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# Grupo 001

Trabajo Extra

## Introducción a los Cálculos en Ingeniería Química

𝑔 𝑙𝑏 𝑘𝑔 𝜌𝑠𝑢𝑠𝑡
𝑃𝑀 = ∑𝑛𝑖=0 𝑦𝑖 𝑃𝑀𝑖 𝑃𝑀 = 𝑔𝑚𝑜𝑙 = 𝑙𝑏𝑚𝑜𝑙 = 𝑘𝑔𝑚𝑜𝑙 𝑝. 𝑒. 𝑟 = 𝜌
𝑠𝑢𝑠𝑡 𝑟𝑒𝑓𝑒𝑟𝑒𝑛𝑐𝑖𝑎

1𝑔 62,4𝑙𝑏 1000𝑘𝑔
𝜌𝐻2𝑂 𝑎 4°𝐶 = = = ∑𝑛𝑖=0 𝑥𝑖 = 1 𝑓𝑟𝑎𝑐𝑐𝑖ó𝑛 𝑚𝑜𝑙/𝑚𝑎𝑠𝑎 𝑉𝑒𝑠𝑝 = 1⁄𝜌
𝑐𝑚3 𝑓𝑡 3 𝑚3

## 𝑔 𝑙𝑏𝑚𝑜𝑙 𝑔𝑚𝑜𝑙 𝑝𝑎𝑟𝑡𝑒 𝑠𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑡𝑜 𝑔𝑚𝑜𝑙

[𝐶] = = = [𝑝𝑝𝑚] = 𝑚𝑜𝑙𝑎𝑟𝑖𝑑𝑎𝑑 =
𝐿 𝑓𝑡 3 𝑔𝑎𝑙 106 𝑝𝑎𝑟𝑡𝑒 𝑠𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑐𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝐿
1𝑒𝑞 𝑃𝑀
𝑁𝑜𝑟𝑚𝑎𝑙𝑖𝑑𝑎𝑑 = 𝐿
𝑃. 𝐸. = 𝑣𝑎𝑙𝑒𝑛𝑐𝑖𝑎 𝑁𝑒𝑞 = 𝑁𝑚𝑜𝑙 ∙ 𝑣𝑎𝑙𝑒𝑛𝑐𝑖𝑎

−459,67℉ = 0𝑅

## 𝑃 = 𝑃0 + 𝜌𝑔ℎ 𝑃𝑔𝑎𝑠 ≪ 𝑃𝑙í𝑞𝑢𝑖𝑑𝑜 𝑃𝑎𝑏𝑠 = 𝑃𝑏𝑎𝑟 + 𝑃𝑚𝑎𝑛 𝑃𝑒𝑠𝑜 𝑒𝑠𝑝 = 𝛾 = 𝑔𝜌

Balances de Materia
𝑚𝑜𝑙 𝑒𝑥𝑐𝑒𝑠𝑜 𝑛𝑡𝑜𝑡 −𝑛𝑟𝑥𝑛𝑎𝑛
% 𝑒𝑥𝑐𝑒𝑠𝑜 = 𝑚𝑜𝑙 𝑟𝑒𝑞𝑢𝑒𝑟𝑖𝑑𝑜𝑠 𝑟𝑥𝑛 ∙ 100 = 𝑛𝑟𝑥𝑛𝑎𝑛
∙ 100 % 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑣𝑒𝑟𝑠𝑖𝑜𝑛 =
𝑛𝑎𝑙𝑖𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑎𝑐𝑖ó𝑛 𝑟𝑥𝑛𝑎𝑛 𝑚𝑎𝑙𝑖𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑎𝑐𝑖ó𝑛 𝑟𝑥𝑛𝑎𝑛
𝑛𝑎𝑙𝑖𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑎𝑑𝑜𝑠 𝑖𝑛𝑡𝑟𝑜𝑑𝑢𝑐𝑖𝑑𝑜𝑠
∙ 100 = 𝑚 ∙ 100
𝑎𝑙𝑖𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑎𝑑𝑎 𝑖𝑛𝑡𝑟𝑜𝑑𝑢𝑐𝑖𝑑𝑎

𝑚𝑝𝑟𝑜𝑑𝑢𝑐𝑡𝑜 𝑜𝑏𝑡𝑒𝑛𝑖𝑑𝑜𝑠
% 𝑟𝑒𝑛𝑑𝑖𝑚𝑖𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑜 = 𝑚𝑎𝑙𝑖𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑎𝑑𝑜𝑠
∙ 100 % 𝑔𝑟𝑎𝑑𝑜 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑣𝑒𝑟𝑠𝑖𝑜𝑛 =
𝑛𝑟𝑒𝑎𝑐𝑡.𝑙𝑖𝑚𝑖𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑡𝑒 𝑞𝑢𝑒 𝑛𝑜 𝑠𝑒 𝑔𝑎𝑠𝑡𝑎 𝑚𝑟𝑒𝑎𝑐𝑡.𝑙𝑖𝑚𝑖𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑡𝑒 𝑞𝑢𝑒 𝑛𝑜 𝑠𝑒 𝑔𝑎𝑠𝑡𝑎
𝑛𝑎𝑙𝑖𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑎𝑑𝑜𝑠 𝑖𝑛𝑡𝑟𝑜𝑑𝑢𝑐𝑖𝑑𝑜𝑠
∙ 100 = 𝑚𝑎𝑙𝑖𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑎𝑑𝑎 𝑖𝑛𝑡𝑟𝑜𝑑𝑢𝑐𝑖𝑑𝑎
∙ 100

𝑦 𝑛𝑝𝑟𝑜𝑑𝑢𝑐𝑡𝑜 𝑑𝑒𝑠𝑒𝑎𝑑𝑜
𝑆𝑒𝑙𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑣𝑖𝑑𝑎𝑑 𝑆 = 𝑧
=𝑛 ∙ 100
𝑝𝑟𝑜𝑑𝑢𝑐𝑡𝑜 𝑖𝑛𝑑𝑒𝑠𝑒𝑎𝑑𝑜

𝑛
𝑛𝑎𝑖𝑟𝑒 𝑒𝑥𝑐𝑒𝑠𝑜( 𝑂2 𝑒𝑥𝑐𝑒𝑠𝑜⁄0,21)
% 𝑎𝑖𝑟𝑒 𝑒𝑥𝑐𝑒𝑠𝑜 = ∙ 100 = 𝑛 ∙ 100
𝑛𝑎𝑖𝑟𝑒 𝑟𝑒𝑞𝑢𝑒𝑟𝑖𝑑𝑜 ( 𝑂2 𝑒𝑟𝑒𝑞𝑢𝑒𝑟𝑖𝑑𝑜⁄0,21)
𝑛 𝑂2 𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑟𝑎𝑑𝑎 − 𝑛 𝑂2 𝑟𝑒𝑞𝑢𝑒𝑟𝑖𝑑𝑜𝑠 𝑛 𝑂2 𝑒𝑥𝑐𝑒𝑠𝑜
= ∙ 100 = ∙ 100
𝑛 𝑂2 𝑟𝑒𝑞𝑢𝑒𝑟𝑖𝑑𝑜𝑠 𝑛 𝑂2 𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑟𝑎𝑑𝑎 − 𝑛 𝑂2 𝑒𝑥𝑐𝑒𝑠𝑜
𝑛𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑟𝑎𝑛 −𝑛𝑠𝑎𝑙𝑒𝑛
% 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑣𝑒𝑟𝑠𝑖𝑜𝑛 1 𝑝𝑎𝑠𝑎𝑑𝑎 = 𝑛𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑟𝑎𝑛
∙ 100 𝐴𝑖𝑟𝑒𝑒𝑛𝑡 = 𝐴𝑖𝑟𝑒𝑟𝑒𝑞 + (𝐴𝑖𝑟𝑒𝑟𝑒𝑞 ∙ %𝑒𝑥𝑐)

## 𝑃𝑀𝐴𝑖𝑟𝑒 = 28,8𝑔/𝑔𝑚𝑜𝑙 𝑥𝑖 = 𝑐𝑜𝑚𝑝𝑢𝑒𝑠𝑡𝑜 𝑙í𝑞𝑢𝑖𝑑𝑜 𝑦𝑖 = 𝑐𝑜𝑚𝑝𝑢𝑒𝑠𝑡𝑜 𝑔𝑎𝑠 − 𝑣𝑎𝑝

𝜌𝑔𝑎𝑠 𝑒𝑛 𝐶𝐸
𝑃𝑉 = 𝑛𝑅𝑇 𝑝. 𝑒. 𝑟 = ⁄𝜌𝑎𝑖𝑟𝑒 𝑒𝑛 𝐶𝐸 𝑃𝑇 = ∑𝑛𝑖=0 𝑃𝑖 𝑃𝑖 = ∑𝑛𝑖=0 𝑦𝑖 𝑃𝑇
𝑛𝑖 𝑅𝑇 𝑚𝑖
𝑃𝑇 = ∑𝑛𝑖=0 𝑃𝑖 𝑉 = 𝑛𝑖 𝑅𝑇 𝑛 𝑇 = ∑𝑛𝑖=0 𝑛𝑖 = ∑𝑛𝑖=0
𝑉 𝑀𝑖

## 𝑚𝑣𝑎𝑝 𝑚𝑣𝑎𝑝 𝑉𝑚𝑒𝑧𝑐𝑙𝑎(𝑒𝑠𝑝) −𝑉𝑙 𝐵

=𝑚 𝑋= ln 𝑝∗ = 𝐴 − 𝐶+𝑇 ∗
𝑣𝑎𝑝 +𝑚𝑙 𝑉𝑣𝑎𝑝 −𝑉𝑙

## 𝑃𝑎𝑖𝑟𝑒 𝑛𝑎𝑖𝑟𝑒 𝑃𝑎𝑖𝑟𝑒 𝑃𝑖 𝐻𝑥

𝑃𝑣𝑎𝑝 𝐻2𝑂
=𝑛 =𝑃 𝑃𝑖 = 𝐻𝑖 𝑥𝑖 𝑦𝑖 = ⁄𝑃 = 𝑖 𝑖⁄𝑃 𝑃𝑖 = 𝑃𝑖∗ 𝑥𝑖
𝑣𝑎𝑝 𝐻2𝑂 𝑡𝑜𝑡 −𝑃𝑎𝑖𝑟𝑒 𝑇 𝑇

𝑦𝑖 𝑃∗ 𝑃𝑣𝑎𝑝 𝑃𝐻20 𝑀
𝐾𝑖 = ⁄𝑥𝑖 = 𝑖 ⁄𝑃 %𝐻𝑅 = 100 𝐻𝑎𝑏𝑠 = ( 𝐻2𝑂 )
𝑇 𝑃∗ 𝑃𝑡𝑜𝑡 −𝑃𝐻20 𝑀𝐴𝑖𝑟𝑒

𝑃𝐻2𝑂 𝑀 𝑃𝐻20 𝐻
𝐻𝑠 = 𝑃 −𝑃 ∗ (𝑀𝐻2𝑂 ) 𝐻𝑛 = 𝑃 𝐻𝑝 % = 𝐻 𝐹𝑋𝐹𝑖 = 𝐿𝑋𝐿𝑖 𝑖 + 𝑉𝑌𝑖
𝑡𝑜𝑡 𝐻2𝑂 𝐴𝑖𝑟𝑒 𝑡𝑜𝑡 −𝑃𝐻20 𝑆

𝑋𝐹𝑖 𝑃∗ 𝑛𝑣𝑎𝑝 𝑃
1 = ∑𝑛𝑖=0 𝐿 1 = ∑𝑛𝑖=0 𝑦𝑖 𝑃𝑇 = ∑𝑛𝑖=0 𝑥𝑖 𝑃𝑖 𝑦 = 𝑃𝑖 𝑥𝑖 ⁄𝑛 𝑇 = 𝑣𝑎𝑝⁄𝑃
1− (1− ) 𝑇 𝑇
𝐹 𝐾𝑖𝑜

𝑛𝑣𝑎𝑝 = 𝐹𝑦𝑣𝑎𝑝

𝑃 𝑇 𝑉 𝑧𝑛𝑅𝑇𝑧
𝑃𝑉 = 𝑧𝑛𝑅𝑇 𝑃𝑟 = 𝑇𝑟 = 𝑉𝑟 = 𝑉𝑧 =
𝑃𝑐 𝑇 𝑉𝑐 𝑃𝑧

## 𝑃𝑐 = 𝑃𝑐𝐴 ∙ 𝑁𝐴 + 𝑃𝑐𝐵 ∙ 𝑁𝐵 +. .. Para H2 y He: 𝑃𝑐 = 𝑃𝑐 + 8𝑎𝑡𝑚 𝑇 = 𝑇𝑐 + 8𝐾

Balances de Energía
𝑒𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑑𝑜 2 𝑉2 𝑉2
𝑊 = ∫𝑒𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑑𝑜 1 𝐹𝑑𝑠 = − ∫𝑉 1 𝑃𝑑𝑉 𝑊 = −𝑛𝑅𝑇 ln 𝑉1 𝑄̇ = 𝑈𝐴∆𝑇 P=mgh

𝑈 ̂1 = ∫𝑇2 𝐶𝑉 𝑑𝑇
̂2 − 𝑈 𝐻 = 𝑈 + 𝑝𝑉 ̂1 = ∫𝑇2 𝐶𝑃 𝑑𝑇
̂2 − 𝐻
𝐻
𝑇1 𝑇1

## 𝐴𝑐𝑢𝑚𝑢𝑙𝑎𝑐𝑖ó𝑛 = (𝐸 𝑡𝑟𝑎𝑛𝑓𝑒𝑟𝑖𝑑𝑎 𝑓𝑟𝑜𝑛𝑡𝑒𝑟𝑎) − (𝐸 ℎ𝑎𝑐𝑖𝑎 𝑎𝑓𝑢𝑒𝑟𝑎 𝑓𝑟𝑜𝑛𝑡𝑒𝑟𝑎)

+ (𝐺𝑒𝑛𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑐𝑖ó𝑛 𝐸 𝑑𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑟𝑜 𝑠𝑖𝑠𝑡𝑒𝑚𝑎 ) − (𝐶𝑜𝑛𝑠𝑢𝑚𝑜 𝐸 𝑒𝑛 𝑠𝑖𝑠𝑡𝑒𝑚𝑎)

## ∆𝐸 = ∆𝑈 + ∆𝑃 + ∆𝐾 = 𝑄 − 𝑊𝑒𝑥𝑡 = ∆𝑈 + ∆(𝑃𝑉) + ∆𝐸𝑝 + ∆𝐸𝑐 ≈ ∆𝐻 ∆𝐻 = 𝑚 ∙ ∆𝐻𝑖

𝑦2 −𝑦1 𝑥2 −𝑥1
𝑄 = ∆𝐻 ∨ 𝑄 = ∆𝑈 = 𝑉𝑒𝑠𝑝 = 1⁄𝜌 𝐶𝑝 = 𝑎 + 𝑏𝑇 + 𝑐𝑇 2 𝐶𝑝 =
𝑦2 −𝑦1 𝑥2 −𝑥1
𝑇2 𝑚𝑣𝑎𝑝 𝑚𝑣𝑎𝑝 𝑉𝑚𝑒𝑧𝑐𝑙𝑎(𝑒𝑠𝑝) −𝑉𝑙
∑𝑛𝑖=1 𝑥𝑖 ⋅ 𝐶𝑝𝑖 ∆𝐻 = 𝑉́ 𝑃 + ∫𝑇1 𝐶𝑃 𝑑𝑇 X= =𝑚 =
𝑚𝑡𝑜𝑡 𝑣𝑎𝑝 +𝑚𝑙 𝑉𝑣𝑎𝑝 −𝑉𝑙

𝑇
dp∗ ∆𝐻̂𝑉 p∗ 2 ̂𝑉 1
∆𝐻 1 𝑇𝑏 [0,0331( 𝑏⁄𝑇 )+0,0297 log10 𝑝𝑐 −0,0321]
= ln( )= ( − ) ̂𝑉 =
∆𝐻 𝑐
𝑇
𝑑𝑇 ̂ ̂𝑙 )
𝑇(𝑉𝑔 −𝑉 p∗ 1 𝑅 𝑇2 𝑇1 1,07−( 𝑏⁄𝑇 )
𝑐
̂𝑉
∆𝐻 1−𝑇 𝑇2
2
= (1−𝑇𝑟2 ) ̂ = 𝑚 ∫ 𝐶𝑃 𝑑𝑇
∆𝐻 = 𝑚∆𝐻
̂𝑉
∆𝐻 𝑟1 𝑇1
1

## ̂𝑓𝐴 ∘ + ∫𝑇2 𝐶𝑃𝐴 𝑑𝑇

̂𝐴 = ∆𝐻
∆𝐻 ̂𝑓𝑖 ∘ + ∑𝑠𝑖=1 ∫𝑇2 𝑛𝑖 𝐶𝑃𝑖 𝑑𝑇
∆𝐻 = ∑𝑠𝑖=1 𝑛𝑖 ⋅ ∆𝐻
𝑇𝑟𝑒𝑓 𝑇𝑟𝑒𝑓
∘ ∘
∆𝐻𝑟𝑥𝑛 ∘ = ∑𝑝𝑟𝑜𝑑𝑢𝑐𝑡𝑜𝑠 𝑛𝑖 ⋅ ∆𝐻
̂𝑓𝑖 − ∑𝑟𝑒𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑣𝑜𝑠 𝑛𝑖 ⋅ ∆𝐻
̂𝑓𝑖

̂𝑖 ∘ − ∑𝑟𝑒𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑣𝑜𝑠 𝑛𝑖 ⋅ ∆𝐻
𝑄 = ∑𝑝𝑟𝑜𝑑𝑢𝑐𝑡𝑜𝑠 𝑛𝑖 ⋅ ∆𝐻 ̂𝑖 ∘ 𝐸 𝑢𝑡𝑖𝑙 𝑞𝑢𝑒 𝑠𝑎𝑙𝑒
eficiencia = η = 𝐸 𝑢𝑡𝑖𝑙 𝑞𝑢𝑒 𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑟𝑎

∆𝐻 ̂𝐴 + 𝜒𝐵 ∆𝐻
̂𝐵 +. ..

## ∆𝐻𝑚𝑒𝑧𝑐𝑙𝑎𝑑𝑜 ∘ = ∆𝐻𝑑𝑖𝑠𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑐𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑓𝑖𝑛𝑎𝑙 ∘ − ∆𝐻𝑐𝑜𝑚𝑝𝑜𝑛𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑒𝑠 𝑖𝑛𝑖𝑐𝑖𝑎𝑙𝑒𝑠 ∘

18𝑝
𝐻2𝑂 18𝑛𝐻2𝑂
ℋ = 29(𝑝 −𝑝 = 29(𝑛 𝐶𝑆 = 𝐶𝑃𝑎𝑖𝑟𝑒 + (𝐶𝑃𝐻2𝑂𝑣𝑎𝑝𝑜𝑟 )ℋ
𝑡 𝐻2𝑂 ) 𝑡 −𝑛𝐻2𝑂 )

## (ℋ𝑊𝐵 −ℋ) −𝐶𝑆

̂𝑣𝑎𝑝 (ℋ𝑊𝐵 − ℋ)
ℎ𝑐 (𝑇 − 𝑇𝑊𝐵 ) = 𝑘𝑔 ∆𝐻 = ∆𝐻̂
(𝑇𝑊𝐵 −𝑇) 𝑣𝑎𝑝

̂ = ∆𝐻
∆𝐻 ̂𝑎𝑖𝑟𝑒 + (∆𝐻
̂𝐻2𝑂𝑣𝑎𝑝𝑜𝑟 )ℋ

Heat,
Energy, (ft)(lbf) kWh (hp)(hr) Btu calorie Joule
Work
3,766x10^- 5,0505x20^- 1,285x10^-
(ft)(lbf) 1 0,3241 1,356
7 7 3
kWh 2,655x10⁶ 1 1,341 3,4128x10³ 8,6057x10⁵ 3,6x10⁶
(hp)(hr) 1,98x10⁶ 0,7455 1 2,545x10³ 6,4162x10⁵ 2,6845x10⁶
Btu 7,7816x10² 2,930x10^- 3,930x10^-4 1 2,52x10² 1,055x10⁵
4
1,162x10^-
calorie 3,086 1,558x10^-3 3,97x10^-3 1 4,184
6
2,773x10^- 9,484x10^-
Joule 0,7376 3,725x10^-7 0,239 1
7 4

mm Hg
Pressure in Hg bar atm kPa psia
(torr)
3,937x10^- 1,333x10^- 1,316x10^- 1,934x10^-
mm Hg 1 0,1333
2 3 3 2
3,342x10^-
in Hg 25,4 1 3,386x10¹ 3,386 0,4912
3
bar 750,06 29,53 1 0,9869 100 14,51
atm 760 29,92 1,013 1 101,3 14,696
1,000x10^- 9,872x10^-
kPa 70502 0,2954 1 0,1451
2 3
6,893x10^- 6,805x10^-
psia 51,71 2,036 6,893 1
2 2
in H20 1,8683 0,0736 2,49x10^-3 2,54x10^-3 0,24908 0,0361

## Volume in³ ft³ US gal Liters m³

5,787x10^- 4,329x10^- 1,639x10^- 1,639x10^-
in³ 1
4 3 2 5
2,832x10^-
ft³ 1,728x10³ 1 7,481 28,32
2
3,785x10^-
US gal 2,31x10² 0,1357 1 3,785
3
3,531x10^- 1,000x10^-
Liters 61,03 0,2642 1
2 3
m³ 6,102x10⁴ 35,31 264,2 1000 1

## Mass avoir oz pounds (lb) grains grams

avoir oz 1 6,25x1⁻2 4,375x1'^-2 28,35
pounds
16 1 7x10³ 4,356x10²
(lb)
2,286x10^- 1,429x10^-
grains 1 6,48x10^-2
3 4
3,527x10^-
grams 2,20x10^-3 15,432 1
2

Linear
m in ft mile
Measure
m 1 39,97 3,2808 6,214x10^-4
8,333x10^-
in 2,54x10^-2 1 1,58x10^-5
2
1,8939x10^-
ft 0,3048 12 1
4
mile 1,61x10³ 6,336x10⁴ 5280 1
Power hp kW (ft)(lbf)/s Btu/s J/s
hp 1 0,7457 550 0,7068 7,45x10²
kW 1,341 1 737,56 0,9478 1,000x10³
1,818x10^- 1,356x10^- 1,285x10^-
(ft)(lbf)/s 1 1,356
3 3 3
Btu/s 1,415 1,055 778,16 1 1,055x10³
1,341x10^- 1,000x10^- 9,478x10^-
J/s 0,7376 1
3 3 4

## Ideal Gas Constant R

1,987 cal/gmol*K
1,987 Btu/lbmmol*°R
10,73 psia(ft³)/lbmol*°R
8,314
8,314 kPa(m³)/kgmol*K
J/kgmol*K
82,06 cm³atm/gmolK
0,08206 Latm/gmolK
21,9 inHg(ft³)/lbmol*°R
0,7302 ft³atm/lbmol*°R