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Asst. Manager (Elect.) E&MR Divan.
GRIDCO, Burla-768017
Synopsis: -
Electrical power has become the most essential lifeline of human being.
So, effective use of this power has been considered as a big concern to every body. Now
the scientists, engineers and technocrats have come forward to share their thoughts for
proper utilization and conservation of this energy.
In this paper Reactive power Management study has been focused by the use of
different compensator circuits. Particularly the energy conservation study for the
consumption of electrical energy in the year 1997-98 (ORISSA) has been dealt. The
expected growth of energy consumption and accordingly its conservation study has also
been covered after the year 1998.

1.Fundamental of Reactive Power: -

A.C. Electrical power has three components
i. Active Power (Watts = VA Cos φ) Inductive Reactive Power
ii. Reactive Power (VAR = VA Sinφ) (VAR L)
Capacitive Reactive Power
iii. Apparent Power (VA) 2 = Watt2 +(VARL - VARC) 2

1.1 Power Triangle

In general 90 to 95 % of the consumer
loads are inductive (Chokes, heaters, induction
motors etc.). Similarly maximum electrical
equipments are also inductive in nature
(Transformers, CT, PT etc). So, inductive
reactive power is generally understood as “
REACTIVE POWER”. Capacitance is the only
component, whose electrical characteristics are
just opposite to that of inductance. So,
capacitance banks are used in different forms to
compensate the reactive power (Ref: - Power
2. Effects of Reactive Power: -
Followings are described as the effects of reactive power on the system
Results low/poor power factor
More current drawal
More T&D loss, with poor transmission efficiency.
Unnecessary energy generation with more copper loss on the generator
Unnecessary burden on the electrical control equipment (CB, Switch gears,
Transmission & Distribution Network etc.)
Higher capital cost, running cost, and maintenance cost causes rise of the cost
of electrical energy. That is a burden to the consumers.
In this above discussion it is concluded that improved power factor is quite
advantageous for both the suppliers and the consumers. So, use of reactive compensator
circuit in the network will be quite beneficial.

3. Various Methods of Reactive Compensation

Active Power (working or real power) is the required power of any utility to result
useful work. (VI Cos φ). This power has to be maintained as per requirement. So, its
parameters (V, I, Cosφ) have to be controlled properly by the use of compensated reactive
circuits in the network to achieve economical power flow.

The following compensator circuits are used in practice in the network.

Series Compensators (Series Capacitor Banks)

Shunt Compensators (Parallel Capacitor Banks)

Compound Compensators (Series & Parallel Capacitor Banks)

4. A Practical Study of Energy Conservation: - List of consumers based on Annual

Administration Report 1997-98 & expected growth their on upto 31.03.2001.

Consumers As on 31.3.1997 Expected Growth on Expected Growth


Domestic 11,07,720 16,61,580 50%

Commercial 1,43,162 1,86,111 30%

Small, Medium and 21,765 26,118 20%

Large Industries

Public Lighting 1,539 2000 30%

Railway Traction 11 11 0%

Agricultural & 45,584 54,701 20%


PHD 1,471 1,168 10%

Bulk Supply & 21,765 23,942 10%

Public Institution

Mini Steel Plant 2 2 0%

Others 5 6 10%

Total 13,43,024 19,56,089

Category- 1

Let us assume that all consumers use in average of 2 tube lights of following specification

40 Watts, 240 V, Single Phase, Average P.F= 0.25 (Lag)

No. of consumers = 19,56,089

Category – 2

Each (agricultural + PHD + Domestic) consumer has one pump set each in average of
2HP motor = 1.5 Kwatts, with following specification

1.5 K watts, 240 Volts, Single Phase, Average P.F. = .75 (Lag)

No. of consumers = (54,701+1,618 + 16,61,580) = 17,17,899

Category – 3

Similarly we have industrial and commercial loads, which may be categorized under small,
medium and large industries.

Let us consider that large industries have capacitor banks (1000 consumers). But rest of the
consumer donot use capacitor banks. Each of then draw loads ranging from 1 K watt to 50
K watt (3 Phase).

Average wattage = 5 K watt (3 Phase)

Average Power Factor = 0.75 (Lag)

No. of consumers = 1,86,111 + (26,118 – 1000) = 2,11,229

Category – 4

Other categories of loads are considered with average of 5 Kwatt for 2000
consumer at p.f. = 0.8 (Lag)
5.Fundamental Effect: -

Fundamental figures refer to 100 KVA circuit, at various power

factors. Adding of shunt capacitors at the load end, the KVA from the source can be
reduced materially.

By adding 80 KVAR capacitors to
100 KVA load at 70% puff. The load can be
increased from 100 KVA to about 140 KVA.
(Refer fig-c)

But keeping ‘KW’ active prove

constant, the extra MVA required for non –
compensated circuit

MVA required =MW (1/ Cos φ1 – 1/ Cos φ2 )

6.Calculation for Improved p.f. = 0.98

Category Total Single phase Equivalent Three Extra MVA (3 φ)
Load (Mwatt) Phase Load Required
1. 19,56,089* 0.04*2*10-3 156.5/3 =52.5 155.53
2. 17,17,899*1.5*10-3 2576.85/3 = 859 268.8
3. ---------- 2,11,229*5*10-3 330.5
TOTAL = 754.83 MVA
This above calculation has been considered on the basis of expected values and at
the peak hour requirement. So if daily-expected requirement considered, then assume load
utility factor being 0.6 in average.

Peak extra drawal (unwanted) of MVA, due to non – compensation of reactive

element = 754.83 ≈ 750mVA
(Equivalent to Two power houses like all units NTPC (60 x 4 + 2 x 110) = 460
Mwatt ≈ 575 Mva + One unity of INDRAWATI (3 x 150) = 150 Mwatt = 187.5 Mva

Requirement of Average unwanted load drawal, all the time in a day.

= 0.6 x 750 = 450 MVA

(Equivalent to shut down of all the units of Balimela Project (6 x 60) = 360
Mwatt ≅ 450 MVA

So, impact of reactive compensation is clearly understood. If the system reactive

loads would be compensated properly, then electrical energy could be conserved to the

7. Other positive aspects of compensated circuit

1. Improved voltage profile

Capacitor MVAR × % Transformer Impendance

% Voltage rise =
Transformer Rating in MVA

Ex: Consider a 132/33 KV, 2 X 20 MVA and Grid S/S with % Impendance of = 10 and
installed capacitor 15 MVAR.

15 x5
Now % voltage rise = = 1.875 %
2 x 20
(For two transformers
In parallel)

2. With improved power factor, low rated equipment (transformer, Generator etc)
can meet more loads economically i.e. for same MW, delivery MVA will be less.

3. For reduction of MVA demand, the cost of energy will be less.


From the above study, it is concluded that use of capacitor bank extends number of
positive aspects not only to the utility but also to the consumers on the system. So, every
effort should be given basically by the distribution supply companies for the installation of
capacitor banks at the consumer load ends or at the supply end as per convenient.