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Dakota people

The Dakota people are a Native American tribe and First Nations band government
Dakota
in North America. They compose two of the three main subcultures of the Sioux
/ˈsuː/ people, and are typically divided into the Eastern Dakota and the Western
Dakota.

The Eastern Dakota are the Santee (Isáŋyathi or Isáŋ-athi; "knife" + "encampment",
″dwells at the place of knife flint″), who reside in the eastern Dakotas, central
Minnesota and northern Iowa. They have federally recognized tribes established in
several places.

The Western Dakota are the Yankton, and the Yanktonai (Iháŋktȟuŋwaŋ and
Iháŋktȟuŋwaŋna; "Village-at-the-end" and "Little village-at-the-end"), who reside in
the Missouri River area. The Yankton-Yanktonai are collectively also referred to by
the endonym Wičhíyena (″Those Who Speak Like Men″). They also have distinct
Charles Alex Eastman (1858–1939),
federally recognized tribes.
physician, author, and co-founder of
In the past the Western Dakota have been erroneously classified as Nakota, a branch the Boy Scouts of America
of the Sioux who moved further west. The latter are now located in Montana and Total population
across the border in Canada, where they are known asStoney.[2]
(20,460 (2010)[1])
Regions with significant
populations

Contents United States (South Dakota,


Minnesota, Nebraska, Montana,
Name
North Dakota),
Ethnic groups Canada (Manitoba,
History Saskatchewan)
Pre-history
First contacts with Europeans
Languages
Dakota War of 1862 Dakota,[1] English
Reserves and First Nations Religion
Modern reservations, reserves, and communities of the Sioux Christianity (incl. syncretistic forms),
Daily Life traditional tribal religion, Native
Language American Church, Wocekiye
Modern geographic divisions Related ethnic groups
Santee (Isáŋyathi or Eastern Dakota)
Iháŋkthuŋwaŋ-Iháŋkthuŋwaŋna (Yankton-Yanktonai or Western
Lakota, Assiniboine, Stoney
Dakota) (Nakota), and other Sioux
Notable Dakota people
Historical
Contemporary
By individual tribe

Footnotes
Further reading
External links
Name
The word Dakota means "ally" in the Dakota language, and their autonyms include Ikčé Wičhášta ("Indian people") and Dakhóta
Oyáte ("Dakota people").[3]

Ethnic groups
The Eastern and Western Dakota are two of the three groupings belonging to the Sioux nation (also called Dakota in a broad sense),
the third being the Lakota (Thítȟuŋwaŋ or Teton). The three groupings speak dialects that are still relatively mutually intelligible.
This is referred to as a common language, Dakota-Lakota, orSioux.[4]

The other two languages of the Dakotan dialect continuum, Assiniboine and Stoney (spoken by the Nakota or Nakoda peoples), have
[5]
grown widely or completely unintelligible to Dakota and Lakota speakers.

The Dakota include the following bands:

Santee division (Eastern Dakota)(Isáŋyathi, meaning "knife


camp"[3])[5]

Mdewakanton (Bdewékhaŋthuŋwaŋ "Spirit Lake Village" or "people


of the mystic lake"[3])[5]

notable persons: Taoyateduta

Sisseton (Sisíthuŋwaŋ, translating to "swamp/lake/fish scale


village"[3])
Wahpekute (Waȟpékhute, "Leaf Archers")[5]

notable persons: Inkpaduta

Wahpeton (Waȟpéthuŋwaŋ, "Leaf Village")[5]


Yankton-Yanktonai division (Western Dakota) (Wičhíyena)

Yankton (Iháŋkthuŋwaŋ, "End Village")[5]


Yanktonai (Iháŋkthuŋwaŋna, "Little End Village")[5]

Upper Yanktonai
Húŋkpathina or Lower Yanktonai [6]

The majority of the Santee live on reservations, reserves, and communities in Zitkala-Sa (1876—1938), Yankton
Minnesota, Nebraska, South Dakota, North Dakota, and Canada. However some of author, photographed by Joseph
those in the north woods of Minnesota remain at the Ottertail Lake and Inspiration Keiley

Peak areas. They were never sent to reservations as they were protected by settlers
whom they had befriended.

After the Dakota War of 1862, many Santee were sent to Crow Creek Indian Reservation; in 1864 some from the Crow Creek
Reservation were sent to theSantee Sioux Reservation.

The Bdewákaŋthuŋwaŋ (Mdewakanton) live predominantly at thePrairie Island and Shakopee reservationsin Minnesota.

Most of the Yankton live on the Yankton Indian Reservation in southeastern South Dakota. Some Yankton live on the Lower Brule
Indian Reservation and Crow Creek Reservation, which is also occupied by the Lower Yanktonai.

The Upper Yanktonai live in the northern part of Standing Rock Reservation, on the Spirit Lake Reservation in central North Dakota,
and in the eastern half of the Fort Peck Indian Reservation in northeastern Montana. In addition, they reside at several Canadian
reserves, including Birdtail, Oak Lake, and Whitecap (formerly Moose Woods).
History

Pre-history
It's was difficult to say exactly where the Dakota people came from before the recorded era. The closest Siouan-speaking peoples to
them were the Chiwere, the oldest existing Siouan language that is more of a proto-Siouan form that predates all the others. Despite
this, the Dakota language, Lakotaiapi, is actually very closely related to that of the Dhegihan & Hokan Siouan peoples-- both of
whom claim to have come from Ohio from the 13th century back.

A single line of older history seems to have survived from the Dakotas-- that they had come to live with the Winnebago, but they
soon became angry and ordered them to leave. Combining this with the histories of the Dhegihans, it's possible to assume that the
ancestors of the Dakota people may have also been refugees from further east who started taking refuge with other Siouan allies--
possibly even predating the move of the Dhegihan Sioux peoples. It could have either been overcrowding or the disruption the
Dhegihans made to commerce and trade along the Mississippi River when they came to the Plains that forced the Winnebago to send
the first Dakota off to find a new homeland. This,however, is only a guess. [7]

First contacts with Europeans


The Dakota Oyate are said to have lived in Minnesota prior to the 18th century. [3][8] Most of their early history was recorded
(haphazardly, at that) by a white man named James Walker close to the end of the 19th century, as he offered aid among the Lakota/
Dakota people. He recorded much of what he knew in three books-- Lakota Myth, Lakota Belief & Ritual & Lakota Society.
Seemingly, they were originally one people with one chief who grew and developed four sub-factions over time, each with their own
equal chiefs. These two groups also evolved two distinct dialects of their language, Nakota & Dakota. Their capitol was situated at a
place known as Ble Wakan, (Boo-reh wah-kaw) which is currently identified as Lake Mille Lac.[9]

Late in the 17th century, the Dakota entered into an alliance with French merchants. [10] The French were trying to gain an advantage
in the struggle for theNorth American fur tradeagainst the English, who had recently established the Hudson's Bay Company. While
many people believe that the name Sioux derives from an Ojibwe racial slur directed towards them, it is far more likely that the title
Sioux came from the early French explorers. They originally named the Mississippi River the direct French translation for the Ojibwe
name, "Great River," which was Sioux Tango, at least, before the other Ojibwe name for the river, Michi Ziibi, managed to stick. The
Dakota were known to be directly related to the source of the River
.

It's difficult to say exactly what occurred or why, but close to the end of the 17th century, some sort of war occurred between Siouan
and Algonquian peoples between Lake Superior and the Mississippi River. The Dakota were driven away from the River and off onto
the plains, where they were forced to wage a long military campaign to displace several lesser known native tribes in the region of
North & South Dakota. Also affected in this original war were the Fox/ Menominee people (who moved from the western shore of
Lake Superior to the border region of Michigan & Wisconsin), the Winnebago & the Illinois Confederacy (who broke and were
moved across the Mississippi River by the French). Displaced, local Algonquian, Caddoan, Chiwere & Dhegihan peoples already on
the Plains fought back fiercely for decades before everything settled. Many tribes were completely, or nearly, wiped out during this
time.

Seemingly, after this there was a split among the Dakota people and two new groups-- the Hohe & the Lakota-- split off from them.
While they originally operated as their own separate nations, it appears that they eventually merged back together to form the Oceti
Sakowin, Seven Fire Council, by the early-mid 19th century. [11] The Hohe returned to Minnesota, where they earned the nickname
Asinii Bwaan, or Stone Sioux, from the Ojibwe. [12] To this day, the Hohe are primarily known as the Assiniboine. Many of those
who left were part of the Nakota and, due to this, they lost military superiority among their people to the Dakota Santee Sioux. It was
roughly around this point that all these peoples began to generally refer to themselves as the Dakota People. [13] After their far later
defeat by the United States, the Nakota would dissolve and merge with the Lakota & Dakota and the Dakota would shrink. Only the
smallest of the four groups, the Lakota, managed to thrive and grow in captivity. Despite this, all four dialects of the Lakotaiapi
language managed to survive to modern day
.
According to Lakota Society, the names of the seven tribes seem to have been divided as such:

Nakota- Mdewakan & Wahepetonwan (Leaf Shooter)


Dakota- Isan'ati (Santee) & Sissetonwan
Hohe- Yankton (Crooked Ones) & Yanktonai (Followed the Crooked Ones)
Lakota- Titonwan

Confusion stems from the reorganization of the tribes afterward, and the fact that many of them went my multiple
nicknames-- even to the point that Walker misidentified the three names of the Dakota people as the eton,
T Sicangu
& Brule. Also, the Wahepeton are currently associated with the Dakota & as are the Mdewakan. Plus, many people
associated with this confederation fled to Canada when all hope was lost and peoples were split across borders.

Dakota War of 1862


By 1862, shortly after a failed crop the year before and a winter starvation,
the federal payment was late. The local traders would not issue any more
credit to the Santee and one trader, Andrew Myrick, went so far as to say, "If
they're hungry, let them eat grass."[14] On August 17, 1862, the Dakota War
began when a few Santee men murdered a white farmer and most of his
family. They inspired further attacks on white settlements along the
Minnesota River. The Santee attacked the trading post. Later settlers found
Myrick among the dead with his mouth stuffed full of grass.[15]

On November 5, 1862 in Minnesota, in courts-martial, 303 Santee Dakota Siege of New Ulm, August 19, 1862.
were found guilty of rape and murder of hundreds of American settlers. They
were sentenced to be hanged. No attorneys or witness were allowed as a
defense for the accused, and many were convicted in less than five minutes
of court time with the judge.[16] President Abraham Lincoln commuted the
death sentence of 284 of the warriors, while signing off on the execution of
38 Santee men by hanging on December 26, 1862 in Mankato, Minnesota.
Forty-three-year-old Alexander Wilkin commanded the executions, which
together amounted to the largest single mass execution in U.S. history.[17]

Afterwards, the US suspended treaty annuities to the Dakota for four years
and awarded the money to the white victims and their families. The men
remanded by order of President Lincoln were sent to a prison in Iowa, where
more than half died.[16] Drawing of the mass hanging of Dakota in
Mankato, Minnesota
During and after the revolt, many Santee and their kin fled Minnesota and
Eastern Dakota to Canada, or settled in the James River Valley in a short-
lived reservation before being forced to move to Crow Creek Reservation on the east bank of the Missouri.[16] A few joined the
.[16]
Yanktonai and moved further west to join with theLakota bands to continue their struggle against the United States military

Others were able to remain in Minnesota and the east, in small reservations existing into the 21st century, including Sisseton-
Wahpeton, Flandreau, and Devils Lake (Spirit Lake or Fort Totten) Reservations in the Dakotas. Some ended up in Nebraska, where
the Santee Sioux Tribe today has a reservation on the south bank of the Missouri.

Those who fled to Canada now have descendants residing on nine small Dakota Reserves, five of which are located in Manitoba
(Sioux Valley, Dakota Plains, Dakota Tipi, Birdtail Creek, and Oak Lake [Pipestone]) and the remaining four (Standing Buffalo,
Moose Woods [White Cap], Round Plain [Wahpeton], and Wood Mountain) in Saskatchewan.

Reserves and First Nations


In Minnesota, the treaties of Traverse des Sioux and Mendota in 1851 left the Dakota with a reservation 20 miles (32 km) wide on
each side of the Minnesota River.

In Canada, the Canadian government recognizes the tribal community as First Nations. The land holdings of these First Nations are
called Indian Reserves.

Modern reservations, reserves, and communities of the Sioux


Reserve/Reservation[18] Community Bands residing Location

Hunkpapa, Upper Yanktonai


(Pabaksa), Sisseton, Wahpeton, and
the Hudesabina (Red Bottom),
Wadopabina (Canoe Paddler),
Fort Peck Indian Assiniboine and Sioux Wadopahnatonwan (Canoe Paddlerrs Montana,
Reservation Tribes Who Live on the Prairie), United States
Sahiyaiyeskabi (Plains Cree-
Speakers), Inyantonwanbina (Stone
People) and Fat Horse Band of the
Assiniboine
Spirit Lake Reservation
Spirit Lake Tribe
(Formerly Devil's Lake North Dakota,
Wahpeton, Sisseton, Upper Yanktonai
(Mni Wakan Oyate) USA
Reservation)

North Dakota,
Standing Rock Indian
Standing Rock Sioux Tribe Upper Yanktonai, Hunkpapa South Dakota,
Reservation
USA
Lake Traverse Indian South Dakota,
Sisseton Wahpeton Oyate Sisseton, Wahpeton
Reservation USA
Flandreau Indian Flandreau Santee Sioux Mdewakanton, Wahpekute, South Dakota,
Reservation Tribe Wahpeton USA
Crow Creek Indian South Dakota,
Crow Creek Sioux Tribe Lower Yanktonai
Reservation USA
Yankton Sioux Indian South Dakota,
Yankton Sioux Tribe Yankton
Reservation USA
Upper Sioux Community
Upper Sioux Indian Minnesota,
Mdewakanton, Sisseton, Wahpeton
Reservation (Pejuhutazizi Oyate) USA

Lower Sioux Indian Lower Sioux Indian Minnesota,


Mdewakanton, Wahpekute
Reservation Community USA
Shakopee-Mdewakanton
Indian Reservation
Shakopee Mdewakanton Minnesota,
(Formerly Prior Lake Indian Mdewakanton, Wahpekute
Sioux Community USA
Reservation)

Prairie Island Indian Prairie Island Indian Minnesota,


Mdewakanton, Wahpekute
Community Community USA
Nebraska,
Santee Indian Reservation Santee Sioux Nation Mdewakanton, Wahpekute
USA
Sioux Valley Dakota Nation
Sisseton, Mdewakanton, Wahpeton, Manitoba,
Reserve, Fishing Station Sioux Valley First Nation
Wahpekute Canada
62A Reserve*
Dakota Plains Indian Dakota Plains Wahpeton Manitoba,
Wahpeton, Sisseton
Reserve 6A First Nation Canada
Manitoba,
Dakota Tipi 1 Reserve Dakota Tipi First Nation Wahpeton
Canada
Birdtail Creek 57 Reserve,
Birdtail Hay Lands 57A Manitoba,
Birdtail Sioux First Nation Mdewakanton, Wahpekute, Yanktonai
Reserve, Fishing Station Canada
62A Reserve*
Canupawakpa Dakota First Canupawakpa Dakota First Wahpekute, Wahpeton, Yanktonai Manitoba,
Nation, Oak Lake 59A Nation Canada
Reserve, Fishing Station
62A Reserve*
Standing Buffalo 78 Standing Buffalo Dakota Saskatchewan,
Sisseton, Wahpeton
Reserve First Nation Canada
Whitecap Dakota First Saskatchewan,
Whitecap 94 Reserve Wahpeton, Sisseton
Nation Canada
Dakota Plains Wahpeton Dakota Plains Wahpeton Manitoba,
Wahpeton
Reserve First Nation Canada
Wood Mountain 160
Reserve, Treaty Four Saskatchewan,
Wood Mountain Hunkpapa
Reserve Grounds Indian Canada
Reserve No. 77*

(* Reserves shared with other First Nations)

Daily Life
Hints from legends claim that they were originally more settled and did farm corn, earth beans & pumpkins in their original
homeland. They also harvested local plants, such as Tipsila (a wild North American turnip), American Wild Rice, Various types of
nuts & berries & some form of wild potato & hunted animals like the Buffalo, whom the native people always held in high regard. As
per the rumors, they always tried to use every part of the Buffalo and never be wasteful. Their homes would have still been tipis, or
echnically, these homes are called Ti, or Oti. Tipi would be plural. [19]
something alike a tipi that was more permanent. T

After being driven onto the plains, life was harder. The people were unable to farm the land and took to yearly migration cycles,
following the Buffalo closely. Despite having separate homelands, the migrations would often take certain groups into the territories
of one another. This made acquiring things like corn and Tobacco extremely difficult. Tobacco, usually used as incense for holy
ceremonies and habitually smoked, had to be reserved for very special occasions & was often replaced by the abundant sweet grass
found on the Plains. Many of their ceremonies, such as one holiday that took place during the first planting season, no longer held
any relevance and the culture diverged from its original form greatly. Hope did come, however, with the horse. The Lakota managed
to win a major conflict with the Cheyenne and got horses in the deal. This revelation made many aspects of life far easier and all the
Dakota people quickly evolved into a horse-riding culture. Their word for horse is
Sunkawakan, or Holy Dog.

Each of the seven tribes were said to have been divided into smaller and smaller subgroups that eventually came down to individual
camps and there was a hierarchy of chiefs going back up to the main seven High Chiefs. Similar to the idea of Moieties from eastern
native peoples, a child was considered a relative of both his father & mother's camps and could marry no one from either. Since the
migrations generally brought them into closer proximity to the same camps over and over again, this quickly caused serious problems
for the legality of marriage. Some of the peoples chose to forego the law, but most were disturbed by the possibility, likening it to
incest in their minds, and refused. It's probably because of this, as well as constant warfare, that the acquisition of women as conquest
and slave property became more and more common among the Dakota Oyate. The women did have their own rights, but it seems like
most of these were moreso in place to preserve the honor of their men as warriors & not to really protect them. Unless they had close
relatives who they could reach, or were able to maneuver themselves to get help from another man, these women were basically
trapped. Polygamy was also allowed, as it was among most native peoples in one form or another
.

The ordering of camps was fairly simple. The tents were always organized into circles with the entrance facing the rising sun and the
most important home centered directly at the west end. The families within these tents also slept in a similar manner, with the head of
household directly across from the door, the eldest son to one side, the second eldest to the right, and little general order beyond that.
The ordering of the tents would get more and more complicated, depending on what all groups happened to be camping together
.

The chiefs could be male or female (although female chiefs were rare) and were counseled by an ever-changing group of elders,
depending on the situation. Apparently, these councilors were almost always male. A type of police force known as the Akicita were
organized to keep the peace & other military & religious societies and organizations provided different services to the community in
both war and peace-times. The Chief elected the lead Akicita, and this person nominated his officers as he saw fit, as did the other
groups. Seemingly, it was also considered a crime to turn down an offer to take on a title, with the exception of chief, once publicly
nominated. Men and women both were also allowed to be nominated to any position. Punishments for crime were said to have been
beatings, destruction of property, posting bail and, in worst-case scenarios, death. For whatever reason, posting bail was generally
looked down upon as the cowards' way out.[20]

Language
The Dakota language is a Mississippi Valley Siouan language, belonging to the greater Siouan-Catawban language family. It is
closely related to and mutually intelligible with the Lakota language, and both are also more distantly related to the Stoney and
Assiniboine languages. Dakota is written in theLatin script and has a dictionary and grammar.[1]

1. Eastern Dakota (also known as Santee-Sisseton or Dakhóta)

Santee (Isáŋyáthi: Bdewákhathuŋwaŋ, Waȟpékhute)


Sisseton (Sisíthuŋwaŋ, Waȟpéthuŋwaŋ)
2. Western Dakota (or Yankton-Yanktonai or Dakȟóta)

Yankton (Iháŋktȟuŋwaŋ)
Yanktonai (Iháŋktȟuŋwaŋna)

Upper Yanktonai (Wičhíyena)

Modern geographic divisions


The Dakota maintain many separate tribal governments scattered across several reservations and communities in North America: in
the Dakotas, Minnesota, Nebraska, and Montana in the United States; and in
Manitoba, southern Saskatchewan in Canada.

The earliest known European record of the Dakota identified them in Minnesota, Iowa, and Wisconsin. After the introduction of the
horse in the early 18th century, the Sioux dominated larger areas of land—from present day Central Canada to the Platte River, from
Minnesota to the Yellowstone River, including the Powder River country.[21]

Santee (Isáŋyathi or Eastern Dakota)


The Santee migrated north and westward from the Southeast United States, first into Ohio, then to Minnesota. Some came up from
the Santee River and Lake Marion, area of South Carolina. The Santee River was named after them, and some of their ancestors'
ancient earthwork mounds have survived along the portion of the dammed-up river that forms Lake Marion. In the past, they were a
Woodland people who thrived on hunting, fishing and farming.

Migrations of Ojibwe people from the east in the 17th and 18th centuries, with muskets supplied by the French and British, pushed
the Dakota further into Minnesota and west and southward. The US gave the name "Dakota Territory" to the northern expanse west
of the Mississippi River and up to its headwaters.[22]

Iháŋkthuŋwaŋ-Iháŋkthuŋwaŋna (Yankton-Yanktonai or Western Dakota)


The Iháŋkthuŋwaŋ-Iháŋkthuŋwaŋna, also known by the anglicized spelling Yankton (Iháŋkthuŋwaŋ: "End village") and Yanktonai
(Iháŋkthuŋwaŋna: "Little end village") divisions consist of two bands or two of the seven council fires. According to Nasunatanka
and Matononpa in 1880, the Yanktonai are divided into two sub-groups known as the Upper Yanktonai and the Lower Yanktonai
(Húŋkpathina).[22]

They were involved in quarrying pipestone. The Yankton-Yanktonai moved into northern Minnesota. In the 18th century, they were
recorded as living in the Mankato (Maka To – Earth Blue/Blue Earth) region of southwestern Minnesota along the Blue Earth
River.[23]
Notable Dakota people

Historical
Inkpaduta (Scarlet Point/Red End), Wahpekute Dakota war chief
Ištáȟba (Sleepy Eye), Sisseton Dakota chief
Ohíyes’a (Charles Eastman), Dakota author, physician and reformer
Tamaha (One Eye/Standing Moose), Mdewekanton Dakota chief
Thaóyate Dúta (Little Crow/His Red Nation), Mdewakanton Dakota chief and warrior
Wanata, War Eagle, Húŋkpathina
Waŋbdí Tháŋka (Big Eagle), Mdewakanton Dakota chief
Zitkala-Ša (Gertrude Simmons Bonnin, 1876–1938), Yankton author, educator, musician and political activist

Contemporary
Ella Cara Deloria (1889 – 1971), author, ethnographer, linguist
Vine Deloria Jr. (1933–2005), Standing Rock author, activist, historian and theologian
Floyd Red Crow Westerman/Kanghi Duta (1936–2007), Sisseton Wahpeton actor
John Trudell (1946–2015), Santee activist,American Indian Movementleader
Contemporary Sioux people are also listed under the tribes to which they belong:

By individual tribe

Assiniboine and Sioux Tribes of the Fort Peck Indian Reservation


Crow Creek Sioux Tribe of the Crow Creek Reservation
Flandreau Santee Sioux Tribe
Lower Brule Sioux Tribe of the Lower Brule Reservation
Shakopee Mdewakanton Sioux Community
Sisseton Wahpeton Oyate
Standing Rock Sioux Tribe of North & South Dakota
Yankton Sioux Tribe of South Dakota

Footnotes
1. "Dakota." (http://www.ethnologue.com/language/dak)Ethnologue. Retrieved 8 January 2013.
2. for a report on the long-established blunder of misnaming as "Nakota", the ankton
Y and the Yanktonai, see the
article Nakota
3. Barry M. Pritzker, A Native American Encyclopedia: History
, Culture, and Peoples. Oxford: Oxford University Press,
2000; pg. 316
4. Parks, Douglas R.; & Rankin, Robert L., "The Siouan languages"; in DeMallie, R.J. (ed) (2001).Handbook of North
American Indians: Plains(Vol. 13, Part 1, pp. 94–114) [W. C. Sturtevant (Gen. Ed.)]. Washington, D.C., Smithsonian
Institution: pp. 97 f ; ISBN 0-16-050400-7.
5. Ullrich, Jan (2008). New Lakota Dictionary (Incorporating the Dakota Dialects of aYnkton-Yanktonai and Santee-
Sisseton). Lakota Language Consortium. pp. 1–2.ISBN 0-9761082-9-1.
6. not to be confused with the Oglalathiyóšpaye bearing the same name, "Húŋkpathila"
7. Louis F. Burns, "Osage" Archived January 2,2011, at the Wayback Machine. Oklahoma Historical Society's
Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture, retrieved 2 March 2009
8. Hyde, George E. (1984).Red Cloud's Folk: A History of the Oglala Sioux Indians
. Norman: University of Oklahoma
Press. p. 3. ISBN 0-8061-1520-3.
9. DeMallie, Raymond J. & Jahner, Elaine A. "Lakota Myth (Second Edition)" 2006.
10. van Houten, Gerry (1991).Corporate Canada An Historical Outline. Toronto: Progress Books. pp. 6–8.ISBN 0-
919396-54-2.
11. DeMallie, Raymond J. & Jahner, Elaine A. "Lakota Society" 1992.
12. Nichols, John & Nyholm, Earl "Concise Dictionary of Minnesota Ojibwe" 1994.
13. DeMallie, Raymond J. & Jahner, Elaine A. "Lakota Society" 1992.
14. Dillon, Richard (1993).North American Indian Wars. City: Booksales. p. 126.ISBN 1-55521-951-9.
15. Steil, Mark; Tim Post (2002-09-26). "Let them eat grass" (http://news.minnesota.publicradio.org/features/200209/23_
steilm_1862-m/part2.shtml). Minnesota Public Radio. Retrieved 2011-09-21.
16. War for the Plains. Time-Life Books. 1994. ISBN 0-8094-9445-0.
17. Steil, Mark; Tim Post (2002-09-26). "Execution and expulsion"(http://news.minnesota.publicradio.org/features/20020
9/23_steilm_1862-m/part5.shtml). Minnesota Public Radio. Retrieved 2011-10-02.
18. Johnson, Michael (2000).The Tribes of the Sioux Nation. Osprey Publishing Oxford.ISBN 1-85532-878-X.
19. DeMallie, Raymond J. & Jahner, Elaine A. "Lakota Myth (Second Edition)" 2006.
20. DeMallie, Raymond J. & Jahner, Elaine A. "Lakota Society" 1992.
21. Mails, Thomas E. (1973).Dog Soldiers, Bear Men, and Buffalo Women: A Study of the Societies and Cults of the
Plains Indians. Prentice-Hall, Inc. ISBN 0-13-217216-X.
22. Riggs, Stephen R. (1893).Dakota Grammar, Texts, and Ethnography. Washington Government Printing Office, Ross
& Haines, Inc. ISBN 0-87018-052-5.
23. OneRoad, Amos E.; Alanson Skinner (2003).Being Dakota: Tales and Traditions of the Sisseton and Wahpeton.
Minnesota Historical Society. ISBN 0-87351-453-X.

Further reading
Catherine J. Denial, Making Marriage: Husbands, Wives, and the American State in Dakota and Ojibwe Count
ry. St.
Paul, MN: Minnesota Historical Society Press, 2013.

External links
About Dakota Wicohan
"Dakotas". The New Student's Reference Work. 1914.

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