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System of units


Circuit analysis the process of determining the voltage across or current through the element. There
are two types of element in circuit, passive element and another is active element. Active element is
capable of producing energy and passive element is not.

Resistor, inductor, capacitor are passive elements. Generator, batteries and Operational amplifier
are typical active elements

Batteries and generators are approximately regarded as ideal voltage sources

An ideal independent source is an active element which deliver the specified current or voltage
that is completely independent of other circuit elements

An ideal dependent source (or controlled source) is an active element in which the source quantity is
controlled by another element’s voltage or current. These controlled sources are indicates as
diamond symbols

Voltage control voltage source (VCVS), VCCS, CCVS, CCCS


The current through the a conductor between two points is directly proportional to the potential
difference across the two points( i  v / r ).here r is proportional constant and also called as

All resistances are not obey the ohms law. The resistance which will obey the ohms law known as
linear resistance. A non linear resistance doesn’t obey the ohms law

Kirchhoff reformulate the ohm law as follows the current density (J) is directly proportional to
applied electric field (E). here conductivity(  ) is the proportional constant ( J   E )
Ohms law only valid up to temperature is kept at constant and it is dependent of nature of the

Ohms law is not applicable for active sources (generator.etc) because the voltage and current
relation of the source is non linear

Conductivity is differ from conductance. The reciprocal of resistivity (or specific resistance) is
conductivity and the reciprocal of resistance is conductance. It can also stated as follows,
conductance is the ability of an element to conduct the electric current

The unit of specific resistance is m and the unit of conductivity is simens or /m

Specific resistance of the material increase with increasing in temperature. Increase in pressure also
increase the resistivity (but except lithium and calcium). Resistivity also increase due to increase in


At any node or junction, the sum of currents flowing into that node is equal to the sum of currents
flowing out of that node. Kirchhoff current law based on the conservation of charges.

Kirchhoff laws are applicable to any lumped electric circuit whether it linear, Non linear, variant ,
invariant, active or passive


The directed sum of the electrical potential differences around any closed network is zero. This law
is based on the conservation of energy

In KVL there is an assumption for no fluctuating magnetic field doesn’t involved in loop

Basically Kirchhoff laws are independent of nature of the elements


Nodal analysis based on the KCL. The reference node is known as datum node

Three types of ground are 1. Common ground 2. Ground 3.chasis ground


Mesh analysis based on the KVL. This method is only applicable for the planar circuits only. Planar
circuit means the circuit contains no elements which are cross the other elements

Mesh is the loop which doesn’t contain any other loops with in it

Linear property of element describing a linear relationship between cause and effect or input and
output. The property is the combination of both homogeneity (scaling) property and addictive

The homogeneity property states that if the input is multiplied by constant K, then output also
multiple of constant K
The addictive property states that the response to a sum of inputs is the sum of the responses to
each input added separately


It states that a linear two terminal circuit can be replaced by an equivalent circuit consisting of a
voltage source VTH in series with a resistor RTH where VTH is the open circuit voltage at the terminals
and RTH is the input or equivalent resistance at the terminals when the independent sources are
turned off


Adding resistor or load in parallel system causes the increase in current flow as well as power flow,
but we have to understand the following things

The equivalent resistor of the network will be reduced after adding the new resistor or load. If the
new resistor value is lower than equivalent resistor(as before) then maximum current will flow
through the new resistor (due to very low resistance) and it takes the maximum power from source


Short circuit across R3 causes the the least path for current flow, so obviously R1 and R2 resistances
also negligible due to the short circuit. Even if the short circuit occurs at across the R2 then it also
make the short circuit for all parallel branches. Series resistance only taken in account if the short
circuit occurred at parallel branch (ex a diagram)

We take B diagram, here the short circuit occurred at across R3 resistance, so the current will doesn’t
flow through R3 and R2 due to the negligible resistance, but the current will also flow through the R1
because it was protected by R4 resistance


Hopkinson law is also known as ohms law for magnetic circuit. It states that the magneto motive
force( is equal to the product of flux and the reluctance

F   m

The total flux produced by element is directly proportional to the flow of current (   Li ), here L is
the proportional constant

Inductance of the material purely depends on its dimensions

It act as short circuit for DC

Voltage across the inductor is v  L
Current flow through the inductor i  vdt

Instantaneous power of the inductor is p  Li and the average power of the inductor is zero
1 2
Energy stored in inductor is Li

The value of charge is directly proportional to applied voltage ( q  Cv ) and the C is proportional

Capacitance doesn’t depend on voltage or charge (from above equation). It only depends on the
physical dimensions

C   A / d (this equation only applicable to parallel plate capacitor)

It act as a open circuit for the DC (but in dc supply it can charging. It could not discharge)

The leakage resistance is very high for the capacitor(around 100M ohm). It is due to the property of
dielectric medium. So in equivalent circuit the leakage resistance is placed parallel to capacitance


The voltage division rule only applicable for pure series circuits only(single loop). The current must
be same for validity of voltage division. Try avoid the this rule for kvl circuits which had a more loops

v1  v
R1  R2


The current division rule is only applicable if there is only parallel elements(pure parallel ckt). In
simply words the current must be split in each branch. If any series element is found then avoid this

i1  i
R1  R2

Time constant of the circuit is time required for the response to decay (while discharging)to a factor
of 1/e or 36.8% of its initial value or time required to reach the 63.2% of its original value(while

For RC circuit  = R*C

For RL circuit  =L/R



The two wattmeter method is used for measure the 3phase power whether load is balanced or
unbalanced. the idea of two wattmeter method is derived from measure the 3 phase power(4 wire
system) by using 3 wattmeter method. While connecting three wattmeter on each phase the voltage
must be connected in between of any two phase or with neutral. So any one of the wattmeter will
indicate the zero value(if the pressure coil is connected in the line voltage). So it is not necessary to
place it. We can remove the one wattmeter and 2 wattmeter is enough for measure the 3 phase

By blondal theorem to measure the power in N conductors there is N wattmeters required (each
current coil is connected in N lines and the one end of all pressure coil is connected to the common
point. This common point is not part of N conductor)if the common point is to be any one from N
conductors then N-1 wattmeter sufficiently. So two wattmeter method applicable for 3 ph 3 wire
system (if the common point is any one of the line) and 3ph 4wire system (we neglect the neutral
wire and common point should be placed in any one of the line)
3 phase power measurement by 3 wattmeter method

here the common point is o this

terminal may connected to the neutral where the load is star connection or any one of the terminal
if the load is delta connection. And that corresponding meter will indicate the zero power so it is not

3 phase power measurement by using two wattmeter method

The total real power absorbed by load can be calculated by PT  P1  P2

The total reactive power can be calculated by QT  3(P2  P1 ) , from above formula we can also
calculate the power factor by using following relation

3(P2  P1 ) Q
  tan 1 because   tan 1 T
(P2  P1 ) PT

From the result of two wattmeter we can conclude the following things

If P1 = P2 then the load is resistive

If P2 > P1 then the load is inductive reactive ( Q is absorbed)

If P2 < P1 then the load is capacitive reactive (Q is delivered)

Port is the part of the device or element where the current may enter or leave from the
circuit. Two terminal devices (resistor, capacitor, inductor) are also known as one port
Opamp, transistor, transformers are two port networks. Because it has a two separate port
for input and output. We will assume that two port networks doesn’t has any active source
while solving the problem

The z parameters of two port networks can be calculated by current and voltage (one port
must be open circuited) at one port and voltage and current of the another port. In simply
the process like a superposition theorem

Z11 is the open circuit input impedance Z12 is the open circuit transfer impedance from port
1 to port 2
Z11 and Z22 are called as driving point impedance. Z12 and Z21 are called transfer impedance
If Z11 = Z22 then two port network is said to be symmetrical network
When two port network is linear and doesn’t have any dependent source then transfer
impedance are equal (Z12 = Z21) and it said to be a reciprocal network
Generally Z parameters can findout easily if the network is T and findingout the Y
parameters easily if the network is PI
(don’t memorize this formula, try to develop from any of the circuit model)

b  l  n 1
Here b is the no of branch, l is the no of independent loop and n is the no of nodes
Bridge circuit is used to find out the unknown resistance or inductance or capacitance with
the help of known parameters. It contains galvanometer (for DC bridge, voltmeter or
ammeter for AC), resistance bridge, supply source

It is based on the voltage division principle

If V1= V2 then no current flow through meter and we may conclude the following derivation
V1  Vs (as per voltage division rule)
Z1  Z 2

V2  Vs
Z3  Z x

Z2 Zx

Z1  Z 2 Z 3  Z x
While solving above equation we may get

Z 2 Z 3  Z1Z x (multiplication of diagonal element is easy trick for remember this formula)


RMS is the value of ac parameters which gives the same power as much as dc for the same
RMS can be obtained by following
1 2
T 0
X rms  x dt (here 1/T denotes the finding average)

This triangle denotes the relation between apparent power, real power and reactive power.
This triangle can be drawn in two shapes which are based on the reactive power

here S is the apparent power (or complex power) Q is reactive

power ( this diagram denotes the +ve reactive power. The reactive power is absorbed.)
from this diagram(merging of
possible shapes of power triangle) we may conclude the following things if Q = +ve means
load absorbs the reactive power from the source. If Q= -ve means load delivers the reactive
power to the source. If Q= 0 no reactive power is neither absorbed nor delivered
Complex power or apparent power is the sum of reactive power and real power.
Capacitors are installed parallel with load to improve the power factor. We need to calculate
the capacitance value to improve the desired power factor. Here the important thing is the
real power of the load is doesn’t altered. We concentrate on reduce the reactive supply
form the source. (Some persons may asks if the power factor is improved on load, then the
source may delivered the additional real power to that load. But it is not happened, because
the true power only depends on the level of load. If power factor improves, then the burden
of the source will be reduced that means the reduction in reactive power requirement
happened. But the required real power doesn’t change even if the power factor is improved
or not)
The formula for finding the capacitance value
C = change in reactive power/ angular frequency * square of the voltage
(To understand the above formula, following things will be helpful
Change in reactive power denotes the amount of reactive power to be added to the load

We all know the power formula for capacitor Pc  . If we further simplify this equation
we get the following equation Pc  CV 2
If we divide the required reactive power by capacitor power we get the dimensionless
numerical value. But we need the capacitance value so transferred C to the other side of the
While choosing the capacitor value it purely depends on the peak voltage. Always chosen
the capacitor voltage greater than circuit operating peak voltage
Find the value of capacitor to improve the load power factor to 0.95 from 0.8 while
connected in 120(rms) volt 60Hz power line and the load absorbs 4Kw real power?
First the real power is the intermediate term for both reactive power calculation(don’t
forget this)
First find out the reactive power absorbed by the load at 0.8pf
4000/0.8 = 5KVA
(Most of us made a mistake by subtracting the real power form apparent power for find out
the reactive power. But it is wrong because these are vector quantity. So arithmetic
subtraction is invalid here)
X= 3KVAR (this is the reactive power absorbed by the load at 0.8pf)
Now we have find out the new reactive power absorbed by the load at 0.95pf. be aware
here we only take a real power for the operation. Because it only constant in power factor
improvement. If we take apparent power for calculation we get the wrong result
4000/0.95= 4210.5KVA
The new reactive power is √4210.52 – 40002= 1314.6KVAR
Now find the difference of reactive power is 3000 – 1314.6 = 1685.6KVAR
Now apply the formula
1685.6/2*pi*1202 =310.5microF
Calculations are based on RMS values only. But chosen of capacitance depends the peak
Resonance is the one of the frequency response of the RLC circuit. It may series or parallel
circuit. When XL=Xc the net reactance will be zero( be aware not L=R). the total current flow
only depends on the resistance only in series resonance. Because Z = R in the
power factor is unity. Impedance and voltage is minimum at series resonance
At resonance condition XL=XC, solving this equation we may get the resonance frequency
formula f 0 
2 LC

At resonance condition the current in series RLC circuit will be maximum. So maximum
power delivered at resonant frequency.
Two frequencies which are near to the resonant frequency is known as cut off frequencies
or half power frequencies or 3dB points. Upper cut off frequency is slightly higher than
resonant frequency. Lower cut off frequency is the slightly lesser than resonant frequency.
The cut off frequencies are marked at where the current is 1/√2 times of peak value.(that’s
why it is called half power frequency. Because i/√2*v/√2 = p/2)
Q factor defined in many ways for the resonance circuit. It is defined as the ratio of the
voltage across the inductor or capacitor to the applied voltage
Solving by above definition we may get the following Q = V C/V
Q = iXc/iR = ωL/R (incase of inductor)
Q = 1/ωCR (incase of capacitor)
Q = (1/R)√LC (common formula)
max .energy stored
Q factor also defined as Q  2 this also gives same formula
energy, dissipated / cycle

Bandwidth defined as the area where the current limit is in between 1/√2 to maximum. In
simple way it is the area where the power is greater than or equal to half power of the
circuit. Mathematically band width is calculated as the difference of half power frequencies
Q or selectivity = here f 2  f1 is band width
f 2  f1

Q factor also defined in the term of band width (Q = resonant frequency/ band width). This
is also known as selectivity. Selectivity is the ability of the circuit for respond to a certain
From above we may also get the voltage across the inductor or capacitor. It should be Q
times of supply voltage.(Vc or VL greater than supply voltage)

Resonant frequency can be also denoted in terms of cut off frequencies ( 0  12 )

We can derive the various formulas by comparing all Q factor formula. Try to find the band
width formula interms of R,L,C
In parallel resonance circuit(also known as tuned circuit or rejector circuit or anti resonant
circuit) XL=XC but here current is minimum and the voltage is maximum or impedance is
maximum or current is minimum(because capacitor and inductor are connected in parallel).
The power factor is unity
The resonant frequency is calculated by the following formula which is also same for series
resonance f 0 
2 LC

In parallel resonance circuit Z = L/CR (it is also called as dynamic resistance)

Here Q factor is defined as the ratio of capacitor current or inductor current to the resonant
circuit current. But the deriving formula for parallel resonance is also same as Q factor
formula is series resonance( it is due to the effect of impedance formula in parallel
Q = (V/Xc)/(V/Z) = ωL/R (incase of inductor)
Q = 1/ωCR (incase of capacitor)
Q = (1/R)√LC (common formula)
The bandwidth formula is same as series resonance