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I KADEK WIRAWAN (1413021011)

1. The steady-state model of the universe assumes a “perfect cosmological
principle,” one that says the properties are the same at all times, at all places,
and in all directions. Explain why this model then requires that matter be
created constantly throughout an expanding universe.
2. Explain why the universe has no edge and no center if it can be modeled by
the expanding ballon.
3. At what distances do recession velocities and peculiar velocities have about
the same magnitude?
4. An astronomer determines that a galaxy in Virgo is recending from us at 12
million m/s and that it is 800 million ligth years away from us. Are these values
5. Intensity measurements indicate that a galaxy in Bootes is 1.7 x 10 9 c.year
from us. What would you expect its recession velocity to be?
6. The Hubble length is defined as the distance at which the recession velocity
equals c.
(a) Find the limiting values of the Hubble length
(b) What is the Hubble length for a galaxy 5 Gc.yr from us?
7. A galaxy can’t move through space at velocities greater than c, but both its
recession velocity greater than c, but both its recession velocity and the sum
of its recession and peculiar velocities can be greater than c. Explain!
8. Show that /o1-vr/c for a small R=R-Ro (Hint R(dR/dt)t)
9. If the Hubble parameter is a constant, (a) find how the scale factor depends
on time (assuming a value of Ro at t=0) and calculate the decelaration
parameter and explain the sign.
10. Assume that R follows a simple power law, R=Ctn, where C is constant. (a)
What value of a gives no deceleration? (b) For that n, how does the Hubble
parameter depend on time? (c) What range of n gives deceleration?
11. What is the approximate critical density of the universe, as measured in
hydrogen atoms per cubic meter?
12. The intensity emitted from an ideal blackbody is c/4 times the energy density
of its electromagnetic waves. Therefore what does the 2.7 K radiation
contribute to the average density of the universe?
13. What exploded to make the Big Bang?
14. A possible relation in the GTR between the scale factor R, the density , and
the curvature of the universe (through the constant k) is (dR/dt) 2=8GR2/3-
kc2. Assume that k=0 (or that kc2 is negligible) and that R=Ctn.

(a) depends upon time

(b) Assume that  is all due to matter and that R3 is constant, solve for n, and
show that =1/(6Gt2)
(c) Assume that  is all due to radiation and is therefore proportional to T 4,
that λpT is constant, and that λp is proportional to R. Solve for n and show
that =3/(32Gt2).
15. If the abundance of nuclides in the universe by mass is about 25 percent He-4
and 75 percent H-1, what percent of all nuclei are He-4?
16. In some cosmological models, the density of both matter and radiation is
inversely proportional to the swuare of time since the Big Bang. What is the
approximate age of the universe according to these models?
17. Why must a star be heated “ so that C-12 and O-16 can fuse”?
18. Does the fact that all distant galaxies are mmoving away from us mean that
we are at the centre of the universe? Explain.
19. The light from quasar PKS 2000-330 may indicate a recesseion velocity of
0.916c. If so, how far away from us is it according to the Hubble law,
assuming that H is constant?
20. Suppose that you decided to use the Hubble law for the Andromeda galaxy,
2 million light years away, despite the warning in the text. How would the
recessional velocity calculated compare to its 300 km/s peculiar velocity of
1. The model assumes a steady state universe "Perfect Cosmological Principle," the one
that says the same thing every time, in all places, and in all directions. Explain why
this model then requires that it be made continuously throughout the expanding
Cosmological Principle states that the nature of the universe is the same everywhere.
Therefore the laws that led to these properties should be the same everywhere.
Regional changes in the bill will provide the regional differences in the measured
properties. So if an astronomer discovered that all the spectral lines in the light from a
star or group of stars have been shifted to a different frequency, it assumes that this
shift is a result of a phenomenon known as the Doppler effect. Only as a last resort
would astronomers assume that the laws of nature are different light sources.
2. Explain why the universe has no edge and the center if the universe can be modeled
by an expanding balloon.
Answer :
If using a model developed balloon, all the movement is restricted to the surface of
the bubble. Types of motion lead to the so-called typical velocity of a galaxy, that is,
motion with respect to the coordinates in space. So the universe has no edge and
3. At what distance recession rate and the special of the same amount?
Answer :

Mathematically, the Hubble parameter value 23 km / s and s if v_r the same value,
then the value of H should be 1. So at any distance will not reach the same magnitude.
4. Astronomers determine that the galaxy in the Virgo is of our 12 million m / s, and that
it is 800 million light years away from us. Are the values that make sense?
Answer :
To Known :
s = 800 x 106 Mc. yr
12 x 106 m/s = 12 x 103

To Ask : H = ...?
Solution :
This value does not make sense, because the value of the Hubble parameter is 23 km /