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RESEARCH FORMAT

Research Format

- is a skeletal framework in writing a research paper. It gives guidance and direction in the writing of the
paper.

Chapter 1 – INTRODUCTION1.BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

-this includes the brief statements about the problem-the need to study such problem

.-the flow of presentation should lead into identification of the problem-studies and literature being
reviewed ca be integrated in the background to strengthen the need to investigate the problem on hand.

2. OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

-determines the thrust and direction of the study.-it contains a general and specific objectives of the
study stated in a form of as statement or questions.-carefully and clearly stated.

-the general objective is usually the a reiteration of the title of the study. -the specific objective or
problems must be measureable and quantifiable.

-the specific objectives in the form of statements could be expressed as follows: to know…..to
evaluate;;;;;;to find…..to investigate…..to gain ……to learn…...to discover etc……

-they can also be stated in the form of questions using the words What….How….Will….Is there….

-the raising of questions should not be monotonous using a single expressing of the questions
like…..What is…..What objectives…..What standards….What facilities etc…..(not monotonous) How…Will
there be……

3. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

-this spells out the importance or values of the study and its contribution to the researcher, students,
community, school society, government, science, administrator, environment, agencies involved and
others.-the writer should make convincing statements on the genuine need to conduct the study.

-the use of the following phrases could help express this part of the thesis: The study will provide…..It
will also contribute to the…..The findings will also serve as a guide to……This will also serve as
basis….Hopefully, the study will provide some insights and information on how….Through this research,
students will become aware of……This study will enhance the ….

4.SCOPE & LIMITATION

Scope contains the coverage of the study

.-it define the subject time, samples, institutions, persons involved…The use of following phrases could
help express the scope of the study: The coverage of the study….The study focuses on …..The study
consists only of….It only involves…….It covers the …The study includes…..
Limitations

include statements on what are excluded or not a part of the study.

-these are usually the constraints which are not under the control of the researcher. The use of
following phrases could help write this portion of the study…The writer limits this study to….The study is
limited to….The study does not cover the….The study excludes the…..It does not include……The study
involves only…..

CHAPTER II – THEORITICAL FRAMEWORK

I. REVIEW OF RELATED STUDIED & LITERATURE- brief and topical presentation of relevant published or
unpublished researches, theses or dissertations conducted locally or foreign/internationally which are
not necessarily arranged in chronological order but should have relationship or similarity with the
present study.-assists the writer to locate research topic-materials should be objectives and reliable not
bias.-materials should be updated, relevant and related to the problem2. SYNTHESIS-summary of the
relatedness or similarities of the studies and literatures reviewed to the present research work. The
following phrases could help write the synthesis of the study. The study conducted by…….provides
…….for…….This study has similarly to that of ……….in the following aspects ………Like the previous studies
presented, this study will also ……This study is similar to that of ……in terms of …….The concept
presented by……….has the bearing on this study in the sense……This study is closely related to the study
conducted by…….3. HYPOTHESIS OR ASSUMPTIONS

Hypothesis

is a conjectural statement of the relationship between two or more variables used in the study.(Meralco,
1977

-is an intelligent or educated guess expressed in a form of declarative statement and needs to be
tested.-it is a tentative assumption made in order to draw out and test its logical or empirical
consequences (Webster, 1986).-

Null Hypothesis

is a statement of denial of an attribute, existence, effect or relationship that should be tested which
maybe either accepted or rejected in favor of the an alternative hypothesis express in a negative
statement.

-Operational or Alternative Hypothesis

is the affirmation of an attribute, existence,effect or relationship expressed in positive statement.There


are some interesting characteristics of a good hypothesis, namely:

1.It must be stated based on the specific question or problem of the study.

2.It should be testable.

3.It must have valid and acceptable conclusion.

4.It must be expressed in term of cause and effect or comparative relationshipamong variables involved
in the study.
Assumption

-is the supposition that something is true (Webster,1986).This does notneed to be proven using
statistical computation to analyze the results.

5.DEFINITION OF TERMS

Words which need to be define to provide better understanding of the study to be conducted and are
usually presented in alphabetical orders or as they appear in the presentation.

CHAPTER III – METHODOLOGY

I.RESEARCH DESIGN

Research method used in the study,

-its definition or description

-including the justification why it is best design for the study

II.SAMPLES & SAMPLING TECHNIQUES

-description of the subjects or population involved in the study,-sample size, the manner it is
determined-& the technique used in the selection of samples.

III.INSTRUMENTATION

-used of questionnaires

-interview or observation tools that will be used in the study

-its description, content, development and validation

IV.PROCEDURE

-steps to be used in the gathering of data, time frame & the persons responsible for the collection of
data.

V.STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF DATA-the statistical tools to be used in the analysis of data and the reasons
of appropriateness of the said tools.-This part of the paper should resolves the objectives of the study.

CHAPTER IV – RESULTS & DISCUSSION

I.RESULT

S-topical presentation of data presented according to the specific objectives or problem of the study
using figures, tables and graphs.-presents the most salient features about the findings of the study.

II.DISCUSSION

-presentation of the most important findings, its analysis and interpretation of data in a united or
holistic approach.
CHAPTER V – SUMMARY, CONCLUSION & RECOMMENDATION

I.SUMMARY

-brief statements of the research objectives, significance, methodology and findings.

II.CONCLUSION-general statements inferred from the results usually based on the hypothesis or
assumption.

III.RECOMMENDATION-suggestions to be undertaken based on the significance of the findings and


recommendations for future research.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

1. BOOKS AND MANUALS-suggested to be presented in the ff. manner:AUTHOR/S (Family name, Given
name, Middle initial) Name of the Book or Manual underlined).EditionPlace of the Publication: Name of
the Publisher,The year Published (as illustrated below)Rivera, Maximiano, M. Roela V. Rivera. Practical
Guide to Thesis & DissertationWriting.1st

Edition, Quezon City: Katha Publishing Inc., 1996 2.JOURNALS, MAGAZINES & NEWSPAPER

These reference materials are suggested to be presented in the followingAuthor/s ( Family name, Given
Name, M.I.)Title of Thesis/Dissertation underline),Volume, Place of publication: Name of the Publisher,
month and the year published.(As illustrated below).Every section should be typed two spaces away
from eachother with eight spaces allowed in the typing of the second and the rest of the lines
asfollows.Esperant, Karen. “Rivera heads National Student Exchange” The Meter. Volume 47,Issue 13,
Nashville: Tennessee State University, 1997.Limonick, Michael D./:Heading for Apocalype? Time. New
York: Time Inc., 1995.3.PUBLISHED & UNPUBLISHED THESES/DISSERTATIONSWriter (Family name, Given
Name,M.I.)Title of Thesis/Dissertation underlined), If published, write the name of publisher,Volume
and the year published), School, Year Completed as hereby illustrated.Rivera, Maximiano M.
Establishment of A Marine Biological Station for theUniversity of the East : A Proposal, Centro University,
1982.

Footnotes.

It is a citation written at the bottom of every page indicating the source of data presented. Instead of
using this in the presentation of data, journal type of entry is suggested where the family of the author,
the year of the publication and the page enclosed in a parenthesis depending upon the expression as
illustrated below.

Appendices.

-complilation of selected documents related to the study arranged using the AlphabetA-Z.

-this is presented by typing the word Appendix followed by the Appendix followed by the Alphabet at
the center front of each document.

Abstract.
-it consists of 1or 2 page summary of the research study which includes re-statement of the
problem/objectives, significance/importance of the study, methodology, major findings and conclusions.

Acknowledgement

This part of the paper serves as expression of gratitude of the writer to those who contributed toward
the realization of the study. Specific names of persons or groups of people, institution are mentioned in
this part including statements of what they have done to the author to realize the study. The following
phrases could help state this portion of the thesis: I wish to extend my sincere gratitude to……I would
like to express my profound gratitude to……I would like to thank ……

I would like to extend my special thanks to …..A especially give thanks to …..I am thankful to……My
thanks and appreciation to…..For ………support and guidance………technical expertise………time and
patience, financial support and……..………allowing to ……….………encouragement and technical
knowledge………providing the researcher the ………………cooperation and leadership………useful and
practical advice

Table of Contents.

-an organizational framework of the research topics which serves as the dimension of the covered topics
arranged according to the organization of the content.

Curriculum Vitae.

-resume of the writer which may be integrated at the end of the thesis or dissertation