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Types Description Advantages Disadvantages
Thermoelectric  Creates voltage when there is  No moving part  Low thermal
Generator (TEG) temperature gradient (Seebeck  Low or free efficiency
effect) maintenance fee (typically ηth
 4.7 % fuel effeciency  Creates no < 4%)
pollution  Need a bigger
 Can be radiator
manufactured in
a variety of
shapes and sizes
to fit the needs of
the system

Stirling Engine  Heat is converted to  Can have near  Subjected to

mechanical work by ideal Carnot mechanical
alternately pushing the air cycle efficiency lost.
from the cold side of the  Creates no  Takes time to
engine to the hot side pollution since
respond since
does not emit
any gas
the heat
source is
Types Description Advantages Disadvantages
Kalina  Converting low-grade temperature heat  Lower  Contribute
Cycle sources using Rankine cycle irreversibili to more load
 Use Ammonia-water mixture as working ties during to the
fluid (Binary fluid) heat vehicle
 Changing the composition of the working exchange  More
fluid throughout the cycle to improve the process complex
internal heat exchange process efficiency  Higher compare to
efficiency other
compare to rankine
other cycle for
rankine low waste
cycle for heat
low waste recovery
heat system
recovery  Expensive
system  Add more
cost of

Six-  In six-stroke internal combustion engine,  Generate  Can cause

Stroke the expanded exhaust gas from the fourth more impingemen
Engine stroke is trapped and recompressed by power per t on the
two additional strokes. fuel combustion
 Water is injected and the steam/exhaust consume chamber
mixture is expanded since surfaces
 The injected liquid water will receive having since water
energy from the recompressed gases extra power is injected
which causes it to expand and hence stroke into the
increasing the pressure inside the  Sprayed cylinder
cylinder. Hence, more work is produced water also  Complicated
through the expansion process. have engine
cooling mechanism
effect to  Cannot use
engine conventional
cylinder starting
Types Description Advantages Disadvantages
Turbocharger  A turbocharger is a type of gas  Turbocharger  Suffer turbo
turbine where heat and pressure technology lag (i.e.,
in the expanding exhaust gas is make possible hesitation
used to increase engine power by for engine or transient
compressing the air that goes into downsizing response)
the engine’s combustion through during low
chambers reducing speed
pump work in acceleration
IC engines  Heated
 Increase bearing
power density
 improve the
fuel economy
of passenger
vehicles up to
Exhaust waste heat system to be explored for waste heat exchanger development

Organic Rankine Cycle

Types Description Advantages Disadvantages

Organic  A derivative of rankine cycle  Can extract  Need to
Rankine Cycle  Use organic fluid ( R32, R125, heat from low identify
R143a, R152a etc) temperature suitable
 Using waste heat from the heat source working fluid
exhaust for heating working (exhaust that suitable
fluid in ORC waste heat) with exhaust
 Simpler car changing
mechanism operating
compare to condition
Kalina Cycle