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Date: Exercise: Factorize the following:

Lesson: Factorization: Common Monomial Factor 1. 3p + 18


Factorization is the process of writing an expression as a product of its
factors.
Factorization is the reverse process of expansion (multiplication).
In expansion we have to remove brackets, whereas in factorization we have to
insert brackets. 2. ac + bc

3. 14x – 7x2

Example 1: Factorize 3a + 6.
HCF = 3
3a + 6 = 3(a + 2)
4. 3a3 – 6a2 + 9a
Example 2: Factorize 8x + 12x.
2

HCF = 4x
8x2 + 12x = 4x(2x + 3)

Example 3: Factorize –2x2 – 4x.


HCF = –2x
–2x2 – 4x = –2x(x + 2) 5. 6a3b2 + 5a2b4 – 17a4b

Example 4: Factorize 15x2y + 25xy2 – 50x3y3


HCF = 5xy
15x2y + 25xy2 – 50x3y3 = 5xy(3x + 5y – 10x2y2)
Date: Exercise: Factorize using the difference of two squares.

Lesson: Factorization: Difference of Two Squares 1. x2 – 81


We know the expansion of (a + b)(a – b) is a2 – b2. Thus, the
factorization of a2 – b2 is (a + b)(a – b).

a2 – b2 = (a + b)(a –
2. 25y2 – 1
b)
Example 1: Factorize 9 – x2
= 9 – x2
= 3 2 – x2
= (3 + x)(3 – x)
3. m2 – 17
Example 2: Factorize 4x2 – 25
= 4x2 – 25
= (2x)2 – 52
= (2x + 5)(2x – 5)

Example 3: Factorize 36 – 49c2


4. 36b2 – 64c2
= 36 – 49c2
= 62 – (7c)2
= (6 + 7c)(6 – 7c)

Example 4: Factorize x2 – 11
= x2 – 11
5. 3n2 – 75
= x2 – ( √ 11) 2
= (x + √ 11 )(x – √ 11 )

Example 5: Factorize 2x2 – 18


= 2x2 – 18
= 2(x2 – 9) 6. 2b2 – 8
= 2(x + 3)(x – 3)
Date: 3. x2 + 2x + 1

Lesson: Factorization: Perfect Square Trinomial


We know the expansion of (x + y)2 is x2 + 2xy + y2. Thus, the
factorization of x2 + 2xy + y2 is (x + y)2.

x2 + 2xy + y2 = (x + 4. m2 – 20m + 100


y)2
x2 – 2xy + y2 is (x –
y)2
Example 1: Factorize x2 + 10x + 25
= x2 + (2)(x)(5) + 52 5. 25y2 – 10y + 1
= (x + 5)2

Example 2: Factorize x2 – 14x + 49


= x2 – (2)(x)(7) + 72
= (x – 7)2

Example 3: Factorize 9x2 – 6x + 1 6. 4x2 – 4x + 1


= (3x)2 – (2)(3x)(1) + 12
= (3x – 1)2

Example 4: Factorize 9x2 + 12x + 4


= (3x)2 + (2)(3x)(2) + 22
= (3x + 2)2
7. 16x2 + 24x + 9

Exercise: Use perfect square rules to fully factorize the following:


1. x2 + 6x + 9

8. 25c2 – 20c + 4

2. x2 – 8x + 16