0 (man)
Siri-a, Syria ; -ano, Syrian. I of the Transvaal.
Skandinavi-a, Scandina.via ; Trinidad, Trinidad.
-ano, Scandinavian. I Tripolis, Tripoli (towgz).
Skita, Scythia. Tripolit-o, Tripoli (coulztry); -ano,
Skitio, Scpthian. Tripolitan.
Skotia, Scotland. Tunis, Tunis (town).
Skoto, Scotch(man), Scot. Tunizi-a, Tunis [prov~nce); -ano,
Slavonia, Slavonia. 1 Tunisian.
Somal-o, -i, Somali . I Turkestan, Turkestan.
Somali-lando, Somaliland. , Turkia, Turkey.
Sporadi, Sporades (islamis). Turko, Turk.
Stiri-a, Styria ; -ano, Styrian. Turingi-a, Thuringia ; -ano,
Suabi-a, Swabia ; -ano, Swabian Thuringian.
Sudan, Soudan ; -ano, Souda.nese
Suedi-a, Sweden. Ural-o, -i, Ural (vrv., nzouv~t.).
Suedo, Swedish. Uruguay, Urnguap.
Suisi-a, Switzerland ; -ano, Usa, t United States of N.A. ;
Swiss. Usano, Yankee, American.
Sumatra, Sumatra.
Surinam, Surinam (Dutch
Guiana). Valaki-a, \qTalachia; -ano, Wala-
Tartarla, Tartary. Venezuel-a, Venezuela ; -ano,
Tartaro, Tartar. Venezuelan.
Tasmani-a, Tasmania ; -ano, Vestfali-a, Westphalia ; -ano,
Tasmanian. Westphalian.
Tesali-a, Thessaly ; - a m , Thes- Viktoria, Victoria (Australia).
salian. Vogesi, Vosges (mo~dntains).
Tibet, Tibet, Thibet ; -ano, Volini-a, Volhynia ; -ano,
Thibetarl. Volhynian.
Tirol, Tyrol ; -ano, Tyrolese.
Togo, Togo ('Cogoland). I Wurtemberg, Wurtemberg ;
Tonga, Tonga (zsla?zds). 1 -ano, bvurtemberger.
Tonkin, Tonquin ; -an0 (man)
of Touquin. Zanzibar, Zan~ibar.
Toskania, Tuscany. Zulu-land, Zululand.
TosKano, Tuscan. Zuluo, Zulu.
Trakia, Thrace. - -
- - -- --
Trako, Thracian. t U.S.A.

Abyssinia, Abisinia. Austria, Austria.

Abyssinian, Abisiniano. Austrian, A ~ ~ s t r i a n o .
Adriatic, Adriatik-a, .o. Asia, Azin.
Afghan, Afgano. Asia Minor, Avan Azia.
Afghanistan, Afganistan. Asiatic, Aliano.
Africa, Afrika.
African, Afrikano. Baden (1)11rRv o f ) , Badenia.
Albania, Albania. Bahama ( z s l ( o ~ d s ) ,Baliama.
Albanian, Albaniano. Balearie Isles, Raleari.
Alentian (islattds), Alenti (insuli). Baltic (sfrc), Eallili-a, -0.
Algarve (irz Povt~rpal),Algarvo. Barbadoes, Rnrbarlos.
Algeria, Al jeria. Barbary, Rerberia.
Algerian ( m a n ) , A1jeiiano. Bavaria, Bavaria.
Algiers (the towrz), Aljer. Bavarian, Bal-ariano.
Alps, Alpi. Belgian, Belgiano.
Alsace, Alsaco. Belgium, Belgia.
Alsatian, Alsacano. Beloochi, Reludjo.
America, Amerika. Beloochistan, Beludjistan.
American ( a n ) , Amerikano. Bengal, Bengal.
Anatolia, Anatolia. Berber, Brrbero.
Andalusla, Andaluzia. Bermudas, Bermudi.
Andaluslan, Andaluziano. Bessarabia, Besarabia.
Andes (the), Ancli. Black Sea, Nigra Maro.
Andorra, Andoro. Biscay, Biskay.
Angola, Angola. Bohemia, Bohemia.
Anhalt, Anhalt. Bohemian, Rohemiano.
An(n)am, Anam ; Anam-ano. Bokhards, Bukhari.
Antilles (the), Antili. Bolivia, Bolivia.
Apennines (the), Apenini. Bolivian, Boliviano.
Arab, Arabo. Borneo, Borneo.
Arabia, Arabia. Bosnia, Bosnia.
Aragon, Aragon ; Aragon-nno. Bosnian, Bosniano.
Ardennes, Arden-o, -i. Brabant, Rrabant.
Argentine (Rel)ul,lic), Arjcntinia, Brabantese, Brabant ano.
Arjentiniano. Brazil, Brazilia,
Armenia, Armenia. Brazilian, Braziliano.
Armenian, ilrmeniano. Breton, Bretono.
Asturias, Asturia, Asturianc, Great Britain, Eritania.
Atlantic (or-rat?),Atlantik-a, -0. Briton ( a ) , Britano.
Australia, Anstralia. Brittany, Bretonia.
Australian, Australiano. Brunswick (Dzrchv 01). Brunsvigo.
' L a nomi di la urbi, fluvii, x~ronti, e x . , qui n e trovesas en ica vortaro, havas
l'ortografio uzata en la landi originala. Ex. : London, Paris, Koma, Bn~xolles,
Labrador, Quebec, Mcnton, Jcrrcy, Simplon, Setnc, SaBnr, Thamea, tic.
Bulgaria, Bulgaria. Corsican, Korsikano.
Bulgarian, Bulgariano. Courland, Kurlando.
Burgundian, Burgundiano. Costa Rica, Kostarika.
Burgundy, Burgundia. Croatia, Kroatia.
Burmah, Burma. Crotian, Kroatiano.
Burmese, Rurmano. I Cuba, Kuha.
Cuban, Kubano.
Calabria, Kalabria. , Cyprus, Chipro.
Calabrian, Kalabriano. 1 Cyprian, Chiprano.
California, Kalifornia.
Californian, Kaliforniano. Dalmatia, Dalmatia.
Cambodia, Kambodja.
Cambodian, Kamhodjano.
Cameroons, Kamerun.
Campania, Kampania..
I Dalmatian, Dalmatiano.
Dane ( a ) , Dano.
Danube, Danubio.
Dardanelles, Dardaneli.
Canada, Kanado. Dead Sea, blortinta Rlaro.
Canadian, Kanadano. Denmark, Dania.
Canary ( Isla~zds),Kanarii. Dominican (of tkr h'uprtblic of
Cape Colony, Kab-lando. Donzilz$o), Domingano.
Cape of Good Hope, K ~ l ) o di / Domingo (San), Dominga Rc-
Ron-Espero. , publiko (in Hnyti)
Cape Verd, Kaboverdo. Dominica ( Tslnr~d), Dominilta

Carpathian Mountains, Karpati. Dutchman, Holanclano
Cashmere, Kashmir.
Caspian (Sen), Kaspia. Ecuador, Equador
Castile, Kastilia. Egades (isln,7d$, .Sici(~,),Egadi
Castilian, Kastiliano. (insuli)
Catalonia, Katalunia. Egypt, Egiptia
Catalonian, Kataluniano. Egyptian, Egiptiano
Caucasia, Kaukazia. Epirot, Epirano
Caucasus, Kaukazrt. Epirus, Epiro.
Ceylon, Cevlon. Erythrea, Eritrea.
Chaldea, Kaldea. Eskimos, Eskimok-o, -i.
Chaldean, Kaldeano. Esthonia, Estonia.
Champagne ( p r o v i ~ ? ~ : ~Cham-
), Esthonian, Estoniatlo.
pania, Chan~paniano. Ethiopia, Etiopia.
Channel ( E ~ f l i s h )Iianalo.
, Ethopian, Ethiop, Etiopiann.
Chili, Chili. Etruria, Etruria.
Chilian, Chiliano. Etrurian, Etrurians.
China, Chinia. Europe, Europa.
Chinese, Chiniano. European, Europano.
Cingalee, Ceylonano.
Circasia, Cirkasia. Falkland ( Islnr~d,$), Fa! kland
Circasian, Cirkasiano. (insnli).
Cochin-China, Koshinchinia. Fernandopo, Fernandopo (insnli).
Cochin Chinese, Koshinchiniano. Fiji, Fiji.
Columbia, Kolumbia. Finland, Finlando.
Columbian, Kolumbiano. Finlander, Finlandano.
Congo, Kongo-lando. Flanders, Flanaro.
Congolese, Kongo-iandano. Flemish, Flandrano.
Cordilleras, Kordilieri. Formosa, Formoza.
Cornwall, Kornwal. France, Francia.
Corsica, Korsika. French(man), Franco.
Friesland, Frizia. Jamaica, Jamaika.
Frieslander, Friziano. 1 Japan, Japonia.
Japanese, Japoniano.
Gaiicia ( '1 rlstr in), Galicia. Java, Java.
Gaiician, Galiciano. Javanese, Javano.
Galicia (Spain), Galisia. Judea, J udea.
Galician, Galisian. Judean, Judeano.
Galilee, Galilea. Jew (n), Juilo.
Galilean, Galileano.
Gallea, Gallia. Lagos, Lagos.
Gambia, Gambia. Lake Leman, Leman-a, -0.
Gascon, Gaskono. Lake of the four Cantons (Switcev-
Gascony, Gaskonia. Innd), Lago di quar Kantoni.
Gaul, Gallfa. Lapland, Laponia.
Gauls, Galli. Laplander, Laponiano.
German, Germano. Lebanon, Libano.
Germany, Germania. Liberia, Liberia.
Glacial (ocecz~),Glacial-a, -0. Liberian, Liberiano.
Goth, Goto. Libya, Libia.
Gothia, Gotia. Libyan, Libiano.
Greece, Grekia. Liguria, Liguria.
Greek, Greko. Ligurian, Liguriano.
Greenland, Grenlando. Lithuania, Lituania.
Greenlander, Grenlandano. Lithuanian, Lituaniano.
Guadeloupe, Gaadelupa. Livonia, Livonia.
Guatemala, Guatemala. Livonian, Livoniano.
Guiana, Guayana. Lombard, Lombardiano.
Guinea, Guinea. Lombardy, Lombardia.
Lorraine, Lotringia, Loiringiano.
Hayti, Haiti. Luxemburg, (town), Luxemburg,
Hawaii, Havayi. Luxemburg (Duchy o!), Luxem-
Hebrides, Hebridi. 1 burgia.
Helvetia, Helvetia.
Helvetians, Helveti. 1 Luxemburger, Luxemburgiano.
Hesse, Hesia.
Hessian, Hesiano.
Herzegovina, Herzegovina.
Hindoo, Hinduo.
Madagascar, Madagaskar.
Macedonia, Makedonia.
Macedonian, Makedoniano.
Madeira, Madeira.
Holland, Holando. Malay, Malayo.
Honduras, Honduras. Malta, Malta.
Hungarian, Hungariano. Maltese, Maltano.
Hungary, Hungaria. Manchuria, Mandjuria.
1 Mariana Islands, Mariani.
India, India.
Indian, Indiano.
Ionia, ( .4sia Minov), Ionia.
Ireland, Irlando.
I Marquesas Islands, Marquesas.
Martinique, Martinika.
Mauritius, Maurico.
Mayorca, Mayorka.
Irish(man), Irlandano. Media, Media.
Istria, Istria. Medes, Medi.
Istrian, Tstriano. Mediterranean (Sen), Meditera-
Italian, Italiano. ne-a, -0.
Ivory Coast, Ivora Rivo. Mesopotamia, Mezopotamia.
Mexico (country), Mexikia. Poland, Polonia.
Mexican, Mexikiano. Pole, Polono.
Mexico City, Mexiko. Polynesia, Polinezia.
Mexican, Mexikano. Polynesian, Polineziano.
Minorca, Minorka. Pomerania, Pomerania.
Moldavia, hloldavia. Pomeranian, Pomeraniano.
Moldavian, Moldaviano. Porto-Rico, Porto-Riko.
Monaco, Monako, Monakano. Portugal, Portugal.
Mongolia, Mongolia. Portuguese, Portugalano.
Montenegro, Montenegro, Mon- Posen, ( p ~ o v i n c e ) , Posnia, Pos-
ienegrano. niano.
Horavia, Moravia. Presides (islands), Prezidii.
Moravian, Moraviano. Principe (island), Principe.
Morocco, Maroko. Provencal, Provencano.
Moroccan, Marokano. Provence (in F v a ~ z c ~Provenco.
Prussia, Prusia.
Natal, Natal. Prussian. Prusiano.
Navarre, Navara.
Netherlands, Nederlando. Queensiand, Quinslando.
New Caledonia, Nova Kaledonia. Queenslander, Quinslandano.
Nicaragua, Nikaragua.
Nigeria, Nigeria.
Norman, Normando.
Normandy, Normandia.
I Red Sea, Reda Maro.
Reunion or Bourbon (island). Re-
Norway, Norvegia. union.
Norwegian, Norvegiano. Reuss, Reus.
Nubia, Nubia. Rhine, Rheno.
Nubian, Nubiano. Rhodesia, Rhodezia.
Newfoundland, Novlando. Rocky Mountains, Rokoza Monti.
Newfoundlander, Novlandano. Roumania, Rumania.
New Gulnea, Nova Guinea. Roumanian, Rumaniano.
New South Wales, Nov-Sud-Wals. Roumelia, Rumelia.
New Zealand, Nova Zelando. Roumelian, Rumeliano.
Russia, Rusia.
Oceania, Oceania. Russian, Rusiano.
Orange River Colony, Oranjia.
Orkney Islands, Orkadi. Sahara, Sahara.
Samaria, Samaria.
Pacific (Ocean), Pacifik-a, -0. Samaritan, Samariano.
Palatinate, Palatenio. Samoa (zslarrds), Samoa.
Palestine, Palestina. Saint Gall, San-Gall.
Panama, Panama. Saint Helena, Sant Helena.
Parazuay, Paraguay. San Domingo, San Domingo.
Parthia, Partia. San Marino, San Marino.
Parthian, Partiano. San Salvador, San Salvador.
Patagonia, Patagonia. San Thomas ( ~ s l a n d )San
, Thome.
Patagonian, Patagoniano. Sardinia, Sardinia.
Peru, Peru. Sardinian, Sardiniano.
Peruvian, Peruano. Sarmatia, Sarmatia.
Philippines (islands), Filipini. Sarmatian, Sarmato.
Philippine ( m a n ) , Filipinano. Savoy, Savoya, Savopano.
Piedmont, Piemont. Saxon, Saxono.
Piedmontese, Piemontano. Saxony, Saxonia.
Scandinavia, Skandinavia, Skan- Thracian, Trako.
dinaviano. Thuringia, Turingia.
Scotland, Scotia. Togo (Togoland), Togo.
Scotch(man), Scot, Skoto. Tonga (islands). Tonga.
Scythia, Skitia. ~ o n i u i n ,~ o n k i n o ,yonkinano.
Scythian, Skito. Transylvania, Transilvania.
Senegal, Senegal. Transylvanian, Transilvaniano.
Senegalese, Senegalano. Transvaal. Transvalo, Transval-
Serbia, Serbia. ano.
Serbian, Serbiano. Trinidad, Trinidad.
Siam, Siam. Tripoli, (tow~z),Tripolis.
Siamese, Siamano. Tripoli (co~cvtrv), Tripolito.
Siberia, Siberia. Tripolitan, Tripolitano.
Siberian, Siberiano. Tunis (tow?), Tunis.
Sicily, Sicilia. Tunis (Prm~i~ice),Tunizia.
Sicilian, Siciliano. Tunisian, Tuniziano.
Sierra Leone, Sierra 1.eone. Turk, Turko.
Silesia, Silezia. Turkestan, Turkcst an.
Silesisn, Sileziano. Turkey, Turkia.
Slavonia, Slavonin. Tuscan, Toskano.
Somali, Sornalo, -i. Tuscany, Toskania.
Somaliland, Somali-lando Tyrol, Tirolo.
Soudan, Sudan. Tyrolese, Tirolano.
Soudanese, Sudrtnario.
Sporades (zslnr~N'c),Spirradi. Ural (riv., moziwt.), TTral-o,-i.
Styria, Stiria. Uruguay, Uruguay.
Styrian, Stirinno. United States of N.A., U.S.A.,
Sumatra, Sumatra. Usa: Usano ( Y n ~ ? k e e .<-I
Surinam (Dutch G~richi?n),Suri- can).
Swabia, Suahia. Venezuela, Venezuela.
Swabian. Suabiano. Venezuelan, Venezuelano.
Sweden,. Suedia, Victoria, (Aztstralin), Viktoria.
Swedish, Suedo. Volhynia, Volinia.
Swiss, Suisiano. Volhynian, S'oliniano.
Switzerland, Si~isia. Vosges (nzorintair7~),Vogesi
Syria, Siria.
Syrian, Sirinno.
Waiachia, T'alakia.
Tartar, Tartaro. Waiachian, Valakiano.
Tartary, Tartaria. Westphalia, Vestfalia.
Tasmania, Tasmania. Westphallan, Vestialiano.
Tasmanian, Tasnlaniano. Wurtemberg, Wurtemberg.
Thessaly, Tesalia. Wurtamberger, \Viirteml>ergano.
Thessalian, Tesaliano.
Thibet, Tibet, Tibet. Zanzibar, Zanzi1,ar.
Thibetan, Tihet ano. Zulu, Zuluo.
Thrace, Tralria. Zululand, Zul ul and.