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AG'ENDA

THE I'NITED NATIONI5


P RO(ERAII'IIVIE (oF ACTT(ON
FROm Rr(O

@
ACENDA 2lz
Progromme of Actionfor
i nobleDevelopment
Susto

RIO DECTARAflON
on Environment
ond Development

Stotement
of
FORESTPRINCIPTES

Thefinoltextof ogreements
negotiotedby Governments
ot the UnitedNotionsConferenceon
Environment ond Development (UNCED),
3-14 June1992, Riode Joneiro,Brozil
Moteriolcontoinedin thisbookisnotsubiectto copyright.lt moybe reproducedfor strictly
non<ommerciol purposes, providedocknowledgement is givento the UnitedNotions.

Addressenquiries to:
ProiectMonogerfor Sustoinoble Development, Deportment of PublicInformotion,
R o o m9 .| 0 3 2 , U n i te dN o t i ons,N ew Y ork,N Y l 00l Z, U S A Fox l 2l 2) 963-l l 86

ISBN:92-l-100509-4
U n i t e dN o t i o n sP u b l i c o t i o n s - S o lN
eos . E . 9 3 . 1 .I1

by the UnitedNotionsDeportment
Published of PublicInformotion
Tobleof Contents

PARAGRAGHS PAGE
Foreword. I
I n t r o d u c t i o. .n. . . . . . . . . .
Acronyms 5

RIO D:CIARATIOI{ OI{ E]IYINOililENT AIID DIVE1OPMENT

ACE]IDA 2I: PROGNAftlllE OF ACTloil ;OR SUSIAINAB]E DEYETOPffIENT...... l3


r. Preomble r.6 15

17
2. lnternotionolcooperotionto qccelerotesustoinobledevelopment
in developingcountriesond reloteddomesticpolicies 2 . 1 -2 . 4 3 l9
Combotingpoverty.... 3.r-3.r2 27
4. Chongingconsumption
potterns..... 4.1- 4.27 3l
5. Demogrophic
dynomicsond sustoinobility
... 5 . 1- 5 . 6 6 35
6. Protectingond promotinghumonheolth 6.1- 6.46 42
7. Promotingsustoinoblehumonsettlement
development... 7.1- 7.80 52
8. Integroting
environment
ond development
i n decision-moking
........ 8 .r - 8 . 5 4 65

Secllon 2; Conrervcllon ond ilcnngemenl of Resources for Developmenl ... 75


s. Protection
of the otmosphere...... Y.t- v.J5 77
to Integrotedopproochto the plonningond monogement
or lond resources. r0.t-r0.'t8 84
tt Combotingdebrestotion... il.t-1r.40 88
i2. Monoging frogile ecosystems:
Combotingdesertificotion
ond drought... 12.1-
12.63 98
13. Monogingfrogileecosystems:
Sustoinoble mountoin development. r3.1-r3.24 r09
14. Promotingsustoinoble
ogricultureond ruroldevelopment 1 4 . 1 -1 4 . 1 0 4 114
15. Conservotionof biologicoldiversity t5.t-15.11 131
16. Environmentolly
soundmonogement
of biotechnology.. 1 6 . 1 -1 6 . 4 6 136
17. Protectionof the oceons,oll kindsof seos,includinqenclosed
ond semi-enclosed seos,ond coostoloreosond thJ protection,
rotionoluseond developmentof their living resources 1 7 . 1 1- 7 . 1 3 7 147
PARAGRAPHS PAGE
i8 Protection
of the quolityond supplyof fresh*oterresources:
Applicotiorr
of integrotecJ
oporoochesto the cjevelopmenr,
mCInogernent ond useof woter resources r 8 .t - 1 8 . 9 0 166
t9 E nv iro n me n tosl loyu n dm o n o q e m e notf toxi cchemi col s
inc lu d i n gp re v e n ti oonf i l l e g o [i n te rn oti onol
troffi ci n
toxicond dongerousproducts 1 9 . 11- 9 . 7 6
24. EnvironmentoIly sound- monogementof hozordouswostes,
inc lu d i n gp re v e n ti oonf i l l e g o il n te rn o ti onol
troffi ci n
hozordouswostes 20.1-20.46
11 E nv ir o n m e n i osl loy u n dm o n o q e m e notf soi i dw ostes
l ' r r . v
ono sewoge-retotedtssues
2 1 . 12 1 . 4 9 206
ll Sofe ond environmentollysound rnonogementof rodiooctivewostes
2 2 . 12 2 . 9 tt3

Section 3: Strengthening the Role of Molor Groups 217


23 Preomble
23.1_
23.4 219
)A
Globol octionfor womentowordssustoinobie
ond
equito b l ed e u e l o p m e n t..... 24.1-24.12 220
25 Child re no n d y o u thi n s u s to i n o b d
l ee vel opment 25.1-25.17 224
26 Reco.gnizing ond s'trengthening the roleof indigenouspeople
o n d t h e i rc o m m u n i t i e s^ . . .
26.1 26.9 227
l/ S t r en g th e n i nthge ro l eo f orgoni zoti ons:
,n o n ,-g o v e rnmentol
!-orfners tor susto rnobledevelopment 2 7 . 12- 7 . 1 3 230
2B Loc olo u th o ri ti e si n' i ti o ti v eisn s u p p o rtof A gendo2j .... 28.1-28.7 233
29. sirengthening the roieof workersond theirtrodeunions 2 9 . 12- 9 1 4 235
30 S t r en g th e n i nthge ro l eo f b u s i n e sosn d i ndustry 30.r-30.30 237
31. S c i e n t i f oi cn d t e c h n o l o g i ccool m m u n i t y . . . . . . . 3t.r-31.12 240
S t r en g th e n i nthge ro l eo f fo rme rs ..... . 32.1-32.14 243

Sectlon 4: Meons of lmplemenlalion


247
33 F inon c i ore
l s o u rc eosn d me c h o n i s m s 3 3 .r 3 3 . 2 1 249
34 Tronsfer of environmentolly soundtechnology,
cooperotion
o n dc o p o c i r y - b u i l d i n g . . . . . . . 34.1-34.29 257
35 Sciencefor sustoinoble
development. JJ. I- JJ.ZJ 257
36. P r om o ti negd u c c ti o np, u b l i co w o re n e ss ond troi ni ng...... 36.1 36.27 264
J/ Not ion o lm e c h o n i s ms o n d i n te rn o ti o nol cooperoti on for
c o p o c i f - b u i l d i nign d e v e l o p i ncgo u n t r i e.s. . . 3 7 . 13-7 . 1 3 270
38 I nt er n o i i o n o
i nl s ti tu ti o noorro
l n g e m e n ts. 3 8 .t - 3 8 . 4 5 274
39 int er n o ti o n o
l el g o li n s tru m e notsn d m e c honi sms
. 3 9 t. - 3 9 .t 0 t6 l
4a ! n f o r r n o t i of onr d e c i s i o n - m o k i n g . . . , . . 40.r 40.30 284

SIATEMENT OF FOREST PRINCIPTES


389
Foreword

Humanity today is in the midst of a profound civilizational change.There are signs of


it everywhere,and for the thousandsof dedicatedpeople who were involved in that
extraordinary event at Rio a year ago-indeed, for all the people of the globe-they
are exhilarating,uplifting signs.
While it is still too early to provide a precisely calibratedmeasureof the ultimate
successof the Earth Summit, I believe it has ignited a wildfire of interestand support
at every level of society in every corner of the planet. Since last June,there has been a
profusion of conferences,seminars,symposiaand other organizedcolloquies of
major sectoralgroups. Industrialists,economists,financiers,engineers,scientists-
those who, in truth, hold the levers of economicpower and change-have joined the
constituencyof earnestenvironmentalistsin a commitment to the fulfilment of the
hopesand aspirationsengenderedby Rio.
In short, the movement to turn the world from its self-consumptivecourseto one
of renewal and sustenancehas unmistakablyspreadfrom the grassroots to the brass
roots. The Declaration of Rio and its Agenda 2l actronprogramme are now, it seems
clear,on everyone'sagenda.
But this discernibleincreasein momentum is still only a beginning, albeit a highly
encouragingone. The economic gulfs which lie within and among the world's
peoplesand nationsnot only remain, but are daily deepening.Hunger and poverty-
which are both a cause and an effect of global environmental degradation- are still
appallingly pervasivein the developing world, where population growth compounds
the problems of alleviating them. Industrial countriescontinue to be addictedto the
patternsof production and consumptionwhich have so largely producedthe major
risks to the global environment.
Though in the aftermath of Rio there is a heightenedawarenessof, and debate
over, the compelling needsfor action, there is not yet a concertedand decisive
responseto the magnitudeand urgency of the task. Nor do we possessdetailed
specificationsfor the tools we will need to forge this secondindustrial revolution-
this eco-revolutionthat is essentialin order to shift the world onto a new pathway to a
more secure,sustainableand equitablefuture.
There is much to be done. And I look to the new United Nations Commission on
SustainableDevelopmentto be the focal point for the massiveeffort neededto create
the new era of internationalcooperation,the new global partnership,that will make
this shift possible.

zZa;
MouriceF.Strong,Secretory-Generol
UnitedNotionsConferenceon Environment
ond Development
Introduction

Agenda 2I-a programmeof action for sustainabledevelopmentworldwide, the Rio


Declarationon Environment and Development,and the statementof principles for the
sustainablemanagementof forestswere adoptedby more than 178 Governmentsat
the United Nations Conferenceon Environment and Development,known as the
Earth Summit, held in Rio de Janeiro,Brazil,from 3 to l4 June 1992.
Togetherthey fulfil the mandategiven to the Conferenceby the United Nations
GeneralAssembly when, in 1989,it called for a global meeting to deviseintegrated
strategiesthat would halt and reversethe negativeimpact of human behaviouron the
physical environmentand promote environmentally sustainableeconomic develop-
rnentin all countries.
The agreements,which were negotiatedover two and a half yearsleading up to
the Surnmit and finalized in Rio, are presentedhere in final form. While they lack the
force of internationallaw. the adoptionof the texts carrieswith it a strong moral
obligation to ensuretheir full implementation.
Agenda 21 standsas a comprehensiveblueprint for action to be taken globally-
from now into the twenty-first century-by Governments,United Nations organiza-
tions, developmentagencies,non-governmentalorganizationsand independent-sector
groups,in every areain which human activity impacts on the environment.
The Agenda should be studiedin conjunction with both the Rio Declaration-
which provides a context for its specific proposals-and the statementof forest prin-
ciples. It is hoped that the forest principles will form the basis for a f-utureinternation-
al-levelagreement.
Underlying the Earth Summit agreementsis the idea that humanity has reacheda
turning point. We can continue with presentpolicies which are deepeningeconomic
divisionswithin and betweencountries-which increasepoverty,hunger,sickness
and illiteracy and causethe continuing deteriorationof the ecosystemon which life
on E,arthdepends.
Or we can changecourse.We can act to improve the living standardsof those
who are in need.We can better manageand protect the ecosystemand bring about a
rnore prosperousfuture for us all. No nation can achievethis on its own. Togetherwe
can-in a global partnershipfor sustainabledevelopment.
Central to that partnershipwill be the United Nations Commission on Sustainable
Development,establishedby the GeneralAssembly in responseto a requestof the
Conference.Made up of Governmentrepresentatives, it will examineprogressmade
in implementingAgenda 2l globally.The Commission will first meet in June 1993-
the first anniversarvof the Earth Summit.
Acronyms

APELL Aworenessond Preporednessfor Emergenciesot Locol Level


CFC c h l o r o lf u o r o c o r b o n
CGIAR Consultotive G r o u p o n I n t e r n o t i o n oAl g r i c u l t u r o R
l eseorch
CILSS P e r m o n e nItn t e r - S t o tCeo m m i t t e eo n D r o u g h tC o n t r o li n t h e S o h e l
EEZ e x c l u s i v ee c o n o m i cz o n e
ECA E c o n o m i cC o m m i s s i o nf o r A f r i c o
ECE E c o n o m i cC o m m i s s i o nf o r E u r o p e
ECLAC E c o n o m i cC o m m i s s i o nf o r L o t i nA m e r i c o o n d t h e C o r i b b e o n
ELCI E n v i r o n m e n t oLl i o i s o nC e n t r eI n t e r n o t i o n o l
EMINWA e n v i r o n m e n t o l lsyo u n d m o n o g e m e n o t f i n l o n dw q t e r
ESCAP E c o n o m i co n d S o c i o lC o m m i s s i o nf o r A s i o o n d t h e P o c i f i c
ESCWA E c o n o m i co n d S o c i o lC o m m i s s i o nf o r W e s t e r nA s i o
FAO F o o d o n d A g r i c u l t u r eO r g o n i z o t i o no f t h e U n i t e dN o t i o n s
GATT Generol Agreementon Toriffsond Trode
GAW Globol AtmosphereWotch (WMO)
GEF G l o b o l E n v i r o n m e nFt o c i l i t ' y
GEMS G l o b o l E n v i r o n m e n t oMl o n i t o r i n g S y s t e m( U N E P )
GEMS/WATER Globol Woter Quolity Monitoring Progromme
GESAMP J o i n tG r o u p o f E x p e r t so n t h e S c i e n t i f i cA s p e c t so f M o r i n e P o l l u t i o n
GIPME G l o b o l I n v e s t i g o t i o on f P o l l u t i o ni n t h e M o r i n e E n v i r o n m e n(tU N E S C O )
GiS G e o g r o p h i c o lI n f o r m o t i o nS y s t e m
GLOBE s r g o n i s o t i o nf o r o B o l o n c e dE n v i i " o n m e n t
G l o b o l L e g i s l o t o rO
GOS Globol Observing System(WMO/WV\A//)
GRID G l o b o l R e s o u r c eI n f o r m o t i o nD o t o b o s e
GSP generolized systemof preferences
HIV h u m o ni m m u n o d e f i c i e n cv yi r u s
IAEA I n t e r n o t i o n oAl t o m i c E n e r g yA g e n c y
IAP-WASAD I n t e r n o t i o n oAl c t i o n P r o g r o m m eo n W o t e r o n d S u s t o i n o b l eA g r i c u l t u r o D
l evelopmenf
IARC I n t e r n o t i o n oAl g e n c y f o r R e s e o r c ho n C o n c e r
IBSRAM I n t e r n o t i o n oBi o o r d o f S o i l R e s o u r c eosn d M o n o g e m e n t
ICCA i n t e r n o t i o n oCl o u n c i lo f C h e m i c o lA s s o c i o t i o n s
ICES I n t e r n o t i o n oCl o u n c i lf o r t h e E x p l o r o t i o no f t h e S e o
ICPIC I n t e r n o t i o n oCl l e o n e r P r o d u c t i o nI n f o r m o t i o nC l e o r i n o H o u s e
ICSC I n t e r n o t i o n oCl i v i l S e r v i c eC o m m i s s i o n
ICSU I n t e r n o t i o n oCl o u n c i lo f S c i e n t i f i U
c nions
IEEA i n t e g r o t e de n v i r o n m e n t ool n d e c o n o m i co c c o u n t i n q
IFAD I n t e r n o t i o n oFl u n df o r A g r i c u l t u r o Di evelopment
IGADD I n t e r g o v e r n m e n tA o lu t h o r i i yf o r D r o u g h to n d D e v e l o p m e n t
IGBP I n t e r n o t i o n oGl e o s p h e r e - B i o s p h eP r er o g r o m m e( I C S U )
IGBP/START l e o s p h e r e - B i o s p h eP
l n t e r n o t i o n oG r er o g r o m m e / G l o b o C
l h o n g e S y s t e mf o r A n c r i y s i s ,
Reseorch ond T r o i n i n g
ILO I n t e r n o t i o n oLl o b o u rO r g o n i s o t i o n
IMF I n t e r n o t i o n oMl onetoryFund
IMO I n t e r n o t i o n oM
l o r i t i m eO r g o n i z o t i o n
INFOTERRA I n t e r n o t i o n oEl n v i r o n m e nItn f o r m o t i o nS y s t e m( U N E P )
roc Intergovernmentol Oceonogroph ic Commission
IPCC Intergovernmentol Ponelon ClimoteChonge
rPcs lnternotionol Progromme on ChemicolSofety
IPM integroted pestmonogement
IRPTC Internotionol Register of Potentiolly Ioxic Chemicols
rTc In te rn o ti o nToilnC o unci l
ITTO Internotionol TropicolTimberOrgonizotion
IUCN Internotionol Unionfor Conservotion of Notureond NoturolResources
MARPOL Internotionol Convention for the Prevention of Pollution
fromShips
OECD Orgonisotion for Economic Cooperotionond Development
PGRFA plontgeneticresources for ogriculture
PIC prior informedconsentprocedure
SADCC Southern AfriconDevelopment CoordinotionConference
SARD sustoinoble ogriculture ond ruroldevelopment
UNCTAD UnitedNotionsConference on Trodeond Development
UNDP UnitedNotionsDevelopment Progromme
UNDRO Officeof the UnitedNotionsDisoster ReliefCoordinotor
UNEP U n i te dN o ti o n sE n v i ronment P rogromme
UNESCO U n i te dN o ti o n sEd ucoti onol S ,ci enti fiond
c C ul turolOrgoni zoti on
UNFPA UnitedNotionsPopulotion Fund
UNICEF U n i te dN o ti o n sC h i l dren'Fund
s
UNIDO UnitedNotionslndustriol Development Orgonizotion
UNU UnitedNotionsUniversity
WCP World C IimoteProgromme {WMO/UNEP/ICSU/UN ESCO)
WFC World FoodCouncil
WHO World HeolthOrgonizotion
WMO WorldMeteorologicol Orgonizotion
WWF World Wide Fundfor Noture(olsocolledWorld Wildl;feFund)
WWW World WeotherWotch (WMO)
Rlo
DECLARAilON
ond Development
on Environment
ond Development
on Environment
RioDeclorotion

Having met at Rio de Janeirofrom 3 to 14 June 1992, PRINCIPLE


3
The right to developmentmust be fulfilled so as to
Reaffirmingthe Declarationof the United Nations Con- equitablymeetdevelopmentaland environmentalneeds
ferenceon the Human Environment, adoptedat Stock- of presentand future generations.
holm on 16 JuneI972.oand seekingto build upon it,

With the goal of establishinga new and equitableglobal


partnershipthroughthe creationof new levelsof cooper- PRINCIPLE
4
ation amongStates,key sectorsof societiesand people, In order to achievesustainabledevelopment,environ-
mental protection shall constitutean integral part of the
Workingtowardsinternationalagreementswhich respect developmentprocessand cannotbe consideredin isola-
the interestsof all and protectthe integrityof the global tion from it.
environmentaland developmentalsystem,

Recognizingtheintegraland interdependentnatureof the


Earth.our home. PRINCIPLE
5
All Statesand all peopleshall cooperatein the essential
Proclaims that:
task of eradicatingpoverty as an indispensable require-
ment for sustainabledevelopment,in order to decrease
the disparitiesin standardsof living and bettermeetthe
needsof the majority of the peopleof the world.

PRINCIPLEI
Human beings are at the centre of concerns for sus-
tainabledevelopment.They areentitledto a healthyand PRINCIPLE
6
productive life in harmony with nature.
The specialsituationand needsof developingcountries,
particularlythe leastdevelopedand thosemost environ-
mentally vulnerable,shall be given specialpriority. In-
ternationalactionsin the field of environmentanddevel-
PRINCIPLE
2
opmentshouldalsoaddressthe interestsandneedsof all
Stateshave,in accordance with the Charterof theUnited countries.
Nationsandthe principles of internationallaw,the sover-
eign right to exploit their own resources pursuantto their
own environmentaland developmental policies,and the
responsibilityto ensurethat activitieswithin their juris-
PRINCIPLE
Z
dictionorcontrol do not causedamage to theenvironment
Statesshallcooperatein a spirit of global partnershipto
of other Statesor of areasbevondthe limits of national
conserve,protectand restorethe healthand integrity of
jurisdiction.
'I2
the Earrh'secosystem.In view of the different contribu- PRINCIPLE
tions to global environmentaldegradation,Stateshave Statesshouldcooperateto promotea supportiveandopen
commonbut differentiatedresponsibilities.The developed international economic system that would lead to eco-
countriesacknowledgethe responsibilitythat they bear nomic growth and sustainabledevelopment in all
in the internationalpursuitof sustainabledevelopmentin countries,to betteraddressthe problemsof environmen-
view of the pressurestheir societiesplace on the global tal degradation.Tradepolicy measuresforenvironmental
environment and of the technologies and financial purposesshould not constitute a meansof arbitrary or
resourcesthey command. unjustifiablediscriminationor a disguisedrestrictionon
international trade. Unilateral actions to deal with
environmentalchallengesoutsidethe jurisdiction of
the importing country shouldbe avoided.Environmental
8
PRINCIPLE measuresaddressingtransboundaryor global envi-
To achievesustainabledevelopmentand a higher quality ronmentalproblemsshould, as far as possible,be based
of life for all people,Statesshouldreduceand eliminate on an internationalconsensus.
unsustainablepatternsof production and consumption
and promote appropriatedemographicpolicies.

PRINCIPLE
I3
Statesshall developnational law regardingliability and
9
PRINCIPLE compensation for the victims of pollution and other
Statesshouldcooperateto strengthenendogenouscapac- environmentaldamage.Statesshall also cooperatein an
ity-building for sustainabledevelopmentby improving expeditious and more determined manner to develop
scientific understandingthrough exchangesof scientific further i nternationallaw regardingliability and compen-
and technologicalknowledge,and by enhancingthe de- sation for adverse effects of environmental damage
velopment, adaptation,diffusion and transfer of tech- causedby activitieswithin theirjurisdiction or control to
nologies,includingnew and innovativetechnologies. areasbeyond their jurisdiction.

IO
PRINrcIPLE I4
PRINCIPLE
Environmentalissuesare best handledwith the partici- States should effectively cooperateto discourageor
pation of all concernedcitizens,at the relevantlevel. At preventthe relocationand transferto other Statesof any
the nationallevel, eachindividual shall have appropriate activitiesandsubstancesthatcausesevereenvironmental
accessto information concemingthe environmentthat is degradationor are found to be harmful to humanhealth.
held by public authorities,including information on haz-
ardousmaterialsand activitiesin their communities,and
the opportunity to participate in decision-makingpro-
cesses.States shall facilitate and encouragepublic PRINCIPLE
I5
awarenessand participation by making information In order to protect the environment, the precautionary
widely available. Effective accessto judicial and approachshall be widely appliedby Statesaccordingto
adm inis t r a ti v ep ro c e e d i n g s ,i n c l u d i n g r edressand their capabilities.Where there are threatsof seriousor
remedy,shall be provided. irreversibledamage,lack of full scientific certainty shall
not be used as a reason for postponing cost-effective
measures to preventenvironrnentaldegradation.

PRINCIPIE I1
Statesshall enact effective environmentallegislation.
Environmentalstandards,managementobjectivesand PRINCIPLE16
priorities should reflect the environmentaland develop- National authorities should endeavourto promote the
mental context to which they apply. Standardsapplied internalization of environmental costs and the use of
by some countriesmay be inappropriateand of unwar- economicinstruments,taking into accountthe approach
rantedeconomicand social cost to other countries,in that the polluter should, in principle, bear the cost of
particulardevelopingcountries.

t0
pollution, with due regard to the public interest and PR]NCIPLE 22
without distorting internationaltradeand investment. Indigenouspeopleand their communitiesand other local
communitieshavea vital role in environmentalmanage-
ment and developmentbecauseof their knowledge and
traditionalpractices.Statesshould recognizeand duly
IZ
FRINCIPLE support their identity, culture and interestsand enable
Environmentalimpact assessment,as a national instru- their effectiveparticipationin the achievementof sus-
ment shall be undertakenfor proposedactivities that are tainabledevelopment.
likely to have a significant adverseimpact on the envi-
ronment and are subject to a decision of a competent
national authority. PRINCIPIE
23
The environmentand natural resourcesof people under
oppression,domination and occupation shall be pro-
I8
PRINrcIPLE tected.
Statesshallimmediatelynotify other Statesof any natural
disastersor other emergenciesthat are likely to produce
sudden harmful effects on the environment of those 24
PRINCIPLE
States.Every effort shall be made by the intemational Warfareis inherentlydestructiveof sustainabledevelop-
community to help Statesso afflicted. ment. States shall therefore respect international law
providing protection for the environment in times of
armedconflict and cooperatein its further development,
PRINICIPLEI9 as necessary.
States shall provide prior and timely notification and
relevant information to potentially affected States on
activitiesthat may havea significantadversetransbound- PRINCIPLE
25
ary environmental effect and shall consult with those Peace,developrnentand environmental protection are
Statesat an early stageand in good faith. and indivisible.
interdependent

PRINCIPLE
20 PRINCIPLE
26
Women have a vital role in environmentalmanagement States shall resolve all their environmentaldisputes
and development.Their full participation is therefore peacefullyand by appropriatemeansin accordancewith
essentialto achievesustainabledevelopment. the Charterof the United Nations.

PRNICIPTE 2I PRINCIPLE 2Z
The creativity, ideals and courage of the youth of the Statesand people shall cooperatein good faith and in a
world should be mobilized to forge a global partnership spirit of partnershipin the fulfilment of the principles
in order to achievesustainabledevelopmentand ensure embodiedin this Declarationand in the further develop-
a better future for all. ment of internationallaw in the field of sustainable
development.

o on theHumonEnviron-
Reportof the UnitedNotionsConference
ment,Stockholm, 5-.l6 June 1972 lUnitedNotionspublicoiion,
S o l e sN o . E . Z 3 . l l . A . l 4o n d c o r r i g e n d u mc)h, o p f elr.

t1
AOENDA2I
A blueprintfor octionfor globol
sustoinoble development
i n t ot h e 2 l s t c e n t u r y
I Preomble

l.l Humanitystandsat a definingmomentin history. order to cover the incrementalcostsfor the actionsthey
We are confronted with a perpetuationof disparities have to undertake to deal with global environmental
between and within nations, a worsening of poverty, problems and to acceleratesustainabledevelopment.
hunger, ill health and illiteracy, and the continuing Financialresourcesare also requiredfor strengthening
deteriorationof the ecosystems on which we dependfor the capacity of internationalinstitutions for the im-
our well-being. However, integrationof environment plementationof Agenda2l. An indicativeorder-of-mag-
and developmentconcernsand greaterattentionto them nitude assessmentof costs is included in each of the
will leadto thefulfilment of basicneeds,improvedliving programmeareas. This assessment will need to be ex-
standardsfor all. betterprotectedand managedecosys- aminedand refined by the relevantimplementingagen-
temsand a safer,more prosperousfuture.No nationcan cies and organizations.
achievethis on its own; but togetherwe can- in a global 1.5 In the implementationof the relevantprogramme
partnershipfor sustainabledevelopment. areasidentifiedin Agenda21, specialattentionshouldbe
1.2 This globalpartnershipmustbuild on the premises gi ven to the parti cul ar ci rcumstancesfaci ng t he
of GeneralAssemblyresolution411228of 22 December economiesin transition. It must alsobe recognizedthat
1989,which was adoptedwhen the nationsof the world thesecountriesare facing unprecedented challengesin
called for the United Nations Conferenceon Environ- transformingtheireconomies,in somecasesin themidst
mentandDevelopment, andontheacceptance of theneed of considerablesocialand political tension.
to take a balancedand integratedapproachto environ- 1.6 The programmeareasthatconstituteAgenda?l are
mentand development questions. describedin terms of the basis for action, objectives,
1.3 Agenda2l addresses the pressingproblemsof today activitiesand meansof implementation.Agenda21 is a
and also aims at preparingthe world for the challenges dynamicprogramme. It will be carriedout by thevarious
of the next century.It reflectsa global consensusand actorsaccordingto thedifferentsituations,capacitiesand
politicalcommitmentatthehighestlevelon development prioritiesof countriesandregionsin full respectof all the
a n d e n v i r o n m e n tc o o p e r a t i o n .I t s s u c c e s s f u il m - principlescontainedin the Rio Declarationon Environ-
plementationis first and foremost the responsibility ment and Development.It could evolveover time in the
o f G o v e r n m e n t s .N* a t i o n a l s t r a t e g i e s ,p l a n s , light of changingneedsandcircumstances. This process
p o l i c i e sa n d p r o c e s s eas r e c r u c i a li n a c h i e v i n gt h i s . marks the beginning of a new global partnershipfor
I nt er nat ionalc o o p e ra ti o ns h o u l d s u p p o rt a nd sup- sustainable development.
plem ent s uc h n a ti o n a l e ffo rts . In th i s c o n text, the
Unit ed Nat ionss y s te mh a s a k e y ro l e to p l a y . Other
int er nat ional,re g i o n a l a n d s u b re g i o n a l o rgani za-
t ions ar e als oc a l l e du p o n to c o n tri b u teto th i s effort.
T he br oades t p u b l i c p a rti c i p a ti o n a n d th e acti ve
* When the term "Governments" is used,it will be deemedto
i nv olv em entof th e n o n -g o v e rn me n taol rg a n i zati ons
and ot her gr ou p ss h o u l d a l s o b e e n c o u ra g e d . includethe EuropeonEconomicCommunily within its oreosof
competence. Throughout Agendo2l the term"environmentolly
1.4 The developmentaland environmentalobjectives
sound"meons"environmentolly sofeond sound",in porticulor
of Agenda2l will requirea substantialflow of new and when oppliedto the terms"energysources","energysupplies",
additionalfrnancialresources to developingcountries,in "energysyslems"ond "technology"or "iechnologies".

t5
SectionI

Sociolond
Economic
Dimensions
Internotionol
cooperotionto occelerote
sustoinoble
developmentin developingcountries
ond reloted
domesticpolicies

INTRODUCTION of national developmentefforts are thus vital. Interna-


tional cooperation in this area should be designed to
complementand support- not to diminish or subsume
- sounddomesticeconomicpolicies,in both developed
2.1 In orderto meetthe challengesof environmentand and developing countries, if global progress towards
development,Stateshave decided to establisha new sustainable developmentis to be achieved.
global partnership.This partnershipcommitsall States 2.3 The internationaleconomy should provide a sup-
to engagein a continuousand constructivedialogue, portive internationalclimate for achieving environment
inspired by the need to achieve a more efficient and and developmentgoalsby:
equitableworld economy,keepingin view the increasing (a) Promoting sustainabledevelopmentthrough trade
interdependenceof the community of nations and that liberalization;
sustainabledevelopmentshouldbecomea priority item (b) Making trade and environment mutually suppor-
on the agendaof the internationalcommunity. It is tive;
recognizedthat,for the successof this new partnership, (c) Providing adequatefinancial resourcesto develop-
it is important to overcomeconfrontationand to foster a ing countriesand dealingwith internationaldebt;
climateof genuinecooperationandsolidarity.It is equal- (d) Encouragingmacroeconomic policiesconduciveto
ly important to strengthennational and intemational environmentand development.
policiesandmultinationalcooperationto adaptto thenew 2.4 Governmentsrecognizethat there is a new global
r ealit ies . effort to relatethe elementsof the internationaleconomic
2.2 Economic policies of individual countries and systemand mankind's needfor a safeand stablenatural
int er nat ional e c o n o mi c re l a ti o n s b o th h a v e great environment. Therefore,it is the intent of Governments
relevanceto sustainable development.The reactivation that consensus-building at theintersectionof theenviron-
andacceleration of developmentrequires both adynamic mental and tradeand developmentareaswill be ongoing
and a supporliveinternationaleconomic environment in existingintemationalforums,aswell asin thedomestic
and determinedpoliciesat the nationallevel. It will be policy of eachcountry.
frustratedin the absenceof eitherof theserequirements.
A supportiveexternaleconomicenvironmentis crucial.
The developmentprocesswill not gathermomentumif
the global economylacksdynamismand stabilityand is
P R O G R A M MAER E A S
besetu,ith uncertainties.Neither will it gathermomen-
tum if the developingcountriesare weighteddown by
externalindebtedness, if developrnentfinanceis inade- A) PROTVTOT|NG
SUSTAINABLEDEVETOPMENT
quate,if bamers restrictaccessto marketsand if com- THROUGHTRADE
modity prices and the terms of trade of developing
countriesremaindepressed. The recordof the 1980swas
essentiallynegativeon eachof thesecountsandneedsto BASIS
FORACTION
be reversed.The policiesandmeasuresneededto create 2.5 An open,equitable,secure,non-discriminatory and
an internationalenvironmentthat is stronglysupportive predictablemultilateraltradingsystemthat is consistent

l9
with the goals of sustainabledevelopmentand leads to ing appreciablegrowth in their exports. Protectionist
the optimal distribution of global production in accord- pressuresand unilateral policy actions continue to en-
ance with comparative advantageis of benefit to all danger the functioning of an open multilateral trading
trading partners.Moreover, improved market accessfor system, affecting particularly the export interests of
developingcountries'exportsin conjunctionwith sound developing countries. Economic integration processes
macroeconomicand environmentalpolicieswould have have intensified in recent years and should impart
a positive environmentalimpact and thereforemake an dynamism to global trade and enhance the trade and
important contribution towards sustainabledevelop- developmentpossibilities for developing countries. In
ment. recent years,a growing number of thesecountrieshave
2.6 Experiencehas shownthat sustainabledevelopment adoptedcourageouspolicy reforms involving ambitious
requiresa commitmentto sound economicpolicies and autonomous trade liberalization, while far-reaching
management,an effective and predictable public ad- reforms and profound restructuringprocessesare taking
ministration,the integrationof environmentalconcemsinto placein Central and EasternEuropeancountries,paving
decision-makingaurdprogresstowardsdemocraticgovem- the way for their integrationinto the world economyand
ment, in the light of country-specificconditions, which the international trading system. Increasedattention is
allows for full participation of all parties concerned. being devoted to enhancingthe role of enterprisesand
These attributes are essentialfor the fulfilment of the promoting competitive markets through adoption of
policy directionsand objectiveslistedbelow. competitive policies.The GSPhas proved to be a useful
2J The commodity sectordominatesthe economiesof tradepolicy instrument,althoughits objectiveswill have
many developing countries in terms of production, to be fulfilled, and trade facilitation strategiesrelating to
employmentand export earnings. An important feature electronic datainterchange(EDI) have beeneffective in
of the world commodityeconomyin the 1980swas the improving the tradingefficiency of the public and private
prevalenceof very low and declining real pricesfor most sectors.The interactionsbetweenenvironment policies
commodities in international markets and a resulting and tradeissuesare manifold and have not yet beenfully
substantialcontractionin commodity export earningsfor assessed.An early, balanced,comprehensiveand suc-
manyproducingcountries.The ability of thosecountries cessful outcome of the Uruguay Round of multilateral
to mobilize. through internationaltrade, the resources trade negotiationswould bring about further liberaliza-
neededto finance investmentsrequiredfor sustainable tion and expansionof world trade,enhancethe tradeand
developmentmay be impairedby this developmentand developmentpossibilities of developing countries and
by tariff and non-tariff impediments, including tariff provide greatersecurityand predictabilityto the interna-
escalation,limiting their accessto export markets.The tional trading system.
removal of existing distortionsin internationaltrade is
essential.In particular,the achievementof this objective
requiresthat there be substantialand progressivereduc- OBJECTIVES
tion in the supportand protectionof agriculture-cover- 2.9 In the years ahead, and taking into account the
ing intemalregimes,marketaccessand exportsubsidies results of the Uruguay Round of multilateral trade
- as well as of industry and other sectors,in order to negotiations,Governmentsshould continue to strive to
avoid inflicting large losses on the more efficient meet the following objectives:
producers,especiallyin developingcountries.Thus, in (a) To promote an open,non-discriminatoryand equi-
agriculture,industry and other sectors,thereis scopefor table multilateral trading system that will enable all
initiativesaimedat tradeliberalizationand at policiesto countries- in particular,the developingcountries- to
make production more responsiveto environment and improvetheireconomicstructuresandimprovethe stand-
developmentneeds.Tradeliberalizationshouldtherefore ard of living of their populationsthrough sustainedeco-
be pursuedon a global basisacrosseconomicsectorsso nomic development;
as to contributeto sustainabledevelopment. (b) To improve access to markets for exports of
2.8 The internationaltrading environment has been developingcountries;
affectedby a numberof developmentsthat havecreated (c) To improve the functioning of commodity markets
new challengesand opportunitiesand have mademulti- and achieve sound, compatible and consistentcom-
lateraleconomiccooperationof evengreaterimportance. modity policies at national and internationallevels with
World trade has continuedto grow faster than world a view to optimizing the contribution of the commodity
outputin recentyears.However,the expansionof world sector to sustainabledevelopment,taking into account
tradehasbeenunevenlyspread,andonly a lirnitednum- environmentalconsiderations ;
ber of developingcountrieshavebeencapableof achiev- (d) To promote and support policies, domestic and

20
international,that make economic growth and environ- B) MANAGEMENT-RE
LAT
EDACTTV
tTtES
mentalprotectionmutually supportive.
>-Devglopingdomesticpoliciesthotmoximize the benefits
of trodeliberolizationfor sustainable
development
ACTIVITIES
A) /NTERNAT/ONAL
AND REG/ONA/COO7ERATION 2.13 For devel opi ng countri esto benefi t from t he
AND COORD/NAIION liberalizationof tradingsystems,they shouldimplement
the following policies,as appropriate:
> Promotingon internotionoltroding systemthat fokesoc- (a) Create a domesticenvironmentsupportiveof an
counfof the needsof developingcountries optimalbalancebetweenproductionfor thedomesticand
export marketsand remove biasesagainstexportsand
2.10 Accordingly,the internationalcomnrunityshould: discourageinefficientimport-substitution ;
(a) Halt and reverseprotectionismin order to bring (b) Promotethe policy frameworkand the infrastruc-
aboutfurtherliberalizationandexpansionof world trade, ture required to improve the efficiency of export and
to thebenefitof all countries,in particularthe developing irnport trade as well as the functioning of domestic
countries; markets.
( b ) P r o v i d e f o r a n e q u i t a b l e ,s e c u r e ,n o n - d i s - 2.14 The fol l ow i ng pol i ci es shoul d be adopredby
criminatoryandpredictableinternationaltrading system; developingcountrieswith respectto commoditiescon-
(c) Facilitate,in a timely way, the integrationof all sistentwith marketefficiency:
countriesinto the world economyand the intemational (a) E xpand processi ng,di stri buti on and i mpr ove
tradingsystem; marketingpracticesand the competitiveness of the com-
(d) Ensure that environment and trade policies are modity sector;
mutuallysupportive, with a view to achievingsustainable (b) Diversify in order to reduceclependence on com-
development: modity exports,
(e) Strengthenthe internationaltrade policies system (c) Reflect efficient and sustainableuse of factorsof
throughan early,balanced,comprehensive anclsuccess- productionin theformationof commodityprices,includ-
ful outcomeof the UruguayRoundof multilateraltrade ing the reflectionof environmental,socialand resources
negotiations. costs.
2.11 Theinternational communityshouldaimatfinding
ways and meansof achievinga betterfunctioningand
enhancedtransparencyof commodity markets,greater c) DATAAND /NFORMATTON
diversificationof the cornmodity sectorin developing
economieswithin a macroeconomicframework that > Encourogingdoto collection
ond reseorch
takesinto considerationa country'seconomicstructure,
resourceendowmentsand marketopportunities, and bet- 2.15 GATT, UNCTAD and other reler,'antinstitutions
ter managementof naturalresourcesthat takesinto ac- should continue to collect appropriatetrade data and
countthe necessities of sustainable development. information. The Secretary-General of the United Na-
2J2 Therefore,all countriesshould implementpre- tions is requestedto strengthenthe Trade Control
vi ous c om m it m e n tsto h a l t a n d re v e rs ep ro te c tioni sm MeasuresInforrnationSystemmanagedby UNCTAD.
and furtherexpandmarketaccess,particularlyin areas
o f int er estto dev e l o p i n gc o u n tri e s .T h i s i mp ro v e ment
of market accesswill be facilitated by appropriate > lmprovinginternationol
,cooperationin commoditytrade
s t r u c t u r a l a d j u s t m e n ti n d e v e l o p e d c o u n t r i e s . ond thediversificotion
of the sector
Dev elopingc oun tri e s h o u l dc o n ti n u eth e tra d e - pol i cy
reforms and structuraladjustmentthey have uncler- 2.16 With regard to commodity trade, Governments
tak en.I t is t hus u rg e n tto a c h i e v ea n i m p ro v e menti n should,directly or throughappropriateinternationalor-
m ar k et ac c es sc o n d i ti o n sfo r c o mn to d i ti e sn, otabl y ganizations,whereappropriate:
thr ough t he pr o g re s s i v ere mo v a l o l - b a rri e rs that (a) Seek optimal functioningof commodity markets,
r e s t r i c t i m p o r t s , p a r t i c u l a r l y 1 ' r o md e v e l o p i n g interalia, throughimprovedmarkettransparency involv-
co unt r ies ,of c om m o d i ty p ro d u c ts i n p ri m a ry and ing exchanges of views and informationon investment
processedforms.as well as the substantialand progres- plans,prospectsandmarketsfor inciividualcommodities.
sivereductionof typesof supportthatinduceuncompeti- Substantivenegotiationsbetweenproclucersand con-
tiveproduction, suchasproductionandexportsubsidies. sumersshouldbepursuedwith a view to achievingviable
andmoreefficientinternationalagreements thattakeinto

21
accountmarket trends,or affangements,as well as study supportive.An open,multilateraltradingsystemmakes
groups. In this regard,particularattentionshouldbe paid possiblea more efficient allocation and useof resources
to the agreementson cocoa, coffee, sugar and tropical and therebycontributesto an increasein production and
timber. The importance of international commodity incomesand to lesseningdemandson the environment.
agreementsandalrangementsis underlined.Occupation- It thusprovidesadditionalresources neededfor economic
al health and safety matters, technology transfer and growth and developmentand improved environmental
servicesassociatedwith the production,marketingand protection. A sound environment,on the other hand,
promotion of commodities,as well as environmental provides the ecological and other resourcesneededto
considerations, shouldbe takeninto account; sustaingrowth and underpina continuingexpansionof
(b) Continueto apply compensationmechanismsfor trade. An open,multilateraltrading system,supported
shortfalls in commodity export earningsof developing by the adoptionof soundenvironmentalpolicies,would
countriesin order to encouragediversificationefforts; havea positiveimpacton theenvironmentandcontribute
(c) Provide assistanceto developingcountriesupon to sustainable development.
requestin the designand implementationof commodity 2.20 Internationalcooperationin the environmental
policies and the gatheringand utilization of information field is growing,anciin anumberofcasestradeprovisions
on commodity markets; in multilateralenvironmentagreementshave played a
(d) Support the efforts of developing countries to role in tackling global environmentalchallenges.Trade
promote the policy framework and infrastructure re- measureshave thus been used in certain specific in-
quired to improve the efticiency of export and import stances,whereconsiderednecessary, to enhancethe ef-
trade: fectivenessof environmentalregulationsfor the protec-
(e) Supportthediversificationinitiativesof thedeveloping tion of theenvironment.Suchregulationsshouldaddress
countriesat the national,regionaland intemationallevels. the root causesof environmentaldegradationso asnot to
resultin unjustifiedrestrictionson trade.The challenge
is to ensure that trade and environmentpolicies are
MEANSOF IMPLEMENTATION consistentand reinforce the processof sustainable
development.However,accountshouldbe taken of the
A/ FINANCINGAND COSTEVALUATION
fact that environmental standardsvalid for developed
countriesmay have unwarrantedsocial and economic
2.17 The Conferencesecretariathas estimatedthe costsin devdlopingcountries.
averagetotal annual cost (1993-2000)of implementing
the activitiesin this progralruneareato be about$8.8bil-
lion from the internationalcommunity on grant or con-
cessionalterms.Theseare indicativeand order-of-mag- OBJECTIVES
nitude estimatesonly and have not been reviewed by 2.21 Govemmentsshould strive to meet the following
Governments.Actual costsand financialterms,includ- objectives,throughrelevantmultilateralforums,including
ing any that are non-concessional, will depend upon, GATT, UNCTAD and other internationalorganizations:
inter alia, the specific strategiesand programmes (a) To make international trade and environment
Governmentsdecideupon for implementation. policies mutually supportivein favour of sustainable
development;
(b) To clarify the role of GATT, UNCTAD and other
B) CAPACTTY-BUtLDING
international organizationsin dealing with trade and
2.18 The above-mentionedtechnical cooperation environment-related issues,including, where relevant,
activities aim at strengtheningnational capabilitiesfor conciliationprocedureand disputesettlement;
designandimplementationof commoditypolicy,useand (c) To encourageinternationalproductivity and com-
managementof nationalresourcesand the gatheringand petitiveness andencouragea constructiverole on thepart
utilizationof informationon commoditymarkets. of industryin dealingwith environmentanddevelopment
issues.

B) frrAKrNG TRADEAND ENVIRONTYIENT


fiIUTUAILY SUPPORTIVE ACTIVITIES

> Developingon environment/trode


ord deuJlophentogendo
FORACTION
BASIS
2.19 Environmentandtradepoliciesshouldbe mutually 2.22 GovernmentsshouldencourageGATT, UNCTAD

22
and other relevantinternationaland regionaleconomic developmentalrequirementsof developingcountriesas
institutionsto exarnine,in accordance with theirrespec- they movetowardsinternationallyagreedenvironmental
tive mandatesand competences, the following proposi- objectives;
tionsandpr inc ip l e s : C) Develop more precision, where necessary,and
(a) Elaborateadequatestudiesfor the better under- clarify the relationship between GATT provisions and
standingof the relationshipbetweentradeand environ- someof themultilateralmeasures adoptedin theenviron-
ment for the promotionof sustainable development; ment area;
(b) Promote a dialogue betweentrade, development (k) Ensurepublic input in the formation,negotiation
and environnrent comrnunities: and implementationof trade policies as a means of
(c) In thosecaseswhen trademeasures relatedto en- fosteringincreasedtransparency in the light of country-
vironment are used, ensure transparencyand com- specificconditions;
patibilitywith international obligations; (l) Ensurethat environmentalpoliciesprovidethe ap-
(d) Deal with the root causesof environmentand propriatelegaland institutionalframeworkto respondto
development problemsin a mannerthatavoidstheadop- new needsfor the protectionof the environmentthat may
tion of enr,'ironmental measures resultingin unjustified resultfrom changesin productionand trade specializa-
restrictions on trade: tion.
(e) Seekto avoidthc useof traderestrictions or distor-
tionsasa meansto offsetdifferences in costarisingfrom
differenccsin environmentalstandardsand regulations, c) PROVTD|NGADEQUATEF|NANC|ATRESOURCES
sincetheirapplicationcouldleadto tradedistortionsand TO DEVETOPINGCOUNTRIES
increaseprotectionist tendencies:
(f) Ensure that environment-related regulationsor
stanclards. including those relatedto health and safety BASIS
FORACTION
standards,do not constitutea meansof arbitrary or 2.23 Investmentis critical to the ability of developing
unjustifiable discrimination or a disguisedrestrictionon countriesto achieveneededeconomicgrowthto improve
trade: the welfare of their populationsand to meet their basic
(g) Ensurethat specialfactorsaffectingenvironment needsin a sustainablemanner,all without deteriorating
and tradepoliciesin the developingcountriesareborne or depletingthe resourcebasethat underpinsdevelop-
in mind in theapplicationof environmental standards, as ment. Sustainabledevelopmentrequiresincreasedin-
well asin theuseof anytrademeasures. It is worthnoting vestment, for which domestic and external financial
that standardsthat are valid in the most advanced resources areneeded.Foreignprivateinvestmentandthe
countriesmav be inappropriate andof unwarrantedsocial returnof flight capital,which dependon a healthyinvest-
costlbr the developingcountries; ment climate, are an important sourceof financial re-
(h ) Encourage participation of developingcountriesin sources.Many developingcountrieshaveexperienceda
nrultrlateralagreementsthrough such mechanismsas decade-longsituationof negativenettransferoffinancial
sp ec ialt r ans it io n arul l e s : resources,during which their financial receipts were
(i) Avorcluniiateral actionsto dealwith environmental exceededby paymentstheyhadto make,in particularfor
ci r allengc sout s i d eth e .j u ri s d i c ti o no f th e i mporti ng debt-servicing.As a result, domesticallymobilized
countr\'. Environrnentalmeasuresaddressingtransbor- resourceshad to be transferredabroadinsteadof being
der or glohalcnvirclnmental problemsshould,as far as investedlocally in order to promote sustainableeco-
possiblc.bebasedon aninternationalconsensus. Domes- nomic development.
tic nreasures tar_qeted to achievecertainenvironmental 2.24 For manydevelopingcountries,thereactivationof
ob.jcctives may needtraclentcasures io renderthem ef- developmentwill not take place without an early and
l'ectrre'.Shouldtradepolicymeasures befoundnecessary durable solution to the problemsof externalindebted-
for thr-enforccrnent of environmentalpolicies,certain ness,takinginto accountthe fact that,for manydevelop-
p rir r c iplcanc
- s lr ul e ss h o u l da p p l y .T h e s ec o u l di n c l ude, ing countries,external debt burdensare a significant
iritr uiitr. the principieof non-discrirnination; the prin- problem.The burdenof debt-servicepaymentson those
ciple thei tlte trademeasurechosenshouldbe the least countrieshasimposedsevereconstraintson their ability
trade-rcstrictivc necessary to achievethe objectives;an to accelerategrowth and eradicatepoverty and hasled to
obligationto ensuretransparencyin the use of trade a contracti oni n i mports, i nvestmentand consum p-
rllcdsulcsrclatc'c-l to the environment and to provide ti on. E xternal i ndebtedness has emergedas a ma in
lucleiluaic notification of nationalregulations:and the factor i n the economi c stal ematei n the devel oping
n e edt o gir c ' t ' or r s i d e ra tro
tonth e s p e c i acl o n d i ti o ns
and countri es.C onti nuedvi gorousi mpl ementati on of t he

23
evolving international debt strategy is aimed at re- 2.28 With regard to debt owed to otficial bilateral
storing debtorcountries'externalfinancial viability, creditors,the recentmeasurestaken by the Paris Club
and the resumptionof their growth and development with regardto moregeneroustermsof relief to thepoorest
would a s s i s t i n a c h i e v i n g s u s ta i n abl egrow th and most indebtedcountriesare welcomed.Ongoingefforts
dev elo p m e n t.In th i s c o n te x t, a d d i t i onal fi nanci al to implementthese"Trinidadterms"measuresin a man-
resourcesin favour of developing countriesand the ner cofiunensurate with the paymentscapacityof those
efficient utilization of such resourcesare essential. countriesand in a way that gives additionalsupportto
their economicrefbrm efforts are welcomed.The sub-
stantial bilateral debt reduction undertakenby some
OBJECTIVES
creditorcountriesis alsowelconted,andotherswhich are
2.25 The specificrequirementsfor the implementation in a positionto do soareencouraged to takesimilaraction.
of the sectoraland cross-sectoralprogrammesincluded 2 . 2 9 T h e a c t i o n so f l o w - i n c o m ec o u n t r i e sw i t h s u b -
in Agenda27 aredealt with in the relevantprogramn're stanti aldebt burdensw hi ch conti nue,at gr eat cost ,
ar eas a n d i n c h a p te r 3 3 (F i n a n c i a l resourcesand to servi cethei r debt and safeguardtheir cr edit wor -
mechanisms). thi nessare commended.P arti cul aratte nt ionshould
be pai d to thei r resourceneeds. Other debt - dis-
tresseddevel opi ngcountri esw hi ch are m akinggr eat
ACTIVITIES
efforts to conti nue to servi ce thei r debt and m eet
A) MEETING /NIERNAI/ONAI TARGETSOF OFFICIAL thei r externalfi nanci al obl i eati onsal so deser vedue
DEVELA PMENI ASS'SIANCE FUNDING attenti on.
2.30 In connectionwith multilateraldebt,it is urgedthat
2.26 As discussedin chapter 33, new and additional seriousattentionbe given to continuingto rvork towards
resourcesshould be provided to support Agenda 21 grow'.h-oriented solutionsto the problemof developing
programmes. countrieswith seriousdebt-servicing problems,includ-
ing thosewhosedebt is mainly to official creditorsor to
multilateralfinancialinstitutions. Particularlyin thecase
THEDEBT'SSUE
B) ADDRESSING of l ow -i ncomecountri esi n the processo f econom ic
reform, the supportof the mul ti l ateralfinancial in-
2.27 In regardto the externaldebt incurredwith com- sti tuti onsi n the form of new di sbursem entand s t he
mercial banks, the progressbeing made under the ruseof thei r concessi onal fundsi s w el comed.The use
strengtheneddebt strategyis recognizedand a morerapid of supportgroupsshoul d be conti nuedin pr oviding
implementation of this strategy is encouraged.Some resourcesto cl ear arrearso1'countri e s em bar king
countrieshave already benefitedfrom the combination upon vi gorous economi c reform progrant m essup-
of soundadjustmentpoliciesand commercialbank debt portedby IMF and the W orl d B ank. Mea sur esby t he
reductionorequivalentmeasures. The internationalcom- mul ti l ateral fi nanci al i nsti tuti onssuch as t he r ef i-
munity encourages: n a n c i n go f i n t e r e s to n n o n - c o n c e s s i o n laol a n sw i t h
(a) Other countries with heavy debts to banks to ID A refl ow s - " fi fth di mensi on"- are not ed r vit h
negotiatesimilar commercial bank debt reductionwith appreci ati on.
their creditors:
(b) The partiesto sucha negotiationto takedueaccount
of both the medium-termdebt reductionand new money MEANS
OFIMPLEMENTATION
requirementsof the debtor country; F/NANC/NGAND COSI EVALUATION-
(c) Multilateral institutionsactively engagedin the
strengthened internationaldebt strategyto continueto
support debt-reductionpackagesrelated to commer- D) ENCOURAGTNGECONOMICPOLICIES
cial bank debt with a view to ensuringthat the mag- DEVELOPMENT
CONDUCIVETO SUSTAINABLE
nitudeof suchfinancinsis consonantwith theevolving
debt strategy;
( d) Cr e d i to r b a n k s to p a rti c i p a tei n debt and debt- BASISFORACTION
servicereduction: 2.31 The unfavourahle external environment facing
(e) Strengthened policies to attractdirect investment, developing countries makesdomesticresourcemobiliza-
avoid unsustainable levels of debt and foster the return tion and efficient allocation and utilization of domesti-
of flight capital.
*See chop. 33
{ F i n o n c i orl e s o u r c e os n d m e c h o n i s m s } .

24
cally mobilized resourcesall the more important for the (a) To encouragea stableand predictableintemational
promotionof sustainabledevelopment.In a numberof economic environment, particularly with regard to
countries,policies are necessaryto correct misdirected monetary stability, real ratesof interestand fluctuations
public spending,large budget deficits and other macro- in key exchangerates;
economicimbalances, restrictivepoliciesanddistortions (b) To stimulatesavingsand reducefiscal deficits;
in the areasof exchangerates,investmentand finance, (c) To ensurethat the processesof policy coordination
a n d obs t ac lest o e n tre p re n e u rs h i p .In d e v e l oped take into account the interests and concerns of the
countries.continuing policy reform and adjustment,in- developing countries, including the need to promote
cluding appropriatesavingsrates,would help generate positive action to support the efforts of the least
resources to supportthetransitionto sustainable develop- developedcountriesto halt their marginalizationin the
ment both domesticallyand in developingcountries. world economy;
232 Good managementthat fostersthe associationof (d) To undertakeappropriatenationalmacroeconomic
effective, efficient, honest,equitableand accountable and structuralpoliciesaimedat promotingnon-inflation-
public administrationwith individual rights and oppor- ary growth, narrowing their major extemal imbalances
tunitiesis an essentialelementfor sustainable, broadly and i ncreasi ng the adj ustment capaci ty of the ir
baseddevelopmentand soundeconomicperformanceat economies.
all developmentlevels. All countriesshould increase 2.36 Developingcountriesshould considerstrengthen-
their efforts to eradicatemismanagementof public and ing their effortsto implementsoundeconomicpolicies:
private affairs, including corruption,taking into account (a) That maintain the monetary and fiscal discipline
the factorsresponsiblefor, and agentsinvolved in, this requiredto promoteprice stability and externalbalance;
phenomenon. (b) That resultin realisticexchangerates;
2.33 Many indebteddevelopingcountriesareundergo- (c) Thatraisedomesticsavingsandinvestment,aswell
ing structural adjustmentprogrammesrelating to debt as improve returnsto investment.
reschedulingor new loans.While suchprogrammesare 2.37 More specifically, all countries should develop
necessaryfor improving the balancein fiscal budgetsand policies that improve efficiency in the allocation of
balance-of-payments accounts,in somecasesthey have resourcesand take full advantageof the opportunities
resultedin adversesocialandenvironmentaleffects,such offered by the changingglobal economicenvironment.
as cuts in allocations for health care, education and In particular,whereverappropriate.and taking into ac-
environmentalprotection. It is important to ensurethat count national strategiesand objectives, countries
structuraladjustmentprogrammesdo not have negative should:
impacts on the environmentand social developmentso ( a ) R e m o v e t h e b a r r i e r s t o p r o g r e s sc a u s e d b y
that such programnles can be more in line with the bureaucraticinefficiencies,administrativestrains,un-
objectivesof sustainabledevelopment. necessarycontrolsand the neglectof marketconditions;
(b) P romote transparencyi n admi ni strati onand
decision-making;
OBJECTIVES
(c) Encourage the private sector and foster
2.34 It is necessaryto establish,in the light of the
entrepreneurship by inrprovinginstitutionalfacilitiesfor
country-specificconditions,economic policy reforms
enterprisecreationand market entry. The essentialob-
that promote the efficient planning and utilization of jective would be to simplify otrremovethe restrictions,
resourcesfor sustainabledevelopment through sound
regulationsand formalities that make it more compli-
economicandsocialpolicies,fosterentrepreneurship and
cated,costly and time-consumingto set up and operate
the incorporation of social and environmentalcosts in
enterprisesin many developingcountries.
resourcepricing, and remove sourcesof distortion in the (d) Promoteandsupportthe investmentand infrastruc-
areaof tradeand investment.
ture requiredfor sustainableeconomicgrowth anddiver-
sificationon an environmentallysoundand sustainable
basis;
ACTIVITIES
(e) Provide scope for appropriate economic instru-
A) MANAGEMFNI-RETATED
ACTIVITIES ments,including market mechanisms,in hannony with
the objectivesof sustainabledevelopmentandfulfilment
D Promotingsoundeconomicpolicies of basicneeds;
(t) Promotethe operationof effective tax systemsand
2.35 The industrializedcountriesand othercountriesin financial sectors;
(g) Provide opportunitiesfor small-scaleenterprises,
a position to do so should strengthentheir efforts:

25
both farm and non-farm, and for the indigenouspopula- the developing world. Therefore, the efforts of the
tion and local communities to contribute fully to the developing countriesto promote economic cooperation
attainmentof sustainabledevelopment; among themselvesshould be enhancedand continue to
(h) Remove biases against exports and in favour of be supportedby the internationalcommunity.
inefficient import substitutionand establishpolicies that
allow them to benefit fully from the flows of foreign
investment. within the framework of national, social, MEANSOF IMPI-EMENTATION
economicand developmentalgoals;
(i) Promote the creation of a domestic economic en- AND COSTEVALUATTON
,A' T,NANCTNG
vironment supportive of an optimal balance between
productionfor the domesticand export markets. 2.41 The Conference secretariathas estimated the
averagetotal annualcost (1993-2000)of implementing
the activities in this prograrnmearea to be about $50
,ANDREG/ONALCOOPERAflON
8/ 'NTERNAilONAL million from the international community on grant or
AND COORDINAI'ON concessionalterms. These are indicative and order-of-
magnitudeestimatesonly andhavenot beenreviewedby
2.38 Governmentsof developedcountries and those of Governments. Actual costsand financial terms,includ-
other countriesin a position to do so should,directly or ing any that arenon-concessional, will dependupon,inter
through appropriateinternationaland regional otganiza- alia, the specific strategiesand programmes Govern-
tions and internationallending institutions,enhancetheir ments decide upon for implementation.
efforts to provide developing countries with increased
technicalassistance for the following:
(a) Capacity-buildingin the nation's design and im-
B) CAPACTTY-BU|LD|NG
plementationof economicpolicies,upon request;
(b) Design and operationof efficient tax systems,ac- 2.42 Theabove-mentioned policy changesin developing
countingsystemsand financial sectors; countri es i nvol ve substanti alnati ona l ef f or t s f or
(c) Promotionofentrepreneurship. capacity-building the areas public administration,
in of
2.39 Internationalfinancialanddevelopmentinstitutions central banking, tax administration,savingsinstitutions
should further review their policies and programmesin and financial markets.
the light of the objectiveof sustainable development. 2.43 Particularefforts in the implementationof the four
2.40 Strongereconomiccooperationamongdeveloping progrirmme areasidentified in this chapterare warranted
countrieshas long been acceptedas an important com- in view of the especially acute environmental and
ponentof efforts to promoteeconomicgrowth and tech- developmentalproblemsof theleastdevelopedcountries.
nologicalcapabilitiesand to acceleratedevelopmentin

26
Combotingpoverty

P R O G R A M MAER E A munities and a democraticparticipationprocessin


associationwith improved govemance.
3.3 Integralto suchactionis, togetherwithintemational
ENABUNG THE POOR TO ACHIEVE support,the promotion of economicgrowth in develop-
SUSTAINABTETIVETIHOODS ing countriesthat is both sustainedand sustainableand
direct action in eradicating poverty by strengthening
employmentand income-generatingprogramrnes.
BASIS
FORAC-TION
3.1 Poverty is a complex multidimensionalproblem
with origins in both the national and international OBJECTIVES
domains.No uniform solution can be found for global 3.4 The long-termobjectiveof enablingall peopleto
application. Rather, country-specificprogrammesto achieve sustainablelivelihoods should provide an in-
tacklepoverty and intemationalefforts supportingnational tegratingfactor that allows policiesto addressissuesof
effofts,aswell astheparallelprocessofcreatinga supportive development, sustainableresource managementand
internationalenvironment,arecrucialfor a solutionto this poverty eradicationsimultaneously.The objectivesof
problem. The eradicationof poverty and hunger,greater this progratnmeareaare:
equityin incomedisribution andhumanresourcedevelop- (a) To provide all personsurgentlywith the opportunity
ment remain major challengeseverywhere.The struggle to eam a sustainable livelihood;
againstpovertyis the sharedresponsibilityof all countries. (b) To implementpoliciesand strategiesthat promote
3.2 While managingresourcessustainably, an environ- adequate levelsof fundingandfocuson integratedhuman
mental policy that focusesmainly on the conservation developmentpolicies,including incomegeneration,in-
and protectionof resourcesmust take due accountof creased local control of resources,local institution-
thosewho dependon the resourcesfor their livelihoods. strengtheningandcapacity-buildingandgreaterinvolve-
Otherwise it could have an adverseimpact both on mentof non-governmental organizationsandlocallevels
poverty and on chancesfor long-terrnsuccessin resource of governmentas deliverymechanisms;
and environmentalconservation.Equally,a development (c) To developfor all poverty-sffickenareasintegrated
policy that focusesmainly on increasingthe productionof strategiesand programmesof sound and sustainable
goodswithclutaddressing thesustainabilityof theresources managementof the environment.resourcemobilization,
on which productionis basedwill sooneror later run into poverty eradicationand alleviation, employment and
decliningproductivity,which could also have an adverse incomegeneration;
impacton poverty"Aspeciticanti-povertystrategyis there- (d) To createa focusin nationaldevelopmentplans and
fore one of the basic conditionsfor ensuringsustainable budgetson investmentin human capital, with special
development. An effective strategyfor tackling the policiesandprogranunesdirectedat rural areas,the urban
problemsof poverty,developmentandenvironmentsimul- poor,women and children.
taneouslyshouldbegin by focusingon resources, produc-
tion and people and should cover demographicissues,
enhancedhealthcareand education,the rightsof women, ACTIVITIES
the role of youth and of indigenouspeopleand local com- 3.5 Activities that will contributeto the integratedpro-

27
motion of sustainablelivelihoods andenvironmentalpro- (e) Establishinga network of community-basedlearn-
tectioncover a variety of sectoralinterventionsinvolving ing centres for capacity-building and sustainable
a rangeof actors,from local to global, and are essential development.
at everylevel,especiallythe communityandlocal levels.
Enabling actions will be necessaryat the national and
internationallevels, taking full account of regional and ATEDACTIVITtES
B) MANAGEMFNT-REL
subregionalconditions to support a locally driven and
3.8 Governments,with theassistance of andin coopera-
country-specific approach. In general design, the
tion with appropriate international, non-govemmental
programmesshould:
and local community organizations,should establish
(a) Focuson the empowermentof local andcommunity
measuresthat will directly or indirectly:
groups through the principle of delegating authority,
(a) Generateremunerativeemploymentandproductive
accountabilityandresourcesto the mostappropriatelevel
occupational opportunitiescompatible with country-
to ensurethat the programmewill be geographicallyand
specific factor endowments,on a scalesufficient to take
ecologicallyspecific;
(b) Containimmediatemeasuresto enablethosegroups care of prospectiveincreasesin the labour force and to
cover backlogs;
to alleviatepoverty and to develop sustainability;
(b) With international support, where necessary,
(c) Contain a long-term strategyaimed at establishing
develop adequateinfrastructure,marketing systems,
the bestpossibleconditionsfor sustainablelocal,regional
technology systems,credit systemsand the like and the
and national developmentthat would eliminate poverty
humanresourcesneededto supporttheaboveactionsand
and reducethe inequalitiesbetweenvarious population
groups to achieve a widening of options for resource-poor
groups. It shouldassistthe most disadvantaged
- in particular,women,children and youth within those people. High priority shouldbe given to basiceducation
and professionaltraining;
groups - and refugees. The groups will include poor
(c) Provide substantialincreasesin economicallyeffi-
smallholders,pastoralists,artisans,fishing communities,
cient resourceproductivity and measuresto ensurethat
landlesspeople,indigenouscommunities,migrantsand
the local population benefits in adequatemeasurefrom
the urban informal sector.
resourceuse:
3.6 The focus hereis on specificcross-cuttingmeasures
- in particular, in the areas of basic education, (d) Empower community organrzationsand people to
enablethem to achievesustainablelivelihoods;
primary/matemal health care, and the advancementof
(e) Setup an effectiveprimary healthcareand maternal
women.
healthcaresystemaccessibleto all;
( f ) C o n s i d e r s t r e n g t h e n i n g / d e v e l o p i n gl e g a l
frameworksfor land management,accessto land resour-
COMMUNTTTES
A) EMPOWFRING
ces and land ownership- in particular,for women -
3.7 Sustainabledevelopmentmust be achievedat every and for the protectionof tenants;
level of society.Peoples'organizations,women's groups (g) Rehabilitatedegradedresources,to the extentprac-
and non-governmentalorganizationsareimportantsources ticable, and introduce policy measuresto promote sus-
of innovation and action at the local level and have a tainableuseof resourcesfor basichumanneeds;
stronginterestand proven ability to promote sustainable (h) Establishnew community-basedmechanismsand
livelihoods. Governments,in cooperationwith ap- strengthenexisting mechanismsto enablecommunities
propriateinternationaland non-governmentalorganrza- to gain sustainedaccessto resourcesneededby the poor
tions, should support a community-driven approachto to overcometheir poverty;
sustainability,which would include, inter alia: (i) Implementmechanismsfor popularparticipation-
(a) Empowering women through full participation in particularlyby poorpeople,especiallywomen- in local
decision-making; community groups,to promotesustainabledevelopment;
(b) Respectingthe cultural integrity and the rights of 0) Implement, as a matter of urgency,in accordance
indigenouspeopleand their communities; with country-specific conditions and legal systems,
(c) Promoting or establishinggrass-rootsmechanisms measuresto ensurethat women and men have the same
to allow for the sharing of experienceand knowledge right to decidefreely and responsiblyon the numberand
betweencommunities; spacingof their children and have accessto the informa-
(d) Giving communitiesa large measureof participa- tion, educationand means,asappropriate,to enablethem
tion in the sustainablemanagementand protectionof the to exercise this right in keeping with their freedom,
local naturalresourcesin order to enhancetheir produc- dignity and personally held values, taking into account
tive capacity; ethicaland cultural considerations.Governmentsshould

28
take active stepsto implement programmesto establish D/ TNTERNAT/ONAI
AND REG/ONA
L COO?ERAilON
and strengthenpreventiveand curative health facilities, AND COORD/NAT'ON
which include women-centred,women-managed,safe 3.10 The United Nations system,through its relevant
and effective reproductive health care and affordable, organs, organizationsand bodies, in cooperationwith
accessibleservices,as appropriate,for the responsible Member Statesand with appropriateintemational and
planningof family size,in keepingwith freedom,dignity non-governmentalorganizations,should make poverty
and personallyheld values, taking into account ethical alleviation a major priority and should:
andcultural considerations.Programmesshouldfocuson (a) AssistGovernments,whenrequested, in the formu-
providing comprehensive health care, including pre- lation andimplementationof nationalactionprogrammes
natal care, education and information on health and on poverty alleviationand sustainabledevelopment.Ac-
responsibleparenthoodand should provide the oppor- tion-orientedactivities of relevanceto the above objec-
tunity for all women to breast-feedfully, at least during tives, suchas poverty eradication,projectsand program-
the first four months post-partum. Programmesshould mes supplementedwhere relevantby food aid, and sup-
fully supportwomen'sproductiveand reproductiveroles port and special emphasison employment and income
and well-being, with special attention to the need for generation,should be given particular attention in this
providing equaland improvedhealthcarefor all children regard;
and the need to reduce the risk of maternal and child (b) Prornotetechnical cooperationamong developing
mortality and sickness; countriesfor poverty eradicationactivities;
(k) Adopt integratedpolicies aiming at sustainability (c) Strengthen existingstructuresin the UnitedNations
in the managementof urban centres; system for coordination of action relating to poverty
(l) Undertakeactivitiesaimed at the promotion of food
eradication,including the establishment of a focal point
security and, where appropriate,food self-sufficiency for information exchangeand the formulation and im-
within the contextof sustainableagriculture; plementationof replicablepilot projectsto combatpov-
(m) Supportresearchon and integrationof traditional
ert!,
methodsof productionthat have been shown to be en- (d) In the follow-up of the implementationof Agenda
vironmentally sustainable; 21, gle high priority to the review of the progressmade
(n) Actively seekto recognizeand integrateinformal-
in eradicatingpoverty;
sector activities into the economy by removing regula- (e) Examine the international economic framework,
tions and hindrancesthat discriminateasainstactivities including resourceflows and structural adjustment
in thosesectors; programmes,to ensurethat social and environnrental
(o) Cons iderm a k i n g a v a i l a b l el i n e s o f c re d i t and
concernsare addressed, and in this connection,conduct
other facilities for the informal sectorand improved a review of the policies of internationalorganizations,
a c c es st o land f or th e l a n d l e s sp o o r s o th a t th e y can bodiesand agencies,including financial institutions,to
a c quir et he m ean so f p ro d u c ti o na n d re l i a b l ea ccess ensurethe continuedprovision of basic servicesto the
to nat ur alr es ourc e sIn . ma n y i n s ta n c e ss p e c i alcon- poor and needy;
siderationsfor women are required.Strict feasibility (0 Promote international cooperation to addressthe
appraisalsare needed for borrowers to avoid debt root causesof poverty.The developmentprocesswill not
c r is es : gathermomentumif developingcountriesare weighted
(p) Provide the poor with accessto fiesh water and
down by externalindebtedness, if developmentfinance
sanitation; is inadequate, if barriersrestrictaccessto marketsand if
(q) Provide the poor with accessto primary educa-
commodity pricesand the terms of tradein developing
ti o n. countriesremaindepressed.

C) DATA,/NFORMAI/ONAND EVALUATION MEANSOFIMPLEMENTATION


3.9 Governmentsshouldimprove the collectionof in-
formation on target groups and target areas in order to
A/ F/NANC/NGAND COSTEVALUATTON
facilitatethe designof focusedprogrammesand activities,
consistentwith the target-groupneedsand aspirations.
3.l I The secretariat of the Conferencehasestimatedthe
Evaluation of such programmesshould be gender-
averagetotal annualcost (19%-2m0) of implementing
specific,sincewomen ere a particularlydisadvantaged
the activitiesof this programmeto be about$30 billion,
group.
including about$15 billion from the internationalcom-

29
munity on grantor concessional terms.Theseareindica- highpriority. It is particularlyimportantto focuscapac-
tive andorder-of-magnitude estimatesonly andhavenot ity-building at the local community level in order to
beenreviewedby Ciovernments.This estimateoverlaps supporta community-drivenapproachto sustainability
estimatesin otherpartsof Agenda2l . Actual costsand and to establishand strengthenmechanismsto allow
financialterms,includingany that arenon-concessional, sharingof experienceand knowledgebetweencom-
will dependupon, inter alia, the specificstrategiesand munity groupsat nationalandinternationallevels. Re-
programmesGovernmentsdecideupon for implementa- quirementsfor suchactivities are considerableand are
tion. relatedto the various relevantsectorsof Agenda 2l
calling for requisiteinternational,financial and tech-
nologicalsupport.
B) CAPACITY-BUILDING

3.12 National capacity-buildingfor implementation


of the aboveactivitiesis crucial and should be eiven

30
/ l ' r'
Chongingconsumption
potterns

4.1 This chaptercontainsthefolkrwing programmeareas: in certainpartsof the world, the basicconsumerneedsof


(a) Focusingon unsustainablepatternsof production a largesectionof humanityarenot beingmet. This results
and consumption; in excessivedemandsandunsustainable lifestylesamong
(b) Developing national policies and strategiesto en- the richer segments,which placeimmensestresson the
couragechangesin unsustainable consumptionpattems. environment.The poorer segments,meanwhile,are un-
4.2 Sincethe issueof changingconsumptionpatterns able to meet food. health care. shelterand educational
in severalpartsof Agenda
is very broad,it is addressed needs.Changing consumptionpattems will require a
21, notablythosedealingwith energy,transportation and multiprongedstrategyfocusing on demand,meeting the
wastes,and in the chapterson economicinstrumentsand basicneedsof the poor,and reducingwastageand the use
the transferof technology.The presentchaptershould of finite resourcesin the productionprocess.
alsobe readin conjunctionwith chapter5 (Demographic 4.6 Crowing recognitionof the imporlanceof addressing
dynamicsand sustainability). consumptionhas also not yet been matchedby an under-
standingof irsimplications.Someeconomistsarequestioning
traditionalconceptsof economicgrowttrandunderliningthe
importanceof pursuingeconomicobjectivesthattakeaccount
P R O G R A M MAER E A S of the full valueof naturalresourcecapital.More needsto be
known abouttherole of consumptionin relationto economic
A) FOCUSTNG
ON UNSUSTATNABIEPATTERNS growth and populationdynamics in order to formulate
OF PRODUCTIONAND CONSU}TPTION coherentintemationalandnationalpolicies.

BASIS FORACTION OBJECTIVES


,1.3 Povertyandenvironmentaldegradationareclose- 4.7 Action is neededto meet the followins broad ob-
jectives:
ly intenelated.While poverty resultsin certainkinds of
environmentalstress,the major causeof the continued (a) To promotepatternsof consumptionandproduction
deteriorationof the global environmentis the unsustain- that reduceenvironmentalstressand will meetthe basic
ablepatternof consumptionandproduction,particularlyin needsof humanity;
(b) To develop a better understandingof the role of
industrializedcountries,which is a matterof graveconcern,
aggravatingpovertyand imbalances. consumptionand how to bring about more sustainable
4.4 Measuresto be undertakenat ttre internationallevel consumptionpattems.
for theprotectionandenhancernent of tlteenvironmentmust
takefully into accountthe currentimbalancesin the global ACTIVITIES
patternsof consumptionandproduction.
4.5 Specialattentionshouldbe paid to the demandfor A) MANAGEMENI.R
ELATED
ACTIVITIES
naturalresourcesgeneratedby unsustainable consump-
> Adopt.ingon internationalapproach to ochieving
tion and to the efficientuseof thoseresourcesconsistent susfoinobleconsumption pattern
s
with the goal of minimizing depletion and reducing
pollution.Although consumptionpatternsare very high
4.8 In principle, countries should be guided by the

31
following basic objectives in their efforts to address dependenton the Earth's finite resourcesand more in
consumptionandlifestylesin the contextof environment harmonywith theEarth'scarryingcapacity.This shouldbe
and development: reflectedin the evolutionof new systemsof nationalac-
(a) All countriesshouldstrive to promote sustainable countsand otherindicatorsof sustainable
development.
consumptionpatterns;
(b) Developedcountriesshouldtakethe leadin achiev-
ing sustainableconsumptionpatterns; c/ /NTERNAT/ONAI
COOqERATION
AND
(c) Developingcountriesshould seekto achievesus- COORD/NAI/ON
tainable consumption patterns in their development
process,guaranteeing the provisionof basicneedsfor the 4.12 While internationalreview processesexist for ex-
poor, while avoiding those unsustainable patterns,par- amining economic,developmentand demographicfac-
ticul arly i n industrializedcountries,generally recognized tors, more attentionneedsto be paid to issuesrelatedto
as unduly hazardousto the environment,inefficient and consumptionand production patternsand sustainable
wasteful,in their developmentprocesses.This requires lifestylesand environment.
enhancedtechnologicaland other assistancefrom in- 4.13 In the follow-up of the inrplementationof Agenda
dustrialized countries. 21, reviewing the role and impact of unsustainable
4.9 In the follow-up of the implementationof Agenda productionand consumptionpatternsand lifestylesand
2I thereview of progressmadein achievingsustainable theirrelationto sustainabledevelopmentshouldbe given
consumptionpatternsshouldbe given high priority. high priority.

> Finoncingand costevaluotion


B) DATAAND 'NFORMAT/ON

> lJndertokingreseorchon consumption 4.14 The Conferencesecretariathas estimatedthat im-


plementationof this programmeis not likely to require
significantnew financialresources.
4.10 In order to support this broad strategy,Govern-
ments,and/orprivate researchand policy institutes,with
the assistance of regionaland internationaleconomicand
environmentalorganizations,should make a concerted
effort to: B) DEVETOPTNGNATTONATPOUC|ESAND
(a) Expand or promote databaseson production and STRATEGIES
TO ENCOURAGECHANGESIN
consumptionand developmethodologiesfor analysing UNSUSTAINABTECONSUMPTION PATTERNS
them;
(b) Assessthe relationshipbetween production and
consumption,environment,technologicaladaptationand
innovation, economic growth and development,and FORACTION
BASIS
demographicfactors; a.l5 Achieving the goals of environmentalquality and
(c) Examine the impact of ongoing changesin the
sustainabledevelopment will require efficiency in
structure of modern industrial economies away from productionand changesin consumptionpatternsin order
material-intensiveeconomic growth; to emphasizeoptimizationof resourceuseandminimiza-
(d) Consider how economiescan grow and prosper
tion of waste. In many instances,this will require re-
while reducing the use of energy and materialsand the
orientationof existingproductionand consumptionpat-
production of harmful materials;
ternsthat have developedin industrialsocietiesand are
( e ) I d e n t i f y b a l a n c e dp a t t e r n so f c o n s u m p t i o n
in turn emulatedin much of the world.
worldwide which the Earlhcan supportin the long term.
4.16 Progresscan be made by strengtheningpositive
trends and directions that are emerging, as part of a
processaimed at achieving significantchangesin the
> Developingnewconcepts economic
of sustoinoble growth
ond prosperity consumpti onpatternsof i ndustri es,Gove r nm ent s,
householdsand individuals.
4.ll Considerationshould also be given to the present
concepts of economic growth and the need for new
conceptsof wealth and prosperitywhich allow higher OBJECTIVES
standardsof living throughchanged andareless
lif-estyles 4.11 ln the years ahead,Governments,working with

32
appropriateorganizations,should strive to meet the fol- AND HOUSEHOI.DS
C/ A55/SI'NG/NDIYIDUALS
lowing broadobjectives: TO MAKEENY/RONMENTALLY SOUND
(a) To promoteefficiencyin productionprocesses and PURCHASING DECISIONS
reducewastefulconsumptionin the processof economic
growth, taking into accountthe developmentneedsof 4.20 The recentemergencein many countriesof a more
developingcountries; environmentallyconsciousconsumerpublic, combined
(b) To developa domesticpolicy frameworkthat will with increasedintereston the part of someindustriesin
encouragea shift to more sustainablepatternsof produc- providing environmentallysoundconsumerproducts,is
tion and consumption: a significant development that should be encouraged.
(c) To reinforceboth valuesthat encouragesustainable Governmentsand intemational organizations,together
production and consumption patternsand policies that with the private sector, should develop criteria and
encouragethe transfer of environmentally sound tech- methodologiesfor the assessment of environmentalim-
nologiesto developingcountries. pacts and resourcerequirementsthroughoutthe full life
cycle of productsand processes.Resultsof thoseassess-
mentsshouldbe transformedinto clearindicatorsin order
ACTIVITIES to inform consumersand decisionmakers.
4.21 Governments,in cooperationwith industry and
A) ENCOURAG'NG EFFICIENCY
GREATER other relevantgroups, should encourageexpansionof
AND RFSOURCES
IN IHE USEOF ENERGY environmentallabelling and other environmentallyre-
lated productinformation prografitmesdesignedto assist
4.l8 Reducingthe amountof energyandmaterialsused consumersto make informedchoices.
per unit in the production of goods and servicescan 4.72 T\ey should also encouragethe emergenceof an in-
contributeboth to the alleviationof environmentalstress formed consumer public and assist individuals and
and to greatereconomicand industrialproductivityand householdsto makeenvironmentallyinformedchoicesby:
competitiveness.Governments,in cooperationwith in- (U Providinginforrnationon the consequences of con-
dustry, should therefore intensify efforts to use energy sumption choices and behaviour so as to encourage
and resourcesin an economicallyefficientand environ- demandfor environmentallysoundproductsand use of
mentally soundmannerby: products;
(a) Encouragingthe disseminationof existingenviron- (b) Making consumersawareof thehealthandenviron-
mentallysoundtechnologies; mentalimpact of products,throughsuchmeansas con-
(b) Promotingresearchand developmentin environ- sumerlegislationand environmentallabelling;
mentallysoundtechnologies; (c) E ncouragi ngspeci fi c consumer-ori entedpr o-
(c) Assistingdevelopingcountriesto use thesetech- grammes,suchasrecyclingand deposiVrefund systems.
nologiesefficiently and to developtechnologiessuited
to their particularcircumstances.
(d) Encouragingthe environmentallysounduseof new
G A D E R S HTH
D ) E X E R C /S /NLE IPR OU GH
and renewablesourcesof energy, GOVERNMENI PURCHASING
(e) Encouragingthe environmentallysound and sus-
tainableuseof renewablenaturalresources. 4.23 Governmentsthemselvesalso play a role in con-
sumption,particularlyin countrieswherethe public sec-
tor plays a large role in the economy and can have a
OF WASTES
B) M|N|MIZINGTHEGENERAT/ON considerableinfluenceon both corporatedecisionsand
public perceptions.They should thereforereview the
4. 19 A t t he s ameti me , s o c i e tyn e e d sto d e v e l o peffec- purchasingpoliciesof their agenciesanddepartmentsso
tive ways of dealingwith the problenrof disposingof that they may improve,wherepossible.the environmental
m ount ing lev e l s o f w a s te p ro d u c ts a n d m a teri al s. content of governmentprocurementpolicies, without
G ov er nm ent sto , g e th e rw i th i n d u s trv h and
. o u s e h ol ds prejudiceto intemationaltradeprinciples.
the public, should make a concertedeffort to reduce
the generationof wastesand wasteproductsby:
(a) Encouragingrecycling in industrialprocessesand
E) MOVTNGTOWARDS
ENy/RONMENTALI.y
at the consumerlevel; SOUNDPR/CING
(b) Reducingwastefulpackagingof products,
(c) Encouragingthe introductionof moreenvironmen-
4.24 Without the stimulusof pricesand market signals
tally soundproducts.

33
that makeclear to producersand consumersthe environ- ness programmesand other means, such as positive
mentalcostsof the consumptionof energy,materialsand advertisingof productsand servicesthat utilize environ-
natural resourcesand the generationof wastes,sig- mentally sound technologiesor encouragesustainable
nificant changesin consumptionand productionpatterns production and consumptionpatterns.In the review of
seemunlikely to occur in the near future. the implementationof Agenda21, an assessment o1'the
4.25 Someprogresshasbegunin the useof appropriate progressachievedin developingthesenationalpolicies
economicinstrumentsto influenceconsumerbehaviour. and strategiesshouldbe given due consideration.
These instrumentsinclude environmental chargesand
taxes, deposit/refundsystems,etc. This processshould
be encouraged in the light of country-specific
conditions. MEANSOFIMPLEMENTATION
4.27 This programme is concerned primarily with
changesin unsustainablepatternsof consumptionand
F) RETNFORC'NG
VALUES THATSUPPORT productionand valuesthat encouragesustainable con-
SUSIA'NA8
[F CONSUMPTION sumptionpatternsand lifestyies.It requiresthe com-
b i n e d e f f o r t s o f G o v e r n m e n t s ,c o n s u m e r sa n d
4.26 Governmentsand private-sectororganizations producers.Particular attention should be paid to the
should promote more positive attitudestowards sus- significant role played by women and householdsas
tainableconsumptionthrougheducation,public aware- consumersand the potentialimpactsof their combined
purchasingpower on the economy.

34
Demogrophic
dynomics
ond sustoinobility

-5.1 This chaptercontainsthefollowing prograrnmeareas: [ion, and development.Populationpolicy should also


(a) Developinganddisseminating knowledgeconcern- recognizethe role played by human beings in environ-
ing thelinks betweendemographictrendsandfactorsand mental and developmentconcerns.There is a need to
sustainabledevelopment; increaseawarenessof this issueamongdecisionmakers
(b) Fornrulatingintegratednational policies for en- at all levels and to provide both better information on
v ir onm ent and d e v e l o p me n t,ta k i n g i n to a ccount which to base national and internationalpolicies and a
demographictrendsand factors; tramework againstwhich to interpretthis information.
'Ihere
( c ) I m p l e m e n t i n g i n t e g r a t e d ,e n v i r o n m e n t a n d 5.4 is a needto developstrategiesto mitigateboth
der.'eloprnent prograrrunes at the local level, taking into the adverseimpact on the environmentof human activ-
accountdemographictrendsand factors. ities and the adverseimpactof environmentalchangeon
human populations.The world's populationis expected
to exceed8 billion by the year 2020. Sixty per cent of
the world'spopulationalreadylive in coastalareas,while
P R O G R A M MAER E A S 65 per cent of cities with populationsabove2.5 million
are located along the world coasts;severalof thern are
Al DEVETOPTNGAND DtSSErYilNAIlNG alreadyat or below the presentsealevel.
KNOIA/IEDGECONCERNINGTHETINKSBETWEEN
DEMOGRAPHICTRENDSAND FACTORS AND
SUSTAINABLE DEVETOPMENT OBJECTIVES
5.5 The following objectives should be achievedas
soonas practicable:
FORACTION
BASIS (a) To incorporatedemographictrendsand factorsin the
-5.1 Demographictrends and factors and sustainable global analysisof environmentanddevelopmentissues;
der,'elopment have a synergisticrelationship. (b) To developa betterunderstandingof the relationships
.s.3 The growthof world populationandproductioncom- among demographicdynamics,technology,cultural be-
bined with unsustainable consumptionpatternsplacesin- haviour,naturalresourcesand life supportsystems;
creasinglyseverestresson thelife-supportingcapacitiesof (c) To assesshumanvulnerabilityin ecologicallysen-
our planet.Theseinteractiveprocesses affecttheuseof land, sitive areasand centresof populationto determinethe
\\'ater.air, energyand other resources.Rapidly growing priorities for action at all levels,taking full accountof
crties. unless well-managed,face major environmental community-definedneeds.
prohlems.The increasein boththe numberandsizeof cities
calis fbr greaterattentionto issuesof local govemmentand
mr"rnicipalmanagement.The human dimensionsare key ACTIVITIES
element-s to considerin thisintricatesetof relationshipsand
ther shouldbe adequatelytakeninto consideration in com- > Reseorchon the inferoctionbefweendemogrophictrends
prehensivepoliciesfor sustainabledevelopment. Such ond foctorsond sustoinobledevelopment
policics shor"rldaddressttrelinkagesclfdemographic trends
andfactors.resourceuse,appropriatetechnologydissemina- 5.6 Relevant international,regional and national in-

35
AND
/NFORMATION
c) DEVELOP'NG
stitutionsshould considerundertakingthe following ac-
AWARFNESS
PUBLIC
tivities:
(a) Identifying the interactionsbetweendemographic
processes,natural resourcesand life support systems, 5 . 1 0 S o c i o - d e m o g r a p h i ci n f o r m a t i o n s h o u l d b e
bearing in mind regional and subregionalvariations developedin a suitableformatfor interfacingwith physi-
cal,biologicalandsocio-economic data.Compatiblespa-
deriving from, inter alia,different I eveIs of deveIopment;
tial andternporalscalesandcross-country andtime-series
(b) Integratingdemographictrendsand t-actorsinto the
ongoingstudyof environmentalchange,usingthe exper- infbrmation, as well as global behaviouralindicators,
tise of international,regional and national researchnet- shouidbe developed,learningfrom local communities'
worksandof localcommunities,first,to studythehuman perceptionsand attitudes.
dimensionsof environmentalchange and, second,to 5.11 Awarenessshouldbe increasedat all ievelsconcern-
ing the needto optimizethe sustainable useof resources
identify vulnerableareas;
(c) Identifying priority areasfor action and developing through efficient resourcemanagement,taking into ac-
strategies andprogrammes to mitigatetheadverseimpact count the development needs of the populations of
of environmentalchangeon humanpopulations'andvice developingcountries.
versa. 5.t2 Awarenessshouldbe increasedof the fundamental
linkagesbetweenimproving the statusof women and
demographicdynamics,particularly through women's
MEANSOF IMPLEMENTATION accessto education,primary andreproductivehealthcare
programmes,economicindependence andtheir effective,
A/ F'NANC'NGAND COSTEVALUATTON equitableparticipationin all levelsof decision-making.
5.13 Results of researchconcernedwith sustainable
5.7 The Conference secretariathas estirnatedthe developmentissuesshouldbe disseminated throughtech-
averagetotal annualcost (1993-2000)of implementing nical reports, scientificjoumals, the media, workshops,
the activitiesof this programmeto be about$10 million forums or other meansso that the information can be used
from the internationalcomrnunityon grant or conces- by decisionmakersatall levelstoincreasepublic awareness.
sional terms. These are indicative and order-of-mag-
nitude estimatesonly and have not been reviewed by
Governments.Actualcostsandfinancialterms,includ- AND/ORENHANCING
D) DEVELOPING
ing any that are non-concessional, will dependupon,
,NSI/IUIIONAICAPAC'IYAND COLLABORAI'ON
inter alia, the specific strategiesand programmes
Governmentsdecideupon for implementation.
5.14 Collaborationand exchangeof informationshould
be increasedbetweenresearchinstitutions and interna-
tional,regionalandnationalagenciesandall othersectors
RESEARCH
B/ SIRENGIHEN'NG PROGRAMMES
(including the private sector,local communities,non-
POPULAT'ON,ENYIRONMENI
THATINTEGRAIE governmentalorganizationsand scientific institutions)
AND DEVELOPMENT
from both the industrializedanddevelopingcountries,as
appropriate.
5.8 In order to integratedemographicanalysisinto a
5.15 Efforts should be intensified to enhancethe
broadersocialscienceperspectiveon environmentand
capaci ti esof nati onal and l ocal governm ent s,t he
development,interdisciplinaryresearchshouldbe in- organizationsin
private sectorand non-governmental
creased. Internationalinstitutionsand networks of
developingcountriesto meet the growing needsfor
expertsshouldenhancetheir scientiflccapacity,taking of rapidly growingurbanareas.
improvedmanagement
full accountof communityexperienceandknowledge,
and shoulddisseminatethe experiencegainedin multi-
disciplinar,vapproachesand in linking theoryto action. B) FORfrTULATING NATIONAL
INTEGRATED
5.9 Bettermodellingcapabilitiesshouldbe developed, POTICIES FOR ENVIRONMENTAND DEVETOPMENT'
identifying the range of possibleoutcomesof current TAKING INTO ACCOUNT DEMOGRAPHICTR,ENDS
human activities,especiallythe interrelatedimpact of AND FACTORS
demographictrendsand factors,per capitaresourceuse
and wealth distribution,as well as the major migration
BASISFORACTION
flows that may be expectedwith increasingclimatic
eventsandcumulativeenvironmentalchangethat may 5.16 Existing plans for sustainabledevelopmenthave
destroypeople'slocal livelihoods. generallyrecognizeddemographictrendsand factors as

36
elementsthat have a critical influenceon consumption tal factorsinteractwith socio-economicfactorsasa cause
patterns,production,lifestylesand long-term sustaina- of migration.
bility. But in future,rrore attentionwill haveto be given 5.21 Vulnerablepopulationgroups(such as rural land-
to these issuesin generalpolicy formulation and the less workers, ethnic minorities, refugees,migrants,dis-
designof developmentplans.To do this"all countrieswill placed people, women heads of household) whose
have to improve their own capacitiesto assessthe envi- changes in demographic structure may have specific
ronment and developmentimplicationsof their demo- impactson sustainable developmentshouldbe identified.
graphictrendsand f-actors.They will alsoneedto formu- 5.22 An assessment shouldbe madeof the implications
late and implement policies and action prograrnmes of the agestructureof the populationon resourcedemand
whereappropriate. Policiesshouldbedesignedto address and dependencyburdens,ranging from educationalex-
the consequences of populationgrowth built into popu- pensesfor the young to health care and supportfor the
lation momentum,while at the sametime incorporating elderly, and on householdincome generation.
measuresto bring about demographictransition. They 5.23 An assessment should also be made of national
shouldcombineenvironmentalconcernsand population populationcarryingcapacityin thecontextof satisfaction
issueswithin a holistic view of developmentwhose of humanneedsandsustainabledevelopment,andspecial
primary goalsinclude the alleviationof povertli secure attentionshouldbe given to critical resources,such as
livelihoods;goodhealth;quality of life; improvementof water and land, and environmentalfactors such as eco-
the status and income of women and their accessto systemhealthand biodiversity.
schoolingandprofessionaltraining.aswell asfulfilment 5.24 The impact of national demographictrends and
of their personalaspirations;and empowermentof indi- factors on the traditional livelihoods of indigenous
viduals and communities. Recognizingthat large in- groups and local communities,including changesin
creasesin the size and number of cities will occur in traditional land usebecauseof internal populationpres-
developingcountriesunderany likely populationscena- sures,shouldbe studied.
rio, greaterattentionshouldbe givento preparingfor the
needs,in particularof womenandchildren,for improved
municipalmanagementand local govenrment. B) BUILDING
AND SIRENGIHENING
A NAI/ONAT/NFORMATIONSASE

OBJECTIVE 5.25 Nationaldatabases on demographictrendsand fac-


5.17 Full integrationof populationconcemsinto national tors andenvironmentshouldbe built and/orstrengthened,
planning,policy and decision-making processesshould disaggregating databy ecologicalregion(ecosystemap-
continue. Populationpoliciesand programmesshouldbe proach),and population/environment profilesshouldbe
considered,with full recognitionof women'srights. establishedby region.
5.26Methodologies and instruments should be
developedto identify areaswhere sustainabilityis, or
ACTIVITIES may be,threatenedby the environmentaleffectsof demo-
5.I 8 Governmentsandotherrelevantactorscould,inter graphictrendsandfactors,incorporatingboth currentand
alia. undertakethe following activities,with appropriate projected demographicdata linked to natural environ-
assistance from aid agencies,and report on their status mentalprocesses.
of implementation to the International Conference on 5.27 Case-studies of local level responsesby different
Populationand Developmentto be held in 1994,esF,e- groupsto demographicdynamicsshouldbe developed,
cially to its committeeon populationand environment. particularlyin areassubjectto environmentalstressand
in deterioratingurbancentres.
5.2t1 Populationdata shouldbe disaggregated by, inter
alia, sexand agein order to takeinto accountthe impli-
A/ ASSESS/NG
THEtMPt-tCArlONS
OF NAI/ONAI. cationsof the genderdivision of labour for the useand
DEMOGRAPH'CIRENDSAND FACIORS managementof naturalresources.

5.19 The relationshipsbetweendemographictrendsand


factorsand environmentalchangeand betweenenviron- CJ /NCORPORAI/NGDEMOGRAPHIC
FEATURES
mentaldegradationand the componentsof demographic ,NIO POLICIES
AND PIANS
changeshouldbe analysed.
5.20 Researchshouldbe conductedon how environmen- policies,account
5.29 In formulatinghumansettlements

37
shouldbe takenof resourceneeds,wasteproductionand educationsectors.Particularattentionshouldbe given to
ec os y s t e mh e a l th . population literacy programmes, notably for women.
5.30 The direct and induced effects of demographic Specialemphasisshould be placed on the linkage be-
changeson environmentand developmentprogrammes tween these programmes,primary environmental care
should,whereappropriate,be integrated,and the impact and the provision of primary health care and services.
on demographicfeaturesassessed.
5 . 3 1N a t i o n a l p o p u l a t i o n p o l i c y g o a l s a n d p r o -
grammesthat areconsistentwith nationalenvironment INSI'IUI/ONS
C/ SIRENGIHEN'NG
and developmentplansfor sustainabilityand in keep-
ing with the freedom, dignity and personally held 5.38 The capacityof national,regionaland local struc-
values of individuals should be establishedand im- turesto deal with issuesrelatingto demographictrends
plemented. and factorsand sustainabledevelopmentshouldbe en-
5.32 Appropriatesocio-economic policiesfor the young hanced.This would involve strengtheningthe relevant
and the elderly, in termsof both family and statesupport bodiesresponsiblefor populationissuesto enablethem
systems,shouldbe developed. to el aboratepol i ci es consi stentw i th th e nat ional
5.33 Policiesand programmesshouldbe developedfor prospects for sustainabledevelopment. Cooperation
handlingthe varioustypesof migrationsthat resultfrom amongGovemments,nationalresearchinstitutions,non-
or induceenvironmentaldisruptions,with specialatten- governmentalorganizationsand local communitiesin
tion to women and vulnerablegroups. assessingproblemsand evaluatingpoliciesshould also
5.34 Demographicconcerns,includingconcernsfor en- be enhanced.
vironmentalmigrants and displacedpeople,should be 5.39 The capacityof therelevantUnited Nationsor€ans,
incorporatedin the programmesfor sustainable develop- organizationsand bodies,internationaland regionalinter-
ment o1'relevantinternationaland regionalinstitutions. govemmentalbodies,non-governmental organizations and
5.-15National reviews shouldbe conductedand the inte- local communities should, as appropriate,be enhancedto
grationof populationpoliciesin nationaldevelopmentand helpcountriesdevelopsustainable developmentpolicieson
environmentstrategiesshouldbe monitorednationally. requestand, as appropriate,provideassistance to environ-
mentalmigrantsanddisplacedpeople.
5.40 Inter-agencysupport for nati onal sust ainable
MEANS
OFIMPLEMENTATION developmentpolicies and programmesshould be im-
Ai F/NANC/NGAND COSTEVALUATTON proved through better coordination of population and
environmentactivities.
5. 36 T he C o n fe re n c es e c re ta ri a th a s e sti matedthe
averagetotal annualcost(1993-2000)ol implementing
the activitiesof thisprogrammeto be about$90 million D) PROMOI'NGHUMANRESOURCE
DEVELOPMENI
from the internationalcommunity on grant or conces-
sionalterms.Theseareindicativeand order-of-magni- 5.41 The internationalandregionalscientificinstitutions
tude estimatesonly and have not been reviewed by should assist Governments,upon request,to include
Governments. Actual costs and financial terms, in- concernsregardingthe population/environment interac-
cluding any that are non-concessional. will depend tions at the global, ecosystemand micro-levelsin the
upon, int e r a l i a . th e s p e c i fi c s tra te gi esand pro- training of demographersand populationand environ-
grammesGovernmentsdecide upon for implementa- ment specialists.Training should include researchon
t ion. linkagesand ways to designintegratedstrategies.

B/ RA/S/NGAWARENESS OF DEMOGRAPHTC cl rrvlPtEMENTtNG


TNTEGRATED
ENVIRONTVIENT
A ND S USIA /N A 8 TDFE VE L O P M EN
/NIIE RA C I/ON S AND DEVETOPMENT PROGRAM'VIES
AT THE LOCAT
LEVEL,TAKING INTO ACCOUNTDEMOGRAPHIC
5.37 Understandingof the interactionsbetweendemo- TRENDSAND FACTORS
graphictrendsand factorsand sustainabledevelopment
shouldbe increasedin all sectorsof society.Stressshould
be placedtln local andnationalaction. Demographicand BASISFORACTION
sustainabledevelopmenteducation should be coordi-
5.42 Population programmes are more effective when
natedand integratedin both the formal and non-formal

38
implemented together with appropriate cross-sectoral suringtheinvolvementof groupswith a specialpotential
policies.To attainsustainabilityat the iocal level, a new to act asagentsfor changeand sustainable development.
framework is neededthat integratesdemographictrends Specialemphasisshouldbe placedon thoseprogrammes
and factors with suchfactors as ecosystemhealth, tech- thatachievemultipleobjectives,encouragin g sustainabl
e
nology andhumansettlements,and with socio-economic economicdevelopment,mitigating adverseimpactsof
structures and access to resources.Population pro- demographictrendsand f'actorsand avoiding long-term
grammesshouldbe consistentwith socio-economicand environmentaldamage.Food security,accessto secure
environmentalplanning.Integratedsustainable develop- tenure,basicshelter.and essentialinfrastructure,educa-
ment programmes should closely correlate action on tion, family welfare,women'sreproductivehealth,fam-
demographictrends and factors with resourcemanage- ily credit schemes,reforestationprogrammes,primary
ment activities and developmentgoals that meet the environmentalcareandwomen'semploymentshould,as
needsof the peopleconcemed. appropriate,be includedamongotherfactors.
5.41 An analyticalframework should be developedto
identify complementaryelementsof sustainabledevel-
OBJECTIVE opment policiesas well as the nationalmechanismsto
5.43 Population programmesshould be implemented monitor and evaluatetheir etfbcts on population dy-
along with natural resourcemanagementand develop- namics.
ment programmes at the local level that will ensure 5.48 Specialattentionshouldbe givento the criticalrole
sustainable improvethe quality
useof naturalresources, of women in population/environment programmesand
of life of the people and enhanceenvironmentalquality. in achievingsustainabledevelopment.Projectsshould
takeadvantageof opportunitiesto link social,economic
and environmentalgains for women and their families.
ACTIVITIES Empowermentof women is essentialand should be
5.44 Governmentsand local communities, including assuredthrougheducation,trainingandpoliciesto accord
community-basedwomen's organizationsand national and improvewomen'sright and accessto assets,human
non-governmentalorganizations,consistentwith na- and civil rights, labour-savingmeasures, job oppor-
tional plans,objectives,strategiesand priorities,could, tunities and participationin decision-rnaking.Popula-
inter alia, undertakethe activitiessetout below with the tion/environmentprogrammesmust enable women to
assistanceand cooperation of international otganiza- mobilize themselvesto alleviatetheir burden and im-
tions, as appropriate.Governments could share their prove their capacityto participatein and benefit from
experiencein the implementationof Agenda 2l at the socio-economic development.Specificmeasures should
International Conference on Population and Develop- be undertakento closethe gapbetweenfemale and male
ment, to be held in 1994,especiallyits committeeon illiteracyrates.
populationand environment.

PROGRAMMES
B) SUPPORIING THATPROMOTE
FORACIION
A FRAMEWORK
A] DEVELOP'NG CHANGESIN DEMOGRAPHICIRENDSAND
FACIORSTOWARDSSUSIAINABILITY
5.45 An effectiveconsultativeprocessshouldbe estab-
lishedandimplementedwith concernedgroupsof society 5.49 Reproductivehealth programmesand services
wherethe formulationand decision-makingof all com- should, as appropriate,be developedand enhancedto
ponentsof the programmesare basedon a nationwide reducematernaland infant mortalityfrom all causesand
consultativeprocessdrawing on community meetings, enablewomenandmento fulfil theirpersonalaspirations
regionalworkshopsand nationalseminars.as appropri- in termsof family size,in keepingwith theirfreedomand
ate. This processshouldensurethat viewsof womenand dignity and personallyheld values.
men on needs,perspectivesand constraintsare equally 5.-50Governmentsshouldtakeactivestepsto implement,
well reflectedin the design of programmes,and that as a matterof urgency,in accordancewith country-spe-
solutionsarerootedin specificexperience.The poor and cific conditionsand legal systems,measuresto ensure
underprivilegedshouldbe priority groupsin this process. that women and rnenhave the sameright to decidefreely
5.46 Nationally determinedpolicies for integratedand and responsiblyon the number and spacing of their
multifacetedprogrammes,with special attentionto childrenandto haveaccessto the information,education
women,to the poorestpeopleliving in critical areasand andmeans,asappropriate.to enablethemto exercisethis
to other vulnerablegroupsshouldbe implemented,en- right in keepingwith their freedom,dignity and person-

39
ally held values,taking into accountethicaland cultural 5.56 Proposalsshould be developedfor local, national
considerations. and international population/environmentprogrammes
5.51 Governmentsshould take active stepsto imple- in line with specific needsfor achieving sr"rstainability.
ment programmesto establishand strengthenpreven- Where appropriate,institutional changesmust be im-
tive and curative health facilities that include women- plemented so that old-age security does not entirely
centred.women-managed,safe and effective reproduc- dependon input from family members.
tive health care and affordable, accessibleservices,as
appropriate,for the responsibleplanning of family size,
in keeping with freedom,dignity and personallyheld MEANSOFIMPLEMENTATION
valuesand taking into accountethicaland culturalcon-
A/ FTNANC/NG
AND COSTEVALUATTON
siderations.Programmesshould focus on providing
comprehensivehealth care, including pre-natalcare,
education and information on health and responsible 5.57 The Conferencesecretariathas estimatedthe aver-
parenthood,and shouldprovide the opportunity for all age total annualcost (1993-2000)of implementingthe
women to breast-feedfully, at leastduring the first four activitiesof this prograrnmeto be about $7 billion, in-
monthspost-partum.Programmesshouldfully support cluding about $3.5 billion from the internationalcom-
women'sproductiveand reproductiveroles and well- munity on grantor concessional terms.Theseareindica-
being,with specialattentionto the needfor providing tive and order-of-magnitudeestimatesonly and havenot
equaland improvedhealthcarefor all childrenandthe beenreviewedby Governments.Actual costsand finan-
needto reducethe risk of maternaland child mortalitv cial terms,includingany that are non-concessional, will
and sickness. dependupon, inter alia, the specific strategiesand pro-
5.52 Consistentwith nationalpriorities,culturallybased grammesGo'rernmentsdecideupon for implementation.
information and education programmes that transmit
reproductivehealthmessagesto men and women that are
easilyunderstoodshouldbe developed. 8/ RESEARCH

5.58 Researchshouldbe undenakenwith a view to de-


velopingspecificactionprograrnmes; itwill benecessary
C) CREATING
APPROPRIATE'NSI/IUI'ONAI. to establishprioritiesbetweenproposedareasof research.
coND/r,oNs 5.59 Socio-demographic researchshould be conducted
on how populationsrespondto a changingenvironment.
5.53 Constituencies andinstitutionalconditionsto facili- 5.60 Understandingof socioculturaland political factors
tatetheimplementationof demographicactivitiesshould, that can positively influence acceptanceof appropriate
as appropriate,be fostered. This requires support and populationpolicy instrumentsshouldbe improved.
commitment from political, indigenous,religious and 5.61 Surveysof changesin needsfor appropriateservices
traditional authorities,the private sectorand the national relatingto responsibleplanningof family size,reflecting
scientific community. In developing theseappropriate variations among different socio-economicgroups and
institutionalconditions,countriesshouldcloselyinvolve variations in diff-erentgeographicalregions, should be
establishednationalmachineryfor women. undertaken.
5.54 Populationassistanceshould be coordinatedwith
bilateralandmultilateraldonorsto ensurethat population
needsand requirementsof all developing countriesare C ) H U MA NR E S OU R CDEE V E LOP ME N T
addressed,fully respecting the overall coordinating AND CAPACITY-BUILDING
responsibility and the choice and strategiesof the
recipientcountries. 5.62 The areasof humanresourcedevelopmentand ca-
5.55 Coordinationshouldbe improvedat local andinter- pacity-building,with particularattentionto theeducation
nationallevels. Working practicesshouldbe enhanced and training of women, are areasof critical importance
in order to make optimum use of resources,draw on and are a very high priority in the implementation of
collectiveexperienceandimprovethe irnplementation of populationprogrammes.
programmes.UNFPAandotherrelevantagenciesshould 5.63 Workshops to help programme and project man-
strengthenthe coordinationof internationalcooperation agersto link populationprogrammesto other develop-
activitieswith recipientand donor countriesin order to ment and environmentalgoalsshouldbe conducted.
ensurethat adequatefunding is available to respondto 5.64 Educationalmaterials,includingguides/workbooks
growing needs. for planners and decision makers and other actors of

40
population/environment/development programmes, tional Conferenceon Population and Development in
should be developed. 1994, which will be the appropriateforum for dealing
5.65 Cooperationshould be developedbetweenGovern- with population and development issues, taking into
ments, scientific institutions and non-govemmentalor- accountthe recommendationsof the InternationalCon-
ganizationswithin the region, and similar institutions ferenceon Population,held in Mexico City in 1984,rand
outside the region. Cooperationwith local or:ganizations the Forward-looking Strategiesfor the Advancementof
should be fosteredin order to raise awareness,engageln Women,2adoptedby the World Conferenceto Review
demonstration projects and report on the experience and Appraise the Achievementsof the United Nations
gained. Decadefor Women: Equality, Developmentand Peace,
5.66 The recofiImendationscontained in this chapter held in Nairobi in 1985.
should in no way prejudicediscussionsat the Interna-

'Report
of the lnternationolConferenceon Populotion,Mexico
City,6-14 August 1984 lUnitedNotionspublicotion,SolesNo.
E . 8 4 . X l l l . 8clh, o p .l .

2
Reportof the World Conferenceto Reviewond Approise the
Achievementsof the United Nofions Decode for Women:
Equolity,Developmentond Peoce, Noirobi, l5-26 July 1985
( U n i t e dN o t i o n sp u b l i c o t i o nS, o l e sN o . E . 8 4 . | V . 1 0 )c,h o p . l ,
sect.A.

4l
ond promotinghumonheolth
Protecting

INTRODUCTION P R O G R A M MAER E A S

6.1 Health and developmentare intimatelyintercon- HEALTHCARENEEDS,


A! 'YTEEnNGPRITVIARY
nected.Both insufficientdevelopmentleadingto pov- PARNCUTARIYIN RURATAREAS
erty andinappropriate developmentresultingin overcon-
sumption,coupledwith an expandingworld population,
can result in severeenvironmentalhealth problemsin FORACTION
BASIS
both developingand developednations. Action items 6.3 Healthultimatelydependson the ability to manage
underAgenda2l must addressthe primary healthneeds successfullythe interactionbetweenthe physical.spiri-
of the world's population,sincethey are integralto the tual , bi ol ogi cal and economi ci soci alenvir onm ent .
achievement of thegoaisof sustainabledevelopmentand Sound developmentis not possiblewithout a healthy
primary environmentalcare. The linkageof health,en- population;yet most developmentalactivitiesaffect the
vironmentaland socio-economic improvementsrequires environmentto some degree,which in tum causesor
intersectoralefforts. Suchefforts,involving education, exacerbates many healthproblems.Conversely,it is the
housing,public works andcommunitygroups,including very lack of developmentthat adverselyaffectsthehealth
businesses, schoolsand universitiesand religious,civic conditionof many people,which can be alleviatedonly
are aimed at enablingpeople
and cultural c>rganizations, through development.The health sector cannot meet
in their communitiesto ensuresustainable development. basicneedsandobjectiveson its own; it is dependenton
Particularlyrelevantis the inclusionof preventionpro- social,economicandspiritualdevelopment, while direct-
grarrrmesratherthan relying solely on remediationand ly contributingto suchdevelopment.It is alsodependent
treatment.Countriesought to developplansfor priority on a healthyenvironment,including the provisionof a
actions,drawingon the programmeareasin this chapteq safewater supply and sanitationand the promotion of a
which are basedon cooperativeplanningby the various safefood supplyandpropernutrition.Particularattention
levels of government,non-governmentalorganizations should be directed towards food safety, with priority
and local communities. An appropriateintemational placedon the eliminationof food contamination;com-
organization,such as WHO, should coordinatethese prehensive andsustainablewaterpoliciesto ensuresafe
activities. drinking water and sanitationto precludeboth micro-
6.2 The fbllowing programme areasare contained in bial and chemical contamination;and promotion of
this chapter: heal th educati on, i mmuni zati on and pro vision of
(a) Meeting primary healthcare needs,particularlyin essentialdrugs.Educationand appropriateservicesre-
rural areas: gardingresponsibleplanningof family size,with respect
(b) Control of communicablediseases;
for cultural,religiousand socialaspects,in keepingwith
(c) Protectingvulnerablegroups; freedom,dignity and personallyheld valuesand taking
(d) Meetingthe urbanhealthchallenge; into account ethical and cultural considerations,also
(e) Reducinghealthrisksfrom environmentalpollution contributeto theseintersectoralactivities.
and hazards.

42
OBJECTIVES (xi) Promote and strengthencommunity-basedre-
6.4 Within the overall strategyto achievehealth for all habilitation activities for the rural handicapped.
by the year 2000, the objectivesare to meet the basic
healthneedsof rural, peri-urbanand urbanpopulations;
B) SUPPORT
RESEARCH
ANDMFIHODOLOGY
DEVELOPMENT
to provide the necessaryspecializedenvironmental
health services;and to coordinatethe involvementof (i) Establishmechanismsfor sustainedcommunityin-
citizens,the healthsector,the health-related sectorsand volvementin environmentalhealthactivities,including
relevantnon-healthsectors(business, social,educational optimization of the appropriateuseof community finan-
andreligiousinstitutions)in solutionsto healthproblems. cial and humanresources;
As a matterof priority,healthservicecoverageshouldbe (ii) Conductenvironmentalhealthresearch,including
achievedfor populationgroupsin greatestneed,particu- behaviour researchand researchon ways to increase
larly thoseliving in rural areas. coverage and ensure greater utilization of servicesby
peripheral,underservedand vulnerablepopulations,as
appropriateto good preventionservicesand healthcare;
ACTIVITIES (iii) Conduct researchinto traditional knowledge of
6.5 National Governmentsand local authorities,with preventiveand curativehealthpractices.
the supportof relevantnon-governmental organizations
and internationalorganizations,
in the light of countries'
MEANSOFIMPLEMENTATION
specific conditionsand needs,should strengthentheir
healthsectorprogramrnes, with specialattentionto rural A/ FTNANC/NG
AND COSTEVALUATTON
needs,to:
6.6 The Conferencesecretariathasestimatedthe aver-
age total annual cost ( 1993-2000)of implementing the
A) BU|LD BASTCHEALTHTNFRASTRUCTURES,MONTTORTNG AND
PLANNING SYSTEMS: activities of this programmeto be about $40 billion,
(i) Developandstrengthen including about $5 billion fiom the internationalcom-
primaryhealthcaresystems
munity on grantor concessional terms.Theseareindica-
thatarepractical,community-based, scientifically sound,
tive and order-of-magnitude estimatesonly and havenot
sociall-v"acceptableand appropriateto their needs and
beenreviewedby Governments.Actual costsandfinan-
that meet basic health needsfor clean water. safe food
cial terms,includingany that are non-concessional,will
and sanitation;
(ii) Supportthe useand strengthening dependupon, inter alia, the specificstrategiesand pro-
of mechanisms
grammesGovernmentsdecideuponfbr implementation.
that irnprove coordinationbetweenhealth and related
sectorsat all appropriatelevels of government,and in
communitiesand relevantorganizations;
(iii) Developand implementrationaland affordableap- B/ sC/ENTIFIC
AND TECHNOLAGICAL
MEANS
proachesto theestablishment andmaintenance of health
fac ilit ies : 6.7 New approaches to planningand managinghealth
(iv) Ensureand, where appropnate,increaseprovision caresystemsand facilitiesshouldbe tested.and research
of socialservicessuppon; on ways of integratingappropriatetechnologiesinto
(v) Develop strategies,including reliablehealth indi- health infrastructuressupported. The developmentof
cators.to monitortheprogressandevaluatetheeffective- scientificallysound health technologyshould enhance
nessof healthprogrammes; adaptabilityto local needsand maintainabilityby com-
(vit Explorewaysto financethe healthsystembasedon munity resources,includingthe maintenanceand repair
the assessment of the resourcesneededand identify the of equipmentusedin healthcare.Programmesto facili-
variouslinancingalternatives; tate the transferand sharingof infonnation and expertise
(vii) Promotehealtheducationin schools,information shouldbe developed,includingcommunicationmethods
exchange,technicalsupportand training; and educationalmaterials.
(viii; Supportinitiativesfor self-management of serv-
icesby vulnerablegroups;
(ix) Integrate traditional knowledge and experience C ) H U MA NR E S OU R CDEE V E LOP MFN I
into nationalhealthsystems,as appropriate;
(x) Promotethe provisionsfor necessarylogisticsfor 6.8 Intersectoralapproachesto the reform of health
outreachactivities,particularlyin rural areas; personneldevelopmentshouldbe strengthened to ensure
its relevanceto the "Health for All" stratesies.
Effortsto

43
enhancemanagerialskills at the distnct level shouldbe dwarfed by the indirect costsof the pandemic- mainly
supported,with the aim of ensuringthe systematicdevel- costsassociatedwith the loss of income and decreased
opmentandefficient operationof the basichealthsystem' productivity of the worktorce.The pandemicwill inhibit
Intensive,short,practicaltrainingprograrnmeswith em- growth of the service and industrial sectorsand signifi-
phasison skills in effectivecommunication,community cantlyincreasethecostsof humancapacity-buildingand
organizationand facilitationof behaviourchangeshould retraining. The agricultural sector is particularly af-
be developedin order to preparethe local personnelof fectedwhere productionis labour-intensive.
all sectorsinvolved in social developmentfor carrying
out their respectiveroles. In cooperationwith the edu-
OBJECTIVES
cation sector, special health education progratrunes
should be developedfbcusingon the role of women in 6.12 A numberof goalshavebeenformulatedthrough
the health-caresystem. extensiveconsultationsin variousinternationalforums
attendedby virtually all Governments,relevantUnited
N ati ons organi zati ons(i ncl udi ng W H O , UNI CEF
D) CA P AC IT Y-B U IL D IN G UNFPA, UNESCO, UNDP and the World Bank) and a
number of non-governmentalorganizations.Goals (in-
6.g Govetnmentsshould consider adopting enabling cluding but not limited to thoselistedbelow) are recom-
and facilitatingstrategiesto promotethe participationof mendedfor implementationby all countrieswhere they
cclmmunitiesin meetingtheir own needs,in additionto areapplicable,with appropriateadaptationto the specific
providing direct supportto the provisionof health-care situationof eachcountryin termsof phasing,standards,
priorities and availability of resources,with respectfor
services. A major focus should be the preparationof
community-basedhealth and health-relatedworkers to cultural, religious and social aspects,in keeping with
assumean activerole in communityhealtheducation' freedom,dignity and personallyheld valuesand taking
into accountethicalconsiderations. Additionalgoalsthat
with emphasison teamwork, socialmobilizationandthe
are particularlyrelevant to a country'sspecificsituation
support of other developmentworkers. National pro-
shouldbe added in the country's national plan of action
grammesshouldcover district health systemsin urban,
(Planof Action for Implementingthe World Declaration
peri-urbanand rural areas,the delivery of health pro-
grammesat the district level, and the developmentand on the Survival,ProtectionandDevelopmentof Children
in the 1990s).tSuch national-level actionplansshould
supportclf referralservices.
be coordinated and monitored from within the public
healthsector. Some major goals are:
DISEASES
B) CONTROTOF CO,\IIVIUNICABLE (a) By the year2000,to eliminateguineaworm disease
(dracunculiasis);
(b) By the year 2000,to eradicatepolio;
BASIS FORACTION (c) By the year 2000, to eff-ectivelycontrol onchocer-
6.10 Advancesin the development of vaccinesandche- ciasis(river blindness)and leprosy;
motherapeutic agents have brought many communicable (d) By 1995,to redttcemeaslesdeathsby 95 per cent
diseasesunder control. However, there remain many and reducemeaslescasesby 90 per cent comparedwith
important communicable diseases for which environ- pre-immunization levels:
mentalcontrol measures are indispensable. especiallyin (e) By continuedeffbrts,to providehealthandhygiene
the field of water supply and sanitation. Such diseases educationand to ensureuniversalaccessto safedrinking-
leishmaniasis.ma- wateranduniversalaccessto sanitarymeasures of excreta
includecholera,diarrhoealdiseases,
In all such instances,the envi- disposal,thereby markedly reducing waterborne diseases
laria and schistosomiasis.
eitheras an integralpart of primary suchas choleraand schistosomiasis and reducing:
ronmentalmeasures,
(i) By the year2000,the numberof deathsfrom child-
healthcareor undertakenoutsidethe healthsector,form
an indispensablecomponentof overall diseasecontrol hood diarrhoeain developingcountriesby 50 to 70 per
strategies,togetherwith health and hygieneeducation, cent:
(ii; By the year 2000,the incidenceof childhooddiar-
and. in somecases,are the only component.
6.11 With HIV infectionlevelsestimatedto increaseto rhoeain developingcountriesby at least25 to 50 percent;
(f) By the year 2000, to initiate comprehensivepro-
30-40 million by the year 2000, the socio-economic
impactof the pandemicis expectedto be devastatingfor grammesto reducemortality from acute respiratoryin-
all countries,and increasinglyfor women and children. fectionsin childrenunderfive yearsby at leastonethird,
While directhealthcostswill be substantial, theywill be particularlyin countrieswith high infant mortality;
(g) By the year 2000, to provide 95 per cent of the C@PERATION
C) INTERSECTORAL ANDCOORDI NATION :
world's child populationwith accessto appropriatecare (i) Secondexperiencedhealth professionalsto relevant
for acuterespiratoryinfectionswithin the communityand sectors,suchasplanning,housingand agriculture;
at first referral level; (ii) Developguidelinesforeffectivecoordinationin the
(h) By the year 2000, to institute anti-malaria pro- areasof professionaltraining, assessmentof risks and
grammesin all countrieswheremalariapresentsa signi- developmentof control technology;
ficant healthproblem andmaintainthe transmission-free
statusof areasfreed from endemicmalaria;
FACTORSTHAT
ENVTRONMENTAL
D) CONTROLOF THE
INFLUENCE
(i) By theyear 2000,to implementcontrol programmes ICABLE
OFCOM/\AUN
SPREAD DISEASES:
in countrieswhere major human parasiticinfections
Apply methodsfor the preventionand control of commu-
are endemic and achieve an overall reduction in the
nicable diseases,including water supply and sanitation
prevalenceof schistosomiasisand of other trematode
control,waterpollution control,food quality control,inte-
infectionsby 40 per cent and25 per cent,respectively,
gratedvectorcontrol,garbagecollectionand disposaland
from a 1984baseline,as well as a markedreductionin
environmentallysoundirrigationpractices;
incidence,prevalenceand intensity of filarial infec-
tions;
0) To mobilize and unify national and international E) PRIMARY
HEALTH SYSTEM:
CARE
efforts againstAIDS to prevent infection and to reduce (i) Strengthenpreventionprogrammes,with particular
the personaland socialimpact of HIV infection; emphasison adequateand balancednutrition;
(k) To contain the resurgenceof tuberculosis,with (ii) Strengthenearly diagnosticprogrammesand im-
particular emphasison multiple antibiotic resistant prove capacitiesfor early preventive/treatmentaction;
forms; (iii) Reducethe vulnerabilityto HIV infectionof women
(l) To accelerateresearchon improved vaccines and
and their offspring;
implementto the fullest extentpossiblethe use of vac-
cinesin the preventionof disease.
FORRESEARCH
F) SUPPORT ANDMETHODOLOGY
DEVELOPMENT
(i) Intensifyand expandmultidisciplinaryresearch,in-
cluding focusedefforts on the mitigation and environ-
ACTIVITIES
mentalcontrol of tropicaldiseases;
6.13 Each national Government,in accordancewith (ii) Carry out interventionstudiesto provide a solid
nationalplansfor public health,prioritiesandobjectives,
epidemiological basisfor controlpoliciesandto evaluate
shouldconsiderdevelopinga nationalhealthactionplan
the efficiencyof alternativeapproaches:
with appropriateinternationalassistanceand support, (iii) Undertakestucliesin the populationand among
including,at a minimum, the following components:
health r,l'orkersto determinethe influence of cultural.
behaviouraland socialfactorson controlpolicies;
A) NATIONAL HEALTH
PUBLIC SYSTEMS:
(i) Programmesto identify environmentalhazardsin ANDDISSEMINATION
G} DEVELOPMENT OFTECHNOLOGY
the causationof communicablediseases; (a) Developnew technologiesfor the effectivecontrol
(ii) Monitoring systemsof epidemiologicaldata to en- of communicablediseases;
sure adequateforecastingof the introduction, spreador (iit Promote studiesto determinehow optimally to
aggravationof communicablediseases; disseminateresultsfrom research:
(iii) Interventionprogrammes,including measurescon- (iii) Ensuretechnicalassistance,
includingthe sharing
sistentwith the principlesof the globalAIDS strategy; of knowledgeandknow-how.
(iv) Vaccinesfor the preventionof communicabledis-
CASCS:

MEANS
OFIMPLEMENTATION

B) PUBLTC ANDHEALTH
TNFORMATION EDUCATION: A/ F/NANC/NGAND COSTEVALUATION
Provide educationand disseminateinformation on the
risks of endemic communicablediseasesand build 6.14 The Conferencesecretariathasestimatedtheaver-
awareness on environmentalmethodsforcontrol of com- age total annualcost ( 1993-2W0)of implementingthe
municablediseases to enablecommunitiesto play a role activities of this programmeto be about $4 billion,
in the control of communicablediseases: including about $900 million from the international

45
cofilmunity on grant or concessionalterms. These are be paid to the health needsof the elderly and disabled
indicativeandorder-of-magnin"rdeestimatesonly andhave population.
not beenreviewedby Governments.Actual costsand fi- 6.19 INFANTS ANDCHIIDREN Approximatelyone third of
nancialterms,includinganythatarenon-concessional, will the world's populationare childrenunder 15 yearsold.
depend upon, inter alia, the specific strategiesand pro- At least l5 million of thesechildren die annuallyfrom
gmmmesGovemmentsdecideuponfor implementation. such preventablecausesas birth trauma, birth asphyxia,
acute respiratory infections, malnutrition, colnmunicable
diseasesand diarrhoea.The health of children is affected
B / 5C/ F N IF tCA N D T EC H N O I.OG\CME
ALA N S more severelythanotherpopulationgoups by malnutrition
and adverseenvironmentalfactors,and many children risk
6.15 Efforts to preventand control diseasesshould in- exploitationascheaplabouror in prostitution.
clude investigationsof the epidemiological,social and 6.20 YOUTH As hasbeenthe historicalexperienceof all
economic basesfor the developmentof more effective countries,youth are particularly vulnerableto the prob-
national strategiesfor the integratedcontrol of commu- lems associatedwith economic development,which
nicablediseases.Cost-effectivemethodsof environmen- often weakenstraditional forms of social supportessen-
tal control should be adaptedto local developmental tial for the healthydevelopment,of young people. Ur-
conditions. banizationand changesin social moreshave increased
substance abuse,unwantedpregnancyandsexuallytrans-
mitted diseases,including AIDS. Currentlymore than
half of all peoplealive are underthe ageof 25, and four
C) HUM ANR E SOU R CDEEV EL OP M EN T
of every five live in developingcountries. Thereforeit
is important to ensurethat historicalexperienceis not
6.16 Nationaland regionaltraininginstitutionsshould
replicated.
Dromote broad intersectoral approachesto prevention
includingtraining 6.21 woMEN In developingcountries,the healthstatus
andcontrolof communicablediseases,
preventionandcontrol, of women remainsrelativelylow, and during the 1980s
in epidemiologyandcommunity
of poverty, malnutrition and generalill-health in women
immunology,molecular biology and the application
materials should be were even rising. Most women in developingcountries
new vaccines. Health education
still do not haveadequatebasiceducationalopportunities
developedfor use by community workers and for the
and they lack the meansof promoting their health,re-
educationof mothersfor the preventionand treatmentof
sponsiblycontrollingtheir reproductivelif-eandimprov-
diarrhoealdiseasesin the home.
ing their socio-economicstatus.Particularattention
shouldbe givento theprovisionof prenatalcareto ensure
healthybabies.
D) CA PAC T T Y-B U IL D IN G
6.22 INDIGENOUS PEOPTEANDTHEIR COMMUNITIES Indige-
nouspeopleandtheir communitiesmakeup a significant
6.17 The healthsectorshoulddevelopadequatedataon
percentageof the global population.The outcomesof
the distributionof communicablediseases,aswell asthe
theirexperiencehavetendedto be very similarin that the
institutionalcapacity to respondand collaboratewith
basisof their relationshipwith traditionallandshasbeen
othersectorsfor prevention,mitigationandcorrectionof
fundamentallychanged.They tend to featuredispropor-
communicablediseasehazardsthrough environmental
tionatelyin unemployment,lack of housing,povertyand
protection. The advocacyat policy- and decision-mak-
poor health.In many countriesthe numberof indigenous
ing levels should be gained,professionaland societal
people is growing faster than the generalpopulation.
supportmobilized, and communitiesorganizedin de-
Thereforeit is importantto targethealth initiativesfor
velopingself-reliance.
indigenouspeople.

VULNERABTE
c) PROTECTTNG GROUPS
OBJECTIVES
6.23 The general objectives of protecting vulnerable
BASISFORACTION groupsare to ensurethat all suchindividualsshouldbe
6.18 In additionto meetingbasichealthneeds,specific allowed to develop to their full potential (including
emphasishas to be given to protectingand educating healthyphysical,mentaland spiritualdevelopment);to
vulnerablegroups,particularlyinfants,youth, women, ensure that young people can develop, establishand
indigenouspeopleandthe very poor asa prerequisitefor maintainhealthylives; to allow women to performtheir
sustainabledevelopment.Specialattentionshouldalso

45
key role in society;and to support indigenouspeople piratory infections and prevention of communicabledis-
through educational,economic and technical oppor- EASCS;
tunities. (iii) Promotethe creation,amendmentand enforcement
6.24 Specific major goals for child survival, develop- of a legal framework protectingchildren from sexualand
ment and protection were agreed upon at the World workplace exploitation;
Summit for Children and remain valid also for Agen- (iv) Protect children from the effects of environmental
da 21. Supportingand sectoralgoals cover women's and occupationaltoxic compounds;
health and education,nutrition, child health,water and
sanitation,basic educationand children in difficult cir-
cumstances. B} YOUIH:
6.25 Governments shouldtakeactivestepsto implement, Strengthenservicesfor youth in health, education and
as a matterof urgency,in accordancewith country-spe- social sectors in order to provide better information,
cific conditionsand legal systems,measuresto ensure education,counsellingand treatmentfor specifichealth
that women and men have the sameright to decidefreely problems,including drug abuse;
and responsiblyon the number and spacing of their
children,to haveaccessto theinformation,educationand
means.as appropriate,to enablethem to exercisethis c) WoMEN:
right in keepingwith their freedom,dignity and person- (i) Involve women'sgroupsin decision-makingat the
ally held values,taking into accountethicaland cultural national and community levels to identify health risks
considerations. and incorporate health issues in national action pro-
6.26 Governmentsshould take active stepsto imple- grammeson women and development;
mentprogrammesto establishand strengthenpreventive (ii) Provideconcreteincentivesto encourageand main-
and curativehealthfacilitieswhich includewomen-cen- tain attendanceof women of all agesat school and adult
tred. women-managed,safe and effective reproductive educationcourses,includinghealtheducationand train-
healthcareandaffordable,accessibleservices,as appro- ing in primary, home and maternalhealth care;
priate, for the responsibleplanning of family size, in (iii) Carry out baselinesurveysandknowledge,attitude
keeping with freedom, dignity and personally held andpracticestudieson thehealthandnutritionof women
values and taking into account ethical and cultural throughouttheir life cycle, especiallyas relatedto the
considerations.Programmesshouldfocuson providing impact of environmentaldegradationand adequate
comprehensivehealth care, including pre-natal care, resources:
educationand information on health and responsible
parenthoodand should provide the opportunity for all
women to breast-feedfully, at leastduring the first four D) INDIGENOUS PEOPLE ANDTHEIRCOI4MUNITIES:
rnonthspost-partum.Programmesshouldfully support (i) Strengthen,through resourcesand self-manage-
women's productive and reproductiveroles and well- ment, preventiveand curativehealthservices;
being, with specialattentionto the need for providing (ii) Integratetraditionalknowledgeand experienceinto
equal and improvedhealthcare for all children and the healthsvstems.
needto reducethe risk of maternaland child mortality
and sickness.
MEANSOFIMPLEMENTATION

ACTN''TES A/ F/NANC/NGAND COSTEVALUATION

6.21 NationalGovernments,in cooperationwith local


and non-governmental 6.28 The Conferencesecretariathasestimatedthe aver-
organizations,should initiate or
enhanceprogrammesin the following areas: age total annualcost ( 1993-2ffi0)of implementingthe
activities of this programmeto be about $3.7 billion,
including about $400 million from the international
A) INFANTS
ANDCHILDREN: communityon grant or concessionalterms.Theseare
(i) Strengthenbasichealth-careservicesfor childrenin indicativeand order-of-magnitlrde estimatesonly and
the context of primary health-caredelivery, including havenot beenreviewedby Governments.Actual costs
prenatal care.breast-feeding,immunizationandnutrition and financial terms, including any that are non-con-
progriimmes: cessional,will depend upon, inter alia, the specific
(ii) Undertakewidespreadadult educationon the use of strategiesand programmesGovernmentsdecideupon
oral rehydration therapy for diarrhoea,treatnent of res- for implementation.

47
AND TECHNOLOGICAL
8' SCIENIIFIC MEANS governmentsto provide the environmentalhealth serv-
ices that the peopleneed. All too often,urbandevelop-
6.29 Educational,healthandresearchinstitutionsshould mentis associated with destructiveeffectson thephysical
be strengthenedto provide supportto improve the health environmentandtheresourcebaseneededfor sustainable
of vulnerablegroups. Social researchon the specific development.Environmentalpollution in urbanareasis
problemsof thesegroupsshouldbe expandedand meth- associatedwith excessmorbidity and mortality. Over-
ods for implementingflexible pragmaticsolutionsex- crowding and inadequatehousing contributeto respi-
plored,with emphasison preventivemeasures. Technical ratory diseases,tuberculosis,meningitisand other dis-
supportshouldbe providedto Govemments,institutions eases.In urban environments,many factorsthat affect
and non-governmentalorganizationsfor youth, women humanhealthareoutsidethehealthsector.Improvements
and indigenouspeople in the health sector. in urban health thereforewill depend on coordinated
actionby all levelsof government.healthcareproviders,
businesses, religiousgroups,socialand educationalin-
C) HUMANRESOURCES
DEVELOPMENT stitutionsand citizens.

6.30 The developmentof humanresources for the health


of children,youth and women shouldincludereinforce- OBJECTIVES
mentof educationalinstitutions,promotionof interactive 6.33 Thehealthandwell-beingof all urbandwellersmust
methodsof educationfor healthandincreaseduseof mass be improvedso that they cancontributeto economicand
mediain disseminating informationto the targetgroups. socialdevelopment.The globalobjectiveis to achievea
This requiresthe training of more community health 10to 40 per centirnprovementin healthindicatorsby the
workers, nurses,midwives, physicians,social scien- year 2000. The same rate of improvementshould be
tists and educators,the educationof mothers,families achievedfor environmental,housingand healthservice
and communitiesand the strengtheningof ministries indicators.Theseincludethedevelopmentof quantitative
of education,health,populationetc. objectives f-or infant mortality, maternal mortality, per-
centageof low-birth-weightnewbomsand specificindi-
cators(e.g.tuberculosisasan indicatorof crowdedhous-
D) CAPACTTY-BU\LD\NG ing, diarrhoeaidiseases asindicatorsof inadequate water
and sanitation,ratesof industrialand transportationac-
6.31 Governmentsshouldpromote,wherenecessary:(i) cidentsthatindicatepossibleopportunities for prevention
the organization of national, intercountry and interre- of injury, and social problems such as drug abuse,
gional symposiaand other meetingsfor the exchangeof violenceand crime that indicateunderlyingsocialdisor-
informationamongagenciesand groupsconcernedwith ders).
the health of children, youth, women and indigenous
people,and (ii) women's organizations,youth groups
andindigenouspeople'sorganizations to facilitatehealth ACTIVITIES
and consult them on the creation,amendmentand en- 6.34 Local authorities,with the appropriatesupportof
forcementof legal frameworksto ensurea healthyenvi- national Governmentsand intemational organizations,
ronment for children. vouth. women and indisenous shouldbe encouragedto take effectivemeasuresto in-
peoples. itiate or strengthenthe tollowing activities:

D) ftTEETTNG
THE URBAN HEATTHCHATTENGE A) DEVELOP
ANDTMPLEMENT
MUNtCtpAL
ANDLOCAL
HEALTHPLANS:

(i) Establishor strengthenintersectoralcommitteesat


BASIS
FORACTION
both the politicai and technicallevel, includingactive
632 For hundredsof millions of people,thepoorliving collaborationon linkageswith scientific,cultural,reli-
conditions in urban and peri-urbanareasare destroying gious. rnedical,business,socialand other city institu-
lives,health,and socialandmoral values.Urban growth tions,usingnetworkingalrangements;
hasoutstrippedsociety'scapacityto meethumanneeds, (ii) Adopt or strengthenrnunicipal or local "enabling
leavinghundredsof millions of peoplewith inadequate sffategies"that emphasize"doing with" ratherthan"doing
incomes,diets, housing and services. Urban growth for" and createsupportiveenvironmentsfor health;
exposespopulationsto seriousenvironmentalhazards (iii) Ensurethat public healttreducationin schools,work-
and has outstrippedthe capacityof municipaland local place,massmediaetc.is providedor strengthened;

48
(iv) Encouragecommunitiesto developpersonalskills training of municipal staff requiredfor healthy city pro-
and awarenessof primary health care; cesses.Basic and in-servicetraining of environmental
(v) Promoteand strengthencommunity-basedrehabili- healthpersonnelwill alsobe needed.
tation activitiesfor the urbanandperi-urbandisabledand
the elderly;
D) CAPACITY.BUILDING
WHERE
B) SURVEY NECESSARY
THEEXTSTTNGHEALTH,
SOCTAL
ANDENVIRONMENTAL IN CITIES,
CONDITIONS INCLUDING 6.38 The programmeis aimed towards improved plan-
DOCUMENTATION DIFFERENCES;
OFINTRA-URBAN ning and managementcapabilitiesin the municipaland
local governmentand its partnersin centralGovernment,
the private sectorand universities. Capacitydevelop-
C) STRENGTHEN HEALTH
ENVIRONMENTAL SERVICES: ment shouldbe focusedon obtaining sufficient informa-
(i) Adopt healthimpact and environmentalimpact as- tion, improvingcoordinationmechanismslinking alt the
sessmentprocedures; key actors,andmaking betteruseof availableinstruments
(ii) Providebasic and in-servicetraining for new and and resourcesfor implementation.
existingpersonnel;

El R.EDUCTNG
HEATTHR|SKSFROM
ANDMAINTAIN
D} ESTABUSH NFIWORKS
CITY COTIABOR,ATION ENVIRONMENTALPOLLUTIONAND HAZARDS
FOR
ANDEXCHANGEOFMODELSOFGOODPRACNCE.

BASIS
FORACTION
MEANSOF IMPLEMENTATION 6.39 In many locations around the world the general
environment(air, water and land),workplacesand even
Al F/NANCTNG
AND COSTEVALUATTON individual drvellingsare so badly polluted that the health
of hundredsof millions of peopleis adverselyaffected.
6.35 The Conferencesecretariathasestimatedthe aver- This is, inter alia, due to pastand presentdevelopments
age total annual cost ( 1993-2000)of implementing the in consumptionandproductionpattemsand lifestyles,in
activitiesof this programmeto be about $222 million, energyproductionand use.in industry,in transportation
includingabout$22 million from the internationalcom- etc.,with little or no regardfor environmentalprotection.
munity on grantor concessional terms.Theseareindica- There have been notableimprovementsin some coun-
tive and order-of-magnitude estimatesonly andhavenot tries,but deteriorationof theenvironmentcontinues.The
beenreviewedby Governments.Actual costsand finan- ability of countriesto tackle pollution and health prob-
cial terms,includingany that are non-concessional, will lems is greatly restrainedbecauseof lack of resources.
depend upon, inter alia, ttre specifrc strategiesand pro. Pollutioncontrol andhealthprotectionmeasureshaveoften
grammesGovemmentsdecideupon for implementation. not kept pace with economicdevelopment.Considerable
development-related environmentalhealthhazardsexistin
thenewly industrializingcountries.Furthermore,therecent
8/ SC/ENI/F/C
AND TECHNOLOG|CAL
A4EANS analysisof WHO hasclearly establishedthe interdepend-
encearnongthe factorsof health,environmentand devel-
6.36 Decision-making models should be further de- opmentand has revealedthat most countriesare lacking
velopedandmore widely usedto assess the costsand the such integration as would lead to an effective pollution
health and environmentimpactsof alternativetechnol- control mechanism.2Withort prejudiceto suchcriteria as
ogiesand strategies.Improvementin urbandevelopment may be agreedupon by the internationalcommunity,or to
and managementrequiresbetternationaland municipal standardswhich will have to be determinednationally, it
statisticsbasedon practical,standardized indicators.De- will beessentialin all casesto considerthesystemsof values
velopmentof methodsis a priority for the measurement prevailingin eachcounty andtheextentof theapplicability
of intra-urbanandintra-districtvariationsin healthstatus of standardsthat are valid for the most advancedcountries
and environmentalconditions.and for the applicationof but may be inappropriateandof unwarrantedsocialcostfor
this informationin planningand management. the developingcountries.

c ) HUM A NRF S O U R C ES
D EV EL OP M EN T OBJECTIVES
6.40 The overall objective is to minimize hazardsand
6.37 Programmesmust supplythe orientationand basic

49
maintain the environmentto a degreethat human health D) PESTTCTDES:
and safetyis not impairedor endangeredand yet encour- Develop mechanismsto control the distributionand use
agedevelopmentto proceed.Specificprogrammeobjec- of pesticidesin order to minimize the risks to human
tives are: healthby transportation,
storage,applicationandresidual
(a) By the year 2000, to incorporateappropriateenvi- effectsof pesticidesusedin agricultureand preservation
ronmental and health safeguardsas part of national de- of wood;
velopmentprogrammesin all countries;
(b) By the year 2000,to establish,as appropriate,ade-
quate national infrastructureand programmesfor pre- E) SOLID
WASTE:
ventingenvironmental i nj ury,hazardsurveiI Ianceandthe (i) Develop appropriatesolid wastedisposaltechnol-
basisfor abatementin all countries; ogieson the basisof healthrisk assessment:
(c) By the year 2000,to establish,as appropriate,inte- (ii) Developappropriatesolid wastedisposalcapacities
grated programmesfbr tackling pollution at the source in largecities;
andat thedisposalsite,rvitha focuson abatementactions
in all countriesl
(d) To identify and compile,as appropriate,the neces- F) HUMAN
SETTLEMENTS:
sary statisticalinformation on health ef'fectsto support Developprogrammesfor irnprovinghealthconditionsin
cost/benefitanalysis,including environmentalhealthim- human settlements,in particularwithin slumsand non-
pact assessment for pollution control, preventionand tenuredsettlements,on the basisof health risk assess-
abatementmeasures. ment;

ACTIVITIES G) NOTSE:
6.41 Nationallydeterminedactionprogrammes,with in- Develop criteria for maximum permitted safe noise ex-
ternationalassistance,supportand coordination,where posurelevelsand promotenoiseassessment and control
necessary,in this areashouldinclude: as part of environmentalhealth programmes;

A) URBAN
AtRPOLLUTTON: H) roNtztNcANDNON-|ON|Z|NG
RAD|AT|ON:
(i) Develop appropriatepollution control technologyon Developand implementappropriatenationallegislation.
the basisof risk assessment and epidemiologicalresearch standardsand enforcement procedureson the basis of
for the introductionof environmentallysoundproduction existinginternationalguidelines;
processes and suitablesafemasstransport;
(ii) Develop air pollution control capacitiesin large
cities,emphasizingenforcementprogrammesand using t) EFFECTS
OFULTRAVTOLET
RAD|ATION:
monitoringnetworks,as appropriate; (i) Undertake,as a rnatter of urgency,researchon the
effects on human health of the increasingultraviolet
radiationreachingthe earth'ssurfaceas a consequence
B) TNDOOR AtRPOLLUTTON:
of depletionof the stratospheric
ozonelayer:
(i) Supportresearchand developprogrammesfor ap- (ii) On thebasisof the outcomeof thisresearch,
consicler
plying preventionandcontrolmethodsto reducingindoor taking appropriateremedial measuresto mitigate the
air pollution.includingthe provisionof economicincen- above-mentioned effectson humanbeings:
tives for the installationof appropriatetechnology;
(ii) Develop and implement health educationcam-
paigns,particuliulyin developingcountries,to reducethe J) INDUSTRY ANDENERGY PRODUCTION:
healthimpactof domesticuseof biomassand coal: (i) Establishenvironmentalhealth impact assessment
proceduresfor the planning and developmentof new
industriesand energyfacilities;
c) WATER POLLUTTON: (ii) Incorporateappropriatehealth risk analysisin all
(i) Develop appropnatewater pollution control tech- nationalprogrammesfor pollution control and manage-
nologieson the basisof healthrisk assessment; ment,with particularemphasison toxic compoundssuch
(ii; Develop water pollution control capacitiesin large as lead:
c it ies : (iii) Establishindustrialhygieneprogrammesin all major

50
industries for the surveillanceof workers' exposureto 8/ SC/ENI/F'C
AND IECHNOI.OGICAL
MEANS
healthhazards;
(v) Promotethe introductionof environmentallysound 6.43 Although technologyto preventor abatepollution
technologieswithin the industryand energysectors; is readily availablefor a largenumberof problems,for
programmeand policy developmelttcountriesshould
undertakeresearchwithin an intersectoralframework.
K) MONTTORTNG
ANDASSESSMENT: Sucheffortsshouldincludecollaborationwith the busi-
Establish,asappropriate,adequateenvironmentalmoni- nesssector.Cost/effectanalysisand environmentalim-
toring capacitiesfor the surveillanceof environmental pact assessment methodsshould be developedthrough
quality and the healthstatusof populations; cooperativeinternationalprograffLmes and appliedto the
settingof prioritiesandstrategies in relationto healthand
development.
L}INJURY
MONITORING
ANDREDUCTION: 6.44 In the activitieslisted ln paragraph6.41 (a) to (m)
(i) Support,asappropriate, thedevelopmentof systems above,developingcountryeffortsshouldbe facilitatedby
to monitor the incidenceand causeof injury to allow accessto and ffansferof technology,know-how and infor-
weII -targeted intervention/prevention strategies; mation,from the repositoriesof suchknowledgeandtech-
(i i) Dev elop, in a c c o rd a n c ew i th n a ti o n a l pl ans, nologies,in conformitywith chapter34.
strategiesin all sectors(industry,traffic and others)con-
sistentwith the WHO safecities and safecommunities
programmes,to reduce the frequencyand severity of
C) HUMANRESOURCE
DEVELOPMENT
injury;
(iii) Emphasizepreventivestrategiesto reduceoccupa-
6.45 Comprehensivenational strategiesshould be de-
tionallyderiveddiseases anddiseases causedby environ-
signed to overcome the lack of qualified human re-
mentalandoccupationaltoxinsto enhanceworkersafety;
sources.which is a major impedimentto progressin
dealing with environmentalhealth hazards.Training
M) RESEARCH PROMOTION ANDMETHODOLOGY DEVELOPMENT: shouldinclude environmentaland healthofficials at all
levelsfrom managers to inspectors.
Moreemphasisneeds
(i) Supportthe developmentof new methodsfor the
to be placedon including the subjectof environmental
quantitativeassessment of healthbenefitsand costsas-
healthin the curriculaof secondaryschoolsand univer-
sociatedwith differentpollution control strategies;
(ii) Develop and carry out interdisciplinaryresearch sitiesand on educatingthe public.
on the combinedhealth eff'ectsof exposureto multiple
environmentalhazards,includingepidemiologicalin-
vestigationsof long-term exposuresto low levels of D) CAPACITY-BUILDING
pollutantsand the use of biological markerscapable
of estimatinghuman exposures,adverseeffects and 6.46 Each country shoulddevelopthe knowledgeand
susceptibilityto environmentalagents. practical skills to foreseeand identify environmental
healthhazards,andthecapacityto reducetherisks.Basic
capacity requirementsmust include knowledge about
environmentalhealthproblemsandawareness on thepart
MEANS OFIMPLEMENTATION
of leaders,citizensand specialists; operationalmecha-
A/ FiNANC/NGAND COSTEVALUATTON nisms fbr intersectoraland intergovernmental coopera-
tion in developmentplanning and managementand in
6.42 The Conferencesecretariathasestimatedthe aver- combatingpollution;arrangements for involving private
age total annualcost (1993-2000)of implementingthe and community interestsin dealing with social issues;
activities of this programme to be about $3 billion, delegationof authorityand distributionof resourcesto
includingabout$115million from theinternational com- intermediateand local levelsof governmentto provide
munity on grantor concessional terms.Theseareindica- front-line capabilitiesto meet environmentalhealth
tive andorder-of-magnitude estimatesonly andhavenot needs.
beenreviewedby Governments.Actual costsand finan-
1
cial terms,includingany that are non-concessional,will a/u/025, onnex.
dependupon. inter alia. the specificstrategiesand pro- '2 ^ . r . l
R e p o r t o f t h e W H O C o m m i s s i o no n H e o l t h o n d E n v i r o n m e n t
grammesGovernmentsdecideupon for implementation. (Genevo, forthcoming).

5t
sustoinoble
Promoting development
humonsetilement

At the sametime the environmentalimplicationsof urban


INTRODUCTION developmentshould be recognizedand addressedin an
integrated fashion by all countries, with high priority
being given to the needsof the urban and rural poor, the
1.1 In industrializ.ed countrics.the consumptionpat- unemployedand the growing number of peoplewithout
ternsof citiesareseverelystressingtheglobalecosystem, anv sourceof income.
while settlements in the developingworld needmoreraw
material,energy,and econornicdevelopmentsimply to
overcomebasiceconomicand socialproblems. Human HUMANSETTLEMENT
OBJECTIVE
settlementconditionsin manypartsof theworld, particu- 7.4 The overall human settlementobjectiveis to im-
larly the developingcountries,are deterioratingmainly prove the social,economicand environmentalquality of
as a result of the low levels of investmentin the sector human settlementsand the living and working environ-
attributableto the overall resourceconstraintsin these mentsof all people,in particularthe urbanandrural poor.
countries.In the low-incomecountriesfor which recent Suchimprovementshouldbe basedon technicalcooper-
data are available,an averageof clnly 5.6 per cent of ation activities,partnershipsamong the public, private
c ent r al go v e rn m e n te x p e n d i tu rew e n t to housi ng, andcommunitysectorsand participationin thedecision-
amenities.socialsecurityand welfare.r Expenditureby making processby community groupsand specialinter-
internationalsupportandflnanceorganizations is equally estgroupssuchaswomen.indigenouspeople,theelderly
low. For example,only I per centof the UnitedNations and the disabled.Theseapproachesshouldform the core
system'stotal grant-financedexpendituresin 1988went principlesof nationalsettlementstrategies. In developing
to human settlements,' while in 1991,loansfrom the these strategies,countries will need to set priorities
World Bank and the InternationalDevelopmentAssoci- among the eight programme areas in this chapter in
ation (IDA) for urbandevelopmentand water supplyand accordancewith their nationalplansand objectives,tak-
sewerageamountedto 5.5 and 5.4 per cent,respectively, ing fully into account their social and cultural capa-
of their total lending.' bilities. Furthermore,countriesshouldmake appropriate
7.2 On the otherhand,availableinformationindicates provision to monitor the impact of their strategieson
that technicalcooperationactivitiesin the humansettle- marginalizedand di senfranchisedgroups,with particular
rnent sector generateconsiderablepublic and private referenceto the needsof women.
sectorinvestment.For example,every dollar of UNDP 7.5 The prograrruneareasincluded in this chapterare:
technicalcooperationexpenditureon humansettlements (a) Providing adequateshelterfor all;
in 1988generateda follow-up investmentof $122,the (b) Improving human settlementmanagement;
highestof all UNDP sectorsof assistance." (c) Promotingsustainable land-useplanningand man-
7.3 This is the foundationof the "enablingapproach" agement;
advocatedfor the human settlementsector. External (d) Promotingthe integratedprovision of environmen-
assistancewill help to generatethe internal resources tal infrastructure: water. sanitation.drainageand solid-
neededto improvethe living and working environments wastemanagement:
of all peopleby the year 2000 andbeyond,includingthe (e) Promotingsustainableenergyandtransportsystems
growingnumberof unemployed- the no-incomegroup. in humansettlements:

52
(f) Promoting human settlementplanning and manage- tional shelterstrategies,with targetsbased.as appropri-
ment in disaster-prone
areas; ate,on the principlesand recofiunendationscontainedin
(g) Promotingsustainableconstructionindustryactivities; the Global Strategyfor Shelterto the Year 2000. people
(h) Promotinghumanresourcedevelopmentand capac- should be protectedby law againstunfair eviction from
ity-buildingfor human settlementdevelopment. their homesor land;
(c) All countriesshould, as appropriate,support the
sheltereffortsof the urbanandrural poor,theunemployed
and the no-income group by adopting and/or adapting
P R O G R A M MAER E A S existingcodesand regulations,to facilitatetheir access
to land,financeand low-costbuilding materials,and by
actively promoting the regularizationand upgrading of
A) PROV|DTNGADEQUATESHETTER
FORALr
informal settlementsand urban slums as an expedient
measure and pragmatic solution to the urban shelter
BASIS
FORACTION deficit;
7.6 Accessto safeand healthyshelteris essentialto a (d) All countriesshould,as appropriate,facilitate ac-
person'sphysical,psychological,socialand economic cessof urban and rural poor to shelterby adoptingand
well-beingand shouldbe a fundamentalpart of national utilizing housingand financeschemesand new innova-
and intemationalaction. The right to adequatehousing tive mechanismsadaptedto their circumstances;
as a basic human right is enshrinedin the Universal (e) All counties should supportand develop environ-
Declarationof HumanRightsandthe lntemationalCove- mentally compatible shelter strategiesat national,
nant on Economic,Socialand Cultural Rights. Despite state/provincialand municipal levels through parnrerships
this, it is estimatedthat at the presenttime, at least I amongthe private,public andcommunitysectorsand with
billion people do not have accessto saf-eand healthy the supportof community-based organizations;
shelterand that if appropriateaction is not taken, this (f,) All countries,especiallydevelopingones,should,
nurnber will increasedramatically by the end of the as appropriate,formulate and implementprogrammesto
centuryand beyond. reducethe impact of the phenomenonof rural to urban
7.7 A major globalprogrammeto addressthis problem drift by improving rural living conditions;
is the Global Strategy for Shelter ro rhe Year 2000, (g) All countries,where appropriate,should develop
adoptedby the General Assembly in December 1988 andimplementresettlement programmesthataddressthe
(resolution43ll8l, annex). Despiteits widespreaden- specific problems of displacedpopularionsin rheir
dorsement,the Strategyneedsa much greaterlevel of respectivecountries;
politicalandfinancialsupportto enableit to reachits goal (h) All countriesshould.asappropriate,documentand
of facilitatingadequateshelterfor all by rhe end of the monitor the implementationof their national shelter
centuryand beyond. strategiesby using,inter alia, the monitoringguidelines
adoptedby the Comrnissionon Human Settlementsand
theshelterperformance indicatorsbeingproducedjointly
OBJECTIVE by the United Nations Centre for Human Settlements
7.8 The objective is to achieve adequateshelterfor (Habitat)and the World Bank;
rapidly growing populationsand for the cuffently de- (i) Bilateral and multilateral cooperationshould be
privedurbanandruralpoorthroughanenablingapproach strengthened in order to supportthe implementationof
to shelterdevelopmentand improvementthatis environ- the nationalshelterstrategiesof developingcountries;
mentallysound. 0) Globalprogressreportscoveringnationalactionand
the supportactivitiesof internationalorganizationsand
bilateraldonorsshouldbe producedanddisseminated on
ACTIVITIES a biennial basis,as requestedin the Global Strategyfor
7.9 The following activitiesshouldbe undertaken: Shelterto the Year 2000.
(a) As a first step towardsthe goal of providing ade-
quateshelterfor all, all countriesshouldtake immediate
measuresto provideshelterto their homelesspoor,while MEANSOF IMPIEMENTATION
the internationalcommunity and financial institutions
,A/ F/NANC/NGAND COSTEVALaJATTON
should undertakeactions to supportthe ef'fortsof the
developingcountriesto provide shelterto the poor;
7.iO The Conferencesecretiuiathasestimatedthe aver-
(b) All countriesshould adopt and/or strengthenna-
age total annualcost ( 1993-2(nU of implementingthe

53
activities of this programme to be about $75 billion, tries,in orderto enhancetheir ability to improvethe living
including about$10 billion from the internationalcom- conditionsof residents,especiallythe marginalizedand
munity on grant or concessionalterms.Theseare indica- disenfranchised, therebycontributingto the achievement
tive and order-of-magnitudeestimatesonly and have not of nationaleconomicdevelopmentgoals.
beenreviewedby Govemments.Actual costsandfinan-
cial terms,includingany that arenon-concessional, will
and pro- ACTIVITIES
dependupon, inter alia, the specific strategies
grammesGovernmentsdecideupon for implementation' URBANMANAGFMENI
A) IMPROV/NG

7.16 Oneexistingframeworkfor strengthening lnanage-


MEANS
8] SCIENTFrcAND TECHNOLOGICAL ment i s i n the U ni ted N ati ons D evel opm entPr o-
grammeNVorldBank/United Nations Centre for Human
7.1I The requirementsunderthis headingare addressed Settlements(Habitat) Urban Management Programme
in each of the other programme areas included in the (UMP), a concertedglobal effort to assistdeveloping
presentchapter. countriesin addressingurban managementissues. Its
coverageshouldbe extendedto all interestedcountries
during the period 1993-2000. All countries should' as
C) HUMANRESOURCE AND
DEVELOPMENI appropriateandin accordance with nationalplans,objec-
CAPACITY.BUILDING tives and prioritiesand with the assistance of non-gov-
ernmenfal organizations and representatives of local
7.12 Developedcountriesand funding agenciesshould authorities,undertakethe following activities at the na-
provide specific assistanceto developingcountriesin tional, state/provincialand local levels, with the assist-
arJoptingan enablingapproachto the provision of shelter anceof relevant programmes and support agencies:
for all, including the no-income group, and covering (a) Adopting and applying urban managementguide-
researchinstitutionsand training activitiesfor govern- lines in the areasof land management,urban environ-
communitiesandnon-gov-
ment officials,professionals, mental management,infrastructuremanagementand
ernmental organrzations and by strengtheninglocal ca- municipalfi nanceand administration;
pacity for the development appropriatetechnologies.
of (b) Accelerating efforts to reduce urban poverty
througha numberof actions,including:
(i) Generatingemploymentfor the urbanpoor,particu-
B) IMPROVING HUrtiAN sErrlrMENT T ANAGEMEM larly women, through the provision,improvementand
maintenanceof urbaninfrastructureand servicesand the
BASIS FORACTION supportof economicactivitiesin theinformalsector,such
7.13 By the turn of the century,the majority of the as repairs,recycling,servicesand small cofitmerce;
wor ld' sp o p u l a ti o nw i l l b e l i v i n g i n c i ti e s.W hi l e urban (ii) Providing specificassistance to the poorestof the
urban poor through, inter alia, the creation of social
settlements,particularlyin developingcountries'are
infrastructurein order to reduce hunger and homeless-
showing many of the symptomsof the global environ-
generate ness,andthe provision of adequate community services;
mentanddevelopmentcrisis,they nevertheless
(iii) Encouraging the establishment of indigenous com-
60 per cent of gross national product and' if properly
munity -based organization s, private v o luntary or ganrza-
managed,can developthe capacityto sustaintheir pro-
tions and other forms of non-governmental entitiesthat
ductivity,improvetheliving conditionsof theirresidents
can contributeto the efforts to reduce poverty and im-
and managenaturalresourcesin a sustainableway'
prove the quality of life for low-income families;
7.14 Some metropolitanareas extend over the boun-
dariesof severalpolitical and/oradministrativeentities (c) Adopting innovativecity planningstrategiesto ad-
(countiesand municipalities)eventhoughthey conform dressenvironmentaland socialissuesby:
to a continuousurbansystem.In manycasesthispolitical (i) Reducingsubsidieson, andrecoveringthe full costs
heterogeneityhinders the implementationof compre- of, environmental and other services of high standard
hensiveenvironmentalmanagementprogrammes. (e.g. water supply, sanitation,waste collection,roads'
telecommunications) providedto higher incomeneigh-
bourhoods;
OBJECTIVE (ii) Improving the level of infrastructureand service
7.15 The objectiveis to ensuresustainable management provisionin poorerurbanareas;
pafticularlyin developingcoun- (d) Developinglocal strategies for improvingthequality
of all urbansettlements,

54
of life andtheenvironment,integratingdecisionson land Habitat and the Healthy Cities programme of WHO,
use and land management,investingin the public and shouldbe intensified.Additionalinitiativesinvolving the
private sectorsand mobilizing human and materialre- World Bank, the regional developmentbanks and bilat-
sources,therebypromotingemploymentgenerationthat eral agencies,as well as other interestedstakeholders.
is environmentallysoundandprotectiveof humanhealth. particularly internationaland nationalrepresentatives of
local authorities,should be strengthenedand coordi-
nated.Individual citiesshould,as appropriate:
8/ STRENGTHENING
UREANDATASySIEMS (a) Institutionalize aparticipatoryapproachto sustain-
ableurbandevelopment,basedon a continuousdialogue
7.17 During the period 1993-2000all countriesshould betweenthe actors involved in urban developrnent(the
undertake,with the active participationof the business public sector,privatesectorandcommunities),especially
sectoras appropriate,pilot projectsin selectedcities for women and indigenouspeople;
the collection,analysisand subsequent disseminationof (b) Improve the urban environmentby promoting so-
urbandata,includingenvironmentalimpact analysis,at cial organizationand environmentalawarenessthrough
the local, state/provincial,national and international the participationof local communitiesin the identifica-
levels and the establishmentof city data management tion of public servicesneeds,the provision of urban
capabilities.5United Nations organizations,such as infrastructure,the enhancement of public amenitiesand
Habitat, UNEP and UNDP, could provide technical the protectionand/or rehabilitarionof older buildings,
adviceand model datamanagementsystems. historicprecinctsandotherculturalartifacts.In addition,
"greenworks" programmesshouldbe activatedto create
self-sustaininghuman developmentactivitiesand both
C) ENCOURAGING
/NIERMEDIATE
CITYDEVELOPMENT formal and informal employmentopportunitiesfor low-
incomeurbanresidents;
7.I 8 In orderto relievepressure on largeurbanagglomer- (c) Strengthenthe capacitiesof their local governing
ations of developingcountries,policies and strategies bodies to deal more effectively with the broad range of
shouldbe implementedtowardsthe developmentof in- developmentalandenvironmentalchallengesassociated
termediatecities that createemploymentopportunities with rapid and soundurbangrowth throughcomprehen-
for unemployedlabour in the rural areasand support siveapprdaches to planningthatrecognizethe individual
rural-basedeconomicactivities,althoughsound urban needsof citiesandarebasedon ecologicallysoundurban
management is essentialto ensurethaturbansprawldoes designpractices;
not expandresourcedegradationover an everwider land (d) Participatein international"sustainablecity net-
area and increasepressuresto convert open spaceand works" to exchangeexperiencesand mobilize national
agriculturaUbuffer landsfor development. and internationaltechnicaland financialsupport;
7.l9 Thereforeall countriesshould,asappropriate,con- (e) Promotethe formulationof environmentallysound
duct reviews of urbanizationprocessesand policies in andculturallysensitivetourismprogrammesasa strategy
orderto assessthe environmentalimpactsof growth and for sustainabledevelopmentof urban and rural settle-
apply urbanplanningand managementapproaches spe- mentsand as a way of decentralizingurbandevelopment
cifically suited to the needs,resourcecapabilitiesand and reducingdiscrepancies amongregions;
characteri sticsof their growingintermediate-si
zedcities. (f) Establishmechanisms,with the assistance of rele-
As appropriate, theyshouldalsoconcentrate on activities vant internationalagencies,to mobilize resourcesfor
aimed at facilitating the transitionfrom rural to urban local initiativesto improveenvironmentalquality;
lifestylesand settlementpatternsand at promoting the (g) Empowercommunitygroups,non-governmental or-
developmentof small-scaleeconomicactivities,particu- ganizationsand individuals to assumethe authority and
larly the productionof food, to support local income responsibilityfor rnanagingandenhancingtheirimmediate
generationandthe productionof intermediategoodsand environmentthrough participatorytools, techniquesand
sen,icesfor rural hinterlands. approaches embodiedin theconceptof environmentalcare.
7.20 All cities.particularlythosecharacterized by severe 7.21 Citiesof all countriesshouldreinforcecooperation
sustainable developmentproblems,should,in accord- amongthemselvesand citiesof the developedcountries,
ance u,ith nationallaws, rules and regulations,develop undertheaegisof non-governmentalorganizationsactive
and strengthenprogrammesaimed at addressingsuch in this field, such as the InternationalUnion of Local
problemsandguidingtheir developmentalonga sustain- Authorities(IULA), the InternationalCouncil for Local
able path. Some internationalinitiatives in supportof EnvironmentalInitiatives(ICLEI) and the World Feder-
suchefforts.as in the SustainableCities prosrammeof ation of Twin Cities.

55
MEANSOFIMPLEMENTATION c) PROMOTTNGSUSTAINABLEIAND-USE
PTANNING AND }TANAGEMENT
A/ F'NANC/NGAND COSTEVALUATION

FORACTION
BASIS
1.22 The Conferencesecretariathas estimatedthe aver-
age total annualcost (1993-2000)of implementingthe 7.27 Accessto land resourcesis an essentialcomponent
activities of this programmeto be about $100 billion, of sustainablelow-impactlifestyles.Land resourcesare
includingabout$ 15billion from theinternationalcom- the basis for (human) living systemsand provide soil,
munity on grant or concessionalterms.Theseare in- energy,water and the opportunity for all human activity.
dicative and order-of-magnitudeestimatesonly and In rapidly growing urbanareas,accessto land is rendered
have not beenreviewedby Governments.Actual costs increasingly difficult by the conflicting demandsof in-
andfinancialterms.includingany thatarenon-conces- dustry, housing, commerce, agriculture, land tenure
s ional, wil l d e p e n d u p o n , i n te r a l i a . the speci fi c structuresand the needfor openspaces.Furthermore,the
strategiesand programmesGovernmentsdecideupon rising costsof urban land preventthe poor from gaining
for implementation. accessto suitable land. In rural areas,unsustainable
practices,suchas the exploitationof marginallandsand
the encroachmenton forests and ecologically fragile
areasby commercialinterestsand landlessrural popula-
B) HUMANRESOURCE AND
DEVELOPMENI
tions,resultin environmentaldegradation,as well as in
CAPACITY-BUILDING
diminishing returnsfor impoverishedrural settlers.
1.23 Developingcountriesshould,with appropriatein-
ternationalassistance,considerfocusingon trainingand
OBJECTIVE
developinga cadreof urbanmanagers,technicians,ad-
7.28 Theobjectiveis to providefor theland requirements
ministratorsand other relevant stakeholderswho can
of human settlementdevelopmentthrough environmen-
successfullymanageenvironmentallysound urban de-
tally soundphysicalplanningandlandusesoasto ensure
velopmentand growth and are equippedwith the skills
accessto land to all householdsand, where appropriate,
necessaryto analyseand adapt the innovative experi-
the encouragementof communally and collectively
encesof other cities.For this purpose,the full rangeof
owned and rnanagedland.6 Particularattentionshould
training methods__ from formal educationto the useof
be paidto the needsof womenandindigenouspeoplefor
the mass rnedia - should be utilized, as well as the
"learningby doing" option. economicand culturalreasons.
7.24 Developingcountriesshouldalso encouragetech-
nological training and researchthroughjoint efforts by ACTIVITIES
donors, non-governmentalorganizationsand private
businessin such areasas the reductionof waste,water 7.29 Allcountriesshouldconsider, under-
asappropriate,
quality, saving of energy,safe productionof chemicals taking a comprehensivenationalinventoryof their land
and lesspollutingtranspoftation. resourcesin order to establisha land information system
7.25 Capacity-building activitiescarriedout by all coun- in which land resourceswill be classifiedaccordingto
tries,assistedas suggestedabove,shouldgo beyondthe their most appropriateusesand environmentallyfragile
training of individualsand functionalgroupsto include or disaster-proneareas will be identified for special
institutionalarrangements, administrativeroutines,inter- protectionmeasures.
agencylinkages,informationflows andconsultativepro- , ll countriesshould consider
7 . 3 0S u b s e q u e n t l ya
CCSSCS. developingnationalland-resource managementplansto
7. 26 I n ad d i ti o n , i n te rn a ti o n a le ffo rts , s uch as the guide land-resource developmentand utilizationand,to
Urban ManagementProgramme,in cooperationwith that end, should:
multilateraland bilateralagencies,shouldcontinueto (a) Establish,as appropriate,national legislation to
assistthe developingcountriesin their efforts to de- guidethe implementationof public policiesfor environ-
v elop a pa rti c i p a to ry s tru c tu re b y mo bi l i zi ng the mentally sound urban development,land utilization,
humanresources of theprivatesector,non-governmen- housing and for the improved managementof urban
tal organizationsandthe poor,particularlywomenand expansion;
the disadvantaged. (b) Create,where appropriate,efficient and accessible
land markets that meet coffImunity developmentneeds
by, inter alia. improving land registry systemsand
streamliningproceduresin land transactions;

56
(c) Develop fiscal incentivesand land-usecontrol B/ SC'ENI/F/C
AND TECHNOLOGICAL
MEANS
measures,including land-useplanning solutionsfor a
more rationaland environmentallysounduseof limited 7.33 All countries,particularly developing countries,
land resources; aloneor in regionalor subregionalgroupings,shouldbe
(d) Encouragepartnerships amongthe public, private given accessto modern techniquesof land-resource
and community sectorsin managingland resourcesfor management, suchasgeographicalinformationsystems,
humansettlements development; satellitephotography/imageryand otherremote-sensins
(e) Strengthencommunity-based land-resourceprotec- technologies.
tion practicesin existingurbanand rural settlements;
(f) Establishappropriateforms of land tenurcthat pro-
vide securityof tenurefor all land-users,especiallyin- C) HUMANRESOURCEDEVELOPMENI
AND
digenouspeople,women,localcommunities, thelow-in- CAPACITY-BUILDING
come urbandwellersand the rural poor;
(g) Accelerateefforts to promoteaccessto land by the 7.34 Environmentally focusedtrainingactivitiesin sus-
urban and rural poor, including credit schemesfor the tai nabl e l and-resourcespl anni ng and managem elt t
purchaseof land and for building/acquiringor improving should be undertakenin all countries,with developing
safeand healthyshelterand infiastructureservices; countriesbeing given assistancethrough international
(h) Develop and support the implementationof im- supportand funding agenciesin orderto:
proved land-managementpracticesthat deal compre- (a) Strengthen the capacityof national,state/provincial
hensively with potentially competing land require- and local educationalresearchand training institutions
mentsfor agriculture,industry,transport,urbandevel- to provide formal training of land-management techni-
opment,greenspaces,preservesand othervital needs; ciansand professionals;
(i) Promoteunderstanding amongpolicy makersof the (b) Facilitatethe organizationalreview of government
adverseconsequences of unplannedsettlements in envi- ministriesand agenciesresponsible for land questions,
rorunentallyvulnerableareasand of the appropriatena- in order to devise more etficient mechanisrnsof land-
tional and local land-useand settlementspolicies re- resourcemanagement, and carry out periodicin-service
quiredfor this purpose. refreshercoursesfor the managersand staff of such
7.31 At the internationallevel, global coordinationof ministriesand agenciesin orderto familiarizethem with
land-resource management activitiesshouldbe strength- up-to-dateland-resource-management technologies;
ened by the variousbilateral and multilateralagencies (c) Where appropriate,provide such agencieswith
and programmes,suchas UNDP, FAO, the World Bank, modern equipment, such as computer hardware and
the regionaldevelopmentbanks,other interestedorgan- softwareand surveyequipment;
izationsandthe UNDPAVoTIdBank/HabitatUrbanMan- (d) Strengthenexisting programmesand promote an
agementProgramme,and actionshouldbe takento pro- intemationaland interregionalexchangeof information
motethetransferof applicableexperienceon sustainable and experiencein land managementthroughthe estab-
land-management practicesto and among developing lishmentof professionalassociations in land-manage-
countries. ment sciencesand relatedactivities,suchas workshops
and seminars.

MEANSOFIMPLEMENTATION

A/ F/NANC/NGAND COSTEVALUATTON D) PROMOTTNGTHETNTEGRATED pROVtStONOF


ENVIRONI ENTAI INFRASTRUCTURE:
WATER,
7 .32 T he Conf ere n c es e c re ta ri a h t a s e s ti ma tedthe SANITATION,DRAINAGEAND SOTID-WASTE
a v er aget ot al ann u a lc o s t (1 9 9 3 -2 0 0 0o) f i mp l e ment- MANAGEMENT
ing the activities of this programmeto be about $3
b i llion.inc ludinga b o u t$ 3 0 0m i l l i o n fro m th e i n terna-
ti o nal c om m uni ty o n g ra n t o r c o n c e s s i o n ate l rms. BASIS
FORACTION
Theseareindicativeandorder-of-rnagnitude estimates 7.35 The sustainabilityof urbandevelopmentis defined
only and have not been reviewed by Governments. by many parametersrelatingto the availabilityof water
Actual costsandfinancialterms,includingany that are supplies,air quality and the provisionof environmental
non-concessional. will depend upon, inter alia, the infrastructurefor sanitationand wastemanagement.As
sp ec if ic s t r at eg i e sa n d p ro g ra m m e sG o v e rn m ents a resultof the densityof users,urbanization,if properly
d e c ideupon f or im p l e me n ta ti o n . managed,offers uniqueopportunitiesfor the supply of

\7
sustainableenvironmentalinfrastructurethrough ade- strengthened. The activitiesof all agenciesengagedin
quate pricing policies, educationalprogrammesand providing environmental infrastructure should, where
equitableaccessmechanismsthat are economicallyand possible,reflect an ecosystemor metropolitan area ap-
environmentallysound.In most developingcountries, proach to settlementsand should include monitoring,
however,the inadequacyand lack of environmentalin- appliedresearch,capacity-building, transferof appropri-
frastructureis responsiblefor widespreadill-healthand ate technology and technical cooperation among the
a large numberof preventabledeathseachyear.In those rangeof programmeactivities.
countriescclnditionsare set to worsen due to growing 7.40 Developingcountriesshouldbe assistedat the na-
needs that exceed the capacity of Governmentsto tional and local levelsin adoptingan integratedapproach
respondadequateiy. to theprovisionof watersupply.energy,sanitation,drain-
1.36 An integratedapproachto the provisionof environ- age and solid-wastemanagement,and externalfunding
mentally soundintiastructurein human settlements.in agenciesshouldensurethat this approachis appliedin
particularfor the urbanand rural poor, is an investment particularto environmentalinfiastructureimprovement
in sustainabledevelopmentthat can improvethe quality in informal settlementsbasedon regulationsand stand-
of life, increaseproductivity,improvehealthand reduce ards that take into account the living conditions and
the burden of investmentsin curative medicine and resourcesof the communitiesto be served.
povertyalleviation. 7.41 All countriesshould,as appropriate,adoptthe fol-
7.37 Most of the activitieswhosemanagement would be lowing principles for the provision of environmental
improved by an integrated approach. are covered in infrastructure:
Agenda 2l as follows: chapters6 (Protecting and pro- (a) Adopt policiesthatminimizeif not altogetheravoid
moting human health conditions),9 (Protectingthe at- environmentaldamage,wheneverpossible;
mosphere),18 (Protectingthe qualitv and supply of (b) Ensurethat relevantdecisionsare precededby en-
freshwaterresources)and 21 (Environmentallysound vironmentalimpact assessments and also take into ac-
managementof solid wastesand sewage-related issues). count the costsof any ecologicalconsequences;
(c) Promote developmentin accordancewith indige-
nous practices and adopt technologies appropriate to
OBJECTIVE local conditions;
7.38 The objectiveis to ensurethe provisionof adequate (d) Promotepoliciesaimedat recoveringtheactualcost
environmentalinfrastructurefacilitiesin all settlements of infrastructureservices,while at the sametime recogniz-
by the year 2025. The achievementof this objective ing the need to find suitableapproaches(including sub-
would requirethat all developingcountriesincorporate sidies)to extendbasicservicesto all households;
in theirnationalstrategiesprogrammes to build theneces- (e) Seekjointsolutionsto environmentalprobiemsthat
sary technical,flnancial and human resource capacity affectseverallocalities.
aimed at ensuringbetter integrationof infrastructureand 7.42 The disseminationof information from existing
environmental planning by the year 2000. prograrnmesshouldbe facilitatedandencouragedamong
interestedcountriesand local institutions.

ACTIVITIES
MEANSOF IMPLEMENTATION
7.39 All countriesshouldassessthe environmentalsuit-
A/ F/NANCINGAND COSTEVALUATION
ability of infrastructurein human settlements,develop
nationalgoalsfor sustainable managementof waste,and
implementenvironmentallysoundtechnologyto ensure 7.43 The Conferencesecretariathas estimatedmost of
thattheenvironment,humanhealthandqualityof life are the costs of implementing the activities of this pro-
protected.Settlementinfrastructureand environmental gramme in other chapters. The secretariatestimatesthe
programmesdesignedtcl promotean integratedhuman averagetotal annualcost(1993-2000)of technicalassist-
settlementsapproachto the planning, development, ancefrom the internationalcomrnunity on grant or con-
maintenanceand managementof environmentalinfra- cessionalterms to be about $50 million. These are
structure(watersupply,sanitation,drainage,solid-waste indicative and order-of-magnitudeestimatesonly and
management) shouldbe strengthenedwith theassistance have not beenreviewedby Govemments.Actual costs
of bilateral and multilateral agencies.Coordination and financial terms,including any that are non-conces-
amongtheseagenciesand with collaborationfrom inter- sional,will dependupon,inter olia,the specificstrategies
nationalandnationalrepresentatives of local authorities, and programmes Governmentsdecide upon fbr im-
the privatesectorand communitygroupsshouldalsobe plementation.

58
ME,ANS
8' SC'ENIIFICAND IECHNOI.OGICAL priority in any action taken to protectthe urban environ-
ment.
7.44 Scientificandtechnologicalmeanswithin theexist- 7.47 Developed countries,as the largest consumersof
ing programmes should be coordinated wherever energy,are faced with the need for energyplanning and
possibleand should: management,promotingrenewableandalternatesources
(a) Accelerateresearchin the areaofintegratedpolicies of energy,and evaluatingthe life-cycle costsof current
of environmental infrastructure programmes andprojects systemsand practicesas a result of which many metro-
basedon cost/benefitanalysisand overall environmental politan areas are suffering from pervasive air quality
impact; problemsrelatedto ozone,particulatemattersandcarbon
(b) Promotemethodsof assessing"effective demand", monoxide.The causeshavemuch to do with technologi-
utilizing environmentand developmentdata as criteria cal inadequacies andwith anincreasingfuel consumption
for selectingtechnology. generated by inefficiencies,high demographicandindus-
trial concentrationsand a rapid expansionin the number
of motor vehicles.
C) HUMANRESOURCE AND
DEVELOPMFNT 7.48 Transport accountsfor about 30 per cent of com-
CAPACITY-BUILDING mercial energyconsumptionand for about60 per cent of
totalglobalconsumptionof liquid petroleum.In develop-
7..15With the assistanceand supportof funding agencies, ing countries,rapid motorizationandinsufficientinvest-
all countriesshould,as appropriate,undertaketraining and ments in urban-transportplanning, traffic management
popularparticipationprogrammesaimed at: and infrastructure are creating increasing problems in
(a) Raising awarenessof the means,approachesand terms of accidentsand injury, health,noise,congestion
benefitsof the provision of environmentalinfrastructure and loss of productivity similar to those occurring in
facilities,especiallyamongindigenouspeople,women, many developedcountries.AII of theseproblemshavea
low-income groupsand the poor; severe impact on urban populations, particularly the
ft) Developinga cadreof professionals with adequate low-incomeand no-incomegroups.
skills in integratedinfrastructuralservice planning and
maintenanceof resource-efficient,environmentally
soundand socially acceptablesystems; OBJECNVES
(c) Strengtheningthe institutional capacity of local 7.49 The objectivesare to extendthe provisionof more
authoritiesand administratorsin the integratedprovision energy-efficienttechnology and alternative/renewable
of adequateinfrastructure servicesin partnershipwith energy for human settlementsand to reduce negative
local communitiesand the private sector; impactsof energyproductionand use on human health
(d) Adopting appropriatelegal and regulatory instru- and on the environment.
ments,includingcross-subsidy anangements,to extend
the benefits clf adequateand affordable environmental
infrastructureto unservedpopulationgroups,especially ACTIVITIES
the poor. 7.50 The principal activitiesrelevantto this programme
area are included in chapter9 (Protectionof the atmos-
phere), programme area B, subprogramme I (Energy
El PROIIOTING SUSTAINABLEENERGYAND development,efficiency and consumption)and subpro-
TRANSPORTSYSTEMSIN HUftIAN SETITE'VIENTS gramme 2 (Transportation).
7.51 A comprehensiveapproachto human settlements
FORACTION
BASIS developmentshouldincludethepromotionof sustainable
7.46 N{ost of the commercialand non-commercialen- energydevelopmentin all countries,as tollows:
ergyproducedtodayis usedin andforhumansettlements,
anda substantial percentageof it is usedby thehousehold
A) DEVELOPING lN PARTICULAR,
COUNTRTES, SHOULD:
sector.Developingcountriesareat presentfacedwith the
need to increasetheir energy production to accelerate (i) Formulatenationalactionprograrnmesto prolnoteand
developmentandraisethe living standards of their popu- supportreaftbrestationandnationalforestregenerationwith
lations,while at the sametime reducingenergyproduc- a view to achievingsustainedprovision of the biornass
tion costs and energy-relatedpollution. Increasingthe energyneedsof the low-incomegroupsin urbanareasand
efficiency of energy use to reduceits polluting effects the rural poor,in particularwomen and children;
and to promote the use of renewableenergiesmust be a (ii) Formulatenational action programlnesto promote

59
integrateddevelopmentof energy-savingand renewable transport professionalsand institutions, all countries
energy technologies,particularly for the use of solar, should,as appropriate:
hydro, wind and biomasssources; (a) Provide on-the-joband other training of govern-
(iii) Promotewide disseminationandcommercializationof ment officials,planners,traffic engineersand managers
renewableenergy technologiesthrough suitablemeasures, involved in the energy-service and transportsection:
inter alia, fiscal andtechnologytransfermechanisms; (b) Raise public awarenessof the environmentalim-
(iv ) Cany out information andtrainingprogftImmesdirected pacts of transport and travel behaviour through mass
at manufacturersandusersin orderto promoteenergy-saving media campaignsand supportfor non-governmentaland
techniquesandenergy-efficientappliances; community initiatives promoting the use of non-mo-
torized transport, shared driving and improved traffic
safetymeasures;
B) TNTERNATTONAL ORGANTZATIONS AND BILATERAL DONORS (c) Strengthenregional,national,state/provincial, and
SHOULD: private sector institutionsthat provide educationand
(i) Supportdevelopingcounfies in implementingnational training on energyserviceand urbantransportplanning
energyprogrammesin order to achievewidespreaduse of and management.
energy-savingand renewableenergytechnologies,particu-
larly ttreuseof solar,wind, biomassandhydro sources;
(ii) Provide accessto researchand developmentresults F) PROMOTINGHUMAN SETTTEMENT PIANNING
to increaseenergy-useefficiencylevelsin humansettle- IN DISASTER.PRONE
AND 'TAANAGEIAENT AREAS
ments.
7.52 Promoting efficient and environmentally sound FORACTION
BASIS
urban transport systems in all countries should be a 7.55 Natural disasterscauseloss of life, disruptionof
comprehensiveapproachto urban-transportplanningand economicactivitiesand urbanproductivity,particularly
management. To this end, all countriesshould: for highly susceptiblelow-incomegroups,and environ-
(a) Integrate land-use and transportationplanning to
mental damage,such as loss of fertile agriculturalland
encouragedevelopment pattems that reduce transport and contaminationof water resources,and can lead to
demand; major resettlementof populations. Over the past two
(b) Adopt urban-transportprogrammesfavouring high-
decades,they are estimatedto have causedsome3 mil-
occupancypublic transportin countries,asappropriate; lion deathsand affected800 million people.Global eco-
(c) Encouragenon-motonzed modes of transport by nomic losseshave been estimatedby the Office of the
providing safe cycleways and footways in urban and United NationsDisasterRelief Coordinatorto be in the
suburbancentresin countries,as appropriate; rangeof $30 billion to $50 billion per year.
(d) Devoteparticularattentionto effectivetraffic man-
7.56 The GeneralAssembly,in resolutton441236,pro-
agement,efficientoperationof public transportandmain- claimedthe I 990sasthe InternationalDecadefor Natural
tenanceof transportinfrastructure; DisasterRedr.rction.The goalsof the DecadeT bearrelev-
(e) Promotetheexchangeof informationamongcounfies
anceto the objectives01'thepresentprogrammearea.
and representatives of local and metropolitanareas; 7.57 ln addition.there is an urgentneedto addressthe
(0 Re-evaluatethe presentconsumptionand produc- preventionand reductionof man-madedisastersand/or
tion patternsin order to reduce the use of energy and disasterscausedby. inter a/ia, industries,unsafenuclear
national resources. power generationand toxic wastes(see chapter 6 of
A g e n d a2 l ) .
MEANSOF IMPLEMENTATION

A/ F'NANC/NG,ANDCOSTEVALUATION OBJECTIVE
7.58 The objectiveis to enableall countries,in particular
7.53 The Conferencesecretariathasestimatedthe costs those that are disaster-prone,to mitigate the negative
of implementing the activities of this programme in impact of natural and man-madedisasterson human
chapter9 (Protectionof the atmosphere). settlements,nationaleconomiesand the environment.

B) HUMANRESOURCE AND
DEVELOPMENI ACTIVITIES
CAPACITY-BUILDING 7.59 Three distinct areasof activity are fbreseenunder
this programmearea,namely,the developmentof a "cul-
7.54 ln orderto enhancethe skills of energyserviceand

60
ture of safety", pre-disasterplanning and post-disaster (c) Redirecting inappropriate new development and
reconstruction. human settlementsto areasnot prone to hazards;
(d) Preparing guidelines on location, design and
operation of potentially hazardous industries and
A CULTURE
A) DEVELOP'NG OF SAFETY activities;
(e) Developingtools (legal,economicetc.) to encour-
7.60 To promote a "culture of safety" in all countries. age disaster-sensitive development,including meansof
especially those that are disaster-prone,the fclllowing ensuringthat limitationson developmentoptionsarenot
activitiesshouldbe carriedout: punitive to owners,or incorporatealternativemeansof
(a) Completingnationaland local studieson thenature compensation;
and occurrenceof natural disasters,their impact on (0 Further developing and disseminatinginfbrmation
peopleandeconomicactivities,the effectsof inadequate on disaster-resistantbuilding materialsand construction
constructionand land usein hazard-prone areas,and the technologiesfor buildingsand public works in general;
socialandeconomicadvantages of adequatepre-disaster (g) Developing training programmesfor contractors
planning; and builderson disaster-resistantconstructionmethods.
(b) Implementing nationwide and local awareness Some programmes should be directed particularly to
campaignsthrough all availablemedia, translatingthe smallenterprises, which build thegreatmajority of hous-
above knowledge into information easily comprehen- ing andothersmallbuildingsin thedevelopingcountries,
sible to the generalpublic and to the populationsdirectly aswell asto the rural populations,which build their own
exposedto hazards; houses:
(c) Strengtheningand/ordevelopingglobal, regional, (h) Developing training programmes for emergency
nationaland local early warning systemsto alert popu- site managers,non-governmentalorganizationsand
lationsto impendingdisasters; community groups which cover all aspectsof disaster
(d) Identifyingindustriallybasedenvironmentaldisas- mitigation, including urban searchand rescue,emer-
ter areas at the national and internationallevels and gency comtnunications,early warning techniques,and
implementingstrategiesaimed at the rehabilitationof pre-disaster planning;
theseareasthrough,inter alia: (i) Developingproceduresandpracticesto enablelocal
(i) Restructuringof the economic activitiesand pro- communities to receive information about hazardous
moting new job opportunitiesin environmentallysound installationsor situationsin these areas,and facilitate
sectors; their participationin early warning and disasterabate-
(ii) Promotingclose collaborationbetweengovern- ment and responseproceduresand plans;
mental and local authorities,local communitiesand 0) Preparing action plans fbr the reconstructionof
non-governmental organizationsand privatebusiness ; settlements, especiallythe reconstructionof community
(iii) Developingandenforcingstrictenvironmentalcon- lifelines.
trol standards.

c) TN|T|ATTNG
POSI-DTSASTER
RECONSTRUCT/ON
PRE-DTSASTER
B) DEVELOPING PT.ANNING AND REHABILITATION
PTANN'NG

7.61 Pre-disasterplanning shouldform an integralpart 1.62 The internationalcommunity,as a major partnerin


of human settlementplanningin all countries.The fol- post-reconstruction andrehabilitation.should ensurethat
lowing shouldbe included: the countriesinvolvedderivethe greatestbenefitsfrom the
(a) Undertakingcompletemulti-hazardresearchinto funds allocatedby undertakingthe following activities:
risk and vulnerabilityof human settlementsand settle- (a) Carrying out researchon past experienceson the
ment infrastructure,includingwaterand sewerage, com- socialand economicaspectsof post-disaster reconstruc-
municationand transportationnetworks,as one type of tion and adoptingeffectivestrategiesand guidelinesfor
risk reductionmay increasevulnerabilityto another(e.g., post-disasterreconstruction,with particularemphasison
an earthquake-resistanthousemadeof wood will be more development-focused strategiesin the allocation of
vulnerableto wind storms); scarcereconstructionresources,andon the opportunities
(b) Developing methodologiesfor determining risk that post-disasterreconstructionprovides to introduce
and vulnerabilitywithin specifichumansettlements and sustainablesettlementpatterns;
incorporatingrisk and vulnerability reductioninto the (b) Preparingand disserninatinginternationalguide-
humansettlementplanningand managementprocess; lines for adaptationto nationaland local needs;

6l
(c) Supportingeffclrtsof nationalGovernmentsto initiate the achievementof the nationalsocio-econornic devel-
contingencyplanning,with pafiicipationof affectedcom- opment goals of providing shelter,infrastructureand
munities.for post-drsasterreconstmctioneurdrehabilitation. employment.However. they can be a ma.iorsourceof
environmentaldarnagethroughdepietionof'the natural
resourcebase,degradationof fragileec-o-zones,
chemical
OFIMPLEMENTATION
MEANS pollution and the use of building materialsharmful to
humanhealth.
AI FINANC/NGAND COSTEVALUATION

7.63 The Conf'erence secretariathasestimatedthe aver- OBJECTIVES


(
age total annualcost 1993-2000)of implementingthe
7.68 The objectivesare,first, to adoptpoliciesandtech-
activitiesof this programmeto be about$50 rnillion from
nologiesand to exchangeinformationon them in order
the internationalcotnmunity on grant or concessional
to enablethe constructionsectorto meet human settle-
terms.Theseare indicativeand order-of-magnitude esti-
ment developmentgoals,while avoiding harmful side-
matesonly andhavenot beenreviewedby Governments.
effects on human health and on the biosphere,and,
Actual costsand financial terms,including any that are
second,to enhancetheemployment-generation capacity
non-concessional, will depend upon, inter alia, the
of the constructionsector.Governmentsshouldwork in
specificstrategiesand programmesGovernmentsdecide
close collaborationwith the private sectorin achievins
upon for implenrentation.
theseobjectives.

8/ 5C/ E N IF tCAN D T EC H N O T .OG\C


MEALA N S ACTIVITIES
7.69 All countriesshould,as appropriateand in accord-
7.64 Scientists
andengineers specializing
in thisfield rn ancewith nationalplans,objectivesand priorities:
both developingand developedcountriesshould col- (a) Establishand strengthenthe indigenousbuilding
laboratewith urban and regional plannersin order to materialsindustry,based,as much as possible,on inputs
providethebasicknowledgeandmeansto mitigatelosses of locallyavailablenaturalresources;
owing to disastersas well as environmentallyinappro- (b) Formulateprogrammesto enhancethe utilization
priatedevelopment. of localmaterialsby theconstructionsectorbyexpanding
technicalsuppoftand incentiveschernesfor increasing
thecapabilitiesandeconomicviability of small-scaleand
C) HUM A NR E SOU R CDEE VE L O P M EN
A ND
I informal operativeswhich make use of thesematerials
CA P A CI TY-B U IL D IN G and traditionalconstructiontechniques;
(c) Adopt standardsand other regulatory measures
7.65 Developingcountriesshouldconducttrainingpro- which promote the increaseduse of energy-efficient
grammeson disaster-rcsistant constructionmethodsfor designsand technologiesand sustainableutilization of
contractors andbuilders,who buildthe majorityof hous- natural resourcesin an economicallvand environmen-
ing in the developingcountries. This shouldfocuson the tally appropriateway,
sn-rallbusinessenterprises which build the majority of (d) Formulateappropriateland-usepoliciesandintroduce
housingin the developingcountries. planning regulationsspeciallyaimed at the protectionof
1. 66 T r ain i n g p ro g ra mme ss h o u l d b e extendedto eco-sensitive zonesagainstphysicaldisruptionby construc-
governmentofficials and plannersand contmunityand tion and cons0uction-related activities;
non-govemmental organizations to cover all aspectsof (e) Promotethe use of labour-intensiveconstruction
disasterrnitigation,such as early warning techniques, and maintenancetechnologieswhich generateemploy-
pr e- dis as tepr l a n n i n ga n c lc o n s tru c ti o n,post-di saster ment in the constructionsectorfor the underemployed
constnrctron and rehabilitation. labourforce found in mostlargecities,while at the same
time promotingthedeveloplnentof skills in theconstruc-
tion sector:
G) PROMOTTNGSUSTATNABTE
CONSTRUCTTON (f) Developpoliciesandpracticesto reachtheintormal
INDUSTRYACTIVITIES
sector and sel f-hel p housi ng bui l ders by adopt ing
measuresto increasetheaffordabilityol-buildingmateri-
BASISFORACTION als on the part of the urbanandrural poor,through,inler
7.67 The activities of the construction sector are vital tcr uliu, credit schemesand bulk procurementof buildins

62
materialsfor sale to small-scalebuilders and com- . h e s ec o u n t r i e ss h o u l d
v a r i e t yo f t r a i n i n gm e t h o d sT
rnunities. a l s o b e a s s i s t e di n d e v e l o p i n gp r o g r a m r n e tso e n -
7.70 All countriesshould: c o L l r a gteh e u s eo f n o n - w a s t ca n dc l e a nt ec h n o l c l g i e s
(a) Promotethe free exchangeof information on the through appropri atetransferof technol ogl ,.
entirerangeof environmentalandhealthaspectsof con- 7 . 7 3 G e n e r a l e d t r c a t i o np r o g r a m n r e ss h o u l d b e
struction,including the developmentand dissemination developedin all countries,as appropriate,to increase
of databaseson the adverse environmental effects of builderawareness of availablesustainable technologies.
buildingmaterialsthroughthecollaborativeeffortsof the 1.14 Local authoritiesare called upon to play a pio-
privateand public sectors; neeringrole in promoting the increaseduse of envi-
(b) Promotethe developmentand disseminationof ronmental l ysoundbui l di ngmateri al sandconstruct ion
databasesc-rnthe adverseenvironmentaland health ef- technol ogi es, c.g.,by pursui ngan i nnovati veprocur e-
fectsof building materialsand introducelegislationand ment pol i cy.
financial incentivesto promote recycling of energy-
intensivematerialsin the constructionindustryand con-
servationof wasteenergyin building-materialsproduc- H) PROMOTTNGHUrylAN RESOURCE
DEVETOPMENT
AND CAPACITY.BUILDING
FOR HUMAN
tion methods;
NTs DEVELOPMENT
SETTTEME
(c) Promotethe use of economicinstruments,such as
product charges,to discouragethe use of construction
materialsand productsthat createpollution during their FORACTION
BASIS
life cycle; 7.75 Most countries,in additionto shortcomings in the
(d) Promote information exchangeand appropriate availabilityof specialized expertisein the areasof hous-
technologytransferamongall countries.with particular ing, settlementmanagement, land management, infra-
attentionto developingcountries,for resourcemanage- structure.construction,energy.transport,and pre-disas-
ment in construction,particularly for non-renewable ter planningandreconstruction, facethreecross-sectoral
resources: human resolrrcedevelopmentand capacity-building
(e) Promote researchin constructionindustriesand shortfalls. First is the absenceof an enablingpolicy
relatedactivities,and establishand strengtheninstitu- environmentcapableof integratingthe resourcesand
tions in this sector. activitiesof the public sector,the privatesectorand the
community,or socialsector:secondis the weaknessof
specialized trainingand researchinstitutions;and third
MEANSOF IMPLEMENTATION is the insufficientcapacityfor technicaltraining a:rd
assistance for low-incomecclmmunities. both urbanand
Ai F/NANC/NGAND COSTEVALUATTON
rural.

7.7| The Conferencesecretariathasestimatedthe aver-


age total annual cost ( 1993-2000)of implementing the OBJECTIVE
activities of this prograrnmeto be about $40 billion, 'fhe
I .16 objective is to irnprove hurnan resourcedevel-
including about $4 billion from the internationalcom-
opment and capacity-building in all countriesby enhanc-
munity on grantor concessional terms.Theseareindica-
ing the personal and institutional capacity of all actors,
tive andorder-of-magnitude estimatesonly and havenot
parlicularly indigenous people and women, involved in
beenreviewedby Governments.Actual costsandfinan-
human settlement development. In this regard, account
cial terms,includingany thatarenon-concessional, will
should be taken of traditional cultural practicesof indigen-
dependupon, inter alia, the specificstrategiesand pro-
ous people and their relationshipto the environment.
grarnmesGovernmentsdecideuponfor implementation.

ACTIVITIES
B) HUMANRESOURCE AND
DEVELOPMENI
CAPACITY.BUILDING
7 . 7 1 S p e c i f i c h u m a n r e s o u r c ed e v e l o p r n e n at n d
capacity-building activitieshavebeenbuilt into eachof
d i nter-
7. 72 Der elopin gc o u n tri e ss h o u l db e a s s i s te b,v
the programmeareasof this chapter. More gencrally,
nationalsupportandfundingagenciesin upgradingthe
however,additionalstepsshouldbe takento reinforce
technicaland managerialcapacitiesof the smallentre-
those activities. In order to do so, all countries,as
preneur and the vocational skills of operativesand
appropriate, shouldtakethe follor.ving action:
supervisorsin the building materialsindustry,using a

63
(a) Strengtheningthe developmentof human resources ME
B J sC /E N i l FtCA N D TE C H N OT.OG| C A LA NS
and of capacitiesof public sector institutionsthrough
technicalassistance and internationalcooperationso as 7.80 Both formal trainingand non-formaltypesof human
to achieveby the year 2000 substantialimprovementin resourcedevelopmentand capacity-buildingprograrnmes
the efficiencyof governmentalactivities; should be combined,and use should be made of user-
(b) Creatingan enablingpolicy environmentsuppor- orientedtrainingmethods,up-to-datetrainingmaterialseurd
tive of the partnershipbetween the public, private and modernaudio-visual communicationsystems.
communitysectors;
(c) Providing enhancedtraining and technicalassist-
I
'No or
oggregotefiguresore ovoilobleon internolexpenditure
ance to institutionsproviding training for technicians, officioldevelopment ossistonce on humonsettlements. However,
professionals and administrators, and appointed,elected doto ovoiioblein the World Development Report,1991, for 16
low-income developing countries showthotthepercentoge of centrol
and professionalmembers of local govemmentsand government expenditure on housing,omenities ond sociolsecurity
strengtheningtheir capacityto addresspriority training .|5.1
ond welforefor l9B9 overoged 5.6 percent,witho highof
needs,particularly in regard to social, economic and percentin thecoseof SriLonko,whichhosemborked on o vigorous
environmentalaspectsof human settlementsdevelop- housing progromme. InOECDindushiolized countries, duringthesome
ment; yeor,the percentoge of centrolgovernment expenditure on housing,
omenities ond sociolsecurity ond welforerongedfromo minimum of
(d) Providing direct assistancefor human settlement
29.3 per centto o moximum of 49.4 per cent,withon overogeof
developmentat the communitylevel, inter alia,by: 39 per cent {World Bonk, World Development Report,1991, World
(i) Strengtheningand promoting prograrnmesfor social Development Indicotors, tobleI 1 iWoshington, D.C.,l99l)1.
mobilizationandraisingawareness of thepotentialof women 2See
the report of the Director-Generol for Development ond
andyouth in humansettlementsactivities; Internotionol Economic Cooperotion contoiningpreliminory sto-
(ii) Facilitatingcoordinationof the activitiesof women, tisticoldotoon operotionol octivities of theUnitedNotionssystem
youth, community groupsand non-govemmentalorgani- for I 988 lA/ 44/324-E/ 1989/ 106/ Add.4,onnex).
zationsin humansettlements development; 3world
Bonk,Annual Report,I 99 I (Woshington, D.C., I 99.l).
(iii) Promotingresearchon women's programmesand aUNOp,"Reported
investment commitments relotedto UNDPas-
other groups,and evaluatingprogressmadewith a view
sistedproiects, 1988", tobleI , "sectorol distribution of investment
to identifyingbottlenecksand neededassistance; c o m m i t m e innt I 9 8 8 - l9 8 9 " .
(e) Promotingthe inclusionof integratedenvironmen- 'A
5
pilotprogromme of thlstype,theCiiy DotoProgromme (CDP),
tal management into generallocal governmentactivities.
is olreodyin operoiionin the UnitedNotionsCentreon Humon
7.78 Both internationalorgamzationsand non-govern- Settlements (Hobitot), oimedot theproduction ond disseminotion
mentalorganizationsshouldsupportthe aboveactivities to porticipotingcitiesof microcomputer opplicotionsoftwore
by, inter alia, stengtheningsubregionaltraining institu- designed to store,process ond retrieve citydotofor locol,notionol
tions,providingupdatedraining materialsanddisseminat- o n d i n t e r n o t i o neoxl c h o n g o
en dd i s s e m i n o t i o n .
ing the resultsof successfulhumanresourceand capacity- 6This policies, which
collsforintegroted lond+esource monogement
building activities, programmesand projects. ore olso oddressedin chopterl0 of Agendo 2 1 (lntegroted
opproochto plonningond monogement of londresources).
ZTh"
gool, of the Internotionol Decodefor Noturol Disoster
MEANSOF IMPLEMENTATION Reduction, setout in ihe onnexto GenerolAssembiyresolution
44/236, ore os follows:
A/ F/NANC/NGAND COSTEVALUATTON (o)Toimprovethecopocityof eochcountryto mitigotetheeffects of
noturoldisosters expeditiously ond effectively, poyingspeciolotten-
tion to ossisting developing countries in the ossessment of disoster
7.79 The Conferencesecretariathasestimatedthe aver-
domogepotentiol ond in theestoblishment of eorlyworningsystems
age total annualcost (1993-2000)of implementingthe ond disosier-resisiont structures whenond whereneeded;
activitiesof this programmeto be about$65 million from (b)To deviseoppropriote guidelines ond strotegies for opplying
the internationalcommunity on grant or concessional existingscientific ond technicolknowledge,tokinginto occount
terms.Theseare indicativeand order-of--magnitude esti- theculturolond economicdiversity omongnotions;
(c) Tofosterscientific ond engineering endeovours oimedot closing
matesonly andhavenot beenreviewedby Governments.
criticolgops in knowledge in orderto reducelossof lifeondproperty;
Actual costsand financial terms,including any that are (d)Todisseminote existingond new technicol informotion reloted
non-concessional, will depend upon, inter alia, the to meosures fortheossessment, prediction ondmitigotion of noturol
specificstrategiesandprogranunesGovernmentsdecide disosters;
upon for implementation. (e)Todevelopmeosures forthecssessment, prediction, prevention
ond mitigotion of noturoldisosiers throughprogrommes of techni-
col ossistonce ond technology tronsfer, demonstrotion proiects,
ond educotionond troining,toiloredto specificdisosters ond
locotions, ond io evoluote theeffectiveness of thoseprogrommes.

64
ond development
environment
Integroting
in decision-moking

nificantchangesin the institutionalstructuresof govern-


INTRODUCTION
mentin orderto enablemore systematicconsiderationof
the environmentwhen decisionsaremadeon economic,
social, fiscal, energy,agricultural,transpoftation,trade
8.1 This chaptercontainsthefollowing programmeareas: and otherpolicies,aswell asthe implicationsof policies
(a) lntegrating environmentand developmentat the in theseareasfor the environment. New torms of dia-
policy, planningand managementlevels; logue arealsobeingdevelopedfor achievingbetterinte-
( b) P r ov iding a n e ffe c ti v e l e g a l a n d re g ul atory grationamongnationaland local government,industry,
framework, science,environmentalgroups and the public in the
(c) Making eftectiveuseof economicinstrumentsand processof developingeffectiveapproachesto environ-
marketand otherincentives; ment and development.The responsibilityfor bringing
(d) Establishingsystemsfor integratedenvironmental aboutchangeslies with Governmentsin partnershipwith
and economicaccountine. the private sectorand local authorities,and in collabo-
ration with national.regionaland internationalorganiz-
ations, including in particular UNEP, UNDP and the
World Bank. Exchangeof experiencebetweencountries
can alsobe significant.Nationalplans,goalsand objec-
P R O G R A M MAER E A S
tives,nationalrules,regulationsandlaw, andthe specific
situationsin which difl-erentcountriesare placedare the
A) TNTEGRATINGENVIRONI ENTAND overallframeworkin which suchintegrationtakesplace.
AT THE POLICY,PTANNING AND
DEVETOPfrIENT In this context,it mustbe bornein mind thatenvironmen-
ftTANAGEMENTLEVETS tal standards may posesevereeconomicand socialcosts
if they are uniformly appliedin developingcountries.

BASIS FORACTION
8.2 Prevailing systemsfor decision-makingin many OBJECIMES
countriestend to separateeconomic.socialand environ- 8.3 The overall objectiveis to improve or restructure
mental factorsat the policy, planningand management the decision-makingprocessso that considerationof
levels.This influencestheactionsof all groupsin society, socio-economicand environmentalissuesis fully inte-
including Governments,industry and individuals,and grated and a broaderrange of public participationas-
hasimportantimplicationsfor the efficiencyandsustain- sured.With theunderstanding thatcountrieswill develop
ability of development.An adjustmentor even a fun- their own priorities in accordancewith their prevailing
damentalreshapingof decision-making,in the light of conditions, needs,national plans, policies and pro-
country-specificconditions,may be necessaryif envi- grammes,the following objectivesare proposed:
ronment and developmentis to be put at the centreof (a) To conducta nationalreview of economic,sectoral
ec onom ic and p o l i ti c a l d e c i s i o n -m a k i n g i, n effect andenvironmentalpolicies,strategies andplansto ensure
achieving a full integrationof thesefactors.In recent the progressi vei ntegrati on of envi ronmentaland
years,someGovemmentshave alsobegunto make sig- developmental issues;

65
(b) To strengtheninstitutional structuresto allow the (0 Ensuringaccessby the public to relevantinfbrma-
full integrationof environmentaland developmentalis- tion, facilitatingthe receptionof public viewsandallow-
sues,at all levelsof decision-making; ing for effective participation.
(c) To developor improve mechanismsto facilitate the
involvementof concernedindividuals,groupsandorgan-
izationsin decision-makingat all levels; SYSIEMS
PI.ANN'NGAND MANAGEMENI
B) IMPROVING
(d) To establishdomesticallydeterminedprocedures to
int egr at e e n v i ro n m e n t a n d d e v e l o p m e nti ssues i n 8.5 To supporta more integratedapproachto decision-
decision-making. making,the datasystemsand analyticalmethodsusedto
supportsuchdecision-makingprocesses may needto be
improved. Governments,in collaboration,whereappro-
ACTIVITIES priate, with national and international orgamzations,
shouldreview the statusof their planningand manage-
-MAKINGPROCESSES
DECISiON
A) IMPROYING ment systems and, w here necessary,modif , t "and
strengthenproceduresso as to facilitate the integrated
8.4 The primary needis to integrateenvironrnentaland considerationof social, economic and environmental
developmentaldecision-makingprocesses.To do this, issues.Countrieswill develop their own priorities in
Governmentsshould conduct a national review and, accordancewith their national plans, policies and
where appropriate,improve the processesof decision- programmesfor the following activities:
making so as to achieve the progressiveintegration of (a) Improving the use of data and information at all
economic,scrcialandenvironmentalissuesin the pursuit stagesof planningand management, making systematic
of developmentthat is economicallyefficient, socially and simultaneoususeof social,economic,developnien-
equitable and responsibleand environmentally sound. tal, ecologicaland environmentaldata;analysisshoulcl
Countrieswill developtheir own prioritiesin accordance stressinteractionsand synergisms;a broad range of
with their national plans, policies and programmesfor analyticalmethodsshouldbe encouraged soasto provide
the following activities: variouspointsof view;
(a) Ensuring the integration of economic, social and (b) Adopting comprehensive analyticalproceduresfor
environmentalconsiderationsin decision-makingat all prior and simultaneousassessmentof the impacts of
levelsand in all ministries; decisions,including the impactswithin and among the
(b) Adopting a domesticallyformulated policy frame- economic,socialand environmentalspheres;thesepro-
work that reflectsa long-termperspectiveand cross-sec- ceduresshouldextendbeyondthe projectlevelto policies
toral approachas the basisfor decisions,taking account and programmes;analysisshould also include assess-
of the linkagesbetweenand within the variouspolitical, ment of costs,benefitsand risks;
economic,social and environmentalissuesinvolved in (c) Adopting flexible and integrativeplanning ap-
the developmentprocess; proachesthat allow the considerationof rnultiplegcials
(c) Establishingdomestically determinedways and and enable adjustmentof changing needs;integrative
meansto ensurethe coherenceof sectoral,economic, areaapproaches at the ecosystemor watershedlevel can
social and environmentalpolicies,plans and policy in- assistin this approach:
struments,including fiscal measuresand the budget: (d) Adoptingintegrated management systenrs. parlicu-
these mechanismsshould apply at various levels and larly for the management of naturalresources:traditional
bring together those interested in the development or indigenousmethodsshouldbe studiedand considered
process; wherever they have proved effective: \ /omen's tradi-
(d) Monitoring and evaluatingthe developmentprocess tionalrolesshouldnot be marginalized as a resultof the
systematicallyand conductingregularreviewsof the state introductionof new managementsystems;
of human resourcesdevelopment,economic and social (e) Adopting integratedapproachesto sustainablede-
conditionsand trendsand the stateof the environmentand velopmentat theregionallevel,includingtransbclundarv
naturalresources:this could be complementedby annual areas,subjectto the requirementsof particularcircunr-
environmentand developmentreviews, with a view to stancesand necds;
assessingsustainabledevelopmentachievementsby the (D Using policy instruments(legal/r"egulatorl' and
varioussectorsand departments of govemment; economic)asa tool for planningandmanagement. seek-
(e) Ensuringtransparencyof, and accountabilityfor, ing incorporationof efficiencycriteriain decisions:in-
theenvironmentalimplicationsof economicandsectoral strumentsshouldbe regularlyreviewedand adaptedto
policies; ensurethat they continueto be effective;

66
(g) Delegating planning and managementresponsi- specificstrategiesand programmesGovernmentsdecide
bilities to the lowestlevel of public authorityconsistent upon for implementation.
with el'fectiveaction; irt peuticularthe advantagesof
cff'ectiveandequitableopportunitiesfor participationby
wornenshouldbe discussed; B] RESEARCH'NG AND
ENY'RONMENI
(h) Estatrlishingproceduresfor involving local com- CI'ONS
DEVELOPMENI INTERA
rnunitiesin contingencyplanningfor environmentaland
industrialaccidents,and maintainingan open exchange 8.9 Governments,in collaborationwith thenationaland
clf informationon local hazards. international scientific community and in cooperation
with internationalorganizations,as appropriate,should
intensify efforts to clarify the interactionsbetweenand
c) DATAAND /NFORMAT/ON within social, economic and environmental consider-
ations. Researchshouldbe undertakenwith the explicit
8.6 Countriescould developsystemsfor monitoringand objective of assistingpolicy decisionsand providing
evalr.rationof progresstowards achieving sustainable reconunendationson improving managementpractices.
developmentby adoptingindicatorsthat measurechanges
acrosseconomic,socialandenvironmentaldimensions.
AND IRA'N/NG
C' ENHANC'NGEDUCATION

D) ADOFTING FOR
A NAnONAL STRATEGY 8.10 Countries,in cooperation,whereappropriate,with
BLE DEVELOPMENT
SUSIA/NA national, regional or internationalorganizations,should
ensurethat essentialhurnanresourcesexist, or are de-
8.7 Governments"in cooperation,where appropriate, veloped,to undertakethe integrationof environmentand
with internationalorgamzations, shouldadopta national developmentat various stagesof the decision-making
strategyfor sustainable developmentbasedon,inter alia, and implementation process. To do this, they should
the irnplenrcntation of decisionstakenat theConf'erence, improve.educationand technical training, particularly for
particularlyin respectof Agenda2 I . This strategyshould womenandgirls,by includinginterdisciplinary approaches.
build uponandharmonizethevarioussectoraleconomic, asappropriate, in trchnical,vocational,universityandother
social and environmentalpolicies and plans that are curricula. They should also undertakesystematictraining
opcratingin thecountry. The experiencegainedthrough of governmentpersonnel,plannersand managerson a
eristing planningexercisessuchas nationalreportsfor regular basis.giving priority to the requisiteintegrative
the Conf-crence, nationalconservationstrategiesanden- approaches and planningand management techniquesthat
vininnrentaction plans shouldbe fully usedand incor- are suitedto country-specificconditions.
poratedinto a country-drivensustainabledevelopment
strategy.Its goals shouldbe to ensuresociallyrespon-
sible economic developmentwhile protectingthe re- AWARENESS
D) PROMOIINGPUBLIC
sourcrcbaseand the environmentfor the benefit of future
gcnerations.It shouldbe developedthroughthe widest 8.1I Countries,in cooperationwith nationalinstitutions
possibleparticipation.It shouldbe basedon a thorough and groups,the media and the internationalcommunity,
assessme nt of the currentsituationand initiatives. should promote awarenessin the public at large, as well
asin specializedcircles,of the importanceof considering
environmentanddevelopmentin anintegratedmanner,and
OFIMPLEMENTATION
MEANS should establishmechanismsfor facilitating a direct ex-
changeof informationand views with the public. Priority
A/ F/NANC/NGAND COSTEVALUATION
should be given to highlighting the responsibilitiesand
potentialcontributionsof dift-erentsocialgroups.
l{.E Thc Conferencesecretariathasestimatedthe aver-
age total annualcost (199:l-2000)of implementingthe
actir iiit's of thisprogrammeto be about$50million from
E/ SIRENGIHEN'NGNAI'ONAI.
thc-irrternationalconrmunityon grant or concessional
esti- INSI'IUi/ONAL C APAC
ITY
ternls.Theseareindicativeand order-of-magnitude
matesonlv andhavenot beenreviewedby Governments.
8.12 Governments,in cooperation,where appropriate.
Actual costsand financial terms,including any that are
with intemationalorganizations,should strengthenna-
non-concessional, will depend upon, inter alia, the

67
tional institutional capability and capacity to integrate OBJECTIVES
social, economic,developmentaland environmental 8.16 The overall objectiveis to promote,in the light of
issuesat all levels of developmentdecision-making country-specificconditions,the integrationof environ-
and implementation. Attention should be given to ment and developmentpoliciesthroughappropriatelegal
moving away from narrow sectoral approachesand and regulatory policies, instruments and enforcement
progressingtowards full cross-sectoralcoordination mechanismsat the national,state,provincial and local
and cooperation. levels.With theunderstanding thatcountrieswill develop
their own priorities in accordancewith their needsand
nationaland,whereappropriate,regionalplans,policies
Bl PROVIDING AN EFFECTTVE
rEGAL AND
REGUTATORYFRAMSWOR,K and prograrunes,the following objectivesare proposed:
(a) To disseminateinformation on effective legal and
regulatory innovations in the field of environment and
BASIS
FORACTION development, including appropriate instruments and
8.13 Laws and regulationssuited to country-specific complianceincentives,with a view to encouragingtheir
conditionsareamongthe most importantinstrumentsfor wider use and adoptionat the national,state,provincial
transformingenvironmentanddevelopmentpoliciesinto and local levels;
action, not only through "command and control" meth- (b) To supportcountriesthat requestit in their national
ods, but also as a normative framework for economic efforts to modernize and strengthenthe policy and legal
planningand marketinstruments.Yet, althoughthe vol- framework of governancefor sustainabledevelopment,
umeof legaltextsin thisfield is steadilyincreasing,much having due regardfor local social valuesand infrastruc-
of the law-makingin many countriesseemsto be ad hoc tures;
and piecemeal,or hasnot beenendowedwith the neces- (c) To encouragethe developmentand implementation
sary institutional machinery and authonty for enforce- of national, state,provincial and local programmesthat
ment and timely adjustment. assessand promote compliance and respond appropri-
8.14 While there is continuousneed for law improve- ately to non-compliance.
ment in all countries,many developingcountrieshave
been affectedby shortcomingsof laws and regulations.
To effectivelyintegrateenvironmentanddevelopmentin ACTIVITIES
the policiesand practicesof eachcountry,it is essential
to develop and implement integrated,enforceableand A) MAKTNGLAWSAND REGUTAT/ONS
MOREEFFECTTVE
effectivelaws and regulationsthat arebasedupon sound
social,ecological,economicand scientificprinciples.It 8.17 Governments,with the support,where appropri-
is equally critical to develop workable programmesto ate, of competentinternationalorganizations,should
reviewandenforcecompliancewith thelaws,regulations regularly assessthe laws and regulationsenactedand
and standardsthat are adopted. Technical support may the relatedinstitutional/administrative machineryes-
be neededfor many countriesto accomplishthesegoals. tablishedat the national/stateand local/municipallev-
Technicalcooperationrequirementsin this field include els in the field of environmentand sustainabledevel-
legal information, advisory services and specialized opment, with a view to renderingthem effective in
trainingand institutionalcapacity-building. practice.Programmesfor this purposecould include
8.15 The enactmentand enforcementof laws and regu- the promotion of public awareness,preparationand
lations (at the regional, national, state/provincialor di stri buti on of gui dancemateri al , and spe cialized
local/municipal level) are also essentialfor the im- training, including workshops, seminars,education
plementationof most internationalagreementsin the programmesand conferences, for public officials who
field of environmentand development.as illustratedby desi gn, i mpl ement, moni tor and enforce l aws and
the frequent treaty obligation to report on legislative regul ati ons.
measures.The surveyof existingagreements undertaken
in the contextof conferencepreparationshas indicated
problemsof compliancein this respect.and the needfor B) ESTABL/SH/NGJUD\C\ALAND
improvednationalimplementationand,whereappropri- A DM/NIsTRAT
IVE PROCEDURES
ate, related technical assistance. In developing their
nationalpriorities,countriesshouldtakeaccounto1'their 8.18 Governments and legislators,with the support,
internationalobligations. where appropriate,of competent international organi-
zations,shouldestablishjudicial and administrativepro-

68
ceduresfor legal reclressand remedyof actionsaffecting to maximize compliancewith its laws and regulations
environmentand developmentthat may be unlawful or relatingto sustainabledevelopment,with assistance from
infringe on rights unclerthe law. and should provide intemationalorganizationsand other countriesas appro-
accessto individuals,groupsand organizationswith a priate. The strategiescould include:
recognizediegal interest" (a) Enforceable,effective laws, regulationsand stand-
ards that are basedon soundeconomic,social and envi-
ronmental principles and appropriaterisk assessment,
AND
LEGATREFERENCE
C) PROVIDING incorporatingsanctionsdesignedto punish violations,
SUPPORTSERY/CES obtain redressand deterfuture violations;
(b) Mechanismsfor promotingcompliance;
8.19 Competentintergovernmentaiand non-govern- (c) Institutional capacityfor collecting compliancedata,
mentalorganizationscould cooperateto provide Gov- regularlyreviewing compliance,detectingviolations,es-
ernmentsand legislators,upon request,with an inte- tablishingenforcement priori ties,undertakingeffectiveen-
grated programmeof environmentand development forcement,and conductingperiodic evaluationsof the ef-
law (sustainable developmentlaw) services,carefully fectivenessof complianceand enforcementprogrammes;
adapted to the specific requirementsof the recipient (d) Mechanismsfor appropriateinvolvementof individ-
legal and administrative systems.Suchsystemscould ualsandgroupsin thedevelopmentandenforcementof laws
usefully include assistance in the preparationof com- and regulationson environmentand development.
prehensiveinventoriesand reviews of national legal
systems.Pastexperiencehasdemonstrated the useful-
nessof combining specializedlegalinformation ser- F/ NAnONAL MONTTOR/NG TO
TOLLOW'UP
OF LEGAL
vices with legal expert advice.Within the United Na- I. /NSIRUMENIS
,NTERNAIIONA
tions system,closer cooperationarnongall agencies
concerriedwould avoid duplicationof databasesand 8.22 Contractingpartiesto internationalagreements, in
f ac ilit at e div is i o n o f l a b o u r. T h e s e a g e n c i e scoul d consultationwith the appropriatesecretariatsof relevant
ex am ine t he po s s i b i l i ty a n d me ri t o f p e rformi ng intemationalconventionsasappropriate,shouldimprove
r ev iewsof s ele c te dn a ti o n a l e g a l s v s te m s . practicesand proceduresfor coliecting information on
legal andregulatorymeasurestaken. Contractingparties
to internationalagreementscould undertakesamplesur-
IRA/N/NG
A COOPERATIVE
D) ESTABL'SH/NG
veys of domesticfollow-up action subjectto agreement
DEVELOPMENT
NEIWORKFORSUSIAINAEI.E LAW
by the sovereignStatesconcerned.
8.20 Competentinternationaland academicinstitutions
could, within agreedfratneworks,cooperateto provide,
especiallyfor traineesfrom developingcountries,post- MEANSOF IMPLEMENTATION
graduateprogrammesandin-servicetrainingfacilitiesin
environmentanddevelopmentlaw. Suchtrainingshould Ai F/NANC/NGAND COSTEVALUATION
addressboththeeffectiveapplicationandtheprogressive
improvementof applicablelaws, the related skills of 8.23 The Conferencesecretariathasestimatedthe aver-
negotiating,drafting and mediation,and the training of age total annualcost (1993-2000)of implementingthe
trainers. Intergovernmental and non-governmentalor- activitiesof this programmeto be about $6 million from
ganizationsalreadyactive in this field could cooperate the international community on grant or concessional
with relateduniversity programmesto harmonizecur- terms. Theseare indicative and order-of-magnitudees-
riculum planningandto ol r an optimalrangeof options timatesonly and have not been reviewed by Govern-
to interestedGovernrnentsand potentialsponsors. ments. ,A.ctualcostsand financial terms,including any
that are non-concessional,will dependupon, inter alia,
the specific strategiesand programmes Governments
NATIONAI
EFFECTIVE
E) DEVELaP'NG decideupon for implementation.
PROGRAMMES AND
FORREVIEWING
ENFORC/NG WITHNAI/ONAI,
COMPLIANCE
STATE, AND LOCALI.AWSON
PROY/NCIAT B/ SCIENI/F/C MEANS
AND IECHNOI.OGICAL
ENYIRONMFNIAND DEVELOPMENT
8.24 The prograrnmereliesessentiallyon a continuation
8.21 Each country shoLrlddevelopintegratedstrategies of ongoingwork for legaldatacollection,translationand

69
assessment. Closercooperationbetweenexistingdata- economic context and given the necessarylegal and
basesmay be expectedto leadto betterdivisionof labour regulatory framework, economic and market-oriented
(e.9., in geographicalcoverageof nationallegislative approaches can in many casesenhancecapacityto deal
gazettesand other rel'erencesources)and to irnproved with the issuesof environmentand development.This
standardizationandcompatibilityof data,asappropriate. wouldbeachievedbyprovi di ngcost-eftectivesolutions,
appl yi ngi ntegratedpol l uti onpreventi onco nt r ol,pr o-
rnoting technologicalinnovationand influencingen-
C) HUM A NR ES O U R CDEEV EL OP M F N I vironmentalbehaviour,as well as providing financial
resources to meetsustainable development objectives.
8.25 Participation in trainingis expectedto benefitprac- 8.30 What is neededis an appropriateeffort to explore
titionersfrom developingcountriesandto enhance train- and make more effective and widespreaduse of eco-
ing opportunities for women. Demandfor this type of nomic and market-oriented approaches within a broad
postgraduate andin-servicetrainingis knor.vn to be high. framework of developmentpolicies,law and regula-
The senrinars. workshopsandconferences on reviewand tion suitedto country-specificconditionsas part of a
enforcementthat havebeenheld to datehavebeenvery general transition to economic and environmental
successfuland well attended.The purposeof theseef- policiesthat are supportiveand mutually reinforcing.
forts is to developresources(both human and institu-
tional)to designandimplementeffectiveprogrammes to
continuously reviervarrdenforcenationalandloc:allaws, OBJECTIVES
regulations and standards on sustainabledevelopment.
8.31 While it is understoodthat counrrieswill develop
their own prioritiesin accordancewith their needsand
nationalplans,policies and prograffrfiles,the c-hallenge
D/ S T RE N GT H F N /N
IEGG A rAN D is to achievesignificantprogressin the yearsaheadin
/NSI/IUIlONALCAPACITY meetingthreefundamentalobjectives:
(a) To incorporateenvironmentalcostsin thedecisions
8.26 A mitjor part of the programmeshouldhe oriented of producersand consumersand to reversethe tendency
tow'ardsintprovingthe legal-institutional capacitiesof to treattheenvironmentasa "freegood" andto passthese
conntriesto copewith nationalproblemsof governance costson to otherpafisof society,othercountriesorfuture
and effectivelaw-makingand law-applyingin the field generations:
of environmentand sustainable development.Regional (b) To move more fully towardsintegrationof social
centreso1't-'xcellencecouldbe designatcd and supported andenvironmental costsintoeconomicactivities.so that
to build up specialized databases and rrainingtacilities priceswill appropriatelyreflectthe relativescarcityand
for linguistic/cultural
groupsof legalsystems. total value of resourcesand contribute towards ttre
preventionof environmentaldegradation;
(c) To include,whereverappropriate,the useof mar-
c) ,uAKrNG EFFECTTVEUSEOF ECONOMTC
INSTRUMENTS AND IYIARKET
AND OTHERINCENTIVES ket principlesin the framing of economicinstruments
and pol i ci esto pursuesustai nabldevel
e opm ent .

BASISFORACTION
i1.27 Environmental law and regulation are important but ACTIVITIES
cannot alone be expected to deal with the problenrs of
A) tMPROylNG OR REOR/ENI/NG
environnrent and development. Prices. markets and
G O V E R N M E N I A TP O L I C I E S
e ( r V er r r n l e n t a lf l s c a l a n d e c o n o r n i c p o l t c i c s a l s ( )p l a v a
conrplr-nrelttarvrole in shaping attitudes and behaviour
towards the environment. 8.32 ln the near term, Govemments should consider
8.28 During the past several years, many Governments, gradually building on experience with economic instru-
p r i m a r i l y i n i n d u s t r i a l i z e dc c l u n t r i e sb u t a l s o i n C e n t r a l ments and market mechanisms by undertaking to reorient
and Eastern Europe and in developing cctirntries,have their policies, keeping in mind national plans, priorities
been making increasing use of economic approaches. and objectives. in order to:
including those that are market-oriented. txarnples in- (a) Establish effbctive combinations of economic.
clude lhe polluter-pays principle and the ntore recent regulatory and voluntary (self'-regulatory) approaches;
natural-resource-user-pays concept. (b) Remove or reduce those subsidiesthat tJo not cron-
8.29 Within a supportive international and national form with sustainable development objectives;

70
D/ /NCREAS/NG UNDERSIAND/NG OF THEROI.E
(c) Reform or recastexisting structuresof economic
AND
OF E C ON OMIC/N S IR U ME N IS
and fiscal incentivesto meet environmentand develop-
MARKET MECHANIS/I4S
ment objectives;
(cl) Establisha policy lramework that encouragesthe
creationof new marketsin pollutioncontrolandenviron- 8.36 Governmentsshoul d encourageresearchand
mentally sclunderresourcemanagement; analysison effectiveusesof economicinstrumentsand
(e) Move towardspricing consistentwith sustainable andsupportof regionaland
incentiveswith the assistance
developmentobjectives. international econornic and environmental organrza-
8.33 In particular,Governmentsshould explore,in co- tions, as well as non-governmentalresearchinstitutes,
operationwith businessandindustry,asappropriate'how with a focuson suchkey issuesas:
(a) The role of environmentaltaxation suited to na-
effectiveusecan be madeof economicinstrumentsand
marketmechanismsin the following areas: tional conditions:
(a) Issuesrelatedto energy,transportation,agriculture (b) The implicationsof econornicinstrumentsand in-
centivesfor competitiveness and internationaltrade,and
and forestry,water,wastes,health,tourism and tertiary
potential needs for appropriatefuture international
serv'ices;
(b) Global and transboundarvissues; cooperationand coordination;
(c) The possiblesocialanddistributiveirnplications of
(c) Thedevelopmentandintroductionofenvironmentally
using various instruments"
soundtechnologyand its adaptation,diftusionand transfer
to developingcountriesin conformitywith chaptet34.

E) ESTABLISH'NG A PROCESS FOR


BJ IAKINGACCOUNIOF THEPARTICULAR ON
FOC U S /N G P R /C IN G
CIRCUMSTANCFS COUNIR/FS
OF DEVELOPING
WITHECONOM/ES 8.37 Thetheoretical advantages of usingpricingpolicies-
AND COUNIR/ES
where appropriate, need to be better understood,and
/N IRANS/I'ON
accompanied by greatcr understanding of what it means
to takesignificantsteps in this direction.Processes should
8.-14A specialeflbrt shouldbe madeto developapplica-
thereforebe initiated, in cooperation with business. in-
tions of the use of economic instrumentsand market
dustry,large enterprises and transnational ctlrporations,
mechanismsgearedto theparticularneedsof developing
countries and countrieswith economiesin transition, as well asother socialgroups,as appropriate,at both the
with the assistanceof regional and internationaleco- nationaland internationallevels,to examine:
nomic andenvironmental organizationsand,asappropri- (a) The practical implications of moving towards
ate,non-governmental research by:
institutes, greaterrelianceon pricing policiesthat intemalizeenvi-
(a) Providing technicalsupportto thosecountrieson ronmentalcostsappropriateti.rhelp achievesustainable
issuesrelatingto the applicationof economicinstruments development objectivcs:
(b) The implicationstor resourcepricingin the caseof
and marketmechanisms;
(b) Encouragingregionalseminarsatld,possibly,the resource-exporting counfries. IncIu<ling the i rnpli cations
of suchpri ci ngpol i ci esfor dn' el opi ngcountri es.
developrnentof regionalcentresof expertise' 'Ihe
(c) methodologiesusedin valuing environmental
costs.

c) :REATINGAN /NyENTORY OF EFFECTIVE


US E SO F E CO N O MIC AND
/N SIR U ME N IS
M A RK EM T E CH AN /SM5 G S U S IA /NA8I - E
F/ FN H A N C /N GU N D E R S IA N D /NOF
D E V E LOP ME FC
N I ON OMIC S
8.35 Given the recognitionthat the use of economic
8.38 lncreasedinterestin economicinstrtrments,includ-
i n s t r u m e n t sa n d m a r k e t m e c h a n i s m si s r e l a t i v e l y
r e c e n t . e x c h a n g eo f i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t d i f f e r e n t ing marketmechanisms,alsorequiresa concertedeffort
c ount r iesex ' pe ri e n c ews i th s u c ha p p ro a c h esshoul dbe to improve understandingof sustainabledevelopment
actively encouraged. tn this regard, Governments ecclnomics by:
(a) Encouraginginstitutionsof higher learningto re-
should encouragethe use of existing meansof infor-
sttrdiesin sustainable
view thcir cun'icuiaandstrengthen
mation exchangeto lclokat eflbctive usesof economic
ins t r um ent s . derel oprtrentcconotni cs:
(b) Encouragingregionaland internationaleconomic

71
organizationsand non-governmentalresearchinstitutes environmentalandeconomicaccountinsin all countries
with expertisein this area to provide training sessions is proposed.
and seminarsfor governmentoffrcials;
(c) Encouragingbusinessand industry,includinglarge
industrial enterprises and transnationalcorporations with OBJECTIVES
expertisein environmentalmatters,to organizetraining 8.42 The main objectiveis to expandexistingsystemsof
programmesfor the private sectorand other groups. nationaleconomicaccountsin orderto integrateenviron-
ment andsocialdimensionsin theaccountingframework,
includingat leastsatellitesystemsof accountsfor natural
MEANSOFIMPLEMENTAIION resourcesin all memberStates.The resultingsysternsof
8.39 This programmeinvolvesadjustments or reorien- integrated environmental and economic accounting
tation of policieson the part of Governments.It also (IEEA) to be establishedin all member States at the
involves internationaland regional economic and en- earliest date should be seenas a complementto, rather
vironmentalorganizations and agencieswith expertise than a substitutefor, traditionalnationalaccountingprac-
in this area,including transnationalcorporations. ticesfor the foreseeablefuture.IEEAs would be designed
to play an integral part in the national development
decision-makingprocess.National accountingagencies
A/ F/NANC'NGAND COSTEVALUATION shouldwork in closecollaborationwith nationalenviron-
mental statisticsas well as the geographicand natural
resourcedeparlrnents. The definition of economically
8.40 The Conference secretariathas estimated the
active could be expandedto include people performing
averagetotal annualcost (1993-20CI0) of implementing
productivebut unpaidtasksin all countries.This would
the activitiesof this programmeto be about$5 million
enabletheir contribution to be adequatelymeasuredand
from the internationalcommunity on grant or conces-
takeninto accountin decision-making.
sional terms. Theseare indicative and order-of-mag-
nitude estimatesonly and have not been reviewedby
Governments. Actual costs and financial terms, in- ACTIVITIES
cluding any that are non-concessional, will depend
upon, int e r a l i a , th e s p e c i fi c s tra te g iesand pro- A/ STRENGTHEN'NG
/NTERNAI/ONAI.
COO?ERALON
grammesGovernmentsdecide upon for implementa-
t ion. 8.43 The Statistical Office of the United Nations
Secretariatshould:
(a) Make available to all member States the meth-
D) ESTABLTSHTNG FOR TNTEGRATED
SySTEryrS
odologiescontainedin the SNAHandbookon Integrated
ENVIRON,I,IENTAIAND ECONO,YTrc
ACCOUNTING
Environmentaland Economic Accountingl
(b) In collaborationwith other relevantUnited Nations
FORACTION
BASIS organizations,further develop,test, refine and then stand-
8.41 A first step towards the integrationof sustain- ardizethe provisionalconceptsand methodssuchas those
ability into economicmanagement is theestablishment proposedby the SNAHandbook,keeping member States
of bettermeasurement of the crucial role of the envi- informed of the statusof the work throughoutthis process;
ronmentas a sourceof naturalcapitaland as a sink for (c) Coordinate,in close cooperationwith other inter-
by-productsgeneratedduring the production of man- nationalorganizations, the trainingof nationalaccount-
made capital and other human activities. As sustain- ants, environmentalstatisticiansand nationaltechnical
able developmentencompasses social,economicand staffin smallgroupsfor theestablishment, adaptationand
environmentaldimensions,it is also important that developmentof nationalIEEAs.
national accountingproceduresare not restrictedto 8.44 The Departmentof Economic and Social Develop-
measuringthe productionof goods and servicesthat ment of the U ni ted N ati ons S ecretari at .in close
are conventionallyremunerated. A common collaborationwith other relevantUnited Nations organ-
frameworkneedsto be developedwherebythe contri- izations,should:
butions made by all sectorsand activitiesof society, (a) Support, in all member States,the utilization of
t hat ar e no t i n c l u d e d i n th e c o n v e n ti o nalnati onal sustainable developmentindicatorsin nationaleconomic
accounts,are included,to the extent consistentwith and socialplanningand decision-makingpractices,with
soundtheory and practicability,in satelliteaccounts. a view to ensuringthat IEEAs are usefully integratedin
Aprogrammeto developnationalsystemsof integrated economicdeveloprnentplanningat the nationallevel;

72
(b) Promote improved environmentaland economic agenciesshould considerfinancing the developmentof
and socialdatacollection. intersectoral data banks to help ensure that national
planningfor sustainabledevelopmentis basedon precise,
reliableandeffectiveinformation andis suitedto national
SVSIEMS
NAflONAI"ACCOUNTING
B/ STRENGTHFN'NG conditions.

8.45 At thc national level, the programme could be


adoptedmainly by the agenciesdealing with national IECHNICALCOOPERAilON
E/ STRENGTHEN'NG
accounts,in close cooperationwith environmentalsta-
tisticsand naturalresourcedepartments,with a view to 8.50 The StatisticalOffice of the United NationsSecreta-
assistingnationaleconomicanalystsanddecisionmakers riat, in close collaboration with relevant United Nations
in chargeof nationaleconomicplanning. National in- organizations,should strengthenexisting mechanismsfor
stitutions should play a crucial role not only as the technical cooperationamong countries.This should also
depositaryof the systembut alsoin its adaptation,estab- include exchangeof experiencein ttre establishmentof
lishment and continuoususe. Unpaid productivework IEEAs, particularly in connection with the valuation of
suchasdomesticwork andchild careshouldbe included, non-marketednaturalresourcesandstandardizationin data
where appropriate,in satellite national accountsand collection. The cooperationof businessand industry, in-
economicstatistics.Time-usesurveyscouldbea first step cluding large industrial enterprisesand transnationalcor-
in the processof developingthesesatelliteaccounts. porationswith experiencein valuation of such resources,
shouldalsobe sousht.

PROCESS
AN ASSESSMENI
C) ESTABL/SH/NG
MEANSOF IMPLEMENIATION
8.46 At the internationallevel, the StatisticalCom-
AND COSTEVALUATION
A/ FTNANC/NG
mission should assembleand review experienceand
advisememberStateson technicaland methodological
8.51 The Conferencesecretariathasestimatedthe aver-
issuesrelatedto the furtherdevelopmentandimplemen-
age total annualcost (1993-2000)of implementingthe
tation of IEEAs in memberStates.
activitiesof this programmeto be about$2 million from
8.47 Governmentsshouldseekto identify and consider
the international community on grant or concessional
measuresto correctprice distortionsarisingfrom envi-
ronmentalprogrammes affectingland,water,energyand terms. Theseare indicative and order-of-magnitudees-
timates only and have not been reviewed by Govern-
other naturalresources.
ments. Actual costsand financialterms,including any
8.48 Governmentsshouldencouragecorporations:
that are non-concessional,will dependupon, inter alia,
(a) To provide relevant environmental information
the specific strategiesand prograrnmesGovernments
through transparentreporting to shareholders,creditors,
decideupon for implementation.
employees,govemmentalauthorities,consumersandthe
public :
(b) To developand implenrentmethodsand rules for
accountingfor sustainingdevelopment. /NSI'IUI'ONS
8/ SIRENGIHEN'NG

8.52 To ensurethe applicationof IEEAs:


D/ SIRENGIHENINGDATAAND (a) Nationalinstitutionsin developingcountriescould
/NFORMAIIONCOII.ECIION be strengthenedto ensure the effective integration of
environment and developmentat the planning and
8.49 NationalCiovernments could considerimplement- decision-makinglevels;
ing the necessary enhancemenl in datacollectionto set (b) The StatisticalOffice shouldprovidethe necessary
in place national IEEAs with a view to contributing technicalsupportto memberStates,in closecollabora-
pragmaticallyto sound economicmanagement.Major tion with the assessment processto be establishedby
effortsshouldbe madeto augmentthe capacityto collect the S tati sti cal C ommi ssi on; the S tati sti cal Of f ice
and analyse'environmentaldata and informationand to should provide appropriatesupport for establishing
integrateit with economicdata.includinggender-disag- IEEAs, in collaborationwith relevantUnited Nations'
gregateddata.Efforts should also be made to develop agenci es.
physical environmentalaccounts.Intemationaldonor

73
c/ ENHANCTNG THEUSEOF capacityto collect, store,organize,assessand usedatain
IN FORMAIION TECHN OLOGY decision-making. Training in all areas related to the
establishment of IEEAs,andat all levels,will berequired,
8.53 Guidelinesandmechanisms couldbedevelopedand especiallyin developingcountries.This shouldinclude
agreedupon for the adaptationand diffusion of informa- technical training of those involved in economic and
tion technologiesto developingcountries.State-of-the- environmentalanalysis,datacollectionand nationalac-
art datamanagenenttechnologiesshouldbe adoptedfor counting,as well as training decisionmakersto usesuch
the most efficient and widespreaduse of IEEAs. information in a pragmaticand appropriateway.

D/ STRFNGTHEN'NG
NAr/ONAL CApACtTy

8.54 Governments,with the supportof the international


community, should strengthen national institutional

74
Section2

Conservotion
ond Monogement
of Resources
for Development
of theotmosphere
Protection

A) ADDRESSING
THEUNCERTAINTIES:
IMPROVING
INTRODUCTION THESCIENTIFIC
BASISFORDECISION-Iv1AK|NG;

B) PROMOTTNG
SUSTATNABLE
DEVELOPMENT
9.1 Protectionof the atmosphereis a broad and multi-
(i) Energy development, efficiency and consumption;
dimensional endeavour involving various sectors of (ii) Transportation;
economic activity. The options and measuresdescribed
(iii) Industrial development;
in thepresentchapterarerecommendedfor consideration
(iv) Tenestrial and marine resource development and
and,asappropriate,implementationby Governmentsand
land use;
other bodiesin their efforts to protectthe atmosphere.
9.2 It is recognizedthat many of the issuesdiscussed
in this chapterare also addressed in suchinternational C) PREVENTING OZONEDEPLETION;
STRATOSPHERIC
agreementsas the 1985 Vienna Convention for the
Protectionof the Ozone Layer, the 1987 Montreal
Protocol on Substancesthat Deplete the Ozone Layer D) TRANSBOUNDARY
ATMOSPHERIC
POLLUTION.

as amended,the 1992United NationsFrameworkCon-


vention on Climate Change and other international,
including regional,instruments.In the caseof activ-
ities coveredby suchagreements, it is understoodthat P R O G R A M MAER E A S
the recommendations containedin this chapterdo not
obligeany Governmentto takemeasures which exceed
the provisionsof these legal instruments. However, A) ADDRESSTNG THEUNCERTATNTIES:
within the framework of this chapter,Governmentsare BASIS FOR
IfrIPROVING THE SCIENTIFIC
free to caffy out additional measureswhich are con- DECISION.'VIAKING
sistentwith thoselegal instruments.
9.3 It is also recognizedthat activities that may be BASIS
FORACTION
undertakenin pursuit of the objectivesof this chapter 9.6 Concern about climate change and climate vari-
shouldbe coordinatedwith socialand economicdevel- ability,air pollutionandozonedepletionhascreatednew
opmentin an integratedmannerwith a view to avoiding demandsfor scientific,economicand socialinformation
adverseimpactson the latter,taking into full accountthe to reduce the remaining uncertaintiesin these fields.
legitimatepriority needsof developingcountriesfor the Better understandingand prediction of the various
achievementof sustainedeconomic growth and the propertiesof the atmosphereand of the affectedecosys-
eradicationof poverty. tems,aswell ashealthimpactsandtheirinteractionswith
9.4 In this contextparticularreferenceis also madeto socio-economicfactors.are needed.
programmeareaAof chapter2 of Agenda2l (Promoting
sustainabledevelopmentthroughtrade).
9.5 The presentchapterincludes the following fbur OBJECTIVES
programmeareas: 9.7 The basic objective of this programmearea is to

77
improve the understandingof processesthat influence B) PROMOTING SUSTA|NABTEDEVETOPfrIENT
and are influenced by the Earth's atmosphereon a
global, regionaland local scale,including,inter alia,
physical, chemical, geological, biological, oceanic, I ) ENERGY
DEVELOPMENT,
EFFtCtENCY
ANDCONSUMPTTON
hydrological,economicand socialprocesses; to build
capacityand enhanceinternationalcooperation;andto
BASIS
FORACTION
improve understandingof the economic and social
9.9 Energy is essentialto economicand social devel-
consequences of atmosphericchangesand of mitiga-
opmentandimprovedqualityof life. Much of theworld's
tion and responsemeasuresaddressingsuchchanges.
energy,however,is currentlyproducedandconsumedin
ways that could not be sustainedif technologywere to
ACTIVITIES remainconstantandif overallquantitieswereto increase
substantially.The needto controlatmospheric emissions
9.8 Governmentsat the appropriatelevel, with the
of greenhouseand other gasesand substanceswill in-
cooperationof the relevantUnited Nationsbodiesand,
creasingly need to be based on efficiency in energy
asappropriate,i ntergovernmentalandnon-governmental
production,transmissi on, di stributionand consumption,
organizations, and the privatesector,should:
(a) Promote researchrelated to the natural processes and on growing relianceon environmentallysounden-
ergy systems,particularlynew and renewablesourcesof
affectingand being affectedby the atmosphere,as well
energy.' All energysourceswill needto be usedin ways
asthecritical linkagesbetweensustainable development
that respectthe atmosphere, humanhealthand the envi-
and atmosphericchanges,including impactson human
ronmentas a whole.
health,ecosystems, economicsectorsand society;
(b) Ensurea more balancedgeographicalcoverageof 9.10 The existingconstraintsto increasingthe environ-
mentallysoundenergysuppliesrequiredfor pursuingthe
the Global Climate ObservingSystemand its compo-
path towards sustainabledevelopment,particularly in
nents, including the Global AtmosphereWatch, by
developingcountries,needto be removed.
facilitating, inter alia. theestablishment andoperationof
additionalsystematicobservationstations,and by con-
tributingto thedevelopment,utilizationandaccessibility
OBJECTIVES
of thesedatabases;
(c) Promotecooperationin: 9.11 The basicand ultimateobjectiveof thisprogramme
(i) The developmentof early detectionsystemscon- areais to reduceadverseeffectson the atmospherefrom
the energy sectorby promoting policies or prograffrmes,
cerningchangesand fluctuationsin the atmosphere;
(ii) The establishment as appropriate,to increasethe contributionof environ-
and improvementof capabilities
mentally soundand cost-effectiveenergysystems,par-
to predictsuchchangesandfluctuationsand to assess the
ticularly new andrenewableones,throughlesspolluting
resultingenvironmentaland socio-economicimpacts;
(d) Cooperatein researchto developmethodologies and more efficientenergyproduction,transmission, dis-
tribution and use.This objectiveshouldreflecf the need
and identify threshold levels of atmosphericpollu-
for equity,adequateenergysuppliesand increasingen-
tants,as well as atmosphericlevelsof greenhousegas
ergy consumptionin developingcountries,and should
concentrations, that would causedangerousanthropogenic
takeinto consideration the situationso{'countriesthatare
interferencewith the climate systemand the environment
highly dependenton incomegeneratedfrom the produc-
as a whole, and the associated ratesof changethat would
tion, processingandexport,and./orconsumptionof fcrssil
not allow ecosystems to adaptnaturally;
(e) Promote,and cooperatein the building of scien- fuelsandassociated energy-intensive productsand/orthe
useof fbssilfuels fbr which countrieshaveseriousdiffi-
tific capacitiesfor, the exchangeof scientificdataand
cultiesin switchingto alternatives, and the situationsclf
information, and the facilitation of the participation
countrieshighly vulnerableto adverseeffectsof climate
and trainingof expertsand technicalstaff,particularly
change.
of developingcountries,in the fields of research,data
assembly,collection and assessment, and systematic
observationrelatedto the atmosphere.
ACTIVITIES
9.12 Governmentsat the appropriatelevel, with the
cooperationof the relevantUnited Nationsbodies_and,
as appropriate,
intergovernmental andnon-governmental
organizations,and the private sector,should:
(a) Cooperatein identifying and developingeconom-

78
icalty viablc, environmentallysoundenergysourcesto (l) Establishor enhance,asappropriate,in cooperation
promotethe availabilityof increasedenergysuppliesto with the private sector,labelling programmesfor prod-
supportsustainable developmentefforts,in particularin ucts to provide decision makers and consumerswith
r ler elopingc ou n tri e s : information on opportunitiesfor energyefficiency.
(b) Promotethe developmentat the nationallevel of
appropriatemethodologiesfor making integratedenergy,
2) TRANSPORTATION
environmentand economicpolicy decisionsfor sustain-
abledevelopment,inter alia, throughenvironmentalim-
pactassessments, BASIS
FORACTION
(c) Promote the research,development,transferand 9.13 The transportsectorhas an essentialand positive
useof improvedenergy-efficienttechnologiesand prac- role to play in economicand social development,and
tices,includingendogenoustechnologiesin all relevant transportationneedswill undoubtedlyincrease. How-
sectors,giving specialattentionto the rehabilitationand ever,sincethe transportsectoris alsoa sourceof atmos-
modernizationof power systems,with particularatten- pheric emissions,there is need for a review of existing
tion to developingcountries; transport systems and for more effective design and
(d) Promotethe research,development,transferand use managementof traffic and transportsystems.
of technologiesand practicesfor environmentallysound
energysystems,includingnew and renewableenergysys-
tems.with particularattentionto developingcountries; OBJECTIVES
(e) Promcrte thedevelopmentof institutional,scientific, 9.14 The basic objective of this programmearea is to
planningand managementcapacities,particularlyin de- develop and promote cost-effectivepolicies or pro-
velopingcountries.to develop,produceand useincreas- grammes,as appropriate,to limit, reduceor control, as
ingiy efficientand lesspolluting forms of energy; appropriate,harmful emissionsinto the atmosphereand
(f) Review currentenergysupply mixes to determine other adverseenvironmentaleffectsof the transportsec-
how the contributionof environmentallysoundenergy tor, taking into accountdevelopmentprioritiesaswell as
systernsas a whole. particularly new and renewable the specificlocal and nationalcircumstances and safety
energvsystems,could be increasedin an economically aspects.
efficient manner,taking into accountrespectivecoun-
tries' unique social, physical,economicand political
characteristics, andexaminingand implementing,where ACTIVITIES
appropriate,measuresto overcomeany barriersto their 9.15 Govemmentsat the appropriate level,with the co-
development and use; operationof the relevantUnited Nationsbodiesand, as
(g) Coordinateenergyplansregionallyand subregion- appropriate,intergovernmentaland non-governmental
ally, where applicable,and study the feasibility of effi- organizations, and the privatesector,should:
cient distributionof environmentallysoundenergyfrom (a) Develop and promote,as appropriate,cost-effec-
new and renewableenergysources; tive, more efficient, less polluting and safer transport
(h) ln accordance with nationalsocio-economic devel- systems,particularly integratedrural and urban mass
opmentand environmentpriorities,evaluateand, as ap- transit,as well asenvironmentallysoundroad networks,
pr opr iat e, pr o mo te c o s t-e ffe c ti v ep o l i c i e s or pro- taking into account the needs for sustainablesocial,
srarnmes,includingadministrative,socialandeconomic economic and developmentpriorities, particularly in
nrcilsLlres,in order to improveenergyefficiency; developingcountries;
(i) Build capacityfor energyplanningand progralnme (b) Facilitateat the international,regional,subregional
nranagementin energy efficiency, as well as for the andnationallevelsaccessto andtransferof safe,efficient,
devekrprnent.introduction,and promotion of new and includingresource-efticient, and lesspolluting transport
rcnewahlesourcesof energy; technologies,particularlyto the developingcountries,
(-i) Promoteappropriateenergyefficiencyandemission including the implementationof appropriatetraining
stanciiirdsor recommendationsat the national level,2 programmes;
airneclat the developmentand use of technologiesthat (c) Strengthen,as appropriate,their effortsat collect-
mininrizeadverseimpactson the environmentl ing, analysingand exchangingrelevantinformationon
(k) Encourageeducationand awareness-raising pro- the relation betweenenvironmentand transport,with
granrrnesat the local. national,subregionaland regional particularemphasison the systematicobservation'of
levelsconcerning energyefficiencyandenvironmentally emissionsand the developmentof a transportdatabase;
s c lundener gYs v s te m s : (d) In accordance with nationalsocio-econornic devel-

79
opmentand environmentpriorities,evaluateand, as ap- (b) Encourageindustry to increaseand strengthenits
pr opr iat e, p ro m o te c o s t-e ffe c ti v ep o l i ci es or pro- capacityto developtechnologies, productsandprocesses
grammes,includingadministrative,socialandeconomic that are safe,are lesspolluting and make more efficient
measures,in order to encourageuse of transportation useof all resourcesand materials,includingenergy;
modesthatminimizeadverseimpactson theatmosphere; (c) Cooperatein the developmentand transferof such
(e) Developor enhance,asappropriate,mechanisms to industrialtechncllogies and in the developmentof capac-
integratetransporl planning strategies and urban and ities to manageand use suchtechnologies,particularly
regional settlementplanning strategies,with a view to with respectto developingcountries;
reducingthe environmentalimpactsof transport; (d) f)evelop,improveandapply environmentalimpact
(0 Study,within the frameworkof the United Nations assessments to fostersustainableindustrialdevelopment;
andits regionalcommissiotts, thefeasibilityof convening (e) Promoteefficient use of materialsand resources,
regionalconferenceson transportand the environment. taking into accountthe life cyclesof products,in order
to realize the economicand environmentalbenefitsof
using resourcesmore efficiently and producing fewer
DEVELOPMENT
3) TNDUSTRTAL wastes;
(0 Supportthe promotion of less polluting and more
FORACTION
BASIS efficienttechnologiesand processes in industries,taking
9.16 Industryis essentialfor theproductionof goodsand into accountarea-specificaccessiblepotentialsfor en-
servicesand is a major sourceof employmentand in- ergy.particularlysafeand renewablesourcesof energy,
come,andindustrialdevelopmentas suchis essentialfor with a view to limiting industrialpollution and adverse
economicgrowth. At the sametime, industryis a major impactson the atmosphere.
resourceand materialsuser and consequentlyindustrial
activitiesresultin emissionsinto the atmosphereandthe
ANDMARINE
4) TERRESTRIAL DEVELOPMENT
RESOURCE
environmentas a whole. Protectionof the atmosphere ANDIANDUSE
can be enhanced.inter ctlia,by increasingresourceand
materialsefficiency in industry,installingor improving
p o l l u t i o n a b a t e m e n tt e c h n o l o g i e sa n d r e p l a c i n g FORACTION
BASIS
chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and other ozone-depleting 9.19 Land-useand resoutcepolicieswill both affectand
substanceswith appropriatesubstitutes,as well as by be affectedby changesin the atmosphere.Certainprac-
reducingwastesand by-products. ticesrelatedto terrestrialand marineresourcesand land
use can decreasegreenhouseqas sinks and increase
atmosphericemissions.The lossof biologicaldiversity
OBJECTIVES may reduce the resilienceof ecosystemsto climatic
9.17 The basic objective of this programmearea is to vari ati ons and ai r pol l uti on damage.A tmospher ic
encourageindustrialdevelopmentin waysthatminimize changescanhaveimportantimpactson forests,biodiver-
adverseinrpactson the atmosphereby,inter alia, rncteas- sity, and treshwaterand marine ecosystems,as well as
ing efficiency in the production and consumptionby on economicactivities, suchasagriculture.Policy objec-
industry of all resourcesand materials,by improving tives in diffbrentsectorsmay often divergeandwill need
pollution-abatement technologiesand by developing to be handledin an intesratedmanner.
new,environmentally soundtechnologies.

OBJECTIVES
ACTIVITIES 9.20 The objectivesof this programmeareaare:
9.18 Governmentsat the appropriatelevel, with the (a) To promoteterrestrialand marineresourceutiliza-
cooperationof the relevantUnited Nationsbodiesand. tion andappropriateliind-usepracticesthatcontributeto:
asappropriate.intergovernmental andnon-governmental (i) The reductionof atmosphericpollution and/orthe
organizations. and the privatesector.should: limitation of anthrcpogenicemissionsof greenhouse
(a) In accordance with nationalsocio-economic devel- gases:
opmentand enl'ironmentpriorities,evaluateand.as ap- (ii) The conservation, management
surstainable anden-
pr opr iat e, p ro m o te c o s t-e ffe c ti v ep o l i ci cs or pro- hancement.u,hcre appropriate, of all sinks for green-
grammes,includingadministrative, socialandeconomic house gases:
measures,in order to minirnizeindustrialpollution and (iii) The conservationand sustainable use of natural
adverseimpactson the atntosphere; and environntentalresources:

80
(b) To ensurethat actual and potential atmospheric (a) To realize the objectivesdefined in the Vienna
changesand their socio-economicand ecologicalim- Convention and the Montreal Protocol and its 1990
pacts are fully taken into account in planning and amendments, includingthe considerationin thoseinstru-
implementing policies and programmes concerning mentsof the specialneedsandconditionsof the develop-
terrestrial and marine resourcesutilization and land- ing countriesand the availabilityto them of alternatives
use practices. to substances that depletethe ozonelayer.Technologies
and naturalproductsthat reducedemandfor thesesub-
stancesshouldbe encouraged;
ACTIVITIES (b) To develop strategiesaimed at mitigating the ad-
9.21 Governmentsat the appropriatelevel, with the verseeffectsof ultravioletradiationreachingthe Earth's
cooperationof the relevantUnited Nationsbodiesand, surfaceas a consequence of depletionand modification
asappropriate,intergovefflmentalandnon-governmental of the stratosphericozone layer.
organizations, and the privatesector,should:
( a) I n ac c o rd a n c ew i th n a ti o n a l s o c i o -e conomi c
developmentand environmentpriorities,evaluateand, ACTIVITIES
as appr opr ia te ,p ro mo te c o s t-e ffe c ti v ep o li ci es or 9.24 Governmentsat the appropriatelevel, with the
pr ogr am m es ,i n c l u d i n g a d mi n i s tra ti v e ,s oci al and cooperationof the relevantUnited Nationsbodiesand,
economicmeasures,in order to encourageenvironmen- asappropriate,i ntergovernmentalandnon-governmental
tally soundland-usepractices: orgamzations,and the private sector,should:
(b) Implementpoliciesand programmesthat will dis- (a) Ratify, accept or approve the Montreal Protocol
courageinappropriateand polluting land-usepractices and its 1990 amendments;pay their contributionsto-
and promote sustainableutilization of terrestrial and wards the Vienna/Montrealtrust funds and the interim
marineresources; multilateralozone fund promptly; and contribute,as
(c) Considerpromoting the developmentand use of a p p r o p r i a t e ,t o w a r d s o n g o i n g e f f o r t s u n d e r t h e
terrestrial and marine resourcesand land-usepractices Montreal Protocoland its implementingmechanisms,
that will be more resilientto atmosphericchangesand including making availablesubstitutesfor CFCs and
fluctuations; other ozone-depletingsubstances and facilitating the
(d) Promotesustainablemanagementand cooperation transferof the correspondingtechnologiesto develop-
in the conservationand enhancement,as appropriate,of ing countriesin order to enablethem to comply with
sinks and reservoirs of greenhousegases,including the obligationsof the Protocol;
biomass,forestsand oceans,as well as other terrestrial, (b) Support further expansionof the Global Ozone
coastaland marineecosystems. ObservingSystemby facilitating- throughbilateraland
multilateralfunding - the establishment and operation
of additionalsystematicobservationstations,especially
OZONE DEPEnON
cl PRTENT|NG STRATOSPHERIC in the tropicalbelt in the southernhemisphere;
(c) Participateactivelyin thecontinttousassessment of
BASISFORACTION scientificinformationand the healthand environmental
effects,as well as of the technological/economic impli-
9.22 Analysisof recentscientific datahasconfirmed the
growing concernabout the continuingdepletionof the cations of stratosphericozone depletion;and consider
ozonelayerby reactivechlorineand further actionsthat prove warrantedand feasibleon the
Earth'sstratospheric
brominefrom man-madeCFCs.halonsand relatedsub- basisof theseassessments,
(d) Basedon the resultsof researchon the effectsof the
stances. While the 1985 Vienna Convention for the
Protectionof the Ozone Layer and the 1987 Montreal additionalultravioletradiationreachingthe Earth'ssur-
Protocolon Substances that Depletethe OzoneLayer (as face. considertaking appropriateremedialmeasuresin
the fields of humanhealth.agricultureand marineenvi-
amendedin London in 1990) were important stepsin
ronment;
internationalaction, the total chlorine loading of the
substanceshascontin- (e) R epl aceC FC s and other ozone-depl etingsub-
atmospherewith ozone-depleting
s t a n c e s ,c o n s i s t e n tw i t h t h e M o n t r e a l P r o t o c o l ,
uedto rise.This canbe changedthroughcompliancewith
r e c o g n i z i n gt h a t a r e p l a c e m e n t ' s u i t a b i l i t ys h o u l d
the control measuresidentifiedwithin the Protocol.
be eval uatedhol i sti cal l yand not si mpl y base don it s
contri buti onto sol vi ng one atmospheri cor en vir on-
mental probl em.
OBJECTIVES
9.23 The objectivesof this progralruneareaare:

8l
D) TRANSBOUNDARYATMOSPHERTC
POUUnON organizations, the private sectorand financialinstitu-
ti ons,shoul d:
BASIS
FORACTION (a) Establishand/orstrengthen regionalagreements for
transboundaryair pollution control and cooperate,par-
9.25 Transboundary air pollutionhasadversehealthim-
ticularlywith developingcountries,in the areasof sys-
pactson humansand other detrimentalenvironmental
tematicobservationand assessment, modellingand the
impacts,suchas treeandforestlossand the acidification
development andexchangeof emissioncontroltechnol-
of waterbodies.The geographical distributionof atmos-
ogiesfor mobileand stationarysourcesof air pollution.
phericpollutionmonitoringnetworksis uneven,with the
In this context,greateremphasisshouldbe put on ad-
developingcountriesseverelyunderrepresented. The
dressingthe extent,causes,healthand socio-economic
lackof reliableemissions dataoutsideEuropeandNorth
impactsof ultravioletradiation.acidificationof the en-
Americais a majorconstraintto measuringtransbound-
vironmentandphoto-oxidantdamage to forestsandother
ary air pollution.Thereis also insufficientinformation
vegetation;
on the environmental and healtheffectsof air pollution
(b) Establishor strengthen early warningsystemsand
in otherregions.
responsemechanismsfor transboundaryair pollution
9.26 The 1979Conventionon Long-rangeTransbound-
resultingfrom industrialaccidentsand naturaldisasters
ary Air Pollution,and its protocols,haveestablished a
regionalregimein Europeand North America,basedon andthedeliberateand/oraccidentaldestructionof natural
resources;
a review process and cooperativeprogrammesfor
(c) Facilitatetraining opportunitiesand exchangeof
systematic observationof air pollution,assessment and
data, information and national and/or regional experi-
inforrnationexchange. Theseprogrammesneed to be
ences:
continuedanclenhanced,and their experienceneedsto
(d) Cooperateon regional, multilateral and bilateral
be sharedwith other resionsof the world.
basesto assess transboundary air pollution,andelaborate
and implementprogrammesidentifyingspecificactions
OBJECTIVES to reduce atmosphericemissionsand to addresstheir
environmental,economic,socialand othereffects.
9.27 The objectivesof this programmeareaare:
(a) To developand apply pollution control and meas-
urementtechnologiesfor stationaryand mobile sources
MEANSOFIMPLEMENTATION
of air pollution and to developalternativeenvironmen-
tally soundtechnologies;
(b) To observeand assesssystematicallythe sources
and extentof transboundary air pollution resultingfrom 9.29 Existinglegalinstruments havecreatedinstitutional
naturalprocesses and anthropogenicactivities: structureswhich relate to the purposesof theseinstru-
(c) To strengthenthe capabilities,particularlyof de- ments,and relevantwork shouldprimarily continuein
velopingcountries,to measure,modelandassess thefate those contexts. Governmentsshould continue to co-
andimpactsof transboundary airpollution,through,inter operateandenhancetheircooperationat theregionaland
alia, exchangeof information and training of experts; global levels, including cooperationwithin the United
(d) To develop capabilitiesto assessand mitigate Nationssystem.In this contextreferenceis madeto the
transboundary air pollutionresultingfrom industrialand recommendations in chapter38 of Agenda21 (Interna-
nuclear accidents,natural disastersand the deliberate tionalinstitutionalarrangements).
and/oraccidentaldestructionof naturalresources;
(e) To encouragethe establishmentof new and the
i mplenientati on of existingregionalagreements for limir
ing transboundary air pollution; 9.30 Countries,in cooperationwith the relevantUnited
(0 To develop strategiesaiming at the reduction of Nations bodies, internationaldonors and non-govern-
emissionscausingtransboundary air pollution and their mental organizations,should mobilize technicaland fi-
effects. nancial resourcesand facilitate technical cooperation
with developingcountriesto reinforce their technical,
managerial,planning and administrativecapacitiesto
ACTIVITIES promotesustainabledevelopmentand the protectionof
9.28 Governmentsat the appropriatelevel, with the the atmosphere,in all relevantsectors.
cooperationof the relevantUnited Nationsbodiesand,
asappropriate,i ntergovernmental
andnon-govemmental

82
HUMAN RESOURCE
DEVELOPMENT the acti vi ti es of the four-part programme u nder
prograrnme area B to be about $20 billion from the
9.3i Educationand awareness-raising programmescon- internationalcommunityon grantor concessional terms.
cerning the promotion of sustainabledevelopmentand These are indicative and order-of-magnitudeestimates
the protection of the atmosphereneed to be introduced only andhavenot beenreviewedby Governments. Actual
and strengthened at the local, nationaland intemational costs and financial terms, including any that are non-
levelsin all relevantsectors. concessional,will dependupon, inter alia, the specific
strategiesandprogrammesGovernmentsdecideuponfor
implementation.
FINANC/AtAND COSI EVALUATION 9.34 The Conferencesecretariathas estimatedthe aver-
age total annualcost (1993-2000)of implementingthe
9.32 The Conferencesecretariathasestimatedthe aver- activitiesunderprogrammeareaC to be in the rangeof
age total annualcost (1993-2000)of implementingthe $160 million to $590 million on grant or concessional
activities under programmearea A to be about $640 terms.Theseareindicativeand order-of-magnitude esti-
million from the internationalcommunity on grant or matesonly andhavenot beenreviewedby Governments.
concessionalterms.These are indicative and order-of- Actual costsand financial terms,including any that are
magnitudeestimatesonly andhavenotbeenreviewedby non-concessional, will depend upon, inter alia, the
Governments. Actualcostsandfinancialterms,including specific strategiesand programmesGovernmentsdecide
any that are non-concessional, will dependupon, inter uponfor implementation.
alia, the specific strategiesand prograffrnes Govern- 9.35 The Conferencesecretariat hasincludedcostingfor
mentsdecideupon for implementation. technical assistanceand pilot programmesunder para-
9.33 The Conference secretariathas estimated the graphs9.32 and9.33.
averagetotal annualcost (1993-2000)of implementing

'New
ond renewobleenergysourcesore solorthermol,solor
photovoltoic,
wind, hydro,biomoss, geothermol, oceon,onimol
ond humonpower,os referredto in the reportsof the Committee
on the Development ond Utilizotionof New ond Renewoble
Sourcesof Energy,preporedspecificollyfor the Conference(see
A/CONF.| 51/PC/ 1 I 9 ond A/ AC.218/1992/ 5l,.

2Thi, promotedby
includesstondordsor recommendotions
regionoleconomicintegrotion
orgonizotions.

83
10 opproochto theplonning
Integroted
ond monogementof londresources

decision-making structure,includingexistingpolicies,
INTRODUCTION planningand managementproceduresand methodsthat
can assistin putting in placean integratedapproachto
land resources.It does not deal with the operational
l0.l Land is normallydefinedas a physicalentity in aspectsof planning and management,which are nlore
terms of its topographyand spatial nature; a broader appropriatelydealtwith underthe relevantsectoralpro-
integrative view alsoincludesnaturalresources: thesoils, grammes.Sincethe programmedealswith an important
minerals,waterandbiotathatthe landcomprises.These cross-sectoralaspectof decision-making for sustainable
components areorganizedin ecosystems which provide development, it is closelyrelatedto a number of other
a varietyof servicesessentialto the maintenance of the programmesthat deal with that issue directly.
integrity of lif-e-supportsystemsand the productive
capacityof the environntent.Landresources areusedin
ways that take advantageof all thesecharacteristics.
Land is a finite resource,while the naturalresources it
P R O G R A M MAER E A
supportscan vary over time and accordingto manage-
ment conditionsand uses. Expandinghuman require-
mentsandeconomicactivitiesareplacingeverincreasing APPROACHTO THE PLANNING
A) TNTEGRATED
pressureson land resources,creatingcompetitionand AND MANAGEMENTOF LAND RESOURCES
conflictsandresultingin suboptimaluseof both landand
land resources.If, in the future,humanrequirements are
manner,it is now essentialto FORACTION
BASIS
to be met in a sustainable
resolvetheseconflictsand move towardsmore effective 10.3 Land resourcesare usedfor a variety of purposes
and efficientuseof landand its naturalresources.Inte- which interactandmay competewith oneanother;there-
gratedphysicaland land-useplanningand tnanagement fore. it is desirableto plan and manageall usesin an
is an eminentlypracticalway to achievethis.By exam- integratedmanner.Integrationshouldtake placeat two
ining all usesof land in an integratedmanner,it makesit levels,considering,on the one hand,all environmental,
possibleto minimizeconflicts,to makethemostefficient social and economic factors (including, for example,
trade-offsand to link socialand economicdevelopment impactsof the variouseconomicandsocialsectorson the
with environmentalprotectionand enhancement,thus environmentand naturalresources) and,on the other,all
helpingto achievethe objectivesof sustainable develop- environmentaland resourcecomponentstogether(i.e..
ment. The essenceof the integratedapproachfinds air, water, biota, land and geological and natural re-
expressionin the coordinationof the sectoralplanning sources). Integratedconsiderationfacil itatesappropriate
and management activitiesconcernedwith the various choices and trade-offs, thus maximizing sustainable
aspectsof land useand land resources. productivity and use. Opportunitiesto aliocateland to
10.2 The presentchapterconsistsof one programme differentusesarisein the courseof major settlementor
area,the integratedapproachto the planningand man- development projectsor in a sequential fashionas lands
agementof landresources, which dealswith the reorgan- becomeavailableon the market.This in turn provides
izationand, wherenecessary, somestrengthening of the opportunitiesto supporttraditionalpatternsof sustain-

84
able land managementor to assignprotectedstatusfor shouldensurethat policiesand policy instruments sup-
conservation of biologicaldiversityor criticalecological port the bestpossibleland use and sustainablemanage-
services. ment of land resources.Particularattentionshould be
10.4 A number of techniques,franteworksand pro- given to the role of agriculturalland. To do this, they
cessescan be combinedto facilitatean integratedap- should:
proach. They arethe indispensable supportfor the plan- (a) Develop integratedgoal-settingand policy formu-
ning and management process,at the nationaland local lation at the national,regionaland local levelsthattakes
levelsandecosystem or arealevels,andfor the develop- into account environmental,social, demographicand
mentof specificplansof action.Many of itselementsare economicissues;
already in place but need to be more widely applied, (b) Develop policies that encouragesustainableland
further developedand strengthened.This programme useand managementof land resourcesand takethe land
areais concernedprimarily with providinga fratnework resourcebase,demographicissuesand the interestsof
that will coordinatedecision-making; the contentand the localpopulationinto account:
operationalfunctionsarethereforenot includedherebut (c) Review the regulatoryframework,includinglaws,
are dealt with in the relevantsectoralprogrammesof regulationsand enforcementprocedures,in order to
A e e n d a2 1 . identify improvementsneededto support sustainable
land useand managementof land resourcesand restrict
the transferof productivearableland to other uses;
OBJECTIVES (d) Apply economicinstrumentsand developinstitu-
10.5 The broadobjectiveis to facilitateallocationof tional mechanismsand incentivesto encouragethe best
land to the uses that provide the greatestsustainable possibleland use and sustainablemanagementof land
benefitsandto promotethe transitionto a sustainable and resources;
integratedmanagementof land resources.In doing so, (e) Encouragethe principleof delegatingpolicy-mak-
environmental,social and economicissuesshould be ing to the lowestlevel of public authorityconsistentwith
t ak en int o c on s i d e ra ti o n .P ro te c te da re a s , pri vate effectiveactionand a locally driven approach.
property rights,the rightsof indigenouspeopleand their
communitiesand otherlocal communitiesand the eco-
> Sfrengfhening sysfems
planningond monogemenl
nomic role of women in agricultureand rural develclp-
ment, amongotherissues,shoulclbe takeninto account.
In more specificterms,the objectivesare as follows: 10.7 Governmentsat the appropnatelevel, with the
(a) To review and developpoliciesto supportthe best support of regional and internationalorganizations,
possibleuseof land and the sustainablemanagementof' should review and, if appropriate,revise planningand
landresources, by not laterthan 19961 management systemsto facilitateanintegratedapproach.
(b) To improveand strengthen planning.management To do this, they should:
and evaluationsystemsfor land and land resources,by (a) Adopt planning and managementsystemsthat
not later than 2000; facilitate the integrationof environmentalcomponents
(c) To strengtheninstitutionsand soordinatingn'rech- suchasair, water,landandothernaturalresources, using
anismsforlandandlandresources, by notlaterthan1998; landscapeecologicalplanning (LANDEP) or other ap-
(d) To createmechanismsto facilitatethe active in- proachesthat focus on, for example,an ecosystemor a
volvement and participationof all concerned,parti- watershed;
cularly communitiesand peopleat the local level, in (b) Adopt strategicframeworksthat allow the integra-
decision-making on land use and management, by not tion of both developmentaland environmentalgoals;
later than 1996. exampl esof these framew orksi ncl ude sustainable
l i vel i hood systems,rural devel opment,the Wor ld
ConservationStrategy/Caringfor the Earth, primary
ACTIVITIES environmentalcare (PEC) and others;
(c) Establisha general fiamework for land-useand
E L AT EAC
A ) M A NA G E M EN I-R D TIVITIE S physical planning within which specializedand more
detailedsectoralplans(e.g.,for protectedareas,agricul-
> Developingsupportivepoliciesond policy instruments ture,forests,humansettlements, rural development)can
be developed;establishintersectoralconsultativebodigs
10.6 Governmentsat the appropriatelevel. with the to streamlineprojectplanningand implementation;
support of regional and internationalorganizations. (d) Strengthenmanagementsystemsfor land and
naturalresources by includingappropriatetraditionaland

85
indigenousmethods;examplesof thesepracticesinclude Bl DATAAND 'NFORMAT/ON
pastoralism,Hema reserves(traditional Islamic land
reserves)and terracedagriculture; > StrengfAening informotionsystems
(e) Examineand,if necessary, establishinnovativeand
flexible approachesto programmefunding; 10.I I Governmentsattheappropriatelevel,in collabora-
(f) Compile detailed land capability inventoriesto tion with nationalinstitutionsand the privatesectorand
guidesustainable landresourcesallocation,management with thesupportof regionalandinternationalorganizations,
and useat the nationaland local levels. should strengthenthe information systemsnecessauy fclr
makingdecisionsandevaluatingfuturechangeson landuse
andmanagement.The needsofbothmenandwomenshould
> Promotingopplicotionof oppropriote toolsfor plonning be takeninto account.To do this,they should:
ond monogement
(a) Strengthen information,systematicobservationand
assessmentsystemsfor environmental,economic and
10.8 Governmentsat the appropriatelevel, with the social data related to land resourcesat the global,
support of national and international organizations, regional,nationaland local levelsandfor land capability
should promotethe improvement,further development and land-useand managementpatterns;
andwidespreadapplicationof planningandmanagement (b) Strengthencoordinationbetweenexistingsectorai
tools that facilitate an integratedand sustainableap- data systemson land and land resourcesand strengthen
proachto land and resources. To do this, they should: nationalcapacityto gatherand assessdata;
(a) Adopt improvedsystemsfor the interpretationand (c) Provide the appropriatetechnical information
integratedanalysisof dataon landuseandlandresources; necessaryfor informeddecision-makingon land useand
(b) Systematically applytechniquesandprocedures for managementin an accessibleform to all sectorsof the
assessingthe environmental,social and economicim- population,especiallyto local communitiesand women;
pacts,risks,costsand benefitsof specificactions; (d) Support low-cost, community-managedsystems
(c) Analyse and test methods to include land and for the collection of comparableinformation on the status
ecosystemfunctionsandlandresources valuesin national and processesof change of land resources,including
accounts. soils,forestcover,wildlife, climateand otherelements.

> Roisingoworeness
C) /NIERNAI/ONAI.
AND REG/ONAT
COORD/NATION AND COOPERAIION
10.9 Governmentsat theappropriatelevel,in collabora-
tion with national institutionsand interestgroups and
> Estoblishingregionol mochinery
with the supportof regionaland internationalorganiza-
tions, should launch awareness-raising campaignsto
10.12Governmentsat the appropriatelevel, with the
alert and educatepeopleconcerningthe importanceof
integratedland and land resourcesmanagementand the support of regional and internationalorganizations,
shouldstrengthenregionalcooperationand exchangeof
role that individualsandsocialgroupscanplay in it. This
informationon land resources.To do this, they should:
should be accompaniedby provision of the meansto
(a) Study and design regional policies to support
adopt improved practicesfor land use and sustainable
prograrnmesfor land-useand physicalplanning;
management.
(b) Promotethe developmentof land-useandphysical
plansin the countriesof the region;
> Promoting
public porticipotion (c) Designinformationsystemsand promotetraining;
(d) Exchange,through networks and other appropriate
10.10Governments level,in collabora-
at the appropriate means,informationon experienceswith the processand
tion with national organizationsand with the supportof resultsof integratedand participatoryplanningand man-
regionaland intemationalorganizations,should establish agementof land resourcesat the nationaland local levels.
innovative procedure s. programmes,projectsand services
thatfacilitateandencourage theactiveparticipationof those
MEANSOF IMPLEMENTATION
affected in the decision-makingand implementation
process,especiallyof groupsthat havehithertooften been A/ FIN,ANC/NGAND COST EVALUATTON
excluded,such as women, youth, indigenouspeopleand
theircommunitiesandotherlocalcommunities. 10.13 The Conference secretariathas estimated the aver-

86
age total annualcost ( 1993-2000)of implementingthe promotethe developmentof the humanresourcesthat are
activitiesof thisprogrammeto beabout$50million fiom required to plan and manage land and land resources
the internationalcommunityon grant or concessional sustainably. This shouldbe done by providingincentives
terms.Theseare indicativeand order-of-magnitude esti- fbr local initiativesand by enhancinglocal management
matesonly andhavenot been reviewed by Governments. capacity,particularly of women, through:
Actual costsand financialterms,includingany that are (a) Emphasizinginterdisciplinary and integrativeap-
non-concessional, will depend upon, inter alia, the proachesin the curriculaof schoolsand technical,voca-
specificstrategies programmesGovernmentsdecide
and tionaland universitytraining;
upon for implementation. (b) Trainingall relevantsectorsconcernedto dealwith
land resourcesin an integratedand sustainablemannerl
(c) Trainingcommunities, relevantextensionservices,
MFANS
B) SC'ENI/F/CAND TECHNOIOGICAT community-based groups and non-govemmental organ-
izationson land management techniquesand approaches
appliedsuccessfully elsewhere.
> Enhoncingscientificunderstonding
of the
lond resourcessyslem
D) CAPACTTY-BUtLDtNG
10.l4 Governments at theappropriatelevel,in collabora-
tion with thc'national and international
scientificcom-
munity and with the supportof appropriatenationaland > StrengtAening technologicolcopacity
internationalorganizations, shouldpromoteand support
research,tailored to local environments,on the land 10.17Governmentsat the appropriatelevel, in cooper-
resourcessystem and the implicationsfor sustainable ation with other Governmentsand with the supportof
practices.Priority should relevant internationalorganizations,should promote
developmentandmanagement
be given,as appropriate,to: focusedand concertedeffortsfor educationand training
(a) Assessment of landpotentialcapabilityandecosys- and the transfer of techniquesand technologiesthat
tem functions; supportthe various aspectsof the sustainableplanning
(b) Ecosystemic interactions and interactionsbetween and management processat the national,state/provincial
land resources and social.economicand environmental and local levels.
systems;
(c) Developingindicatorsof sustainabilityfor land > Strength
ening in stitutions
resources,taking into accountenvironmental,economic,
social,demographic,culturaland political factors. 10.18Governmentsat the appropriatelevel, with the
support of appropriate international organizations,
> Testingresqrch findingsthroughpilot proixts should:
(a) Reviewand,whereappropriate, revisethemandates
of institutionsthat deal with land and naturalresources
10.l 5 Governments at theappropriatelevel,in collabora-
to include explicitly the interdisciplinaryintegrationof
tion with the nationaland internationalscientificcom-
environmental,socialand economicissues;
munity and with the supportof the relevantintemational
(b) Strengthencoordinatingmechanismsbetweenin-
organizations,should researchand test, through pilot
stitutionsthat deal with land-useandresourcesmanage-
projects,the applicabilityof improvedapproaches to the
ment to facilitate integrationof sectoralconcemsand
integratedplanningand managementof land resources,
strategies;
includingtechnical,socialand institutionalfactors.
(c) Strengthenlocal decision-makingcapacityand im-
prove coordinationwith higherlevels.

C) HUM A NRE S O U R CDEEV EL OP M EN T

> Enhoncingeducationond troining

10.16Govemmentsat the appropriate level,in collabora-


tion with theappropriate
localauthorities.
non-govemmen-
tal orsanizationsand internationalinstitutions.should

8'7
ll ng deforestotion
Comboti

OBJECTIVES
P R O G R A M MAER E A S
11.2 The objectivesof this programmeareaare as fol-
l ow s:
(a) To strengthenforest-related nationalinstitutions,to
A) SUSTAININGTHEMUITIPIE ROTESAND enhancethe scopeand effectiveness of activitiesrelated
FUNCTIONSOF AtL TYPESOF FORESTS, devel-
to the management, conservationand sustainable
FORESTLANDS AND WOODLANDS
opmentof forests,and to effectivelyensurethe sustain-
able utilization and production of forests' goods and
BASIS FORACTION servicesin both the developedand the developing
1l. l T he re a re ma j o r w e a k n e s s e si n the pol i ci es, countries;by the year 2000,to strengthenthe capacities
methods and mechanismsadopted to support and and capabilitiesof nationalinstitutionsto enablethemto
developthe multiple ecological,economic,socialand acquirethe necessaryknowledge for the protectionand
cultural roles of trees,forestsand forest lands. Many conservationof forests,as well as to expandtheir scope
developedcountriesare confrontedwith the effectsof and, correspondingly,enhancethe effectivenessof
air pollution and fire damageon their forests.More programmesandactivitiesrelatedto themanagement and
effectivemeasuresand approachesare often required developmentof forests;
at the nationallevel to improve attdharmonizepolicy (b) To strengthenand improve human, technicaland
formulation, planning and programming;legislative professionalskills, as well as expertiseand capabilities
measuresand instruments;developmentpatterns:par- to effectively formulateand implementpolicies,plans,
ticipationof the generalpublic, especiallywomen and programmes.researchandprojectson management, con-
indigenouspeople;involvementof youth; rolesof the servationand sustainabledevelopmentof all types of
private sector,local organizations,non-governmental forestsand forest-basedresources,and forest lands in-
organizationsand cooperatives;developmentof tech- clusive,as well as otherareasfrom which forestbenefits
nical and multidisciplinaryskills and quality of human canbe derived.
resources:forestry extensionand public education;re-
searchcapabilityand support;administrativestructures
includingintersectcralcoordination, ACTIVITIES
and mechanisms.
decentralization responsibilityand incentivesys-
and ATEDACTIVITIES
A) MANAGEMENI.REI
tems;and dissemination of informationand publicrela-
tions. This is especiallyimportantto eitsurea rational I 1.3 Governmentsat the appropriatelevel, with the
andholisticapproachto the sustainable andenvironmen-
supportof regional,subregionaland internationalorgan-
tally sounddevelopmentof forests.The needfor secur- izations,should,where necessary, enhanceinstitutional
ing the multiple roles of forestsand l'orestlandsthrough capabilityto promote the multiple roles andfunctionsof
adequateand appropriateinstitutional strengtheninghas all types of forests and vegetationinclusive of other
been repeatedlyemphasizedin rrrany of the reports, relatedlands and forest-basedresourcesin supporting
decisionsandrecommendations of FAO,ITTO, UNEP the
sustainabledevelopmentand environmentalconserya-
World Bank.IUCN andotherorsanizations. tion in all sectors.This shouldbe done,whereverpossible

88
and necessary,by strengtheningand/or modifying the subregional and bilateral agencies, where relevant,
existing structuresand arrangements,and by improving should develop adequatedatabasesand baselineinfor-
cooperationand coordination of their respectiveroles. mation necessaryfor planning and programme evalu-
Someof the major activitiesin this regardare asfollows: ation. Some of the more specific activities include the
(a) Rationalizing and strengtheningadministrative following:
str uc t ur esand m e c h a n i s ms i,n c l u d i n g p ro v i s i on of (a) Collecting, compiling and regularly updating and
adequatelevels of staff and allocationof responsibil- distributing information on land classificationand land
ities, decentralizationof decision-making,provision use, including data on forest cover, areas suitable for
of infrastructuralfacilities and equipment,intersec- afforestation, endangeredspecies, ecological values,
toral coordination and an effective system of com- traditional/indigenousland- usevalues,biomassandpro-
m unic at ion; ductivity, correlatingdemographic,socio-economicand
(b) Promotingparticipationof the privatesector,labour forest resourcesinformation at the micro- and macro-
unions,rural cooperatives,local communities,indigen- levels, and undertaking periodic analyses of forest
ous people,youth,women,usergroupsand non-govern- prograrnmes;
mental organizationsin forest-relatedactivities, and ac- (b) Establishinglinkages with other data systemsand
cessto information and training prograrnmeswithin the sourcesrelevantto supportingforest management,con-
national context; servationand development,while further developingor
(c) Reviewing and,if necessary,revising measuresand reinforcing existingsystemssuchasgeographicinforma-
programmesrelevant to all types of forestsand vegeta- tion systems,as appropriate;
tion, inclusive of other related lands and forest-based (c) Creatingmechanismsto ensurepublic accessto this
resources,and relating them to other land usesand de- information.
velopment policies and legislation; and promoting ade-
quate legislation and other measuresas a basis against
uncontrolledconversionto other types of land uses; cJ tNrERN,AilON,AtAND REG'ONAI.
(d) Developing and implementing plans and pro- COOPERAI'ONAND COORD'NAI'ON
grammes,including definition of national and, if neces-
sary, regional and subregionalgoals, programmesand I1.5 Governmentsat the appropriatelevel and institu-
criteria for their implementation and subsequentim- tions should cooperatein the provision of expertiseand
provement; other supportand the promotion of international research
(e) Establishing,developing and sustainingan effec- efforts, in particularwith a view to enhancingtransferof
tive system of forest extensionand public educationto technologyand specializedtraining and ensuringaccess
ensurebetter awareness,appreciationand management to experiencesand researchresults. There is need for
of forestswith regardto the multiple roles and valuesof strengtheningcoordinationand improving the perform-
trees.forestsand forest lands; anceof exi sting forest-relatedi nternationalorganizations
(0 Establishing and/or strengtheninginstitutions for in providing technicalcooperationand supportto inter-
forest educationand training, as well as forestry indus- ested countries for the management,conservationand
tries, to developan adequatecadreof trained and skilled sustainabledevelopmentof forests.
staff at the professional,technicaland vocational levels,
with emphasison youth and women;
(g) Establishingand strengtheningcapabilitiesfor re- MEANSOF IMPTEMENTATION
searchrelatedto the different aspectsof forestsandforest
products,for example,on the sustainablemanagementof A' F'NANC|ALAND COSI EVALUATTON
forests,on biodiversity,on the effectsof airbornepollu-
tants, on traditional uses of forest resourcesby local
I L6 The Conferencesecretariathasestimatedthe aver-
populationsand indigenouspeople, and on improving
age total annualcost (1993-2000)of implementingthe
market returns and other non-market values from the
activities of this programme to be about $2.5 billion,
managementof forests.
including about$860 million from the internationalcom-
munity on grant or concessionalterms.Theseare indic-
ative andorder-of-magnitudeestimatesonly andhavenot
B) DATAAND 'NFORMAI'ON been reviewed by Governments.Actual costsand finan-
cial terms, including any that are non-concessional,will
ll.4 Governments at the appropriate level, with the depend upon, inter alia, the specific sftategies and pro-
assistanceand cooperation of international, regional, grammesGovemmentsdecideupon for implementation.

89
MEANS
8' SC'FNilF'CAND TECHNOLOGICAL Bl ENHANCING rHE PROTECnON,SUSTAINABLE
,UIANAGEMENTAND CONSERVATIONOF AtL
ll.7 The planning,researchandtrainingactivitiesspec- FORESTIS,AND THEGREENINGOF DEGRADED
AREAS,THROUGH FOR,EST REHABITITATION,
ified will form the scientific and technologicalmeansfor
AFFORESTATION,REFORESTATIONAND
implementingthe programme,as well as its output. The
OI}IER REHABIUTATIVETEANS
systems,methodologyand know-how generatedby the
programme will help improve efficiency. Some of the
specificstepsinvolved shouldinclude: FORACNON
BASIS
(a) Analysingachievements, constraintsand socialis-
I I .10 Forestsworldwide havebeenand arebeing threat-
sues for supporting programme formulation and im-
enedby uncontrolleddegradationandconversionto other
plementation;
typesoflanduses,influencedbyincreasinghumanneeds;
(b) Analysing researchproblems and researchneeds,
agricultural expansion;and environmentallyharmful
researchplanning and implementation of specific re-
mismanagement,including, for example, lack of ade-
searchprojects;
quate forest-fire control and anti-poaching measures,
(c) Assessingneedsfor humanresources,skill devel-
unsustainablecommerciallogging, overgrazingand un-
opmentand training;
regulated browsing, harmful effects of airborne pollu-
(d) Developing, testing and applying appropriate
tants,economicincentivesand other measurestaken by
methodologies/approaches in implementing forest
other sectorsof the economy.The impacts of loss and
programmesand plans.
degradationof forestsare in the form of soil erosion,loss
of biological diversity, damage to wildlife habitats and
degradationof watershedareas,deteriorationof the quality
c) DEVELOPMENT
HUMANRESOURCE of life and reductionof the optionsfor development.
I I .l I The presentsituationcallsfor urgentandconsistent
I1.8 The specificcomponentsof foresteducationand action for conserving and sustaining forest resources.
training will effectively contribute to human resource The greening of suitable areas, in all its component
development.Theseinclude: activities,is an effective way of increasingpublic aware-
(a) Launching of graduateand post-graduatedegree, nessand participationin protectingand managingforest
specializationand researchprogrammes; resources.It shouldincludetheconsideration of landuse
(b) Strengtheningof pre-service,in-serviceand ex- and tenurepatternsand local needsand should spell out
tensionservicetraining programmesat the technical and clarify the specific objectivesof the different types
a n d v o c a t i o n a ll e v e l s , i n c l u d i n g t r a i n i n g o f of greeningactivities.
t r ainer s / te a c h e rsa, n d d e v e l o p i n g c u rr i cul um and
teachingmaterials/methods;
(c) Specialtraining for staff of national forest-related OBJECTIVES
organizations in aspectssuch as project formulation, I l.l2 The objectivesof this programmeareaare as fol-
evaluationand periodicalevaluations. lows:
(a) To maintainexistingforeststhroughconservation
and management,and sustainand expandareasunder
D) CAPACTTY-BUlLD'NG forest and tree cover, in appropriate areas of both de-
velopedanddevelopingcountries,throughtheconserya-
ll.9 This prograffrmearea is specifically concerned tion of natural forests,protection, forest rehabilitation,
with capacity-buildingin the forest sector and all regeneration,afforestation,reforestationand tree plant-
progranrmeactivitiesspecifiedcontributeto thatend. In ing, with a view to maintainingor restoringtheecological
buildingnew andstrengthened full advantage
capacities, balance and expanding the contribution of forests to
shouldbe takenof the existingsystemsand experience. human needsand welfare;
(b) To prepareand implement,as appropriate,national
forestryactionprogrammesand/orplansfor the manage-
ment, conservation and sustainabledevelopment of
forests. These programmesand/or plans should be
i ntegrated w i th other l and uses. In thi s cent ext ,
country-drivennational forestry action programmes
and/or plans under the Tropical Forestry Action
Programmearecurrentlybeing implementedin more

90
than 80 countries, with the supportof the intemational environmental,socialand spiritualfunctionsandvalues,
community; including conservationof forestsin representative eco-
(c) To ensuresustainablemanagementand, whereap- logical systems and landscapes,primary old-growth
propriate, conservationof existing and future forest forests,conservationandmanagement of wildlife, nomi-
resources; nationof World HeritageSitesunderthe World Heritage
(d) To maintainandincreasethe ecological,biological, Convention,asappropriate, conservation of geneticresour-
climatic, socio-culturaland economiccontributionsof ces,involvrngin sint andex situmeasures, andundertaking
forestresources; supportivemeasuresto ensuresustainableutilization of
(e) To facilitate and supportthe effective implementa- biologicalresourcesand conservationof biologicaldiver-
tion of the non-legally binding authoritativestatement sity andthetraditionalforesthabitatsof indigenouspeople,
of principlesfor a globalconsensus on the management, forestdwellersand local communities;
conservationand sustainable developmentof all typesof (c) Undertaking and promoting buffer and transition
forests,adoptedby the United Nations Conferenceon zone management;
Environmentand Development,and on the basisof the (d) Carryingout revegetationin appropnatemountain
implementationof theseprinciplesto considerthe need areas,highlands,bare lands,degradedfarm lands,arid
for andthefeasibilityof all kindsof appropriateintemation- and semi-arid lands and coastal areasfor combating
ally agreedarrangements to promoteinternationalcooper- desertificationand preventingerosionproblemsand for
ation on forestmanagement, conservationand sustainable other protective functions and national programmesfor
developmentof all typesof fbrests,includingafforestation, rehabilitationof degradedlands,including community
reforestationand rehabiIitation. forestry, social forestry, agroforestry and silvipasture,
while also taking into account the role of forests as
nationalcarbonreservoirsand sinks;
ACTIVITIES (e) Developing industrial and non-industrialplanted
forestsin orderto supportand promotenationalecologi-
A) M A NA G E M EN I-R E IATAECDT IV IT IES cally soundafforestaticln and reforestation/regeneration
programmesin suitable sites, including upgrading of
11.13 Governmentsshouldrecognizethe importanceof existingplantedforestsof both industrialandnon-indus-
categorizingtorests,within the frameworkof long-term trial and commercialpurposeto increasetheir contribu-
forest conservationand managementpolicies,into dif- tion to human needsand to offset pressureon primary
ferent forest types and setting up sustainableunits in old-growthforests.Measuresshouldbetakento promote
every region/watershed with a view to securingthe con- and provideintermediateyields and to improve the rate
servationof forests.Governments, with theparticipation of returns on investmentsin planted forests,through
of the private sector,non-governrnental organizations, interplantingand underplantingvaluablecrops;
local community groups,indigenouspeople,women, (0 Developing/strengthening a nationaland/ormaster
local governmentunitsandthe public at large,shouldact planfor plantedforestsasa priority,indicating, inter alia,
to maintain and expand the existing vegetativecover the location,scopeand species,and specifyingareasof
whereverecologically,socially and economicallyfeas- existing plantedforestsrequiring rehabilitation,taking
ible, through technicalcooperationand other forms of into accounttheeconomicaspectfor futureplantedforest
support.Major activitiesto be consideredinclude: development,giving emphasisto nativespecies;
(a) Ensuringthe sustainablemanagementof all forest (g) Increasingthe protectionof forestsfrom pollutants,
ecosystemsand woodlands,through improved proper fire, pestsand diseasesand other human-madeinterfer-
planning. managementand timely implementationof encessuchasforestpoaching,mining, unmitigatedshift-
silviculturaloperations,includinginventoryandrelevant ing cultivation and the uncontrolledintroductionof
research,as well as rehabilitationof degradednatural exotic plant and animal species,as well as developing
foreststo restoreproductivity and environmentalcon- and acceleratingresearchfor a betterunderstandingof
tributions,giving particularattentionto humanneedsfor problemsrelating to fhe managementand regeneration
economicand ecologicalservices,wood-basedenergy, of all types of forests;and strengtheningand/or estab-
agroforestry,non-timber forest productsand services, lishingappropnatemeasures to assessand/orcheckinter-
watershedand soil protection,wildlife management, and bordermovementof plantsand relatedmaterials;
forestgeneticresources, (h) Stimulatingdevelopmenrof urbanforestryfor the
(b) Establishing,expandingand managing,as appro- greeningof urban, peri-urbanand rural human settle:
priate to eachnationalcontext,protectedareasystems, ments for amenity,recreationand productionpurposes
which include systemsof conservationunits for their and for protectingtreesand groves;

9l
(i) Launchingor improving opportunitiesfor participa- importance and impact. The international and regional
tion of all people,including youth, women, indigenous community should provide technical cooperationand
peopleand local communities,in the formulation,devel- other meansfor this progratnmearea. Specific activities
opment and implementation of forest-relatedpro- of an intemationalnature,in supportof national efforts,
grarnmesand other activities,taking due accountof the shouldincludethe following:
local needsand cultural values; (a) Increasingcooperativeactionsto reducepollutants
0) Limiting and aiming to halt destructive shifting and transboundaryimpacts affecting the health of trees
cultivation by addressingthe underlying social and and forestsand conservationof representative ecosys-
ecologicalcauses. tems;
(b) Coordinatingregional and subregionalresearchon
carbon sequestration, air pollution and other environ-
B) DATAAND INFORMAIION mentalissues;
(c) Documentingand exchanginginformation/experi-
I l.l4 Management-related activitiesshouldinvolvecol- ence for the benefit of countries with similar problems
lection, compilation and analysisof data/information, and prospects;
including baselinesurveys.Someof the specificactiv- (d) Strengtheningthe coordinationand improving the
ities includethe following: capacity and ability of intergovernmentalorganizations
(a) Carrying out surveys and developing and imple- such as FAO, ITTO, UNEP and UNESCO to provide
menting land-useplans for appropriategreening/plant- technicalsupportfor the management, conservationand
ing/afforestation/reforestation/forest rehabilitation; sustainabledevelopmentof forests,includingsupportfor
(b) Consolidatingand updating land-useand forest the negotiation of the InternationalTropical Timber
inventory and managementinformation for management Agreementof 1983,due in 1992193.
andland-useplanningof wood andnon-woodresources,
includingdataon shiftingcultivationandotheragentsof
MEANSOF IMPLEMENTATION
forest destruction;
(c) Consolidatinginformationon geneticresources and AND COSI EVALUATION
A) FINANCIAT
relatedbiotechnology,including surveysand studies,as
necessary; I 1.16The Conferencesecretariat hasestimatedthe aver-
(d) Carrying out surveysand researchon local/indige- age total annualcost (1993-2000)of implementingthe
nous knowledge of trees and forests and their uses to activities of this programmeto be about $10 billion,
improvethe planningandimplementationof sustainable includingabout$3.7 billion from the internationalcom-
forest management; munity on grantor concessional terms.Theseare indic-
(e) Compiling andanalysingresearchdataon species/site estimatesonly and have
ative and order-of-magnitude
interactionof speciesusedin plantedforestsand assessing not been reviewed by Governments.Actual costs and
the potentialimpact on forestsof climatic change,as well financialterms,includingany thatarenon-concessional,
as effects of forests on climate, and initiating in-depth will dependupon, inter alia, the specificstrategiesand
studieson the carboncycle relatingto different foresttypes prograrnmesGovernmentsdecideupon for implementa-
to provide scientific advice and technicalsupport; tion.
(0 Establishinglinkages with other data/information
sourcesthat relateto sustainablemanagementand useof
forestsand improving accessto data and information;
(g) Developingand intensifyingresearchto improve MEANS
8/ SC/ENilFtCAND TECHNOT.OGtCAL
knowledge and understandingof problems and natural
mechanismsrelated to the managementand rehabilita- I l.l7 Data analysis,planning,research,transfer/devel-
tion of forests,includingresearchon faunaand its inter- opment of technologyand/or training activities form an
relation with forests; integralpart of the programmeactivities,providing the
(h) Consolidatinginformationon forestconditionsand scientific and technologicalmeansof implementation.
site-influencingimmissionsand emissions. Nationalinstitutionsshould:
(a) Develop feasibility studiesand operationalplan-
ning relatedto major forestactivities;
C/ /NIERNAI/ONAI.AND REG'ONAI. (b) Developandapplyenvironmentallysoundteehnol-
COOPERAIIONAND COORD'NAI'ON ogy relevantto the variousactivitieslisted;
(c) Increaseactionrelatedto geneticimprovementand
I L l5 The greeningof appropriateareasis ataskof global

92
applicationof biotechnologyfor improving productivity products, increasedcontribution to foreign exchange
and toleranceto environmentalstressand including,for earnings,and increasedreturn on investment.Forest
example, tree breeding,seedtechnology,seedprocure- resources, beingrenewable,can be sustainablymanaged
ment networks,germ-plasmbanks,in vitro techniques, in a manner that is comphtible with environmental
and in situ and ex situ conservation. conservation. The implicationsof theharvestingof forest
resourcesfor the othervaluesof theforestshouldbe taken
fully into considerationin the developmentof forest
C) HUMANRESOURCE
DEVELOPMENT policies.It is alsopossibleto increasethe valueof forests
throughnon-damagingusessuchas eco-tourismand the
I l.l8 Essentialmeansfor effectivelyimplementingthe managedsupply of geneticmaterials.Concertedaction
activitiesincludetrainingand developmentof appropri- is neededin order to increasepeople'sperceptionof the
ate skills,working facilitiesand conditions,public moti- value of forests and of the benefits they provide. The
vation and awareness. Specificactivitiesinclude: survival of forests and their continued contribution to
(a) Providing specializedtraining in planning,manage- humanwelfaredependto a greatextenton succeeding in
ment,environmentalconservation, biotechnologyetc.; this endeavour.
(b) Establishingdemonstration areasto serveasmodels
and trainingfacilities;
(c) Supportinglocal organizations, corrmunities,non- OBJECTIVES
governmentalorganizationsand privateland owners,in 11.21The objectivesof this prograrnmeareaare as fol-
particular women, youth, farmers and indigenous lows:
people/shifting cultivators, through extension and (a) To improverecognitionof the social,economicand
provisionof inputsand training. ecologicalvaluesof trees,forestsand forest lands.in-
cluding the consequences of the damagecausedby the
lack of forests;to promotemethodologieswith a view to
D) CAPACITY-BUILDING incorporatingsocial,economicand ecologicalvaluesof
trees,forestsand forest lands into the nationaleconomic
ll.l9 National Governments,the private sector,local accounting systems; and to ensure their sustainable
organizations/communities, indigenouspeople, labour managementin a way that is consistentwith land use,
unions and non-governmentalorganizationsshouldde- environmentalconsiderations and developmentneeds;
velopcapacities, (b) To promote efficient, rational and sustainable
duly supporledby relevantinternational
organrzatrons,to implement the prograrune activities. utilization of all types of forests and vegetationin-
Suchcapacitiesshouldbe developedandstrengthened in clusiveof otherrelatedlandsand forest-based resour-
harmony with the programmeactivities. Capacity- ces,throughthe developmentof efficientforest-based
building activities include policy and legal processingindustries, value-adding secondarypro-
f r am ewor k s , n a ti o n a l i n s ti tu ti o n b u i l d i n g , human cessingand tradein forestproducts,basedon sustain-
resourcedevelopment,developmentof researchand ably managedforest resourcesand in accordancewith
technology,developmentof infrastructure,enhance- plans that integrateall wood and non-woodvaluesof
ment of public awarenessetc. forests;
(c) To promote more efficient and sustainableuse of
forestsand treesfor fuelwood and energysupplies;
c) PROMOnNG EFFTqENT UTITZATTONAND (d) To promote more comprehensiveuse and econ-
ASSESSMENT TO RECOVERTHE FUtt VATUATIONOF omic contributions of forest areas by incorporating
I}IE GOODS AND SERVICESPROVIDEDBY FORESTS, eco-tourisminto forestmanagementand planning.
FORESTTANDSAND WOODLANDS

ACTIVITIES
BASIS FORACTION
11.20 The vastpotentialof forestsand forestlandsas a A) MANAGEMENI-R
ELAT
EDACTIVITIES
major resourcefor developmentis not yet fully realized.
The improved managementof forestscan increasethe 11.22Governments, with the supportof theprivatesector,
productionof goodsand servicesand, in particular,the scientific institutions,indigenouspeople, non-gove{n-
yield of wood and non-wood forest products, thus mental organizations,cooperativesand entrepreneurs,
helping to generateadditionalemploymentand income, whereappropriate,shouldundertakethe following activ-
additional value through processingand trade of forest ities, properly coordinatedat the national level, with

93
financialand techtricalcooperatiollfrom itttetrtational enterprises lor suppo(ing rural developttrcnt and ltlcal
organizittions: entrepreneurship;
(a) Canying out detailedinvestruc-nt studies.supply- 0l Itttprovingandprottroting rtrethodtlltlgieslor a cotn-
d e r n a n dh a r n r o n i z a t i o na n d e t t v i t ' o n n t e n t ai nl r p a c t prehensive assessment thatwill capturethe l'ull valueo1'
analysisto rationalizeand intprovetreesattdtilrestutili- w i th a vi ew to i ncl udi ngthatval uei n th et nar kel-
forests,
zationandto developandestablish appropriate incentive basedpricing structureof wood and non-woodbased
schemes and regulatorynleasures. includingtenurialar- products;
rangements. to providea favourableitrvesttnent clirnate (k) Harmonizingsustainable developmentof forests
and promotebetterltlanageluent; with nationaldevelopnrent needsand tradepoliciesthat
(b) Fonrrulating scientiticallysoundcriteriaandguide- arecompatiblewith theecologicallysounduseof forest
linesfor the tnanagenlent. conservation and sustainable resources, using,fbr example,the ITTO Guidelinesfor
developrnent of all typesof forests: Sustainable Management of TropicalForests;
(c) Improving envit'onntentally sound methodsand (l) Developing,adoptingand strengthening national
practicesof fbrest harvesting.which are ecologically accountingprogrammes for assessingthe economicand
s oundand e c o n o m i c a l lvyi a b l e ,rn c l u d i n gpl anni ngand non-economic valueof forests.
management andimproveduseof equipment, storage and
transportation to reduce,and, if possible,maximizethe
useof, wasteand improvethe valueof both wood and B) DATAAND /NFORMAT/ON
non-woodfbrestproducts:
(d) Promotingthe betteruseanddevelopment of natu- l 1.23The objectivesand management-related activities
ral forestsand woodlands,including planted fbrests, presupposedata and informationanalysis,feasibility
whereverpossible,throughappropriateandenvironmen- studies,marketsurveysand review of technologicalinfor-
tally soundandeconomicallyviableactivities,including mation. Someof therelevantactivitiesinclude:
silviculturalpractices andmanagement of otherplantand (a) Undertakinganalysisof supply and demandfor
animalspecies; forestproductsand services,to ensureefficiencyin their
(e) Promotingandsupportingthedownstreamprocess- utilization,wherevernecessary;
ing of forestproductsto increase retainedvalueandother (b) Carrying out investmentanalysisand feasibility
benefits: studies,includingenvironmental impacIassessment, for
(0 Promoting/popularizing non-wood forest products establishingfbrest-basedprocessingenterprises;
and other forms of forestresources,apartfrom fuelwood (c) Conductingresearchon the propertiesof currently
(e.g.,medicinalplants.dyes,fibres,gums.resins,fodder, underutilizedspeciesfor their promotion and commer-
culturalproducts,rattan,bamboo)throughprogrammes and cialization;
socialforestry/participatory forestactivities,includingre- (d) Supportingmarket surveysof forest productsfor
searchon their processingand uses; tradepromotionand intelligence;
(g) Developing,expandingand/orimprovingtheeffec- (e) Facilitatingthe provisionof adequatetechnological
tivenessandefficiencyof forest-based processingindust- informationas a measureto promotebetterutilizationof
ries, both wood and non-woodbased.involving such forestresources.
aspects asefficientconversiontechnologyandimproved
sustainable utilizationof harvesting andprocess residues:
pr om ot in g u n d e ru ti l i z e ds p e c i e si n n a tural forests c) /NTERNAT/ONAL
AND REG/ONAI
through research,demonstration andcommercialization; AND COORD/NAIION
COOPERAIION
promoting value-addingsecondaryprocessingfor im-
proved employment,income and retained value; and 11.24Cooperationandassistance of internationalorgan-
promoting/improvingrnarketsfor, and trade in, forest izationsand the internationalcommunityin technology
pr oduc t sth ro u g h re l e v a n ti n s ti tu ti o n s ,pol i ci es and transfer,specializationand promotion of fair terms of
facilities; trade,without resortingto unilateralrestrictionsand/or
(h) Promoting and supportingthe managementof bans on forest products contrary to GATT and other
wildlif e, a s w e l l a s e c o -to u ri s m.i n c l u di ng farmi ng, multilateral trade agreements,and the application of
and encouragingand supportingthe husbandryand cul- appropriatemarketmechanismsand incentiveswill help
tivation of wild species,for improvedrural incomeand in addressingglobal environmentalconcerns.Strength-
employment,ensuringeconomic and social benefits ening the coordinationand performanceof existing in-
without harmful ecologicalimpacts; ternationalorganizations,in particular FAO, UNIDO,
(i) Promoting appropriatesmall-scaleforest-based UNESCO, UNEP,ITC/UNCTAD/GATT, ITTO andILO,

94
f br pr ov idingt e c h n i c aal s s i s ta n caen d g u i d a n c ei n thi s courses,i ncl udi ngfel l ow shi psandstudytours,to updat e
programmeareais ancltherspecificactivity. s ki l l sa n d t e c h n o l o g i ckanlo w - h o wa n di m p r o v ep r o d u c -
tivity;
(c) Strengtheningcapability for research,planning,
MEANSOF IMPLEMENTATION economicanalysis,periodicalevaluationsand evalu-
ation,relevantto improvedutilizationof forestresources;
A/ F/NANC/AI.
AND COSTEVALUATION
(d) Promotingefficiencyand capabilityof privateand
cooperativesectorsthroughprovisionof facilitiesand
11. 25T he Confe re n c es e c re ta ri aht a s e s ti matedthe
i ncenti ves.
averagetotal annualcost (1993-2000)of implementing
the activitiesof this programmeto be about$ l8 billion,
includingabout$880million from theinternationalcom-
munityon grantor concessional D) CAPACITY-BUILDING
terms.Theseareindica-
tive andorder-of-magnitude estimates only andhavenot
I l . 2 t l C a p a c i t y - b u i l d i n gi n, c l u d i n gs t r e n g t h e n i nogf
beenreviewedby Govemments.Actualcostsandfinan-
cial terms,includingany that arenon-concessional, existingcapacity,is implicitin theprogrammeactivities.
will
Improvi ngadmi ni strati on, pol i cy and pl ans,nat ional
dependupon,in te r a l i a , th e s p e c i fi c s tra te gi esand
p r o g r a m m e sG o v e r n m e n t sd e c i d e u p o n f o r i m - i nsti tuti ons,humanresources, researchand sci e nt if ic
plementation. capabilities,technologydevelopment,and penodical
evaluations andevaluationareimportantcomponents of
capacity-building,

8/ sC/ENIIFICAND IECHNOI.OGICAL
MEANS
Dl ESTABUSHTNG AND/OR STRENGTHENTNG
11. 26T he pr og ra m m ea c ti v i ti e sp re s u p p o sm e a j or re- CAPACITIESFORTHEPIANNING, ASSESSMENT
searchefforts and studies,as well as improvementof AND SYSTEMATIC OBSERVATIONS OF FORESTS
t ec hnology T. hi s s h o u l d b e c o o rd i n a te db y n ati onal AND RETATED PROGRAA/IftIES,
PROJECTSAND
G ov er nm ent sin, c o l l a b o ra ti o nw i th a n d s u p p o rtedby ACTIVITIES,
INCLUDINGCOMMERCIATTRADE
AND PROCESSES
r elev antint er na ti o n aol rg a n i z a ti o n a
s n d i n s ti tuti ons.
Someof the specificcomponentsinclude:
(a) Researchon propertiesof wood and non-wood
BASIS
FORACTION
productsandtheir uses,to promoteimprovedutilization;
(b) Developmentand applicationof environmentally
l l .29 Assessmentandsystematicobservations areessen-
soundandless-polluting technologyfor forestutilization; tial componentsof long-termplanning,for evaluating
(c) Models and techniquesof outlook analysis and
effects,quantitativelyandqualitatively,andfor rectifying
development planning; inadequacies.This mechanism,however,is one of the
(d) Scientific investigationson the developmentand
oftenneglectedaspectsof forestresources, management,
utilizationof non-timberforestproducts; conservation and development. In manycases,eventhe
(e) Appropriatemethodologiesto assessthe value of
basicinformationrelatedto the areaand type of forests,
forestsin a comprehensive manner. exi sti ngpotenti alandvol umeof harvesti s l acki ng. I n
many developingcountries,thereis a lack of structures
and mechanismsto carry out thesefunctions. Thereis
C ) HUM A NRE S O U R CDEE VE L O P M EN I an urgent need to rectify this situation for a better
understanding of therole andimportanceof forestsand
11.27The successand effectivenessof the programme to realisticallyplan for their effective conservation,
area depend on the availability of skilled personnel. management,regenerati on,and sustai nabl ede vel-
Specializedtrainingis an importantfactorin this regard. opment.
New emphasisshould be given to the incorporationof
women. Human resourcedevelopmentfor prografflme
implementation,in quantitativeand qualitativeterms, OBJECTIVES
shouldinclude:
(a) Developingrequiredspecializedskills to imple- I L30 The objectivesof this programmeareaare as fol-
ment the programme,including establishingspecial l ow s:
trainingfacilitiesat all levels; (a) To strengthenor establishsystemsfor the assess-
( b ) I n t r o d u c i n g / s t r e n g t h e n i nrge f r e s h e rt r a i n i n g ment and systematicobservationsof forestsand forest

95
lands with a view to assessingthe impacts of pro- ( e ) E s t a b l i s h i n gn e c e s s a r yi n t e r s e c t o r a la n d
grarunes,projectsandactivitieson thequalityandextent programme linkages, including improved accessto
of forestresources,land availablefor afforestation,and information,in order to supporta holistic approachto
land tenure,and to integratethe systemsin a continuing planningand programming.
processof researchandin-depthanalysis,while ensuring
necessary modificationsand improvementsfor planning
anddecision-making. Specificemphasisshouldbe given B) DATAAND /NFORMAT/ON
to the participationof rural peoplein theseprocesses;
11.32Reliable data and information are vital to this
(b) To provide economists,planners,decisionmakers
programme area. National Governments,in collabora-
and local communitieswith soundandadequateupdated
tion, where necessary.with relevantinternationalorgan-
informationon forestsand forestland resources.
izations,should, as appropriate,undertaketo improve
dataand informationcontinuouslyand to ensureits ex-
ACTIVITIES change.Major activitiesto be consideredareasfollows:
tES
ACT|V|T
ELATED
A) MANAGEMFNT-R (a) Collecting,consolidatingand exchangingexisting
information and establishing baseline information on
aspectsrelevantto this programmearea;
I l.3l Governmentsand institutions,in collaboration,
(b) Harmonizing the methodologiesfor programmes
wherenecessary,with appropriateinternationalagencies
involving dataandinformationactivitiesto ensureaccu-
and organizations,universitiesand non-govemmental
and sys- racy and consistency;
organizations,should undertakeassessments
(c) Undertakingspecialsurveyson, for example,land
tematic observationsof forestsand relatedprogrammes
capabilityand suitabilityfor afforestationaction;
andprocesses with a view to theircontinuousimprovement.
(d) Enhancingresearchsupportand improvingaccess
This shouldbe linked to relatedactivitiesof researchand
to and exchangeof researchresults.
management and,whereverpossible,be built uponexisting
systems.Major activitiesto be consideredare:
(a) Assessingandcarryingout systematicobservations
AND REG/ONAI
c/ TNIERNAT/ONAI
of the quantitativeand qualitativesituationand changes
COOPERAIIONAND COORD/NAI/ON
of forestcoverandforestresourcesendowments,includ-
ing land classification.land useand updatesof its status, 11.33The internationalcommunityshouldextendto the
at the appropriatenationallevel,and linking this activity, Governmentsconcernednecessarytechnicaland finan-
as appropriate,with planning as a basisfor policy and cial supportfor implementingthisprogrammearea,includ-
programmeformulation; ing considerationof the following activities:
(b) Establishingnationalassessment and systematicob- (a) Establishinga conceptualframeworkandformulating
servation systems and evaluation of programmesand acceptablecriteria, norrns and definitions for systematic
processes, includingestablishment of defrnitions,standards, observations and assessment of forestresources;
norrnsand intercalibrationmethods,and the capability for (b) Establishing and strengtheningnational institu-
initiating correctiveactionsaswell asimproving theformu- tional coordinationmechanismsfor forest assessment
lation and implementationof programmesand projects; and systematicobservationactivities;
(c) Making estimatesof impactsof activitiesaffecting (c) Strengtheningexisting regional and global net-
forestry developmentsand conservationproposals,in works for the exchangeof relevantinformation;
terms of key variables such as developmentalgoals, (d) Strengthening the capacityand ability and improv-
benefitsand costs,contributionsof foreststo other sec- ing the performanceof existing international organiza-
tors, community welfare,environmentalconditionsand tions, such as the ConsultativeGroup on International
biological diversity and their impacts at the local, re- Agricultural Research(CGIAR), FAO, ITTO, UNEP,
gionaland globallevels,whereappropriate,to assess the UNESCO and UNIDO, to providetechnicalsupportand
changingtechnologicaland financialneedsof countries; guidancein this programmearea.
(d) Developingnationalsystemsof forestresourceas-
sessment andvaluation,includingnecessary researchand
dataanalysis,which accountfor, wherepossible,the full MEANSOF IMPLEMENTATION
range of wood and non-wood forest productsand ser-
vices, and incorporatingresultsin plans and strategies A/ FINAN CIAL AND COSI EVALUATION
and.wherefeasible,in nationalsystemsof accountsand
planning;
I 1.34 The Conference secretariathas estimated the aver-

96
age total annual cost ( 1993-2000)of implementing the C) HUMANRESOURCE
DEVELOPMENT
activitiesof this programmeto be about $750 million,
including about$230million from the internationalcom- 11.38The programmeactivities foreseethe need and
munity on grantor concessional terms.Theseareindica- include provision for human resourcedevelopmentin
tive andorder-of-magnitude estimatesonly andhavenot termsof specialization(e.g.,the useof remote-sensing,
beenreviewedby Govemments.Actual costsandfinan- mappingand statisticalmodelling),training,technology
cial terms,includingany that are non-concessional, will transfer,fellowships and field demonstrations.
depend upon, inter alia, the specific strategiesand pro-
gfturrmesGovernmentsdecideuponfor implementation.
I1.35 Acceleratingdevelopmentconsistsof implement- D) CAPACITY-BUILDING
ing the management-relatedand data/information ac-
tivities cited above. Activitiesrelatedto global environ- 11.39National Governments,in collaborationwith ap-
mental issuesare those that will contributeto global propriate international organizationsand institutions,
information for assessing/evaluating/addressing envi- shoulddevelopthe necessary capacityfor implementing
ronmentalissueson a world-wide basis.Strengthening this prograrune area.This should be harmonized with
the capacityof internationalinstitutionsconsistsof en- capacity-buildingfor other programmeareas.Capacity-
hancingthe technicalstaffand the executingcapacityof building should cover such aspectsas policies,public
severalinternationalorganizationsin order to meet the admi ni strati on,nati onal -l evel i nsti tuti ons, hum an
requirementsof countries. resourceandskill development, researchcapability,tech-
nology development,information systems,programme
evaluation. intersectoralcoordination and international
cooperation.
8/ SC/ENI/F/C
AND TECHNOT.OG\CAL
MEANS

11.36Assessment and systematicobservation activities E/ FUND/NGOF /NTERNAnONAI


AND
involve major researchefforts,statisticalmodellingand
REG/ONAL COOPERAIION
technologicalinnovation.Thesehave been internalized
into the management-related activities.The activitiesin I I .40 The secretariatof theConferencehasestimatedthe
tum will improve the technologicaland scientificcontent averagetotal annualcost (1993-2000)of implementing
of assessment and periodical evaluations. Some of the the activitiesof this programmeto be about$750million,
specificscientificand technologicalcomponentsincluded includingabout$530million from theinternationalcom-
undertheseactivitiesare: munity on grant or concessionalterms.Theseare indic-
(a) Developing technical, ecological and economic
ative andorder-of-magnitudeestimatesonly andhavenot
methodsand modelsrelatedto periodicalevaluationsand beenreviewedby Governments.Actual costsand finan-
evaluation; cial terms,includingany that are non-concessional,will
(b) Developingdata systems,dataprocessingand sta-
dependupon, inter alia, the specificstrategiesand pro-
tisticalmodelling; grammesGovernmentsdecideuponfor implementation.
(c) Remotesensingand groundsurveys;
(d) Developinggeographicinformationsystems;
(e) Assessingand improving technology.
I 1.37 Theseareto be linkedandharmonizedwith similar
activitiesandcomponentsin the otherprogrammeareas.

97
'lt) Monogingfrogileecosystems:
I z- Comboting ond drought
desertificotion

12.4 The following programlne areasare included in


INTRODUCTION
this chapter:
(a) Strengthening the knowledgebaseand developing
information and monitoring systemsfor regionsproneto
l2.l Fragile ecosystemsare important ecosystems, desertificationand drought,includingthe economicand
with uniquefeaturesand resources.Fragileecosystems socialaspectsof theseecosystems;
include desefts,semi-aridlands, mountains,wetlands, (b) Combating land degradationthrough, inter alia,
small islandsand certain coastalareas. Most of these i ntensified soil conservation. afforestationand reforesta-
ecosystemsare regionalin scope,as they transcendna- tion activities;
tional boundaries.This chapteraddresses land resource (c) Developingand sfrengttrening integrateddevelopment
issuesin deserts,as well as arid, semi-arid and dry programmesfor theeradicationof povertyandpromotionof
sub-humidareas.Sustainable mountaindevelopmentis altemativelivelihoodsystemsin areasproneto desertification;
addressed in chapterl3; small islandsand coastalareas (d) Developing comprehensiveanti-desertification
are discussedin chapter17. programmesand integratingthem into nationaldevelop-
12.2 Desertificationis land degradationin arid, semi- ment plansand nationalenvironmentalplanning;
arid and dry sub-humid areas resulting from various (e) Developingcomprehensivedrought preparedness
factors, including climatic variations and human ac- and droughrrelief schemes,includingself-helpaffange-
tivities. Desertificationaffectsabout one sixth of the ments, for drought-prone areas and designing pro-
world's population,70 per centof all drylands,amount- grammesto cope with environmentalrefugees;
ing to 3.6 billion hectares,and one quarterof the total (0 Encouragingand promoting popular participation
land area of the world. The most obvious impact of andenvironmentaleducation,focusingon desertification
desertification,in additionto widespreadpoverty,is the control and managementof the effectsof drought.
degradationof 3.3 billion hectaresof the total areaof
rangeland,constituting73 per centof the rangelandwith
a low potentialfor humanand animalcarryingcapacity;
declinein soil fertility and soil structureon about47 per P R O GR A M ME A R E A S
cent of the dryland areasconstituting marginal rainfed
cropland; and the degradationof inigated cropland,
Al STRENGTHENINGTHEKNOWTEDGEBASE
amountingto 30 per centof the drylandareaswith a high AND DEVELOPINGINFORMATIONAND
populationdensityand agriculturalpotential. MONITORING SYSTEMSFOR REGIONSPRONE
12.3 The priority in combatingdesertificationshouldbe AND DROUGH' INCTUDING
TO DESERTIFICATION
the implementationof preventivemeasuresfor landsthat THEECONOMICAND SOCIATASPECTS OF
are not yet degraded,or which are only slightly degraded. THESEECOSYSTETAS
However,the severelydegradedareasshouldnot be neg-
lected. In combatingdesertificationand drought,the par- FORACTION
BASIS
ticipation of local communities,rural organizations,na-
12.5 The global assessments of the statusand rate of
tional Governments,non-governmental organizationsand
conductedby theUnitedNationsEnviron-
desertification
intemationalandregionalorganizationsis essential.

98
mentProgramme(UNEP) rn 1977,1984and 1991have analyseenvironmentaldatasothat ecologicalchangecan
revealedinsufficient basic knowledge of desertification be monitored and environmentalinformation obtained
processes.Adequateworld-widesystematicobservation on a continuingbasisat the nationallevel.
systemsare helpful for the developmentand implemen-
tation of effective anti-desertificationprograrnmes.The
capacity of existing international,regional and national B) DATAAND TNFORMAnON
institutions, particularly in developing countries, to
generateand exchangerelevant information is limited. 12.8 Governments at the appropriate level, with the
An integrated and coordinated information and sys- supportof the relevantinternationaland regional organ-
tematic observationsystem basedon appropriatetech- izations,should:
nologyandembracingglobal,regional,nationalandlocal (a) Review and study the means for measuring the
levels is essentialfor understandingthe dynamics of ecological,economicand socialconsequences of deser-
desertificationanddroughtprocesses. It is alsoimportant tification and land degradationand introducethe results
for developingadequatemeasuresto dealwith desertifi- of these studies internationally into desertificationand
cation and droughtand improving socio-economiccon- land degradationassessment practices;
ditions. (b) Review and study the interactions between the
socio-economicimpactsof climate, droughtand deserti-
fication and utilize the resultsof thesestudiesto secure
OBJECTIVES concreteaction.
12.6 The objectivesof this programmeareaare: l2.g Governments at the appropriate level, with the
(a) To promotethe establishmentand/or strengthening supportof the relevantinternationaland regional organ-
of national environmental information coordination izations,should:
centresthat will act as focal points within Governments (a) Supportthe integrateddatacollection and research
for sectoralministriesand provide the necessarystand- work of programmes related to desertification and
ardizationand back-upservices;and also to ensurethat drought problems;
national environmentalinformation systemson deserti- (b) Supportnational,regional and global programmes
fication and drought are linked together through a net- for integrateddatacollection and researchnetworkscar-
work at subregional,regionaland interregionallevels; rying out assessment of soil and land degradation;
(b) To strengthenregionalandglobal systematicobser- (c) Strengthennational and regional meteorological
vation networks linked to the developmentof national and hydrologicalnetworks and monitoring systemsto
systemsfor the observationof land degradationand ensureadequatecollectionof basicinfbrmation andcom-
desertificationcausedboth by climate fluctuationsand munication among national, regional and international
by humanimpact,andto identify priority areasfor action; centres.
(c) To establisha permanentsystemat both national
and international levels for monitoring desertification
and land degradationwith the aim of improving living AND RFG/ONAI
C) /NIERNATIONAL
conditionsin the affectedareas. COOPERAIION AND COORD/NAT/ON

ACTIVITIES 12.10Governmentsat the appropriatelevel, with the


supportof the relevantinternationaland regional organ-
A) MANAGFMENI.R ACTIVITIES
ELATED izations,should:
(a) Strengthenregional programmesand international
12.1 Governmentsat the appropriatelevel, with the cooperation,suchas the PermanentInter-StateCommit-
supportof the relevantinternationaland regional organ- tee on Drought Control in the Sahel(CILSS),the Inter-
izations.should: governmentalAuthority for Drought and Development
(a) Establishand/orstrengthenenvironmental informa- (IGADD), the SouthernAfrican DevelopmentCoordina-
tion systemsat the nationallevel; tionConference(SADCC),theArab MaghrebUnion and
(b) Strengthennational,state/provincialand local as- other regional organizations,as well as such organiza-
sessmentand ensurecooperation/networking between tions as the Saharaand SahelObservatory;
existingenvironmentalinformationand monitoringsys- (b) Establishand/or develop a comprehensivedeserti-
tems, such as Earthwatch and the Saharaand Sahel fication,landdegradationandhumanconditiondatabase
Observatory; component that incorporatesboth physical and socio-
(c) Strengthenthe capacityof nationalinstitutionsto economicparameters.This shouldbe basedon existing

99
and, where necessary,additionalfacilities, such as those skills of peopleengagedin monitoringand assessing
the
of Earthwatchand other information systemsof interna- issueof desertificationand drousht.
tional, regionaland nationalinstitutionsstrengthenedfor
this purpose;
(c) Determine benchmarks and define indicators of D) CAPACTTY-BUtLDtNG
progressthat facilitate the work of local and regional
organizationsin tracking progressin the fight for anti- 12.14 Governmentsat the appropriatelevel, with the
desertification. Particular attention should be paid to supportof the relevantinternationaland regional organ-
indicatorsof local participation. izations working on the issue of desertificationand
drought,should:
(a) Strengthennational and local institutions by pro-
MEANSOFIMPLEMENTATION viding adequate staffequipmentandfinanceforassessins
A' F'NANCTNG
AND COSTEVALUATTON desertification;
(b) Promotethe involvementof the local population,
panicularly women and youth, in the collection and
12.11The Conferencesecretariathas estimatedthe
utilizationof environmentalinformationthroueheduca-
averagetotal annualcost (1993-2000)of implementing
theactivitiesof thisprogrammeto be about$350million, tion and awareness-buildine.
includingabout$175million fromthe internationalcom-
munity on grantor concessionalterms.Theseare indica- B) COTVIBAT|NGLAND DEGRADATTON THROUGH,
tive and order-of-magnitudeestimatesonly and havenot ,NTER ALTA,INTENSIFIEDSOII CONSERVANON,
beenreviewedby Governments.Actual costsandfinan- AFFORESTATION AND REFORESTATION ACTIVITIES
cial terms,includingany that are non-concessional,
will
depend upon, inter alia, the specific strategiesand
BASIS
FORACTION
programmesGovernmentsdecideupon for implemen-
tation. 12.15Desertification affects about 3.6 billion hec-
tares,which is about70 per cent of the total areaof the
world's drylandsor nearly one quarter of the global
B/ SC'ENilFtCAND TECHNOLOG\CAL
MEANS land area.In combatingdesertificationon rangeland,
rainfed cropland and irrigated land, preventive
12.12Governmentsat the appropriatelevel, with the measuresshould be launchedin areaswhich arenot yet
supportof the relevantinternationaland regional organ- affectedor are only slightly affectedby desertification;
izations working on the issue of desertificationand correctivemeasuresshould be implementedto sustain
drought,should: the productivity of moderately desertifiedland; and
(a) Undertake and update existing inventories of rehabilitative measuresshould be taken to recover
naturalresources, suchas energy,water,soil, minerals severelyor very severelydesertifieddrylands.
and plant and animal accessto food, as well as other 12.16An increasingvegetationcover would promote
resources,suchas housing,employment,health,edu- andstabilizethehydrologicalbalancein thedrylandareas
cationanddemographicdistributionin time and space; and maintainland quality and land productivity.Protec-
(b) Develop integratedinformation systemsfor envi- tion of not yet degradedland, applicationof corrective
ronmental monitoring, accountingand impact assess- measuresand rehabilitationof moderateand severely
ment; degradeddrylands,including areasaffectedby sanddune
(c) Cooperatewith internationalbodiesto facilitatethe movements,throughthe introductionof environmentally
acquisitionand developmentof appropriatetechnology sound, soci al l y acceptabl e,fai r and econom ically
for monitoring and combating drought and deserti- feasibleland-usesystemswill enhancethe land-carrying
fication. capacityand maintenanceof biotic resourcesin fragile
ecosystems.

c ) HUM A NR ES O U R CDEE VE L O P M EN T
OBJECTIVES
12.13Governmentsat the appropriatelevel, with the 12.17The objectivesof this programmeareaare:
supportof the relevantinternationaland regional organ- (a) As regardsareasnot yet affected or only slightly
izations working on the issue of desertificationand affected by desertification, to ensure appropriate
drought,shoulddevelopthe technicaland professional managementof existing natural formations(including

r 00
forests) for the conservationof biodiversity, watershed resources,including rangeland,to meetboth the needsof
protection,sustainabilityof their productionandagricul- rural populations and conservationpurposes,basedon
tural development,and other purposes,with the full innovativeor adaptedindigenoustechnologies;
participationof indigenouspeople; (0 Promotein situ protectionand conservationof spe-
(b) To rehabilitatemoderately to severely desertified cial ecologicalareasthroughlegislationand othermeans
drylands for productive utilization and sustain their for the purposeof combatingdesertificationwhile ensur-
productivity for agropastoraVagroforestry development ing the protectionof biodiversity;
through,inter alia, soil and waterconservation; (g) Promote and encourageinvestment in forestry
(c) To increasethe vegetationcover and supportman- developmentin drylandsthrough variousincentives,in-
agementof biotic resourcesin regionsaffectedor prone cluding legislativemeasures;
to desertificationand drought, notably through suchac- (h) Promote the development and use of sourcesof
tivities as afforestation/reforestation,agroforestry, com- energywhich will lessenpressureon ligneousresources,
munity forestryand vegetationretentionschemes; including alternative sourcesof energy and improved
(d) To improve managementof forest resources,in- stoves.
cluding woodfuel,and to reducewoodfuelconsumption
throughmore efficient utilization,conseryationand en-
hancement,developmentand use of other sourcesof B) DATAAND TNFORMAT/ON
energy,includingalternativesourcesof energy.
12.19Governmentsat the appropriatelevel, with the
supportof the relevantinternationaland regional organ-
ACTIVITIES izations,should:
ACTIVITIES
ELATED
A) MANAGEMENI-R (a) Develop land-usemodelsbasedon local practices
for the improvementof such practices,with a focus on
preventing land degradation. The models should give a
12.18Governmentsat the appropriatelevel,andwith the
better understandingof the variety of natural and human-
supportof the relevantinternationaland regional organ-
induced factors that may contribute to desertification.
izations,should:
Models shouldincorporatethe interactionof both new and
(a) Implement urgent direct preventivemeasuresin
traditionalpracticesto preventland degradationand reflect
drylandsthat are vulnerablebut not yet affected,or only
the resilienceof the whole ecologicaland socialsystem;
slightlydesertifieddrylands,by introducing(i) improved
(b) Develop, test and introduce, with due regard to
land-usepoliciesandpracticesfor moresustainable land
environmental security considerations,drought-resistant,
productivity;(ii) appropriate,
environmentallysoundand
fast-growingand productiveplant speciesappropriateto
economicallyfeasibleagriculturaland pastoraltechno-
the environmentof the resionsconcerned.
logies;and (iii) improvedmanagementof soil and water
resources;
(b) Carry out acceleratedafforestationand reforesta-
tion programmes,using drought-resistant, fast-growing ci /NIERNAT/ONAL
AND REG/ONAI
species,in particularnativeones,includinglegumesand COOPERAIION AND COORD/NAIION
other species,combined with community-basedagro-
forestry schemes.In this regard,creation of large-scale 12.20The appropriateUnitedNationsagencies,intema-
reforestationand afforestation schemes,particularly tional and regional organizations,non-governmental
throughthe establishment of greenbelts,shouldbe con- organizationsand bilateralagenciesshould:
sidered,bearingin mind the multiple benefitsof such (a) Coordinatetheir roles in combating land degrada-
measures; tion and promoting reforestation,agroforestryand land-
(c) Implementurgently direct correctivemeasuresin managementsystemsin affectedcountries;
moderatelyto severelydesertifieddrylands,in addition (b) Supportregionaland subregionalactivitiesin tech-
to the measureslisted in paragraphl8 (a) above,with a nologydevelopmentanddissemination, trainingandpro-
view to restoringand sustainingtheir productivity; grammeimplementationto arrestdryland degradation.
(d) Promote improved land/water/crop-management 12.21The national Governmentsconcerned,the appro-
systems,making it possibleto combat salinizationin priate United Nations agenciesand bilateral agencies
existingirrigatedcroplands;and stabilizerainfed crop- shouldstrengthenthe coordinatingrole in dryland deg-
lands and introduce improved soiVcrop-management radationof subregionalintergovemmentalorganizations
systemsinto land-usepractice: setup to cover theseactivities,suchas CILSS, IGADD,
(e) Promote participatory managementof natural SADCC and the Arab MaehrebUnion.

l0l
MEANSOF IMPLEMENTATION (b) Supportcommunity-based people'sorganizations,
A/ F/NANC/NGAND COSTEVALUATTON especiallyfarmersand pastoralists.

12.22The Conference secretariathas estimated the


c) DEVETOPTNGAND STRENGTHENTNG
averagetotal annualcost (1993-2000)of implementing INTEGRATEDDEVEIOPMENTPROGRAMMESFOR
the activitiesof this programmeto be about $6 billion, THE ERADICATIONOF POVERW AND PROMOTION
including about $3 billion from the internationalcom- OF ATTERNATIVELIVETIHOODSYSTEMSIN AREAS
munity on grantor concessional terms.Theseareindica- PRONETO DESERTIFICATION
tive andorder-of-magnitude estimatesonly andhavenot
beenreviewedby Governments.Actual costsand finan-
cial terms,including any that are non-concessional,
will BASIS
FORACTION
dependupon, inter alia, the specificstrategiesand pro- 12.26In areasprone to desertificationand drought,cur-
grammesGovernmentsdecideuponfor implementation. rent livelihood and resource-use systemsare not able to
maintainliving standards. In most of the arid and semi-
arid areas,the traditionallivelihood systemsbasedon
B/ SC/ENI|FtC
AND TECHNOTOG\CAL
MEANS agropastoralsystemsareoften inadequateandunsustain-
able, particularly in view of the effects of drought and
12.23Governmentsat the appropriatelevel and local increasingdemographicpressure.Poverty is a major
communities,with the supportof the relevantinterna- factor in acceleratingthe rate of degradationand deser-
tional and regionalorganizations,should: tification. Action is thereforeneededto rehabilitateand
(a) Integrateindigenousknowledgerelatedto forests, improve the agropastoral systems for sustainable
forest lands. rangelandand natural vegetationinto re- managementof rangelands,as well as alternative
searchactivitieson desertificationand drought; livelihood systems.
(b) Promote integratedresearchprogrammeson the
protection,restorationandconservation of waterandland
resourcesand land-usemanagementbasedon traditional OBJECTIVES
approaches, wherefeasible.
12.27The objectivesof this programmeareaare:
(a) To createthe capacityof village communitiesand
pastoralgroupsto take chargeof their developmentand
C) HUM A NR E SOU R CDFEV EL OP M EN T
the managementof their land resourceson a socially
equitableand ecologicallysoundbasis;
12.24Governmentsat the appropriatelevel and local
(b) To i mprove producti on systems i n o r der t o
communities,with the supportof the relevantinterna-
achieve greater productivity within approved
tional and regionalorgamzations,should:
programmesfor conservationof nationalresourcesand
(a) Establishmechanismsto ensurethat land users,
in the framework of an integrated approachto rural
particularlywomen,arethe main actorsin implementing
development;
improved land use, including agroforestrysystems,in
(c) To provideopportunitiesfor alternativelivelihoods
combatingland degradation;
as a basisfor reducingpressureon land resourceswhile
(b) Promote efficient extension-service facilities in
at the sametime providingadditionalsourcesof income,
areasprone to desertificationand drought,particularly
particularly for rural populations,thereby improving
for training farmers and pastoralistsin the improved
their standardof livins.
managementof land and water resourcesin drvlands.

ACTIVITIES
D) CAPACTTY-BUtLDtNG
A) MANAGEMENI-R
ELAT
EDACTIVITIES
12.25Governmentsat the appropriatelevel and local
communities,with the supportof the relevantinterna- 12.28Governmentsat the appropriatelevel, with the
tional and regionalorganizations,should: suppoftof the relevantinternationaland regional organ-
(a) Develop and adopt, through appropriatenational izations,should:
legislation,and introduceinstitutionally,new and envi- (a) Adopt policies at the national level regarding a
r onm ent all y s o u n d d e v e l o p me n t-o ri e n ted
l and-use decentralizedapproachto land-resourcemanagement,
polic ies : delegatingresponsibilityto rural organizations;

102
(b) Createor strengthenrural organizatronsin charge (a) Promotecooperationand exchangeof information
of village and pastoralland management; among the arid and semi-arid land researchinstitutions
(c) Establishand developlocal, nationaland intersec- concerningtechniquesandtechnologiesto improveland
toral mechanismsto handleenvironmentaland develop- and labour productivity, as well as viable production
mental consequences of land tenure expressedin terms systems;
of land useandland ownership. Particularattentionshould (b) Coordinateand harmonizethe implementationof
be given to protecting the property righs of women and programmes and projects funded by the international
pastoraland nomadicgroupsliving in rural arezn; organizationcorrununities andnon-governmental organ-
(d) Createor strengthenvillage associationsfocusedon izations that are directedtowards the alleviation of pov-
economicactivitiesof commonpastoralinterest(market erty and promotion of an alternativelivelihood system.
gardening,transformationof agriculturalproducts,live-
stock,herdingetc.);
(e) Promote rural credit and mobilization of rural MEANSOF IMPLEMENTATION
savings through the establishmentof rural bankino A/ F/NANC/NGAND COSTEVALUATTON
systems;
(l) Develop infrastructure,as well as local production
12.31The Conferencesecretariat hasestimatedthe costs
and marketingcapacity,by involving the local people
for this programmeareain chapter3 (Combatingpoverty)
to promotealternativelivelihoodsystemsand alleviate
and chapter 14 (Promotingsustainableagricultureand
poverty;
rural development).
(g) Establisha revolvingfund for credit to rural entre-
preneursand local groupsto facilitatethe establishment
of cottage industries/business venturesand credit for
input to agropastoralactivities. O G|CALMEANS
8/ SC/ENIFtC AND TECHNOI

12.32 Governmentsat the appropriatelevel, and with the


supportof the relevantinternationaland regionalorgan-
B) DATAAND INFORMAT/ON
izations,should:
(a) Undertakeapplied researchin land use with the
12.29 Governmentsat the appropriate level, with the
supportof local researchinstitutions;
supportof the relevantinternationaland regional organ-
(b) Facilitateregularnational,regionaland interregional
izations,should:
(a) Conductsocio-economicbaselinestudiesin order communicationon andexchangeof informationandexperi-
encebetweenextensionofficersandresearchers;
to have a good understandingof the situation in the
(c) Supportand encouragethe introductionand useof
programme area regarding, particularly, resource and
technologiesfor the generationof alternativesourcesof
land tenure issues,traditional land-management prac-
incomes.
ticesand characteristicsof productionsystems;
(b) Conduct inventoriesof natural resources(soil,
water and vegetation)and their state of degradation,
basedprimarilyon theknowledgeof thelocalpopulation C) HUMANRFSOURCE
DEVELOPMENT
(e.9.,rapid rural appraisal);
(c) Disseminateinformation on technical packages 12.33Governmentsat the appropnatelevel, with the
adaptedto thesocial,economicandecologicalconditions supportof the relevantinternationaland regionalorgan-
of each; izations.should:
(d) Promoteexchangeand sharingof information con- (a) Train membersof rural orgamzationsin manage-
cerningthe developmentof alternativelivelihoodswith ment skills and train agropastoralists in such special
other agro-ecological regions. techniquesassoil andwaterconservation, waterharvest-
ing, agroforestryand small-scaleirrigation;
(b) Trainextensionagentsandofficersin the participa-
AND REG/ONAI.
C/ /NIFRNATIONAL tory approachto integratedland management.
COOPERAIION AND COORD/NAIION

12.30Governmentsat the appropriatelevel,andwith the D) CAPACTTY-BUtLDtNG


supportof the relevantinternationaland regional organ-
izations.should: 12.34Governmentsat the appropriatelevel, with the

r03
supportof the relevantinternationaland regional organiza- (a) Establish, or strengthen,national and local anti-
tions,shouldestablishandmaintainmechanismsto ensure desertificationauthoritieswithin governmentand local
theintegrationinto sectoralandnationaldevelopmentplans executive bodies, as well as local committees/associ-
andprogrammesof strategiesforpoverty alleviationamong ations of land users,in all rural communities affected,
the inhabitantsof landsproneto desertification. with a view to organizingworking cooperationbetween
all actorsconcerned,from the grass-rootslevel (farmers
and pastoralists)to the higher levels of government;
D) DEVETOPTNGCOMPREHENSTVE (b) Develop national plans of action to combat deser-
ANN-DESERTIFICATIONPROGRA'YTMES
tification and, as appropriate,make them integral parts
AND INTEGRATINGTHEM INTO NATIONAT
DEVETOPftTENT
P1ANS AND NATIONAT of nationaldevelopmentplansand nationalenvironmen-
NTAI PIANNING
ENVIRON'VIE tal actionplans;
(c) Implement policies directed towards improving
land use,managingcommonlandsappropriately,provid-
BASIS
FORACTION ing incentivesto smallfarmersandpastoralists,involving
12.35In a numberof developingcountriesaffectedby women and encouraging private investment in the
desertification, the natural resource base is the main developmentof drylands;
resourceuponwhich the developmentprocessmustrely. (d) Ensurecoordinationamong ministries and institu-
The socialsystemsinteractingwith land resourcesmake tions working on anti-desertificationprogrammesat na-
the problemmuch more complex,requiringan integrated tional and local levels.
approachto the planning and managementof land re-
sources.Action plans to combat desertificationand
droughtshouldincludemanagementaspectsof environ- B) DATAAND /NFORMAT/ON
ment and development,thus conforming with the ap-
proach of integratingnational developmentplans and 12.38Governmentsat the appropriatelevel,andwith the
nationalenvironmentalactionplans. supportof the relevantinternationaland regional organ-
izations, should promote information exchange and
cooperation with respect to national planning and
OBJECTIVES programming among affected countries,inter alin, tlvough
12.36The objectivesof this programmeareaare: networking.
(a) To strengthennationalinstitutionalcapabilitiesto
develop appropriate anti-desertificationprogrammes
and to integratethem into nationaldevelopmentplan- C/ /NIERNAI'ONAI.AND REG/ONAI.
ning; COOPERATION AND COORD/NAI/ON
(b) To develop strategicplanning frameworks for the
development,protectionand managementof naturalre- 12.39The relevantinternationalorganizations, multi-
sourcesin drylandareasand integratetheminto national I ateralfinancial i n stitutions, non- governmentalorgan-
developmentplans,including nationalplans to combat izationsand bilateralagenciesshouldstrengthentheir
desertification,and environmental action plans in cooperationin assistingwith the preparationof deserti-
countriesmost proneto desertification; fication control programmesand their integration into
(c) To initiate a long-term processfor implementing nationalplanning strategies,with the establishmentof
and monitoring strategiesrelated to natural resources nati onal coordi nati ng and systemati cobs er vat ion
management; mechanisms andwith theregionalandglobalnetworking
(d) To strengthenregional and internationalcoopera- of theseplansand mechanisms.
tion for combatingdesertificationthrough,inter alia,the 12.40TheGeneralAssembly,atits forty-seventhsession,
adoptionof legal and otherinstruments. shouldbe requestedto establish,under the aegisof the
General Assembly, an intergovernmentalnegotiating
committeeforthe elaborationof an internationalconven-
ACTIVITIES
tion to combatdesertificationin thosecountriesexperi-
A) MANAGEMENI-R
ELATED
ACTIVITIES
encing seriousdroughtand/ordesertification,particular-
ly in Africa, with a view to finalizing sucha convention
12.37Governmentsat the appropriatelevel,andwith the by June 1994.
supportof the relevantinternationaland regionalorgan-
izations.should:

104
MEANSOF IMPLEMENTATION El DEVETOPTNGCOTVIPREHENSIVE
DROUGHT
PREPAREDNESSAND DROUGHT-REUEF
A/ F/NANC/NGAND COSTEVALUATTON SCHE'YTES,
INCLUDINGSELF.HEIP
ARRANGETIENTS,FOR DROUGHT-PRONE
12.41The Conference secretariathas estimated the AREASAND DESIGNING PROGRAM'YIES
TO
averagetotal annual cost (1993-2000)of implementing COPEWIIH ENVIRONMENTATREFUGEES
the activitiesof thisprograrnmeto be about$ 180million,
including about $90 million from the internationalcom-
munity on grant or concessionalterms.Theseare indic- BASIS
FORACTION
ative andorder-of-magnitudeestimatesonly andhavenot 12.45Drought, in differing degreesof frequency and
beenreviewed by Governments.Actual costsand finan- severity,is a recurringphenomenonthroughoutmuch of
cial terms, including any that are non-concessional,will the developingworld, especiallyAfrica. Apart from the
depend upon, inter alia, the specific strategiesand pro- human toll - an estimated3 million people died in the
gftunmesGovernmentsdecideupon for implementation. mid-1980sbecauseof droughtin sub-Saharan Africa -
the economiccostsof drought-relateddisastersare also
high in terms of lost production, misused inputs and
B/ sC/ENTIFIC
AND IECHNOTOGICAL
MEANS diversion of developmentresources.
12.46 Early-warningsystemsto forecastdroughtwill make
12.42Governmentsat the appropriatelevel, with the possible the implementation of drought-preparedness
supportof the relevantinternationaland regional organ- schemes.Integratedpackagesat the farm and watershed
izations,should: level, suchasalternativecropping strategies,soil and water
(a) Develop and introduce appropriate improved conservationandpromotionof waterharvestingtechniques,
sustainableagriculturalandpastoraltechnologiesthatare could enhancethe capacityof landto copewith droughtand
socially and environmentallyacceptableand economi- provide basic necessities,therebyminimizing the number
cally feasible; of environmental refugees and the need for emergency
(b) Undertakeapplied study on the integrationof envi- droughtrelief. At the sametime, contingencyarrangements
ronmental and developmentalactivities into national for relief are neededfor periodsof acutescarcity.
developmentplans.

OBJECTIVES
C) HUMANRESOURCE
DEVELOPMENI 12.47The objectivesof this prograrnmeareaare:
(a) To developnationalstrategiesfordroughtprepared-
nessin both the short and long term, aimed at reducing
12.43Governmentsat the appropriatelevel, with the
the vulnerability of production systemsto drought;
supportof the relevantinternationaland regional organ-
(b) To strengthenthe flow of early-waming informa-
izations,shouldundertakenationwidemajor anti-deser-
tion to decision makersand land usersto enablenations
campaignswithin countries
tificationawareness/training
to implement strategiesfor drought intervention;
affectedthroughexistingnationalmassmediafacilities,
(c) To develop drought-relief schemesand means of
educationalnetworksand newly createdor strengthened
coping with environmentalrefugeesand integratethem
extensionservices.This shouldensurepeople'saccessto
into national and regional developmentplanning.
knowledgeof deserlificationand droughtand to national
plansof actionto combatdesertification.
ACTIVITIES

D) CAPACITY-BUILDING A) MANAGFMENI-R
ELATED
ACTIVITIES

12.44 Governmentsat the appropriate level, with the 12.48In drought-proneareas,Governmentsat the appro-
supportof the relevantinternationaland regional organ- priate level, with the supportof the relevantinternational
izations,should establishand maintainmechanismsto and regionalorganizations, should:
ensure coordination of sectoral ministries and institu- (a) Design strategiesto deal with national food
tions, including local-levelinstitutionsand appropriate deficiencies in periods of production shortfall. These
non-governmentalorganizations,in integrating anti- strategiesshould deal with issuesof storageand stocks,
desertifrcationprograrrunesinto national development imports, port facilities, food storage,transportand dis-
plansand nationalenvironmentalactionplans. tribution;

r05
(b) Improve nationaland regionalcapacityfor agro- a n d t h e i r A p p l i c a t i o n s( A G R H Y M E T ) , d r o u g h t -
meteorologyand contingencycrop planning. Agrome- monitoring centresand the African Centre of
teorology links the frequency,content and regional M e t e o r o l o g i c a lA p p l i c a t i o n s f o r D e v e l o p m e n t
coverageof weatherforecastswith the requirementsof (ACMAD), as well as the effortsof the PermanentInter-
crop planningand agriculturalextension; State Committee on Drought Control in the Sahel
(c) Prepareruralprojectsfor providingshort-termrural (C ILS S ) and the IntergovernmentalA utho r it y f or
employmentto drought-affected households. The lossof Drought and Development(IGADD);
income and entitlementto food is a common sourceof (c) SupportFAO programmesand other programmes
distressin timesof drought.Rural workshelp to generate for the developmentof nationalearly-warningsystems
the incomerequiredto buy food for poor households; and food securityassistance schemes;
(d) Establishcontingencyarrangements, whereneces- (d) S trengthenand expand the scope of exist ing
sary,for food and fodderdistributionand water supply; regionalprogrammesand the activitiesof appropriate
(e) Establishbudgetarymechanismsfor providing,at United Nationsorgansand organizations,suchas the
shortnotice,resourcesfor droughtrelief; World Food Programme (WFP), the Office of the
(f) Establish safety nets for the most vulnerable U ni tedN ati onsD i sasterR el i efC oordi nator(UNDRO )
households. andthe UnitedNationsSudano-Sahelian Office aswell
as of non-governmental o r g a n i z a t i o nsa
, imed at
mitigatingthe effectsof drought and emergencies.
B) DATAAND INFORMAI/ON

MEANSOFIMPLEMENTATION
12.49 Governmentsof affectedcountries,at the appro-
priatelevel,with the supportof therelevantinternational A/ FINANC/NGAND COSTEVALUATION
and regionalorganizations, should:
(a) Implement researchon seasonalforecaststo im- 12.51The Conferencesecretariat hasestimatedtheaver-
prove contingencyplanning and relief operationsand age total annualcost (1993-2000)of implementingthe
allow preventivemeasuresto be takenat the farm level, activities of this programmeto be about $1.2 billion,
suchasthe selectionof appropriatevarietiesandfarmins includingabout$ l. I billion from the internationalcom-
practices,in timesof drought; munity on grantor concessional terms.Theseareindica-
(b) Supportappliedresearchon waysof reducingwater tive and order-of-magnitude estimatesonly andhavenot
lossfrom soils,on ways of increasingthe water absorp- beenreviewedby Govemments.Actual costsandfinan-
tion capacitiesof soils and on water harvestingtech- cial terms,includingany that are non-concessional, will
niquesin drought-proneareas: dependupon, inter clia, the specificstrategiesand pro-
(c) Strengthennational early-warningsystems,with gruunmes Governmentsdecideuponfor implementation.
particularemphasison the areaof risk-mapping,remote-
l o d e l l i n g , i ntegrated
s ens ing,ag ro me te o ro l o g i c am
multidisciplinarycrop-forecasting techniquesand com-
MEANS
AND TECHNOLOG\CAL
8/ SC/ENr/F/C
puterized food supply/demand analysis.

12.52Governments atthe appropriatelevel anddrought-


prone communities,with the support of the relevant
AND REG/ONAI.
c/ /NTERNAT/ONAL intemationaland regionalorganizations, should:
COOPERAI/ONAND COORD/NAI'ON (a) Use traditionalmechanismsto copewith hungeras
a meansof channellingrelief and developmentassist-
12.50Governmentsat the appropriatelevel, with the ance;
supportof the relevantintemationaland regionalorgan- (b) Strengthenanddevelopnational,regionalandlocal
izations,should: interdisciplinaryresearchand training capabilitiesfor
(a) Establisha systemof stand-bycapacitiesin terms droughrpreventionstrategies.
of foodstock,logisticalsupport,personneland finance
for a speedyinternationalresponseto drought-related
emergencies;
DEVELOPMENT
C) HUMANRESOURCE
(b) Supportprogrammesof the World Meteorological
Organization (WMO) on agrohydrology and agro-
12.53Governmentsat the appropriatelevel, with the
meteorology,the Programmeof the Regional Training
supportof the relevantinternationalandregionalorgan-
Centrefor AgrometeorologyandOperationalHydrology
izations,should:

106
(a) Promotethe training of decisionmakersand land planningandexecutionprocesses in orderto benefitfully
users in the effective utilization of information from from developmentprojects;
early-warningsystems ; (c) To ensurethatthepartnersunderstand oneanother's
( b ) S t r e n g t h e nr e s e a r c ha n d n a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g needs,objectivesand points of view by providing a
capabilitiesto assess theimpactof droughtandto develop varietyof meanssuchas training,public awareness and
methodologiesto forecastdrought. opendialogue;
(d) To supportlocal communitiesin their own effortsin
combatingdesertification,and to draw on the knowledge
D) CAPACTTY-BU|LD|NG and experienceof ttrepopulationsconcemed,ensuringthe
full participationof womenand indigenouspopulations.
12.54Governmentsat the appropriatelevel, with the
supportof the relevantinternationaland regionalorgan-
izations.should: ACTIVITIES
(a) Improve and maintain mechanismswith adequate A) MANAGEMENT-R
ELAT
EDACTtvtTtES
staff, equipmentand financesfor monitoring drought
parametersto take preventivemeasuresat regional,na-
12.57Governmentsat the appropriatelevel, with the
tionaland local levels;
supportof the relevantinternationaland regionalorgan-
(b) Establishinterministeriallinkagesandcoordinating
izations,should:
units for drought monitoring, impact assessmentand (a) Adopt policies and establishadministrativestruc-
managementof drought-reliefschemes.
tures for more decentralizeddecision-makingand im-
plementation;
F) ENCOURAGTNGAND PROTVTOTINGPOPU1AR ( b ) E s t a b l i s h a n d u t i l i z e m e c h a n i s m sf o r t h e
AND ENVIRON'YIENTAI
PARTICIPATION consul tati onand i nvol vementof l and usersand f or
EDUCATION,FOCUSINGON DESERTIFICATION enhancingcapabilityat the grass-roots level to identify
CONTROLAND MANAGE}IENT OF THE EFFECTS and/or contri buteto the i denti fi cati onand pl ann ing
OF DROUGHT of acti on;
(c) Define specific programme/projectobjectives in
cooperationwith local communities;and design local
BASIS
FORACTION management plansto includesuchmeasures of progress,
12.55The experienceto date on the successesand therebyproviding a meansof alteringprojectdesignor
failures of programmesand projects points to the need changingmanagementpractices,as appropriate;
for popularsupportto sustainactivitiesrelatedto deserti- (d) Introduce legislative, institutionaVorganizational
fication and drought control. But it is necessaryto go and financial measuresto secureuser involvementand
beyondthe theoreticalidealof popularparticipationand accessto land resources;
to focuson obtainingactualactivepopularinvolvement, (e) Establishand/or expand favourableconditions for
rooted in the conceptof partnership.This implies the the provision of services,such as credit facilities and
sharingof responsibilities andthe mutualinvolvementof marketing outlets for rural populations;
all parties. In this context,this programmeareashould (0 Develop training programmesto increasethe level
be consideredan essentialsupportingcomponentof all of education and participation of people, particularly
desertification-control activities.
and droueht-related women and indigenousgroups, through, inter alia, bt-
eracyand the developmentof technicalskills;
(g) Createrural bankingsystemsto facilitateaccessto
OBJECTIVES credit for rural populations,particularlywomen and in-
12.-56The objectivesof this programmeareaare: digenousgroups,and to promoterural savings;
(a) To develop and increasepublic awarenessand (h) Adopt appropriatepoliciesto stimulateprivateand
knowledgeconcerningdesertificationand drought,in- public investment.
cludingthe integrationof environmentaleducationin the
curriculumof primary and secondaryschools;
(b) To establishand promotetrue partnershipbetween
B) DATAAND 'NFORMAI/ON
governmentauthorities,at both the national and local
levels, other executing agencies,non-governmental 12.58Governmentsat the appropriatelevel, with the
orgamzatronsand land users stricken by drought and supportof the relevantinternationaland regional organ-
giving landusersa responsiblerole in the
desertification, izations,should:

107
(a) Review,developand disseminate gender-disaggre- activities of this prograrnme to be about $1 billion,
gatedinformation,skills and know-how at all levelson including about$500million from the internationalcom-
ways of organizingand promotingpopularparticipation; munity on grantor concessional terms.Theseare indic-
(b) Acceleratethedevelopmentof technologicalknow- ative and order-of-magnitudeestimatesonly and have
how, focusing on appropriateand intermediatetechnol- not been reviewed by Govemments.Actual costs and
o8y; financialferms,includingany thatarenon-concessional,
(c) Disseminate knowledge about applied research will dependupon, inter alia, the specificstrategiesand
results on soil and water issues,appropriatespecies, prograrnmesGovernmentsdecideupon for implementa-
agriculturaltechniquesand technologicalknow-how. tion.

C/ INIERNAI/ONAI.
AND REG'ONAT 8/ SC'ENilFtCAND TECHNOTOG\CAL
MEANS
COOPERAIION AND COORD/NAI/ON
12.61Governmentsatthe appropriatelevel,andwith the
12.59Governmentsat the appropriatelevel,andwith the supportof the relevantinternationaland regional organ-
supportof the relevantinternationaland regionalorgan- izations,shouldpromote the developmentof indigenous
izations,should: know-how and technologytransfer.
(a) Developprogrammesof supportto regionalorgan-
izationssuchas CILSS. IGADD. SADCC and the Arab
Maghreb Union and other intergovernmentalorganiza- C) HUMANRESOURCE
DEVELOPMENI
tionsin Africa andotherpartsof the world, to strengthen
outreachprogrammesand increasethe participation of 12.62 Governments,at the appropriatelevel, and with
non-governmentalorganizationstogether with rural the support of the relevant international and regional
populations; organizations,should:
(b) Developmechanisms forfacilitatingcooperationin (a) Supportand/or strengtheninstitutionsinvolved in
technologyand promotesuchcooperationasan element public education,includingthe local media,schoolsand
of all externalassistanceandactivitiesrelatedto technical communitygoups;
assistance projectsin the public or privatesector; (b) Increasethe level of public education.
(c) Promote collaborationamong different actors in
environmentand developmentprogrammes;
(d) Encouragethe emergenceof representative organ- D) CAPACTTY-BUILD|NG
izational structuresto foster and sustaininterorganrza-
tional cooperation.
12.63 Governmentsat the appropriatelevel, and with the
supportof the relevantinternationaland regional organ-
MEANSOF IMPLEMENTATION izations, should promote membersof local rural organ-
izations and train and appoint more extension officers
AI FINANC/NGAND COSTEVALUATION working at the local level.

12.60The Conferencesecretariat hasestimatedthe aver-


age total annual cost ( 1993-2000)of implementing the

108
1? Monogingfrogileecosystems:
I vt mountoin
Sustoinoble development

I N TR OD UC T I O N P R O G R A M MAER E A S

A) GENERATINGAND STRENGTHENING
13.1 Mountains are an important source of water, KNOWTEDGEABOUT THE ECOTOGYAND
energyand biological diversity. Furthermore,they are SUSTAINABLEDEVETOPftTENT
OF }TOUNTAIN
a source of such key resourcesas minerals, forest ECOSYSTEMS
products and agricultural products and of recreation.
As a major ecosystemrepresentingthe complex and
interrelatedecology of our planet,mountainenviron- FORACTION
BASIS
ments are essentialto the survival of the global eco- 13.4 Mountains are highly vulnerable to human and
system.Mountain ecosystemsare, however,rapidly natural ecological imbalance. Mountains are the areas
changing. They are susceptibleto acceleratedsoil most sensitiveto all climatic changesin the atmosphere.
erosion,landslidesandrapidlossof habitatandgenetic Specific information on ecology, natural resource
diversity. On the human side, there is widespread potential and socio-economicactivities is essential.
poverty among mountain inhabitants and loss of Mountain and hillside areas hold a rich variety of
indigenous k no w l e d g e . As a re s u l t, m o s t gl obal ecologicalsystems. Becauseof their vertical dimen-
mountain areasare experiencingenvironmentaldeg- sions, mountains create gradients of temperature,
radation.Hence, the proper managementof mountain precipitationand insolation. A given mountainslope
resourcesand socio-economicdevelopment of the may includeseveralclimatic systems- suchas tropi-
peopledeservesimmediateaction. cal, subtropical,temperateand alpine- eachof which
13.2 About 10 per cent of the world's population representsa microcosm of a larger habitat diversity.
dependsdirectly on mountain resources.A much larger There is, however,a lack of knowledgeof mountain
percentagedrawson mountainresources,including and e c o s y s t e m s .T h e c r e a t i o n o f a g l o b a l m o u n t a i n
especiallywater.Mountains are a storehouseof biologi- databaseis thereforevital for launching programmes
cal diversityand endangeredspecies. that contribute to the sustainabledevelopment of
13.3 Two programmeareasare includedin this chap- mountainecosystems.
ter to further elaborate the problem of fragile eco-
systemswith regard to all mountainsof the world.
Theseare: OBJECTIVES
(a) Generatingand strengthening knowledgeaboutthe 13.5 The objectivesof this programmeareaare:
ecology and sustainabledevelopmentof mountain (a) To undertakea surveyof the differentforms of soils,
ecosystems; forest, water use, crop, plant and animal resourcesof
(b) Promoting integratedwatersheddevelopmentand mountain ecosystems,taking into accountthe work of
alternativelivelihoodopportunities. existinginternationaland regionalorganizations;
(b) To maintain and generatedatabaseand information
systemsto facilitatetheintegratedmanagement andenvi-
ronmentalassessment of mountain ecosystems,taking

r09
into account the work of existing international and (a) Maintain and establishmeteorological,hydrologr-
regionalorganizations ; cal andphysicalmonitoringanalysisandcapabilitiesthat
(c) To improveandbuild theexistingland/waterecologi- would encompassthe climatic diversityas well as water
cal knowledgebaseregardingtechnologiesandagricultural distributionof variousmountainregionsof the world;
and conservationpracticesin the mountainregionsof the (b) Build an inventory of different forms of soils,
world, with the participationof local communities; forests,water use, and crop, plant and animal genetic
(d) To createand strengthenthe communicationsnet- resources, giving priority to thoseunderthreatof extinc-
work and information clearing-housefor existing organ- tion. . Geneticresourcesshouldbe protectedin situ by
izationsconcernedwith mountainissues; maintainingandestablishing protectedareasandimprov-
(e) To improve coordination of regional efforts to ing traditional farming and animal husbandryactivities
protect fragile mountain ecosystemsthrough the con- andestablishingprogrammesforevaluatingthe potential
siderationof appropriatemechanisms, includingregional valueof the resources;
legal and other instruments; (c) Identify hazardousareasthat aremost vulnerableto
(0 To generateinformation to establishdatabasesand erosion, floods, landslides,earthquakes,snow ava-
information systemsto facilitate an evaluationof environ- lanchesand othernaturalhazards;
mentalrisksandnaturaldisastersin mountainecosystems. (d) Identify mountainareasthreatenedby air pollution
from neighbouringindustrialand urbanareas.

ACTIVITIES

ELATED
A) MANAGEMENI-R ACTIVITIES c/ /NTERNAT|ONAL
AND REGIONAICOOPERAnON

13.8 National Governmentsand intersovernmental


13.6 Governmentsat the appropriatelevel, with the
organizationsshould:
supportof the relevantinternationaland regional organ-
(a) Coordinateregional and internationalcooperation
izations,should:
and facilitate an exchangeof information andexperience
(a) Strengthenexisting institutionsor establishnew
among the specializedagencies,the World Bank, IFAD
onesat local, nationaland regionallevels to generatea
and other international and regional orgamzations,na-
multidisciplinaryland/waterecologicalknowledgebase
tional Governments,researchinstitutionsand non-gov-
on mountainecosystems;
ernmentalorganizationsworking on mountaindevelop-
(b) Promotenationalpoliciesthatwould provideincen-
ment;
tives to local peoplefor the useand transferof environ-
(b) Encourageregional,nationaland internationalnet-
ment-friendlytechnologiesand farming and conserva-
working of people'sinitiativesandthe activitiesof inter-
tion practices;
national,regional and local non-governmentalorganiza-
(c) Build up the knowledgebaseand understanding by
tions working on mountain development,such as the
creating mechanismsfor cooperation and information
United NationsUniversity(UNU), the WoodlandMoun-
exchangeamongnationalandregionalinstitutionswork-
tain Institutes(WMI), the InternationalCenterfor Inte-
ing on fragile ecosystems;
gratedMountain Development(ICIMOD), the Interna-
(d) Encouragepolicies that would provide incentives
tional Mountain Society (IMS), the African Mountain
to farmers and local people to undertakeconservation
Associationand the Andean Mountain Association,
and regenerativemeasures;
besidessupportingthose organrzatrons in the exchange
(e) Diversifymountaineconomies,inter alia,by creat-
of information and experience;
ing and/or strengtheningtourism, in accordancewith
(c) Protect fragile mountain ecosystemsthrough the
integratedmanagementof mountainareas;
(0 Integrateall forest,rangelandand wildlife activitiesin considerationof appropriatemechanismsincluding
regionallegal and otherinstruments.
suchaway thatspecificmountainecosystems aremaintained;
(g) Establish appropriatenatural reservesin repre-
sentativespecies-richsitesand areas.
MEANS
OFIMPLEMENTATION

A/ F/NANC/NGAND COSTEVALUATION
B) DATAAND /NFORMATTON
13.9 The Conferencesecretariat hasestimatedtheaver-
13.7 Governmentsat the appropriatelevel, with the age total annualcost (1993-2000)of implemeniingthe
supportof the relevantinternationaland regionalorgan- activitiesof thisprogrammeto be about$50million from
izations,should: the internationalcommunity on grant or concessional

i10
terms.Theseare indicativeand order-of-magnitude estr- various ways by mountain ecology and the degradation
matesonly andhavenot beenreviewedby Governments. of watershedareas.About 10 per cent of the Earth's
Actual costsand financialterms,including any that are populationlives in mountainareaswith higher slopes,
non-concessional, will depend upon, inter alia, the while about40 per cent occupiesthe adjacentmedium-
specificstrategiesand prograffrmesGovernmentsdecide and lower-watershedareas.There are seriousproblems
upon for implementation. of ecologicaldeteriorationin thesewatershedareas.For
example,in the hillside areasof the Andeancountriesof
South America a largeportion of the farming population
8/ SC/ENIIF/C
AND TECHNOLOGICAL
MEANS is now faced with a rapid deteriorationof land resources.
Similarly, the mountainand uplandareasof the Himalayas,
13.10Governmentsat the appropriatelevel, with the South-EastAsia and Eastand CentralAfrica, which make
supportof the relevantinternationaland regional organ- vital contributionsto agriculturalproduction,arethreatened
izations,shouldstrengthenscientificresearchand tech- by cultivation of marginal landsdue to expandingpopula-
nologicaldevelopmentprogrammes,includingdiffusion tion. In many areasthis is accompaniedby excessive
throughnationalandregionalinstitutions,particularlyin livestock grazing,deforestationand lossof biomasscover.
meteorology,hydrology,forestry,soil sciencesandplant 13.14Soil erosioncan havea devastatingimpacton the
sciences. vast numbers of rural people who depend on rainfed
agriculture in the mountain and hillside areas. Poverty,
unemployment, poor health and bad sanitation are
C) HUMANRESOURCE
DEVELOPMENT widespread.Promoting integrated watersheddevelop-
mentprogranilnesthrougheffectiveparticipationof local
13.11 Governmentsat the appropriatelevel,andwith the people is a key to preventingfurther ecological imbal-
supportof the relevantintemationaland regional organ- ance. An integratedapproachis neededfor conserving,
izations,should: upgrading and using the natural resourcebase of land,
(a) Launchtrainingandextensionprograffunes in envi- water, plant, animal and human resources.In addition,
ronmentally appropriatetechnologiesand practicesthat promoting alternativelivelihood opportunities,particu-
would be suitableto mountainecosystems; larly throughdevelopmentof employmentschemesthat
(b) Supporthigher educationthroughfellowshipsand increasethe productivebase,will havea significantrole
researchgrants for environmentalstudiesin mountains in improvingthe standardof living amongthe largerural
and hill areas,particularly for candidatesfrom indige- populationliving in mountainecosystems.
nous mountainpopulations;
(c) Undertakeenvironmentaleducationfor farmers,in
OBJECTIVES
particularfor women, to help the rural populationbetter
understandthe ecological issuesregarding the sustain- 13.15The objectivesof this programmeareaare:
(a) By theyear2000,to developappropriateland-useplan-
able developmentof mountainecosystems.
ning and managementfor both arableand non-arableland in
mountain-fedwatenhedareasto preventsoil erosion,increase
biomassproductionand maintainthe ecologicalbalance;
D ) CA P A CI T Y - BU tL D tN G
(b) To promote income-generating activities,such as
sustainabletourism,fisheriesandenvironmentallysound
13.12Governmentsat the appropriatelevel, with the
mining,andto improveinfrastructure andsocialservices,
supportof the relevantinternationaland regional organ-
in particular to protect the livelihoods of local com-
izations,should build up nationaland regionalinstitu-
munitiesand indigenouspeople;
tional basesthat could carry out research,training and
(c) To developtechnicalandinstitutionalarrangements for
dissemination of informationon the sustainabledevelop-
affectedcounries to mitigatethe effectsof nanral disasters
ment of the economiesof frasile ecosvstems.
through hazard-preventionmeasures,risk zoning, early-
waming systems,evacuationplansandemergencysupplies.
B) PROwIOTTNGTNTEGRATED
WATERSHED
DEVETOPMENT AND ATTERNATIVE
TIVETIHOODOPPORTUNITIES ACTIVITIES

A) MANAGEMENI-RELATEDACTIVITIES

BASISFORACTION
1 3 . 1 6G o v e r n m e n t s a t t h e a p p r o p r i a t e l e v e l , w i t h t h e
I 3.l3 Nearly half of the world's population is affected in

lil
supportof the relevantinternationaland regionalor- searchand training institutes such as the Consultative
ganizations,should: Group on International Agricultural ResearchCenters
(a) Undertake measuresto prevent soil erosion and (CGIAR) and the InternationalBoard for Soil Research
promoteerosion-controlactivitiesin all sectors; and Management(IBSRAM), as well as regional re-
(b) Establish task forces or watersheddevelopment searchcentres,suchastheWoodlandMountainInstitutes
committees,complementingexisting institutions,to and the IntemationalCenter for IntegratedMountain
coordinateintegratedservicesto supportlocal initiatives Development,in undertakingappliedresearchrelevant
in animal husbandry, forestry, horticulture and rural to watersheddevelopment;
developmentat all administrativelevels; (b) Promoteregionalcooperationand exchangeof data
(c) Enhancepopularparticipationin the management andinformationamongcountriessharingthesamemoun-
of local resourcesthroughappropriatelegislation; tain rangesand river basins,particularlythoseaffected
(d) Supportnon-governmental organizations andother by mountaindisastersand floods;
private groups assistinglocal organizationsand com- (c) Maintain and establishpartnershipswith non-gov-
munitiesin thepreparationof projectsthat would enhance ernmentalorganizationsand other private groupswork-
participatorydevelopmentof local people; ing in watersheddevelopment.
(e) Provide mechanismsto preservethreatenedareas
that could protectwildlife, conservebiologicaldiversity
or serveas nationalparks; MEANS
OFIMPLEMENTATION
(0 Develop nationalpoliciesthat would provide incen-
A/ F/NANC|ALAND COSI EVALUATTON
tives to farmersand local peopleto undertakeconservation
measuresandto useenvironment-friendly technologies;
13.19The Conferencesecretariat hasestimatedtheaver-
(g) Undertakeincome-generating activitiesin cottage
age total annualcost (1993-2000)of implementingthe
and agro-processing industries,such as the cultivation
activities of this programmeto be about $13 billion,
and processingof medicinaland aromaticplants;
includingabout$ 1.9billion from the internationalcom-
(h) Undertaketheaboveactivities,takinginto accountthe
munity on grantor concessional terms.Theseareindica-
needfor full participationof women,includingindigenous
tive and order-of-magnitude estimatesonly andhavenot
peopleandlocal communities,in development.
beenreviewedby Governments.Actual costsandfinan-
cial terms,includingany that are non-concessional, will
dependupon, inter alia, the specificstrategiesand pro-
BJ DATAAND /NFORMAI/ON grammesGovernmentsdecideuponfor implementation.
13.20Fi nanci ng for the promoti on of al t er nat ive
13.17Governmentsat the appropriatelevel, with the
livelihoodsin mountainecosystems shouldbe viewedas
supportof the relevantinternationaland regional organ-
part of a country'santi-povertyor alternativelivelihoods
izations,should:
programme,which is also discussedin chapter3 (Com-
(a) Maintain and establishsystematicobservationand
bating poverty) and chapter 14 (Promotingsustainable
evaluationcapacitiesat thenational,stateor provinciallevel
agricultureand rural development)of Agenda21.
to generateinformation for daily operationsand to assess
theenvironmentalandsocio-economic impactsof projects;
(b) Generatedataon alternativelivelihoodsand diver-
B/ SC/ENI/F/C
AND TECHNICAI.
MEANS
sified productionsystemsat the village level on annual
and treecrops,livestock,poultry,beekeeping,fisheries,
13.21Governmentsat the appropriatelevel, with the
vil lageindustries,markets,transportandincome-earning
supportof the relevantinternationaland regional organ-
opportunities,taking fully into accountthe role of women
izations,should:
and integratingthem into the planningand implementa-
(a) Considerundertakingpilot projectsthat combine
tion process.
environmentalprotection and developmentfunctions
with particularemphasison someof the traditionalenvi-
ronmentalmanagementpracticesor systemsthat have a
c/ /NTERNATTONAL
AND REG/ONAI.
COOPERAIION good impacton the environment;
(b) Generatetechnologiesfor specificwatershedand
13.18Governmentsat the appropriatelevel, with the farm conditionsthrougha participatoryapproachinvolv-
supportof the relevantinternationaland regionalorgan- ing local men and women, researchersand extension
izations.should: agentswho will carry out experimentsand trials on farm
(a) Strengthenthe role of appropriateinternationalre- conditions;

112
(c) Promote technologiesof vegetative conservation (c) Promotelocal awarenessand preparedness for dis-
measuresfor erosion prevention, in .ritu moisture asterpreventionand mitigation, combinedwith the latest
management, improved cropping technology, fodder availabletechnologyfor early waming and forecasting.
productionand agroforestrythat arelow-cost,simpleand
easily adoptedby local people.
D) CAPACTTY-BU|LD|NG

C) HUMANRESOURCE
DEVELOPMENI 13.23Governmentsat the appropriatelevel, with the
supportof the relevantintemationaland regional orgwiza-
13.22 Governmentsat the appropriate level, with the tions, should develop and strengthennational centresfor
supportof the relevantintemationaland regional organ- watershedmanagementto encouragea comprehensiveap-
izations,should: proachto ttreenvironmental,socio-economic, technologi-
(a) Promotea multidisciplinary and cross-sectoralap- cal, legislative,financialand administrativeaspectsand
proach in training and the disseminationof knowledge provide support to policy makers,administrators,field
to local peopleon a wide rangeof issues,suchas house- staff and farmersfor watersheddevelopment.
hold productionsystems,conservationand utilizationof 13.24The private sector and local communities, in
arable and non-arableland, treatmentof drainagelines cooperationwith nationalGovernments,shouldpromote
and rechargingof groundwater,livestock management, local infrastructuredevelopment,includingcommunica-
fisheries,agroforestryand horticulture; tion networks, mini- or micro-hydro development to
(b) Develop human resourcesby providing accessto supportcottageindustries,and accessto markets.
education,health,energyand infrastructure;

il3
14 Promoting sustoinoble
ogriculture
ond ruroldevelopment

will dependlargely on the supportand participationof


INTRODUCTION
rural people, national Governments,the private sector
and internationalcooperation,including technicaland
scientific cooperation.
l4.l By the year 2025. 83 per cent of the expected 14.4 The following programmeareasare included in
g l o b a l p o p u l a t i o no f 8 . 5 b i l l i o n w i l l b e l i v i n g i n this chapter:
developing countries.Yet the capacity of available (a) Agriculturalpolicy review,planningandintegrated
resourcesand technologiesto satisfythe demandsof programmingin the light of the multifunctionalaspectof
this growing populationfor food andotheragricultural agriculture,particularly with regardto food securityand
commoditiesremains uncertain. Agriculture has to sustainabledevelopment;
m eet t his c h a l l e n g ema , i n l y b y i n c re a s i ngproducti on (b) Ensuring people's participationand promoting
on land already in use and by avoiding further human resourcedevelopmentfor sustainableagricul-
encroachmenton land that is onlv mareinallvsuitable ture;
for cultivation. (c) Improving farm production and farming systems
14.2 Major adjustrnentsare neededin agricultural, through diversification of farm and non-farm employ-
environmentaland macroeconomicpolicy, at both na- ment and infrastructuredevelopment;
tional and internationallevels,in developedas well as (d) Land-resource planninginformationandeducation
dev elopin g c o u n tri e s ,to c re a te th e c o n di ti ons for for agriculture;
s u s t a i n a b l ea g r i c u l t u r e a n d r u r a l d e v e l o p m e n t (e) Land conservationand rehabilitation;
(SARD). The major objectiveof SARD is to increase (0 Water for sustainablefood productionand sustain-
food productionin a sustainable way andenhancefood able rural development;
s e c u r i t y . T h i s w i l l i n v o l v e e d u c a t i o ni n i t i a t i v e s , ( g ) C o n s e r v a t i o na n d s u s t a i n a b l eu t i l i z a t i o n o f
utilization of economic incentivesand the develop- pl ant geneti c resourcesfor food and sust ainable
mentof appropriateandnew technologies. thusensuring agri cul ture;
s t ables up p l i e so f n u tri ti o n a l l ya d e q u a tef ood, access (h) Conservationand sustainableutilizationof animal
to thosesuppliesby vulnerablegroups,and production geneticresourcesfor sustainableagriculture,
for markets; employment and income generationto (i) Integratedpestmanagementand control in agricul-
alleviate poverty; and natural resourcemanagement ture;
and environmentalprotection. 0) Sustainable plant nutritionto increasefood produc-
1-1.3 The priority mustbe on maintainingand improv- tion;
ing the capacity of the higher potential agricultural (k) Rural energytransitionto enhanceproductivity;
lands to supportan expandingpopulation.However, (l) Evaluationof the effectsof ultravioletradiationon
c ons er v in ga n d re h a b i l i ta ti n g th e n a tu ra lr esources on plantsand animalscausedby the depletionof the strato-
lower pot e n ti a l a n d si n o rd e rto m a i n ta i nsustai nabl e sphericozonelayer.
m an/ landra ti o si s a l s o n e c e s s a ryT. h e m ai n tool s of
SARD are policy and agrarianreform, participation,
inc om e div e rs i fi c a ti o n ,l a n d c o n s e rv a t i onand i m-
pr ov edm a n a g e m e not f i n p u ts .T h e s u c c e ssof S A R D

114
(b) To maintain and develop, as appropriate,oper-
P R O G R A M MAER E A S
ational multisectoral plans, programmes and policy
measures,including programmesand measuresto en-
A) AGRTCULTURATPOUCYREVTEWPTANNTNGAND hance sustainablefood production and food security
INTEGRAIEDPROGRATYIMESIN IHE UGHTOF IHE within the framework of sustainabledevelopment,not
MUTTIFUNCTIONATASPECTOF AGRICULruRE, later than 1998;
PARTICUTARTY
WITH R,EGARDTO FOOD SECURITY (c) To maintainand enhancethe ability of developing
DEVETOPMENT
AND SUSTAINABI.E countries,particularlythe leastdevelopedones.to them-
selvesmanagepolicy,programmingand planningactiv-
ities,not later than 2005.
BASIS
FORACTION
14.5 There is a needto integratesustainabledevelop-
mentconsiderations with agriculturalpolicy analysisand ACTIVITIES
planning in all countries, particularly in developing A) MANAGEMENI-R
ELAT
EDACTIVITI
ES
countries.Recommendations shouldcontributedirectly
to developmentof realisticand operationalmedium- to 14.9 Governmentsat the appropriatelevel, with the
long-termplans and programmes,and thus to concrete supportof the relevantinternationalandregionalorgan-
actions. Supportto and monitoring of implementation izations,should:
shouldfollow. (a) Carry out national policy reviews relatedto food
14.6 The absenceof a coherentnationalpolicy frame- security,including adequatelevels and stabilityof food
work for sustainableagriculture and rural development supplyand accessto food by all households;
(SARD) is widespreadand is not limited to the develop- (b) Reviewnationalandregionalagriculturalpolicy in
ing countries.In particularthe economiesin transition relation, inter alia, to foreign trade, price policy, ex-
from plannedto market-orientedsystemsneed such a changerate policies,agriculturalsubsidiesand taxes,as
framework to incorporateenvironmentalconsiderations well as organization for regionaleconomicintegration:
into economic activities, including agriculture. All (c) Implement policies to influence land tenure and
countriesneedto assesscomprehensively the impacts property rights positively with due recognitionof the
o f s u c h p o l i c i e s o n f o o d a n d a g r i c u l t u r es e c t o r minimum size of land-holdingrequired to maintain
performance,food security,rural welfare and interna- production and check further fragmentation;
tional trading relations as a means for identifying (d) Consider demographic trends and population
appropriateoffsettingmeasures.The major thrust of movementsand identify critical areasfor asricultural
food securityin this caseis to bring abouta significant production;
increasein agriculturalproductionin a sustainable way (e) Formulate,introduceandmonitorpolicies,lawsand
and to achievea substantialimprovementin people's regulationsandincentivesleadingto sustainable agricul-
entitlementto adequatefood andculturallyappropriate tural and rural developmentand irnprovedfood security
food supplies. and to the developmentand transferof appropriatefarm
11.1 Soundpolicy decisionspertainingto international technologies,including, where appropriate,low-input
trade and capital flows also necessitate action to over- sustainableagricultural(LISA) systems;
come: (a) a lack of awareness of the environmentalcosts (0 Supportnational and regional early waming sys-
incurred by sectoraland macroeconomicpolicies and tems through food-securityassistanceschemesthat
hencetheir threatto sustainability;(b) insufficientskills monitor food supply and demand and factors af-fbctins
and experiencein incorporatingissuesof sustainability householdaccessto food;
into policies and programmes;and (c) inadequacyof (g) Reviewpolicieswith respectto improvingharvest-
tools of analysisand monitoring.' ing, storage,processing,distributionand marketingof
productsat the local, nationaland regionallevels;
(h) Formulate and implement integratedagricultural
OBJECTIVES projects that include other natural resourceactivities,
suchasmanagement of rangelands,forests,and wildlife,
14.8 The objectivesof this Programmeareaare:
(a) By 1995,to review and, where appropriate,estab- as appropriate;
(i) Promotesocialand economicresearchand policies
lish a programmeto integrateenvironmentalandsustain-
that encourage sustainableagriculture development,
able developmentwith policy analysisfor the food and
particularlyin fragileecosystems and denselypopulated
agriculturesectorand relevant macroeconomicpolicy
areas;
analysis,formulationand implementation;

ll5
C) Identify storageand distributionproblemsaffecting MEANSOF IMPLEMENTATION
food availability; supportresearch,where necessary,to
A/ F'NANC'NGAND COSTEVALUATION
overcometheseproblemsand cooperatewith producers
and distributors to implement improved practicesand
14.12The Conference secretariathas estimated the
systems.
averagetotal annualcost (1993-2000)on implementing
the activities of this prograrrme to be about $3 billion,
including about$450 million from the internationalcom-
B) DATAAND /NFORMAT/ON
munity on grant or concessionalterms.Theseare indica-
tive and order-of-magnitudeestimatesonly and have not
14.10Governmentsat the appropriatelevel, with the
been reviewed by Governments.Actual costsand financial
supportof the relevantinternationaland regional organ-
terms,including any that are non-concessional, will depend
izations,should:
ulnn, inter alin, the specific stategies and progfttrnmes
(a) Cooperateactively to expand and improve the in-
Governmentsdecideupon for implementation.
formation on early waming systemson food and agricul-
ture at both regionaland nationallevels;
(b) Examine and undertake surveys and researchto
MEANS
8/ SC'ENnF'CAND TECHNOLOGTCAL
establishbaseline information on the status of natural
resourcesrelatingto food andagriculturalproductionand
14.13Governmentsat the appropriatelevel and with the
planningin orderto assess the impactsof varioususeson
supportof the relevantinternationaland regional organ-
theseresources,and developmethodologiesand tools of
izations should assist farming householdsand com-
analysis,suchas environmentalaccounting.
munities to apply technologiesrelatedto improved food
productionand security,including storage,monitoring of
production and distribution.
AND REG'ONAL
c/ ,NTERNAT/ONAr.
COOPERAI'ONAND COORD/NAIION
c) HUMANRESOURCE
DEVELOPMENT
14.11UnitedNationsagencies,suchasFAO, theWorld
Bank, IFAD and GATT, and regional organizations, 14.14Governments at the appropriate level, with the
bilateraldonoragenciesand otherbodiesshould,with- supportof the relevantinternationaland regional organ-
in their respectivemandates,assumea role in working izations,should:
with nationalGovernmentsin the following activities: (a) Involve and train local economists, planners and
(a) Inrplementintegratedand sustainableagricultural analyststo initiate nationalandintemationalpolicy reviews
development and food security strategiesat the sub- and developframeworksfor sustainableagriculture;
regional level that use regional production and trade (b) Establish legal measuresto promote accessof
potentials,including organizationsfor regionaleconomic women to land and remove biasesin their involvement
integration,to promotefood security; in rural development.
(b) Encourage,in the context of achieving sustain-
able agricultural development and consistent with
relevantinternationallyagreedprincipleson tradeand D) CAPACITY-BUILDING
environment, a more open and non-discriminatory
tradingsystemand the avoidanceof unjustifiabletrade 14.15Governmentsat the appropriatelevel, with the
b a r r i e r s w h i c h t o g e t h e rw i t h o t h e r p o l i c i e s w i l l supportof the relevantinternationaland regional organ-
facilitate the further integration of agricultural and izations, should strengthen ministries for agriculture,
environmentalpolicies so as to make them mutually natural resourcesand planning.
supportive;
(c) Strengthenand establishnational,regionaland in-
ternationalsystemsand networks to increasethe under- Bl ENSURTNGPEOPIE',SPART|C|PAnON
standingof the interactionbetween agriculture and the AND PROMOTING HU'YIAN RESOURCE
state of the environment,identify ecologically sound DEVETOPIIENTFOR SUSTAINABTE AGRICUTruRE
technologiesand facilitate the exchangeof information
on data sources,policies, and techniquesand tools of
BASIS
FORACTION
analysis.
14.16This component bridges policy and integrated

I16
resourcemanagement.The greater the degreeof com- land and for individuals or conununities to encourage
munity control over the resourceson which it relies,the investmentin land resources,
greaterwill be the incentivefor economicand human (d) Developguidelinesfordecentralization policiesfor
resourcesdevelopment.At the sametime, policy instru- rural developmentthrough reorganizationand strength-
mentsto reconcilelong-runand short-runrequirements ening of rural institutions;
must be set by nationalGovernments.The approaches (e) Develop policies in extension,training, pricing,
focus on fosteringself-relianceand cooperation,provid- input distribution,creditandtaxationto ensurenecessary
ing informationandsupportinguser-based organizations. incentives and equitable accessby the poor to produc-
Emphasisshouldbe on managementpractices,building tion-supportservices;
agreementsfor changesin resourceutilization, the rights (0 Providesupportservicesand training,recognizing
and dutiesassociated with useof land,waterand fbrests, the variationin agriculturalcircumstances and practices
the functioning of markets,prices, and the accessto by location; the optimal use of on-farm inputs and the
information, capital and inputs.This would requiretrain- minimal use of external inputs; optimal use of local
ing and capacity-buildingto assumegreaterresponsi- natural resourcesand managementof renewableenergy
bilities in sustainable
developmentefforts.' sources;andtheestablishment of networksthatdealwith
the exchange of information on alternative forms of
agriculture.
OBJECTIVES
14.17The objectivesof this programmeareaare:
(a) To promote greaterpublic awarenessof the role of B) DATAAND 'NFORMAT/ON
people'sparticipationand people'sorganizations,espe-
cially women's groups,youth, indigenouspeople,local 14.19Governmentsat the appropriatelevel,andwith the
communitiesand small farmers,in sustainableagricul- supportof the relevantinternationaland regional organ-
ture and rural development; izations,shouldcollect,analyse,and disseminateinfor-
(b) To ensureequitableaccessof rural people,particu- mation on human resources,the role of Governments,
larly women, small farmers, landlessand indigenous local communities and non-govemmental or ganizations
people,to land, water and forest resourcesand to tech- in socialinnovationandstrategiesfor rural development.
nologies,financing,marketing,processingand distribu-
tion;
(c) To strengthenand developthe managementand the
C/ /NIERNATIONAL
AND REG/ONAICOOPERAIION
internal capacitiesof rural people'sorganizationsand AND COORD'NAIION
extensionservicesand to decentralizedecision-makine
to the lowestcommunitylevel. 14.20Appropriate internationaland regional agencies
should:
(a) Reinforce their work with non-governmental
ACTIVITIES
organizationsin collecting and disseminatinginforma-
A) MANAGEMENT-R
ELATED
ACTtVtTtES tion on people'sparticipationandpeople'sorganizations,
testingparticipatorydevelopmentmethods,training and
14.18Governmentsat the apprclpriatelevel, with the e d u c a t i o n f o r h u m a n r e s o u r c e d e v e l o p m e n ta n d
supportof the relevantinternationaland regional organ- strengtheningthe managementstructuresof rural organ-
izations,should: izations;
(a) Developandimproveintegratedagriculturalexten- (b) Help developinformation availablethrough non-
sion servicesand facilities and rural organizatronsand governmental organizations and promote an interna-
undertake natural resource managementand food tional ecological agricultural network to acceleratethe
securityactivities,takinginto accountthe differentneeds developmentand implementationof ecologicalagricul-
of subsistenceagriculture as well as market-oriented ture practices.
crops;
(b) Review and refocusexisting measuresto achieve
MEANSOFIMPLEMENTATION
wider accessto land, water and forest resourcesand
ensureequal rights of women and other disadvantaged AI FINANC/NGAND COSTEVALUATION
groups,with particularemphasison rural populations,
indigenouspeopleand local communities; 14.21The Conference secretariathas estimated the
(c) Assign clear titles, rights and responsibilitiesfor
averagetotal annual cost (1993-2000)of implementing

117
the activities of this prograrnmeto be about $4.4 billion, demandsfor commoditiesandto avoid further expansion
including about$650million from the internationalcom- on to marginal lands and encroachmenton fragile eco-
munity on grant or concessionalterms.Theseare indica- systems. Increaseduseof externalinputs and develop-
tive and order-of-magnitudeestimatesonly and have not ment of specializedproductionandfarming systemstend
beenreviewedby Govemments.Actual costsand financial to increasevulnerability to environmentalstressesand
terms,including any that are non-concessional,will depend market fluctuations. There is, therefore,a needto inten-
upon, inter alia, the specific strategiesand progftlrnmes sify agriculture by diversifying the production systems
Govemmentsdecideuponfor implementation. for maximum efficiency in the utilization of local re-
sources,while minimizing environmentaland economic
risks. Where intensification of farming systemsis not
8/ SCTENTFtC MEANS
AND TECHNOT.OG|CAL possible,otheron-farm andoff-farm employmentoppor-
tunities should be identified and developed, such as
14.22 Governmentsat the appropriate level, with the cottageindustries,wildlife utilization, aquacultureand
supportof the relevantinternationaland regional organ- fisheries,non-farmactivities,suchaslight village-based
izations,should: manufacturing, farm commodity processing,agri-
(a) Encouragepeople'sparticipationon farm technol- business,recreationand tourism,etc.
ogy developmentand transfer,incorporatingindigenous
ecologicalknowledgeand practices;
( b ) L a u n c h a p p l i e d r e s e a r c ho n p a r t i c i p a t o r y OBJEC-TVES
methodologies, managementstrategiesand local organ- 14.26The objectivesof this programmeareaare:
izations. (a) To improve farm productivity in a sustainableman-
ner,aswell asto increasediversification,efficiency,food
security and rural incomes,while ensuringthat risks to
the ecosystemare minimized;
C) HUMANRESOURCE
DEVELOPMENT
(b) To enhancethe self-relianceof farmersin develop-
ing and improving rural infrastructure,and to facilitate
14.23Governmentsat the appropriatelevel, with the
support of the relevant international and regional the transferof environmentallysound technologiesfor
integratedproduction and farming systems.including
organizations,should provide managementand tech-
indigenoustechnologiesand the sustainableuse of bio-
nical trainingto governmentadministratorsand mem-
groupsin the principles,practice logical and ecologicalprocesses, includingagroforestry,
bersof resource-user
sustainablewildlife conservationand management,
and benefitsof people'sparticipationin rural develop-
ment. aquaculture,inland fisheriesand animal husbandry;
(c) To create farm and non-farm employment oppor-
tunities,particularlyamongthe poor and thoseliving in
marginal areas,taking into account the alternative
D) CAPACTTY-BUtLDtNG
livelihood proposalinter alia in drylandareas.

14.24 Governmentsat the appropriate level, with the


supportof the relevantinternationaland regional organ-
izations, should introducemanagementstrategiesand ACTIVITIES
mechanisms,such as accountingand audit servicesfor A) MANAGEMENI-R ACTIVITIES
ELATED
rural people'sorganizationsand institutionsfor human
resourcedevelopment,and delegateadministrativeand
14.27 Governmentsat the appropriate level, with the
financial responsibilitiesto local levels for decision-
supportof the relevantinternationaland regionalorgan-
making, revenue-raising and expenditure.
izations,should:
(a) Develop and disseminateto farming households
cl rfripRovrNc FARr/lpRoDUcfloN AND integrated farm managementtechnologies,such as crop
FARftIINGSYSTEMSTHROUGH DIVERSIFICATION rotation,organicmanuringand othertechniquesinvolving
OF FARM AND NON.FAR'YIEMPTOY'VIENT AND reduceduseof agriculnrralchemicals,multiple techniques
INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT for sources of nutrients and the efficient utilization of
extemalinputs,while enhancingtechniquesfor wasteand
by-productutilization and preventionof pre- and post-
BASISFORACTION harvestlosses,takingparticularnoteof the role of women;
14.25 Agriculture needs to be intensified to meet future

il8
( b) Cr eat e no n -fa rm e m p l o y m e n t o p p o rtuni ti es beenreviewedby Governments.Actual costsand finan-
throughprivate small-scaleagro-processing units, rural cial terms,includingany that are non-concessional,
will
servicecentres andrelatedi nfrastructurali mprovements; depend upon, inter alia, the specific strategiesand
(c) Promoteand improve rural financial networks that programmesGovernmentsdecideupon for implemen-
utilize investmentcapitalresourcesraisedlocally; tation.
(d) Providethe essentialrural infrastructurefor access
to agriculturalinputsand services,as well as to national
and local markets,and reducefood losses; 8/ SCTENilFtC
AND TECHNOIOG\CAL
MEANS
(e) Initiate and maintain farm surveys.on-farm testing
of appropriatetechnologiesand dialoguewith rural com- 14.31Governments at the appropriatelevel, with the
munitiesto identify constraintsand bottlenecksand find supportof the relevantinternationaland regional organ-
solutions; izations,should strengthenresearchon agriculturalpro-
(0 Analyseandidentifypossibilitiesforeconomicinte- duction systemsin areaswith different endowmentsand
grationof agriculturaland forestryactivities,as well as agro-ecological zones,includingcomparativeanalysisof
water and fisheries. and to take effective measuresto the intensification,diversificationand different levels of
encourageforest managementand growing of trees by extemal and internal inputs.
farmers(farm forestry)asanoption forresourcedevelop-
ment.
C) HUMANRESOURCE
DEVELOPMENI

B) DATAAND /NFORMAnON 14.32 Governmentsat the appropriate level, with the


supportof the relevantinternationaland regional organ-
14.28Governmentsat the appropriatelevel, with the izations,should:
supportof the relevantinternationaland regional organ- (a) Promote educational and vocational training for
izations,should: farmers and rural communitiesthrough formal and non-
(a) Analyse the effects of technical innovationsand formal education;
incentiveson farm-householdincomeand well-being; (b) Launch awarenessand training programmes for
( b) I nit iat e an d ma i n ta i n o n -fa rm a n d o ff-farm entrepreneurs,managers,bankers and traders in rural
programmes to collectandrecordindigenousknowledge. servicingand small-scaleagro-processing techniques.

c/ /NTFRNATIONAL
AND REG'ONAI. D) CAPACTTY-BUtLDtNG
COOPERAIIONAND COORD/NAI/ON
14.33Governmentsat the appropriatelevel, with the
14.29Intemationalinstitutions,suchas FAO and IFAD, supportof the relevantinternationaland regional organ-
international agricultural researchcentres,such as izations,should:
CGIAR, andregionalcentresshoulddiagnosetheworld's (a) Improve their organizationalcapacityto deal with
major agro-ecosystems, their extension,ecologicaland issuesrelated to off-farm activities and rural industry
socio-economiccharacteristics,their susceptibilityto development;
deteriorationand their productivepotential. This could (b) Expandcredit facilities and rural infrastructurere-
form the basisfor technologydevelopmentandexchange lated to processing,transportationand marketing.
and for regionalresearchcollaboration.

ptANNtNc, |NFORftIAT|ON
Dl IAND-RESOURCE
MEANSOF IMPLEMENTATION AND EDUCATIONFORAGRICUTTURE

A/ F/NANC/NGAND COSTEVALUATTON
BASIS
FORACTION
14.30The Conferencesecretariathas estimatedthe 14.34Inappropriate and uncontrolled land uses are a
averagetotal annualcost (1993-2W0)of implementing major causeof degradationand depletion of land re-
the activitiesof this programmeto be about$10 billion, sources.Presentland use often disregardsthe actual
including about$1.5 billion from the internationalcom- potentials,carrying capacitiesand limitations of land
munity on grantor concessional terms.Theseareindica- resources,as well as their diversity in space.It is esti-
tive andorder-of-magnitude estimatesonly andhavenot

il9
matedthat the world's population,now at5.4 billion, will nate information, wheneverpossible,on the utilization
be 6.25 billion by the tum of the century. The need to of naturalresourcesand living conditions,climate,water
increasefood productionto meet the expandingneedsof and soil factors,and on land use,distribution of vegeta-
the populationwill put enormouspressureon all natural tion cover and animal species,utilization of wild plants,
resources,including land. production systems and yields, costs and prices, and
14.35Poverty and malnutrition are already endemic in social and cultural considerationsthat affect agricultural
many regions. The destruction and degradation of and adjacentland use;
agriculturalandenvironmentalresources i s a major i ssue. (b) Establish programmes to provide information,
Techniquesfor increasingproductionandconservingsoil promote discussion and encourage the formation of
and water resourcesare already available but are not managementgroups.
widely or systematicallyapplied.A systematicapproach
is neededfor identifying land usesand production sys-
tems that are sustainablein each land and climate zone, C/ INIERNAI'ONAI.AND REGION,AI.
including the economic,social and institutional mecha- COOPERAI'ON AND COORD/NAIION
nisms necessaryfor their implementation.3
14.39The appropriate United Nations agenciesand
regional organizationsshould:
OBJECTIVES (a) Strengthenor establishinternational,regional and
14.36The objectivesof this programmeareaare: subregionaltechnicalworking groupswith specificterms
(a) To harmonizeplanningprocedures,involve farmers of referenceand budgetsto promotethe integrateduseof
in theplanningprocess,collectland-resource data,design land resourcesfor agriculture,planning, data collection
and establishdatabases,define land areas of similar and diffusion of simulation models of production and
capability,identify resourceproblemsand values that information di ssemination:
needto be takeninto accountto establishmechanismsto (b) Develop internationallyacceptablemethodologies
encourageefficient and environtnentally sound use of for the establishmentof databases,description of land
resources: usesand multiple goal optimization.
(b) To establishagriculturalplanningbodiesat national
and local levels to decide priorities,channelresources
and irnplementprogrammes. MEANSOF IMPLEMENTATION

A/ F/NANC/NGAND COSTEVALUATION
ACTIVITIES
14.40The Conference secretariathas estimated the
A) MANAGEMENI-R ACTIVITIE5
ELATED averagetotal annualcost (1993-2000)of implementing
the activitiesof this programmeto be about$ 1.7billion,
14.37 Governmentsat the appropriate level, with the including about$250 million from the internationalcom-
supportof the relevantinternationaland regional organ- munity on grant or concessionalterms.Theseare indic-
izations,should: ative andorder-of-magnitudeestimatesonly andhavenot
(a) Establishand strengthenagricultural land-useand beenreviewedby Governments.Actual costsand finan-
land-resource planning,management, educationand in- cial terms,including any that are non-concessional,will
formation at national and local levels; dependupon, inter alia, the specific strategiesand pro-
(b) Initiateandmaintaindistrictandvillageagricultural grammesGovernmentsdecideupon for implementation.
land-resourceplanning, managementand conservation
groupsto assistin problem identification,development
of technicaland managementsolutions,and project im- MEANS
AND TECHNOLOGICAL
BJ SC/ENI/F'C
plementation.
14.41Governments at the appropriate level, with the
supportof the relevantinternationaland regional organ-
B) DATAAND /NFORMAT/ON izations,should:
(a) Develop databasesand geographicalinformation
14.38Governmentsat the appropriatelevel, with the systemsto store and display physical,social and eco-
supportof the relevantinternationaland regional organ- nomic information pertaining to agriculture, and the
izations,should: definition of ecological zonesand developmentareas;
(a) Collect,continuouslymonitor,updateanddissemi- (b) Selectcombinationsof land usesand production

120
systemsappropriateto land units throughmultiple goal havehadlimited success to date.Well planned,long-term
optimization procedures,and strengthendelivery sys- national and regional land conservationand rehabilita-
tems and local communityparticipation; tion programmes,with strongpolitical supportand ade-
(c) Encourageintegratedplanningat the watershedand quatefunding,arenow needed.While land-useplanning
landscapelevelto reducesoil lossandprotectsurfaceand andlandzoning,combinedwith betterlandmanagement,
groundwaterresourcesfrom chemicalpollution. shouldprovide long-termsolutions,it is urgentto arrest
land degradationand launch conservationand rehabili-
tation programmesin the most critically affected and
C) HUMANRESOURCE
DEVELOPMENI vulnerableareas.

14.42Governmentsat the appropriatelevel, with the


supportof the relevantinternationaland regionalorgan- OBJECTIVES
izations,should: 14.45The objectivesof this programmeareaare:
(a) Trainprofessionals andplanninggroupsat national, (a) By the year 2000,to review and initiate,as appro-
district and village levels throughformal and informal priate,nationalland-resource surveys,detailingtheloca-
instructionalcourses,travel and interaction; tion, extentand severityof land degradation;
(b) Generatediscussionat all levelson policy,develop- (b) To prepareand implementcomprehensive policies
ment and environmentalissuesrelated to agricultural and prograrrunesleading to the reclamationof degraded
land use and management,through media programmes, lands and the conservationof areasat risk, as well as
conferencesand seminars. improve the generalplanning,managelnentand utiliza-
tion of land resourcesand preserve soil fertility for
sustainableagriculturaldevelopment.
D) CAPACTTY-BUtLDtNG

ACTIVITIES
14.43Governmentsat the appropriatelevel, with the
supportof the relevantintemationaland regionalorgan- A) MA,NAGEMENI-R
ELATED
ACTtVtTt
ES
izations,should:
(a) Establishland-resource mappingandplanningunits 14.46 Governmentsat the appropriate level, with the
at national,districtandvillagelevelsto actasfocal points supportof the relevantinternationaland regional organ-
and links betweeninstitutionsand disciplines,and be- izations,should:
tween Govemmentsand people; (a) Developandimplementprogrammestoremoveand
(b) Establishor strengthenGovemmentsand interna- resolvethe physical,socialand economiccausesof land
tional institutions with responsibilityfor agricultural degradation, such as land tenure, appropriate trading
resourcesurvey,managementand development;ration- systemsand agriculturalpricing structures,which lead
alize and strengthenlegal frameworks; and provide to inappropriateland-usemanagement;
equipmentand technicalassistance. (b) Provide incentivesand, where appropriateand
possible, resourcesfor the participationof local com-
E) rAND CONSERVATTON munities in the planning,implementationand maintenance
AND REHABIL|TAT|ON
of their own conservationand reclamationprogrammes;
(c) Develop and implement programmesfor the reha-
BASIS
FORACTION bilitationof landdegradedbywater-loggingand salinity;
(d) Develop and implement programmes for the
14.44Land degradationis the most important environ-
progressiveuseof non-cultivatedland with agricultural
mentalproblemaffectingextensiveareasof land in both
potentialin a sustainableway.
developedanddevelopingcountries.The problemof soil
erosion is particularly acute in developing countries,
while problemsof salinization,waterlogging,soil pollu-
B) DATAAND /NFORMATTON
tion andlossof soil fertility areincreasingin all countries.
Land degradationis seriousbecausethe productivityof
14.47 Governments,at the appropriatelevel, with the
hugeareasof land is decliningjust when populationsare
supportof the relevantinternationaland regional organ-
increasingrapidlyandthedemandon the landis growing
izations,should:
to produce more food, fibre and fuel. Efforts to control
(a) Conductperiodic surveysto assessthe extentand
land degradation,particularlyin developingcountries,
stateof its land resources:

121
(b) Strengthenand establish national land-resource C) HUMANRESOURCE
DEVELOPMENI
databanks,including identificationof the location,extent
and severityof existingland degradation,aswell asareas 14.51Governmentsat the appropriatelevel, with the
at risk, and evaluatethe progressof the conservationand supportof the relevantinternationaland regional organ-
rehabilitationprogralruneslaunchedin this regard; izations, should train field staff and land users in in-
(c) Collect and record information on indigenouscon- digenousand moderntechniquesof conservationand
servation and rehabilitation practicesand farming sys- rehabi l i tati onand shoul destabl i shtrai ni ngf acilit ies
tems as a basisfor researchand extensionprogrammes. for extensionstaff and land users.

AND REG/ONAI.
C,| INIERN,AIIONAI. D] CAPACITY.BUILDING
COOPERAI'ON AND COORD'NAIION
14.52 Governmentsat the appropriate level, with the
14.48The appropriateUnited Nationsagencies,regional supportof the relevantinternationaland regional organ-
organizations and non-governmental organizations izations,should:
should: (a) Develop and strengthennational researchinstitu-
(a) Develop priority conservation and rehabilitation tional capacity to identify and implement effective con-
programmeswith advisory servicesto Governmentsand servationandrehabilitationpracticesthat areappropriate
regionalorganizations
; to theexistingsocio-economic physicalconditionsof the
(b) Establish regional and subregional networks for land users;
scientistsand techniciansto exchangeexperiences, (b) Coordinateall land conservationandrehabilitation
developjoint programmesandspreadsuccessfultechnol- policies,strategiesandprogralnmeswith relatedongoing
ogieson land conservationand rehabilitation. prograrnmes, suchas nationalenvironmentactionplans,
the Tropical ForestryAction Plan and national develop-
ment prograrnmes.
MEANSOF IMPLEMENTATION

A/ F/NANC/NGAND COSTEVALUATTON
F) WATERFOR SUSTAINABLEFOOD PRODUCTION
14.49The Conferencesecretariathas estimatedthe AND SUSTAINABTERURATDEVELOP}IENT
averagetotal annualcost (1993-2000)of implementing
the activitiesof this programmeto be about $5 billion, 14.53This programmearea is included in chapter 18
including about$800million from the internationalcom- (Protectionof thequality andsupplyof freshwaterresour-
munity on grantor concessional terms.Theseareindica- ces).prograffuneareaF.
tive andorder-of-magnitude estimatesonly andhavenot
beenreviewedby Govemments.Actual costsandfinan-
c) coNsERvATloN AND SUSTAINABII t TltlZATloN
cial terms,includingany that are non-concessional,will
FORFOOD AND
OF PIANT C#NETrcRESOI.|RCES
depend upon, inter alia, the specific strategiesand SUSTANABTEAGR,rcUtruRE
programmesGovernmentsdecideupon for implementa-
tion.
BASIS FORACTION
14.54Plant geneticresourcesfor agriculture(PGRFA)
8/ SC/ENI,FtC MEANS
AND TECHNOLOGICAL are an essentialresourceto meet future needsfor food.
Threats to the security of theseresourcesare growing,
14.50Governmentsat the appropriatelevel, with the andefforts to conserve,developand usegeneticdiversity
supportof the relevantinternationaland regional organ- are underfundedand understaffed.Many existing gene
izations,shouldhelp farming householdcommunitiesto banksprovideinadequatesecurityand,in someinstances,
investigateand promote site-specifictechnologiesand the lossof plantgeneticdiversityin genebanksis asgreat
farming systems that conserve and rehabilitate land, as it is in the field.
while increasingagriculturalproduction,includingcon- 14.55The primary objectiveis to safeguardthe world's
servationtillage agroforestry,terracingand mixed crop- geneticresourceswhile preservingthem to use sustain-
ping. ably. This includes the developmentof measuresto
facilitate the conservationand use of plant genetic re-

122
sources,networksof in situ conservationareasand use objectivesof sustainableagricultureand rural develop-
of tools suchas ex situ collecticlnsand germ plasma ment in view;
banks. Specialemphasiscould be placedon the building (c) Develop multiplication/propagation,exchange
of endogenous capacityfor characterization, evaluation and disseminationfacilities for PGRFAs (seedsand
and utilization of PGRFA, particularly for the minor p l a n t i n g m a t e r i a l s ) ,p a r t i c u l a r l y i n d e v e l o p i n g
crops and other underutilizedor non-utilizedspecies countriesandmonitor,controlandevaluateplantintro-
of food and agriculture,including tree speciesfor ducti ons;
agro-forestry. Subsequentaction could be aimed at (d) Prepareplans or programmesof priority action on
consolidationand efficient managementof networks conservationand sustainableuse of PGRFA, based,as
of in situ conservationareasand use of tools such as appropriate,on country studiesof PGRFA;
ex situ collectionsand germ plasmabanks. (e) Promotecropdiversificationin agriculturalsystems
14.56Major gaps and weaknesses exist in the capacity where appropriate,including new plantswith potential
of existing national and internationalmechanismsto value as food crops;
assess, study,monitor and useplant geneticresourcesto (f) Promoteutilization as well as researchon poorly
increasefood production.Existinginstitutionalcapacity, known, but potentiallyuseful, plants and crops, where
structuresand programmesare generallyinadequateand appropriate;
largely underfunded.There is geneticerosionof inval- (g) Strengthennational capabilitiesfor utilization of
uablecrop species.Existingdiversity in crop speciesis PGRFA, plant breedingand seedproductioncapabilities,
not usedto theextentpossiblefor increasedfood produc- both by specializedinstitutionsand farmingcommunities.
tion in a sustainablewav"*

B) DATAAND /NFORMATION
OBJECTIVES
14.57The objectivesof this programmeareaare: 14.59Governmentsat the appropriatelevel, with the
(a) To completethe first regeneration and safeduplica- supportof the relevantinternationaland regionalorgan-
tion of existingex situ collectionson a world-widebasis izations,should:
as soonas possible; (a) Develop strategiesfor networksof in situ conser-
(b) To collect and study plants useful for increasing vation areasand use of tools such as on-f'armex situ
food productionthroughjoint activities,includingtrain- collections,germplasmbanksand relatedtechnologies;
ing, within the frameworkof networksof collaboratins (b) Establishex situ basecollectionnetworks;
institutions; (c) Review periodicallyand reporton the situationon
(c) Not later than the year 2000, to adoptpoliciesand PGRFA, usingexistingsystemsand procedures;
strengthenor establishprogrammesfor in situ on-farm (d) Characterrzeand evaluate PGRFA material col-
and e.r silr.rconservationand sustainableuse of plant lected,disseminateinformation to tacilitate the use of
geneticresources for food andagriculture,integratedinto PGRFA collectionsand assesseeneticvariationin col-
strategiesand programrnesfor sustainableagriculture; lections.
(d) To take appropriatemeasuresfor the fair and equi-
table sharing of benefits and results of researchand
developmentin plant breedingbetweenthe sourcesand c/ /NTFRNAT/ONAI.
AND REGIONAI
usersof plant geneticresources. COOPERAI/ONAND COCRDINAI/ON

14.60The appropriateUnited Nations agenciesand


ACTIVITIES
regionalorganizationsshould:
ACTIVITIES
ELATED
A) MANAGEMENI-R (a) Strengthenthe Global Systemon the Conserva-
tion and SustainableUse of PGRFA by, inter alia,
14.58Governmentsat the appropriatelevel, with the acceleratingthe developmentof the Global Informa-
supportof the relevantinternationaland regionalorgan- tion and Early WarningSystemto facilitatetheexchange
izations.should: of information;developingways to promotethe transfer
(a) Develop and strengtheninstitutional capacity, of environmentallysoundtechnologies,in particularto
structuresand progranunesfor conservationand use of developingcountries;and taking further stepsto realize
PGRFA: farmers' ri ghts:
(b) Strengthenand establishresearchin the public (b) Developsubregional, regionalandglobalnetworks
domain on PGRFA evaluationand utilization.with the of PGRFAin situ in protectedareas:

123
(c) Prepare periodic state of the world reports on supportof the relevantinternationaland regional organ-
PGRFA; izationsshould:
(d) Preparea rolling global cooperativeplan of action (a) Promote training programmesat both undergrad-
on PGRFA: uateandpost-graduate for
levelsin conservationsciences
(e) Promote,for l994,the Fourth InternationalTechni- running PGRFA facilities and for the design and im-
cal Conferenceon the Conservationand SustainableUse plementationof national programmesin PGRFA;
of PGRFA, which is to adopt the first stateof the world (b) Raisethe awarenessof agriculturalextensionser-
report and the first global plan of action on the conserva- vices in order to link PGRFA activitieswith user com-
tion and sustainableuse of PGRFA; munities;
(0 Adjust the Global Systemfor the Conservationand (c) Developtraining materialsto promoteconservation
SustainableUse of PGRFA in line with the outcome of and utilizationof PGRFAat the local level.
the negotiationsof a conventionon biological diversity'

D) CAPACITY-BUILDING
MEANSOF IMPLEMENTATION
14.64Governmentsat the appropriatelevel,with the sup-
A/ F'NANC'NGAND COSTEVALUATTON
port of therelevantinternationalandregional organizations,
shouldestablishnationalpoliciesto providelegalstatusfor
14.61The Conference secretariathas estimated the
andstrengthen legalaspects of PGRFA,includinglong-term
averagetotal annual cost (1993-2000)of implementing
financialcommitmentsfbr germplasmcollectionsand im-
the activitiesof this programmeto be about$600 million,
plementationof activitiesin PGRFA.
including about$300million from the internationalcom-
munity on grant or concessionalterms.Theseare indic-
ativeand order-of-magnitudeestimatesonly andhavenot H) CONSERVATIONAND zuSTAINABU UnUZATION
beenreviewedby Govemments.Actual costsand financial FOR
OF ANIMAT GENETICRESOURCES
terms,including any that are non-concessional, will depend SUSTAINABLEAGRICUTTURE
upofl, inter ali.a, ttre specific sfategies and programmes
Govemmentsdecideuponfor implementation.
FORACTION
BASIS
14.65The need for increasedquantity and quality of
MEANS
ANDTECHNOI.OGICAL
8' SC'ENTIFIC animalproductsandfor draughtanimalscallsfor conser-
vation of the existingdiversityof animalbreedsto meet
14.62 Governments,at the appropriatelevel, with the future requirements,including thosefor use in biotech-
supportof the relevantinternationaland regional organ- nology. Some local animal breeds,in additionto their
izations,should: socio-culturalvalue, have unique attributesfor adapta-
(a) Develop basic science researchin such areas as tion, diseaseresistanceand specificusesand shouldbe
plant taxonomy and phytogeography,utilizing recent preserved.Theselocal breedsare threatenedby extinc-
developments,such as computer sciences,molecular tion as a result of the introductionof exotic breedsand
geneticsand in vitro cryopreservation; of changesin livestockproductionsystems.
(b) Develop major collaborativeprojects betweenre-
s ear c h pro g ra m m e si n d e v e l o p e d a n d devel opi ng
countries, particularly for the enhancementof poorly OBJECTIVES
known or neglectedcrops; 14.66The objectivesof this programmeareaare:
(c) Promote cost-effective technologies for keeping (a) To enumerateand describeall breedsof livestock
duplicatesetsof ex situ collections(which can also be usedin animalagriculturein as broada way as possible
usedby local communities); and begin a 1O-yearprogrammeof action;
(d) Developfurtherconservation sciencesin relationto (b) To establishand implementaction programmesto
in situ conservationand technicalmeansto link it with identify breedsat risk, togetherwith the natureof the risk
ex situ conservationefforts. and appropriatepreservationmeasures ;
(c) To establish and implement development pro-
grammesfor indigenousbreedsin orderto guaranteetheir
DEVELOPMENT
C) HUMANRESOURCE survival, avoiding the risk of their being replacedby
breedsubstitutionor cross-breeding prograrnmes.
14.63Governmentsat the appropriatelevel and with the

124
ACTMTES take action to preserveendangeredbreedsand to seek
technical assistance,where necessary.
A) MANAGEMENI-R ACTIVITIES
ELATED

14.67 Governmentsat the appropriate level, with the MEANSOFIMPLEMENTATION


supportof the relevantintemationaland regional organ-
A/ F'NANC/NGAND COSTEVALUATION
izations, should:
(a) Draw up breed preservationplans, for endangered
populations, including semen/embryo collection and 14.70The Conference secretariathas estimated the
storage,farm-basedconservationof indigenousstock or averagetotal annualcost (1993-2000)of implementing
in situ preservation; the activitiesof this prograrnmeto be about$200million,
(b) Plan and initiate breeddevelopmentstrategies; including about $100 million from the internationalcom-
(c) Select indigenous populations on the basis of munity on grantor concessionalterms. Theseareindicative
regional importanceand geneticuniqueness,for a 1O-year and order-of-magnitudeestimatesonly and have not been
programme,followed by selectionof an additionalcohort reviewed by Govemments. Actual costs and financial
of indigenousbreedsfor development. terms,includingany thatarenon-concessional, will depend
upon, inter alia, the specific sftategiesand programmes
Govemmentsdecideupon for implementation.
B) DATAAND 'NFORMATTON

14.68Governments at the appropriate level, with the B/ SC/ENilFrC


AND TECHNOLOGTCAL
MEANS
supportof the relevantinternationaland regional organ-
izations, should prepare and complete national inven- 14J1 Governments at the appropriate level, with the
tories of availableanimal geneticresources.Cryogenic supportof the relevantinternationaland regional organ-
storagecould be given priority over characterizationand izations,should:
evaluation. Training of nationals in conservationand (a) Use computer-baseddatabanksand questionnaires
assessment techniqueswould be given specialattention. to preparea global inventory/world watch list;
(b) Using cryogenic storageof germplasm,preserve
breedsat seriousrisk andothermaterialfrom which senes
can be reconstructed.
AND REG/ONAI.
C) 'NIERN,AI/ON,AI.
COOPERAI'ONAND COORD'NAIION

14.69The appropriateUnited Nations and other interna- DEVELOPMENI


C) HUMANRFSOURCE
tional and regional agenciesshould:
(a) Promotethe establishmentof regional gene banks 14.72 Governmentsat the appropriate level, with the
to the extent that they are justified, basedon principles supportof the relevantinternationaland regional organ-
of technicalcooperationamong developingcountries; izations,should:
(b) Process,store and analyseanimal genetic data at (a) Sponsortraining coursesfor nationalsto obtain the
the global level, including the establishmentof a world necessaryexpertisefor data collection and handling and
watch list and an early warning systemfor endangered for the sampling of geneticmaterial;
breeds;global assessment of scientific and intergovern- (b) Enable scientistsand managersto establishan in-
mental guidance of the programme and review of formation base for indigenous livestock breeds and
r egional and n a ti o n a l a c ti v i ti e s ; d e v e l o p ment of promote programmesto develop and conserveessential
methodologies,norms and standards(including interna- livestockgeneticmaterial.
tional agreements);monitoring of their implementation;
and relatedtechnicaland financial assistance;
(c) Prepareand publish a comprehensivedatabaseof D) CAPACITY-BUILDING
animal genetic resources,describing each breed, its
derivation, its relationship with other breeds,effective 14,73Governmentsat the appropriatelevel, with the
population size and a concise set of biological and supportof the relevantinternationaland regional organ-
production characteristics ; izations,should:
(d) Prepareand publish a world watch list on farm (a) Establishin-country facilities for artificial insemi-
animal speciesat risk to enablenationalGovernmentsto nation centresand in situbreedingfarms;

125
(b) Promotein-country programmesand relatedphyst- ACTIVITIES
cal infrastructurefor animal livestock conservationand
ACTIVITIES
ELATED
A) MANAGFMENI-R
breeddevelopment,aswell as for strengthening national
capacities to take preventive action when breeds are
endangered. 14.76Governments at the appropriate level, with the
supportof the relevantinternationaland regional organ-
izations,should:
PESTftTANAGEfrlENT
rl TNTEGRATED (a) Review and reform national policies and the
AND CONTROLIN AGRICUTTURE mechanismsthat would ensurethe safe and appropriate
use of pesticides- for example,pesticidepricing, pest
controlbrigades,price-structureof inputsandoutputsand
FORACTION
BASIS integratedpest-management policies and action plans;
14.14World food demand projections indicate an in- (b) Develop and adopt efficient managementsystems
creaseof 50 per cent by the year 2000 which will more to control and monitor the incidenceof pestsand disease
thandoubleagainby 2050.Conservativeestimatesput in agriculture and the distribution and use of pesticides
pre-harvestand post-harvestlossescausedby pests at the country level;
between 25 and 50 per cent. Pests affecting animal (q) Encourage research and development into pest-
health also cause heavy losses and in many areas icides that are target-specificand readily degradeinto
preventlivestockdevelopment. Chemical control of harmlessconstituentparts after use;
agricultural pests has dominated the scene,but its (d) Ensure that pesticide labels provide farmers with
overusehas adverseeffects on farm budgets,human understandableinformation about safe handling, appli-
healthand the environment,as well as on international cation and disposal.
trade. New pest problemscontinueto develop. Inte-
gratedpest management,which combinesbiological
control, host plant resistanceand appropriatefarming B) DATAAND TNFORMAT/ON
practicesand minimizes the use of pesticides,is the
best option for the future, as it guaranteesyields, 14J7 Governmentsat the appropriate level, with the
reducescosts, is environmentallyfriendly and con- supportof the relevantinternationaland regional organ-
tributesto the sustainabilityof agriculture.Integrated izations,should:
pest managementshouldgo hand in hand with appro- (a) Consolidateand harmonize existing information
priate pesticide managementto allow for pesticide and programmeson the useof pesticidesthat havebeen
regulationand control,includingtrade,andfor the safe bannedor severelyrestrictedin differentcountries;
handlingand disposalof pesticides,particularlythose (b) Consolidate,documentand disseminateinforma-
t hat ar e t oxi c a n d p e rs i s te n t. tion on biologicalcontrol agentsand organicpesticides,
as well as on traditionaland other relevantknowledge
and skills regardingalternativenon-chemicalways of
OBJECTIVES
controllingpests;
14.75The objectivesof this programmeareaare: (c) Undertakenational surveys to establishbaseline
(a) Not later than the year 2000, to improve and information on the useof pesticidesin eachcountry and
implementplantprotectionandanimalhealthservices, the side-effectson human health and environment,and
including mechanismsto control the distributionand also undertakeappropriateeducation.
use of pesticides,and to implementthe International
Code of C o n d u c t o n th e D i s tri b u ti o n and U se of
P es t ic ide s :
AND REG/ONAL
c/ ,NTERNAilONAT.
(b) To improve and implement programmes to put
COOPERAIION AND COORD/NAI/ON
integratedpest-management practiceswithin the reach
of farmers through farmer networks,extensionservices
14.78AppropriateUnitedNationsagenciesandregional
and researchinstitutions;
organizationsshould:
(c) Not laterthantheyear 1998,to establishoperational
(a) Establisha system for collecting, analysingand
and interactivenetworksamongfarmers,researchersand
disseminatingdata on the quantity and quality of pest-
extensionservicesto promoteanddevelopintegratedpest
icides usedevery year and their impact on humairhealth
management.
and the environment;
(b) Strengthenregional interdisciplinary projects and

126
establishintegratedpestmanagement(IPM) networksto tions and regulatorybodiesin the control of pesticides
demonstratethe social, economic and environmental and the transferof technologyfor integratedpestman-
benefitsof IPM for food and cashcrops in agriculture; agement.
(c) Develop proper IPM, comprisingthe selectionof
the variety of biological,physicaland culturalcontrols,
as well as chemicalcontrols,taking into accountspecific PrANT NUTRTTTON
J) SUSTATNABTE TO
INCREASEFOOD PRODUCTION
regionalconditions.

BASIS
FORACTION
MEANSOFIMPLEMENTATION
14.83P l ant nutri ent depl eti oni s a seri ousproblem
A/ F/NANC'NGAND COSTEVALUATTON resulting in loss of soil fertility, particularlyin
devel opi ngcountri es.To mai ntai nsoi l productivit y,
14.79The Conference secretariathas estimated the t h e F A O s u s t a i n a b l ep l a n t n u t r i t i o n p r o g r a m m e s
averagetotal annual cost (1993-2000)of implementing coul d be hel pful . In sub-S aharanA fri ca, nutrient
the activitiesof this programmeto be about$ 1.9billion, output from al l sourcescurrentl yexceedsi nputs by
includingabout$285million from theinternationalqom- a factor of three or four, the net loss being estimated
munity on grantor concessionalterms.Theseare indica- a t s o m e l 0 m i l l i o n m e t r i ct o n sp e r y e a r .A s a r e s u l t ,
tive and order-of-magnitudeestimatesonly and have not more margi nall andsand fragi l e naturalecosyst em s
beenreviewedby Governments.Actual costsandfinan- are put under agri cul turaluse, thus creati ngfurt her
cial terms,includingany that are non-concessional, will l and degradati onand otherenvi ronmentalprobl em s.
dependupon, inter alia, the specific strategiesand pro- The i ntegratedpl ant nutri ti on approachai ms at en-
grammesGovernmentsdecideupon for implementation. suri ng a sustai nabl esuppl y of pl ant nutri ents t o
i ncreasefuture yi el ds w i thout harmi ng the envir on-
ment and soi l producti vi ty.
8/ SC'ENilFrCAND TECHNOTOG\CAL
MEANS 14.84In many developingcountries,populationgrowth
ratesexceed3 per cent a year,and nationalagricultural
14.80Governmentsat the appropriatelevel, with the production has fallen behind food demand. ln these
supportof the relevantintemationaland regionalorgan- countries the goal should be to increaseagricultural
izations,shouldlaunch on-farm researchin the develop- productionby at least4 percenta year,withoutdestroying
ment of non-chemicalalternativepestmanagementtech- the soil fertility. This will requireincreasingagricultural
nologies. productionin high-potentialareasthroughefficiencyin
the useof inputs. Trainedlabour,energysupply,adapted
tools and technologies,plant nutrientsand soil enrich-
C) HUMANRESOURCE
DEVELOPMENT ment will all be essential.

14.81Governmentsat the appropriatelevel, with the


OBJECTIVES
supportof the relevantintemationaland regional organ-
izations.should: 14.85The objectivesof this programmeareaare:
(a) Prepare and conduct training programmes on ap- (a) Not later than the year 2000,to developand main-
proachesand techniquesfor integratedpest management tain in all countriesthe integratedplant nutrition ap-
proach,andto optimizeavailabilityof fertilizerandother
and control of pesticideuse, to inform policy makers,
plant nutrientsources;
researchers,non-govemmentalorganizations and farmers;
(b) Train extensionagentsand involve farmers and (b) N ot l ater than the year 2000, to establ i shand
women's groups in crop health and altemative non- mai ntai n i nsti tuti onaland human i nfrastructur et o
chemicalways of controllingpestsin agriculture. enhanceeffecti ve deci si on-maki ngon soi l prod uc-
tivity;
(c) To developandmakeavailablenationalandintema-
tional know-how to farmers,extensionagents,planners
D) CAPACITY.BUILDING
and policy makerscln envirclnmentallysound new and
existing technologiesand soil-fertility management
14.82Governmentsat the appropriatelevel, with the
strategi esfor appl i cati oni n promoti ng sustai nable
supportof the relevantintemationaland regionalorgan-
agriculture.
izations,should strengthennationalpublic administra-

127
ACTIVITIES the activitiesof this programmeto be about$3.2 billion,
including about$475 million from the internationalcom-
A) MANAGEMENT-R
ELATED
ACTIVIT
IES munity on grant or concessionalterms.Theseare indic-
ativeandorder-of-magnitude estimatesonly andhavenot
14.86Governments at the appropriate level, with the been reviewedby Gclvernments. Actual costsand fi-
supportof the relevantinternationaland regional organ- nancialterms,includingany thatarenon-concessional,
izations,should: will dependupon,inter alia,the specificstrategies and
(a) Formulate and apply strategiesthat will enhance programmesGovernmentsdecideupon for implemen-
soil fertility maintenanceto meetsustainableagricultural tation.
production and adjust the relevant agricultural policy
instrumentsaccordingly;
(b) Integrate organic and inorganic sourcesof plant
B/ SC/EN|FICAND TECHNOLOGTCAL
MEANS
nutrientsin a systemto sustainsoil fertility anddetermine
mineral fertilizer needs;
14.90Governments at the appropriate level, with the
(c) Determine plant nutrient requirementsand supply
supportof the relevantinternationaland regional organ-
strategiesand optimize the use of both organic and
izations.should:
inorganic sources,as appropriate,to increasefarming (a) Develop site-specifictechnologiesat benchmark
effi ciency and production;
sites and farmers' fields that fit prevailing socio-econ-
(d) Develop andencourageprocessesfor the recyclingof
omic and ecological conditions through researchthat
organicand inorganicwasteinto the soil structure,without
involvesthe full collaborationof local populations;
harming the environment,plant growth and humanhealth. (b) Reinforce interdisciplinary international research
and transferof technologyin cropping and farming sys-
temsresearch,improvedin sirabiomassproductiontech-
B) DATAAND /NFORMAI/ON niques, organic residue managementand agroforestry
technologies.
14.87Governments at the appropriate level, with the
supportof the relevantinternationaland regional organ-
izations,should:
c) HUTAAN
RESOURCE
DEVELOPMENI
(a) Assess"national accounts"for plant nutrients,in-
cludingsupplies(inputs)andlosses(outputs)andprepare
14.91Governments at the appropriate level, with the
balancesheetsand projectionsby cropping systems;
supportof the relevantinternationaland regionalorgan-
(b) Review technicaland economicpotentialsof plant
izations,should:
nutrient sources,including nationaldeposits,improved or- (a) Train extensionofficers and researchersin plant
ganic supplies,recycling, wastes,topsoil produced from
nutrientmanagement, croppingsystemsandfarmingsys-
discardedorganicmatterand biological nitrogen fixation.
tems, and in economicevaluationof plant nutrientim-
pact;
(b) Trainfarmersandwomen'sgroupsin plantnutrition
C/ /NTERNAI'ONAT
AND REGIONAI. management, with specialemphasison topsoilconserva-
COOPERAI/ON,AND COORD/NAI/ON tion and production.

14.88The appropriateUnited Nations agencies,such as


FAO, the internationalagriculturalresearchinstitutes,and
non-governmentalorganizationsshouldcollaboratein car- D) CAPACITY-BUILDING
rying out information and publicity campaignsabout the
integrated plant nutrients approach,efficiency of soil 14.92 Governmentsat the appropriate level, with the
productivity and their relationshipto the environment. supportof the relevantinternationaland regional organ-
izations,should:
(a) Develop suitable institutional mechanismsfor
MEANSOF IMPLEMENTATION policy formulationto monitor andguidethe implementa-
tion of integratedplant nutritionprogrammesthroughan
A) F'NANCING AND COSI EVALUATTON
interactiveprocessinvolving farmers,research,.exten-
sion servicesand other sectorsof society;
14.89The Conference secretariathas estimated the (b) Where appropriate, strengthenexisting advisory
averagetotal annual cost (1993-2000)of implementing servicesandtrainstaff,developandtestnewtechnologies

128
and facilitatethe adoptionof practicesto upgradeand (b) Initiate and promoterural energyprogrammessup-
maintainfull productivityof theland. ported by technical training, banking and relatedinfra-
structure;
(c) Intensify researchand the development,diversifica-
K) RURArENERGY TO
TRANSTTTON tion andconservationof energy,takinginto accounttheneed
ENHANCEPRODUCTIVITY for efficient useand environmentallysoundtechnology.

FORACTION
BASIS
B) DATAAND /NFORMAT/ON
14.93 Energy suppliesin many countries are not com-
mensuratewith their developmentneedsand are highly
14.96Governments at the appropriate level, with the
priced and unstable. In rural areasof the developing
supportof the relevantinternationaland regional organ-
countries,the chief sourcesof energyarefuelwood, crop
izations,should:
residuesand manure, together with animal and human
(a) Collect and disseminatedataon rural energysupply
energy. More intensive energy inputs are required for
and demand patterns related to energy needs for
increasedproductivity of human labour and for income-
households,agricultureand agro-industry;
generation. To thisend,ruralenergypoliciesandtechnol-
(b) Analyse sectoral energy and production data in
ogies shouldpromotea mix of cost-effectivefossil and
order to identify rural energyrequirements.
renewableenergy sourcesthat is itself sustainableand
ensures sustainableagricultural development.Rural
areasprovide energy suppliesin the form of wood. The
full potential of agricultureand agroforestry,as well as AND REG'ONAL
c/ /NTERNAT/ONAI
common property resources,as sourcesof renewable COOPERAIIONAND COORD/NAI/ON
energy, is far from being realized. The attainment of
sustainablerural developmentis intimately linked with 14.97The appropriate United Nations agenciesand
energy demandand supply patterns.) regionalorganizations should,drawingon theexperience
and available information of non-governmentalorgan-
izations in this field. exchangecountry and regional
OBJECTIVES experienceon rural energy planning methodologiesin
14.94The objectivesof this programmeareaare: order to promoteefficient planningand selectcost-effec-
(a) Not later than the year 2000,to initiate andencourage tive technologies.
a processof environmentallysoundenergytransitionin rural
communities,from unsustainable energysources,to struc-
MEANSOFIMPLEMENTATION
tured and diversified energy sources by making available
alternativenew and renewable sources of energy; A/ F/NANCINGAND COSTEVALUATION
(b) To increasethe energy inputs available for rural
householdand agro-industrialneedsthrough planning 14.98The Conference secretariathas estimated the
and appropriatetechnologytransferand development; averagetotal annualcost (1993-2000)of implementing
(c) To implementself-reliantruralprogrammesfavouring the activitiesof this programmeto be about$ 1.8billion,
sustainable developmentof renewableenergysourcesand includingabout$265million from theinternationalcom-
improved energyefficiency. munity on grantor concessional terms.Theseareindica-
tive and order-of-magnitude estimatesonly and havenot
beenreviewedby Governments.Actual costsand finan-
ACTIVITIES
cial terms,includingany that are non-concessional, will
ACTIVITIES
ELATED
A) MANAGEMENI-R depend upon, inter alict,the specificsfrategiesand pro-
grafflmesGovemmentsdecideupon for implementation.
14.95Governmentsat the appropriatelevel. with the
supportof the relevantintemationaland regionalorgan-
izations.should: MEANs
AND TECHNOLOGTCAL
8/ SC/ENr/F'C
(a) Promotepilot plansandprojectsconsistingof elec-
trical,mechanicalandthermalpower(gasifiers,biomass, 14.99Governmentsat the appropriatelevel, with the
solar driers.wind-pumpsand combustionsystems)that supportof the relevantinternationaland regional organ-
are appropriateand likely to be adequatelymaintained; izations,should:

129
(a) Intensify public and private sector researchin animal life in affectedregions,as well as its impact on
developingand industrializedcountrieson renewable agriculture, and to develop, as appropriate, strategies
sourcesof energyfor agriculture; aimed at mitigating its adverseeffects.
(b) Undertakeresearchand transferof energytechnol-
ogiesin biomassand solarenergyto agriculturalproduc-
tion and post-harvestactivities. ACTIVITIES

ATED ACTIVITIES
MANAGEMENI-RET

DEVELOPMENT
c) HUMANRESOURCE 14.104In affectedregions,Govemmentsat the appropri-
ate level, with the support of the relevant international
14.100Governmentsat the appropriatelevel, with the and regional organizations,should take the necessary
supportof the relevantinternationaland regional organ- measures,through institutionalcooperation,to facilitate
izations,shouldenhancepublic awarenessof rural energy the implementationof researchand evaluationregarding
problems,stressingthe economicand environmentalad- the effectsof enhancedultraviolet radiationon plant and
vantagesof renewableenergy sources. animal life, as well as on agricultural activities, and
considertaking appropriateremedialmeasures.

D) CAPACITY-BUtLD\NG

l4.l0l Governmentsat the appropriatelevel, with the


supportof the relevantinternationaland regional organ-
izations,should:
(a) Establish national institutional mechanismsfor
rural energy planning and managementthat would im-
prove efficiency in agricultural productivity and reach
the village and householdlevel;
(b) Strengthenextension services and local organ-
izationsto implementplansandprogrammes fornew and
renewablesourcesof energy at the village level.

tl EvAruATloN oF rHE EFFECTSOF UITRAVIOLET


RADIATIONON PtANNi AND ANIMATS CAUSED
BY THE DEPTETIONOF ITIE STRATOSPHERIC
OZONE IAYER

BASIS FORACTION
14.102The increaseof ultraviolet radiation as a conse- 'Some
1

of the issuesin this progrommeoreo ore presented


in
quenceof the depletionof the stratosphericozone layer chopter3 (Combotingpoverty).
is a phenomenonthat has been recorded in different
2sor"
regions of the world, particularly in the southernhemi- of theissuesin thisprogromme oreoore discussedin chopter8
sphere.Consequently,it is important to evaluateits ef- (lntegrotingenvironmeni ond development ond in
in decision-moking)
chopter32 (Notionolmechonisms cooperotionfor
ond internoiionol
fects on plant and animal life, as well as on sustainable
copocity$uilding in developing countries).
agriculturaldevelopment.
3sor"
of the issuesore presentedin chopter lO (lntegroted
opproochto lhe plonningond monogementof londresources).
OBJECTIVE
4The
14.103The objectiveof this programmeareais to under- octivitiesof thisprogrommeoreo ore relotedto someof the
take research to determine the effects of increased octivitiesin chopter15 (Conservotion
of biologicoldiversity).
ultraviolet radiation resulting from stratosphericozone 5The
layer depletion on the Earth's surface,and on plant and octivitiesof thisprogrommeoreo ore reloiedto someof the
ociivitiesin chopter9 (Protection
of the otmosphere).

r30
t5 of biologicoldiversity
Conservotion

benefits.Urgentanddecisiveactionis neededto conserve


INTRODUCTION
andmaintaingenes,speciesandecosystems, with a view
to the sustainablemanagementand use of biological
resources.Capacitiesforthe assessment, studyandsyste-
15.1 The objectivesand activities in this chapter of matic observationand evaluationof biodiversity needto
Agenda 2l are intendedto improve the conservationof be reinforced at national and internationallevels.Effec-
biologicaldiversityand the sustainable useof biological tive national action and internationalcooperationis re-
resources,as well as to supportthe Conventionon Bio- quired for the in situ protectionof ecosystems,for the ex
logical Diversity. situ conservationof biological and geneticresourcesand
15.2 Our planet'sessentialgoodsand servicesdepend for the enhancementof ecosystemfunctions.The partici-
on the variety and variability of genes,species,popula- pation and support of local communities are elements
tions and ecosystems.Biological resourcesfeed and essential to the successof such an approach. Recent
clothe us and provide housing,medicinesand spiritual advancesin biotechnology have pointed up the likely
nourishment.The naturalecosystemsof forests,savan- potential for agriculture,health and welfare and for the
nahs,pasturesand rangelands,deserts,tundras,rivers, environmentalpurposesof the geneticmaterialcontained
lakes and seascontain most of the Earth's biodiversity. in plants,animalsandmicro-organisms.At the sametime,
Farmers'fields and gardensare also of greatimportance it is particularly important in this context to stressthat
asrepositories,while genebanks,botanicalgardens,zoos States have the sovereign right to exploit their own
and other germplasmrepositoriesmake a small but sig- biological resources pursuant to their environmental
nificant contribution. The currentdeclinein biodiversity policies.as well as the responsibilityto conservetheir
is largely the result of human activity and representsa biodiversityand use their biological resourcessustain-
seriousthreatto human development. ably,and to ensurethat activitieswithin their jurisdiction
or control do not causedamageto the biological diversity
of other Statesor of areasbeyond the limits of national
jurisdiction.

P R C G R A M MAER E A
OBJECTIVES
CONSERVATIONOF BIOTOGICALD]VERSITY 15.4 Governments at the appropriate level, with the
cooperationof the relevant United Nations bodies and
regional, intergovernmentaland non-governmental
BASIS
FORACTION organizations,the private sector and financial institu-
15.3 Despitemounting efforts over the past 20 years, tions, and taking into considerationindigenouspeople
the lossof the world's biologicaldiversity,mainly from and their communities, as well as social and economic
habitat destruction,over-harvesting,pollution and the factors,should:
inappropriateintroductionof foreignplantsand animals, (a) Pressforthe early entry into force of the Convention
hascontinued. Biologicalresourcesconstitutea capital on BiologicalDiversity,with the widestpossiblepartici-
asset with great potential for yielding sustainable pation;

r3r
(b) Develop national strategiesfor the conservationof indigenouspeople and their communities,non-govern-
biologicaldiversityand the sustainable useof biological mental organizations and other groups, including the
resources; businessand scientificcommunities,andconsistentwith
(c) Integratestrategiesfor the conservationof biologi- the requirementsclf internationallaw, should, as appro-
cal diversity and the sustainableuse of biological re- priate:
sources into national development strategiesand/or (a) Developnewor strengthen existingstrategies,plans
plans; or programmesof action for the conservationof biologi-
(d) Takeappropriatemeasuresfor the fair andequitable cal diversity and the sustainableuse of biological re-
sharing of benefits derived from researchand develop- sources,taking accountof educationand trainingneeds;a
ment anduseof biologicalandgeneticresources, includ- (b) Integratestrategiesfor the conservationof biologi-
ing biotechnology,between the sourcesof those re- cal diversity and the sustainableuse of biological and
sourcesand thosewho usethem; geneticresourcesinto relevantsectoralor cross-sectoral
(e) Carry out country studies,as appropriate,on the plans,programmesandpolicies,with particularreference
conservationof biological diversity and the sustainable to the special importanceof terrestrialand aquatic bio-
useof biologicalresources, includinganalysesof relevant logical and geneticresourcesfor food and agriculture;s
costs and benefits,with particularreferenceto socio- (c) Undertakecountry studiesor use other methodsto
economicaspects; identify componentsof biological diversity importantfor
( 0 P r odu c e re g u l a rl y u p d a te d w o rl d reports on its conservationand for the sustainableuseof biological
biodiversitybasedupon nationalassessments; .resources,ascribevalues to biological and geneticre-
(g) Recognizeand foster the traditional methods and sources,identify processes andactivitieswith significant
the knowledge of indigenouspeople and their com- impactsupon biological diversity,evaluatethe potential
munities, emphasizingthe particular role of women, economicimplicationsof the conservationof biological
relevantto the conservationof biological diversity and diversityandthe sustainable useof biologicalandgenetic
the sustainableuse of biological resources,and ensure resources,and suggestpriority action;
the opportunity for the participation of those groups in (d) Takeeffectiveeconomic,socialandotherappropri-
the economicand commercial benefitsderived from the ate incentive measuresto encouragethe conservationof
useof suchtraditionalmethodsand knowledgell biologicaldiversityand the sustainable useof biological
(h) Implement mechanismsfor the improvement, resources,including the promotion of sustainablepro-
generation,developmentand sustainable useof biotech- duction systems,suchas traditionalmethodsof agricul-
nology and its safe transfer,particularlyto developing ture, agroforestry,forestry, range and wildlife manage-
countries, taking account the potential contribution of ment,which use,maintainor increasebiodiversity;s
biotechnologyto theconservationof biologicaldiversity (e) Subject to national legislation, take action to
and the sustainableuseof biologicalresources;2 respect,record,protectandpromotethe widerapplication
(i) Promotebroaderinternationaland regionalcooper- of the knowledge,innovationsand practicesof indige-
ation in furtheringscientificandeconomicunderstanding nous and local communitiesembodyingtraditional life-
of the importanceof biodiversity and its functions in stylesfor the conservationof biologicaldiversityandthe
ecosystems; sustainable useof biologicalresources, with a view to the
() Develop measuresand arrangements to implement fair and equitablesharing of the benefitsarising, and
the rights of countriesof origin of geneticresourcesor promotemechanismsto involve thosecommunities,in-
countriesproviding geneticresources,as definedin the cluding women,in the conservationand managementof
Conventionon Biological Diversity, particularly ecosystems; '
developingcountries,to benefitfrom the biotechnologi- (0 Undertakelong-term researchinto the importance
cal developmentand the commercial utilization of of biodiversityfor the functioningof ecosystems and the
productsderivedfrom suchresources.2'3 role of ecosystemsin producing goods, environmental
servicesandothervaluessuppoftingsustainabledevelop-
ment, with particular reference to the biology and
ACTIVITIES reproductive capacities of key terrestrial and aquatic
A) MANAGFMENT-R
ELATED
ACTtVtTtE species, includingnative,cultivatedandculturedspecies;
S
new observationand inventory techniques;ecological
15.5 Governmentsat the appropriatelevels.consistent conditionsnecessaryfor biodiversityconservationand
with nationalpoliciesandpractices,with the cooperation continuedevolution;and socialbehaviourand nutrition
of therelevantUnitedNationsbodiesand,asappropriate, habits dependenton natural ecosystems,where women
intergovernmentalorganizationsand,with the supportof play key roles. The work should be undertakenwith the

132
widest possibleparticipation,especiallyof indigenous (b) Develop methodologieswith a view to undertaking
peopleand their communities,includingwomen;l systematicsampling and evaluationon a national basis
(g) Take action where necessaryfor the conservation of the componentsof biological diversity identified by
of biological diversity through the in silu conservationof meansof country studies;
ecosystemsand natural habitats,as well as primitive (c) Initiate or further developmethodologiesandbegin
cultivars and their wild relatives,and the maintenance or continue work on surveysat the appropriatelevel on
and recovery of viable populationsof speciesin their the statusof ecosystemsand establishbaselineinforma-
naturalsurroundings,and implementex situ measures, tion on biological and geneticresources,including those
preferablyin the sourcecountry.In situ measuresshould in terrestrial,aquatic,coastaland marine ecosystems,as
include the reinforcementof terrestrial,marineand aquatic well as inventoriesundertakenwith the participationof
protectedareasystemsand embrace,inter alia, vulnerable local and indigenouspeopleand their communities;
freshwaterandotherwetlandsandcoastalecosystems, such (d) Identify and evaluatethe potential economic and
as estuaries,coral reefsand mangroves;o social implications and benefitsof the conservationand
(h) Promote the rehabilitation and restoration of sustainableuse of terrestrialand aquaticspeciesin each
damagedecosystemsand the recoveryof threatenedand country,building upon the resultsof country studies;
endangeredspecies; (e) Undertakethe updating,analysisand interpretation
(i) Develop policiesto encouragethe conservationof of data derived from the identification, sampling and
biodiversity and the sustainableuse of biological and evaluationactivities describedabove;
geneticresourceson privatelands; (0 Collect, assessand make available relevant and
0) Promote environmentally sound attd sustainable reliable information in a timely manner and in a form
developmentin areasadjacentto protectedareaswith a suitable for decision-makingat all levels, with the full
view to furtheringprotectionof theseareas; suppoftand participationof local and indigenouspeople
( k ) I nt r oduc e a p p ro p ri a tee n v i ro n me n ta li mpact and their communities.
assessment proceduresfbr proposedprojectslikely to
have significant impacts upon biological diversity,
providing fbr suitableinformation to be made widely CI /NIERNAIIONAI.AND REG'ONAI.
availableandfor publi c participation,whereappropriate, COOPERAI'ONA ND COORDINAIION
and encouragethe assessment of the impactsof relevant
policiesand programmeson biologicaldiversity; 15.7 Governments at the appropriate level, with the
(l) Promote,where appropriate,the establishmentand cooperationof the relevant United Nations bodies and,
strengtheningof national inventory, regulation or as appropriate, intergovemmental organizations,and,
managementand control systemsrelatedto biological with the suppofi of indigenous people and their com-
resources,at the appropnatelevel; munities, non-governmentalorganizationsand other
(m) Take measuresto encourage a greater under- groups, including the businessand scientific com-
standing and appreciationof the value of biological munities,and consistentwith the requirementsof inter-
diversity, as manifestedboth in its componentparts and nationallaw, should,as appropriate:
in the ecosystemservicesprovided. (a) Considerthe establishment or strengthening of na-
tional or internationalcapabilitiesand networks for the
exchange of data and information of relevanceto the
B) DATAAND INFORMAI/ON conservationof biological diversity and the sustainable
use of biological and geneticresources;7
15.6 Governmentsat the appropriatelevel, consistent (b) Produceregularlyupdatedworld reportson biodiver-
with nationalpoliciesandpractices,with the cooperation sity baseduponnationalassessments in all counties;
of therelevantUnitedNationsbodiesand,asappropriate, (c) Promotetechnicaland scientific cooperationin the
intergovernmental organizations, andwith the supportof field of conservationof biological diversity and the
indigenouspeopleand their cclmmunities,non-govern- sustainableuse of biological and genetic resources.
mental organrzatronsand other groups, including the Specialattentionshouldbe given to the developmentand
businessandscientificcommunities,andconsistentwith strengtheningof nationalcapabilitiesby meansof human
the requirementsof internationallaw, should,as appro- resourcedevelopmentandinstitution-building, including
priate:7 the transfer of technology and/or development of re-
(a) Regularly'collate, evaluateand exchangeinforma- search and managementfacilities, such as herbaria,
tion on the conserl'ationof bioiogical diversity and the museums,gene banks, and laboratories,related to the
sustainable useof bioloeicalresources: conservationof biodiversitv:8

r33
(d) Without prejudiceto the relevantprovisionsof the (c) Improved and diversified methodsfor ex situ con-
Conventionon Biological Diversity, facilitate for this servationwith a view to the long-term conservationof
chapterthe transferof technologiesrelevantto the con- genetic resources of importance for research and
servationof biologicaldiversityand the sustainableuse development.
of biologicalresourcesor technologiesthat makeuseof
geneticresourcesandcauseno significantdamageto the
environment,in conformity with chapter34, and recog- C) HUMANRESOURCE
DEVELOPMENI
nizing that technologyincludesbiotechnology,2' 8
(e) Promotecooperationbetweenthepartiesto relevant 15.10Thereis a need,whereappropriate,to:
internationalconventionsand action plans rn'iththe aim (a) Increasethe numberand/ormakemore efficient use
of strengtheningand coordinating efforts to conserve of trainedpersonnelin scientificand technologicalfields
biologicaldiversityand the sustainable useof biological relevant to the conservationof biological diversity and
resources: the sustainableuseof biologicalresources;
(0 Strengthensupport for international and regional (b) Maintain or establishprogrammesfor scientificand
instruments,programmesand action plans concerned technicaleducationand training of managersandprofes-
with the conservationof biological diversity and'the sionals,especiallyin developingcountries,on measures
sustainableuseof biologicalresources; of biologicaldi versity
for theidentification,conservation
(g) Promote irnproved internationalcoordinationof and the sustainable useof biologicalresources;
measures fclrthe effectiveconservationandmanagement (c) Promote and encourageunderstandingof the im-
of endangered/non-pest migratory species,including portanceof the measuresrequired for the conservation
appropriatelevels of supportfor the establishmentand of biologicaldiversityandthe sustainable useof biologi-
managementof protectedareasin transboundaryloca- cal resourcesat all policy-making and decision-making
t ions : levelsin Governments,businessente{prises and lending
(h) Promotenational efforts with respectto surveys, institutions,and promoteandencouragethe inclusionof
datacollection,samplingand evaluation,and the main- thesetopicsin educationalprogrammes.
tenanceof genebanks.

D) CAPACITY-BUILDING
OFIMPLEMENTATION
MEANS

A/ F/NANC/NGAND COSTEVALUATION 15.11Thereis a need,whereappropriate,to:


(a) Strengthenexisting institutions and/or establish
15.8 The Conferencesecretariat hasestimatedtheaver- new onesresponsiblefor the conservationof biological
age total annualcost ( 1993-2000)of implementingthe diversityandto considerthedevelopmentof mechanisms
activitiesof this chapterto be about$3.5 billion, includ- suchas nationalbiodiversityinstitutesor centres;
ing aboutS1.75billion from the internationalcommunity (b) Continueto build capacityfor the conservationof
on grantor concessional terms. Theseareindicativeand biologicaldiversityand the sustainableuseof biological
order-of-rnagnitude estimatesonly and have not been resourcesin all relevantsectors;
reviewedby Governments. Actual costsand financial (c) Build capacity, especially within Governments,
terms, including any that are non-concessional, will business enterprisesand bilateral and multilateral
dependupon, inter alia, the specificstrategiesand pro- developmentagencies,for integratingbiodiversitycon-
grammesGovernmentsdecideuponfor implementation. cerns,potentialbenefitsandopportunitycostcalculations
into project design, implementationand evaluation
processesr aswell asfor evaluatingtheimpacton biologi-
cal diversityof proposeddevelopmentprojects;
8/ S C' F N IF tCA N D T EC H N O T .OG\C
MFA
AL N S
(d) Enhancethe capacity of governmentaland private
institutions, at the appropriatelevel, responsiblefor
l-5.9 Specificaspectsto be addressed includethe need
protected area planning and managementto undertake
to develop:
(a) Efficient methodologiesfor baselinesurveysand intersectoralcoordination and planning with other
governmental institutions, non-governmentalorgan-
inventories,as well as for the systematicsamplingand
izationsand, where appropriate,indigenouspeopleand
evaluationof biologicalresources;
(b) Methodsand technologiesfor the conservationof their communities.
biologicaldiversityandthe sustainableuseof biological
resources:

134
rsee 4See
chopter26 (Recognizing ond strengtheningthe role of chopter36 {Promoting
educotion,publicoworeness
ond
indigenous ondchopter24 (Globol
peopleondtheircommunities) troining).
oction for women towords sustoinobleond equilobledevelop
ment). 5See
chopter14 (Promoting ogriculture
sustoinoble ond rurol
ond chopter1 I (Combotingdeforestotion).
development)
2See
soundmonogement
choptrr16 {Environmentolly of biotech-
nology). 6See
chopter17 {Protectionof the oceons,oll kindsof seos,
includingenclosedond semi-enclosed seos,ond coostoloreos
3Arti.l" ond the protection, of theirliving
2 (Useof terms)of theConvention on BiologicolDiversity rotionoluseond development
includesthefollowingdefinitions: resources).
"Countryof originof geneticresources" meonsthecountrywhich
possesses thosegeneticresources in in situconditions. ZSee
chopter40 (lnformotion
for decision-moking).
"Countryprovidinggeneticresources" meonsthecountrysupply-
ing geneiic resourcescollectedfrom in sifu sources,including SSee
choprer34 (Tronsfer soundtechnology,
of environmentolly
populotions of bothwild ond domesticoted species,or tokenfrom ond copocity-building).
cooperotion
ex situsources,which moy or moy not hove originotedin thot
country.

i35
1A soundmonogement
Environmentolly
I \,, of biotechnology

ogy and to establishappropriateenabling mechanisms,


INTRODUCTION
especiallywithin developingcountries,through the fol-
lowing activities:
(a) Increasingthe availability of food, feed and renew-
l6.l Biotechnologyis the integrationof the new tech- able raw materials:
niquesemergingfrom modern biotechnologywith the (b) Improving human health;
well-establishedapproachesof traditional biotechnol- (c) Enhancingprotectionof the environment;
ogy.Biotechnology,an emergingknowledge-intensive (d) Enhancing safety and developing international
field, is a set of enablingtechniquesfor bringing about mechanismsfor cooperation;
specific man-madechangesin deoxyribonucleicacid (e) Establishingenablingmechanismsfor the develop-
(DNA), or genetic material, in plants, animals and ment and the environmentally sound application of
microbial systems,leadingto useful productsand tech- biotechnology.
nologies.By itself, biotechnologycannot resolveall
the fundamental problems of environment and
development,so expectationsneed to be temperedby
realism.Nevertheless, it promisesto makea significant
P R O G R A M MAER E A S
contribution in enabling the development of, for
example, better health care, enhancedfood security
through sustainableagricultural practices, improved Al TNGREASTNG
THEAVAttABtUW OF FOOD,
supplies of potable water, more efficient industrial FEEDAND RENEWABTERAW }IATERIALIi
d e v e l o p m e n t p r o c e s s e sf o r t r a n s f o r m i n g r a w
materials,supportfor sustainablemethodsof afforesta-
tion and reforestation,and detoxification of hazardous BASIS
FORACTION
wastes.Biotechnology also offers new opportunities 16.2 To meet the growing consumption needs of the
f o r g l o b a l p a r t n e r s h i p s ,e s p e c i a l l y b e t w e e n t h e global population, the challengeis not only to increase
countriesrich in biological resources(which include food supply,but also to improve food distribution signi-
geneticresources) but lackingthe expertiseandinvest- ficantly while simultaneouslydevelopingmore sustaina-
mentsneededto apply suchresourcesthroughbiotech- ble agriculturalsystems.Much of this increasedproduc-
nology and the countriesthat have developedthe tech- tivity will need to take place in developingcountries.It
nological expertiseto transformbiological resources will require the successful and environmentally safe
so thatthey servethe needsof sustainable development.l applicationof biotechnologyin agriculture,in the envi-
Biotechnologycan assistin the conservationof those ronmentandinhumanhealthcare.Mostof theinvestment
resourcesthrough,for example,ex sitr.rtechniques.The in modern biotechnologyhas been in the industrialized
programmeareassetout below seekto fosterinternation- world. Significantnew investmentsand human resource
ally agreedprinciplesto be appliedto ensurethe envi- development will be required in biotechnology, espe-
ronmentally sound managementof biotechnology,to cially in the developingworld.
engenderpublic trust and confidence,to promote the
developmentof sustainableapplicationsof biotechnol-

r36
OBJECTIVES impactsof modificationsandtheneedtopromotesustain-
16.3 The following objectivesareproposed,keepingin able socialandeconomicdevelopment,payingparticular
mind the need to promote the use of appropriatesafety attentionto how the useof biotechnologywill impact on
measuresbasedon programmeareaD: the maintenanceof environmentalintegrity.
(a) To increaseto the optimumpossibleextenttheyield 16.5 More specifically,theseentitiesshould:
(a) Improve productivity,nutritional quality and shelf-
of major crops, livestock,and aquaculturespecies,by
using the combinedresourcesof modernbiotechnology life of food and animal feed products,with effortsinclud-
and conventional plant/animal/micro-organismim- ing work on pre- and post-harvestlosses;
(b) Furtherdevelopresistanceto diseasesand pests;
provement,including the more diverseuse of genetic
(c) Develop plant cultivars tolerant and/or resistantto
material resources,both hybrid and original.' Forest
product yields should similarly be increased,to ensure stressfrom factors such as pestsand diseasesand from
the sustainableuseof forests;' abioticcauses;
(b) To reducethe need for volume increasesof food, (d) Promotethe use of underutilizedcrops of possible
feed and raw materials by improving the nutritional future importance for human nutrition and industrial
value (composition)of the sourcecrops,animalsand supply of raw materials;
(e) Increasethe efficiency of symbiotic processesthat
micro-organisms,and to reducepost-harvestlossesof
plant and animalproducts; assistsustainableagriculturalproduction;
(c) To increasethe use of integratedpest,diseaseand (0 Facilitate the conservationand safe exchange of
crop managementtechniquesto eliminate overdepen- plant, animal and microbial germ plasmby applying risk
denceon agrochemicals, therebyencouragingenviron- assessmentand managementprocedures,including im-
mentaily sustainableagricultural practices; proved diagnostictechniquesfor detectionof pestsand
(d) To evaluatethe agricultural potential of marginal diseasesby better methodsof rapid propagation;
lands in comparison with other potential uses and to (g) Develop improved diagnostictechniquesand vac-
develop, where appropriate,systems allowing for cines for the prevention and spreadof diseasesand for
sustainable productivityincreases; rapid assessmentof toxins or infectious organismsin
(e) To expand the applicationsof biotechnologyin productsfor human use or livestock feed;
forestry, both for increasing yields and more efficient (h) Identify more productive strains of fast-growing
utilization of forestproductsandfor improving afforesta- trees,especiallyfor fuel wood, and developrapid propa-
tion and reforestationtechniques.Efforts shouldbe con- gation methodsto aid their wider disseminationand use;
centratedon speciesand productsthat are grown in and (i) Evaluate the use of various biotechnology tech-
are of value particularly for developingcountries; niques to improve the yields of fish, algal and other
(0 To increasethe efficiency of nitrogen fixation and aquaticspecies;
mineralabsorptionby the symbiosisof higherplantswith 0 ) Promotesustainable agriculturaloutputby sfengthening
micro-organisms; and broadeningthe capacityand scopeof existingresearch
(g) To improve capabilitiesin basic and applied sci- centresto achievethenecessary criticalmassthroughencour-
encesand in the managementof complex interdiscipli- agementandmonitoringof researchinto the developmentof
nary researchprojects. biologicalproductsandprocesses of productiveandenviron-
mentalvaluettratareeconomicallyandsociallyfeasible,while
taking safetyconsiderationsinto account;
ACNVMES (k) Promote the integration of appropriateand tradi-
tional biotechnologiesfor the purposesof cultivating
A) MANAGEMENI-R ACTIVITIES
ELATED geneticallymodified plants,rearinghealthy animalsand
protectingforest geneticresources;
16.4 Governmentsatthe appropriatelevel,with theassis- (l) Develop processesto increasethe availability of
tanceof internationaland regionalorganizationsand with materials derived from biotechnology for use in food,
the supportof non-govemmental the private
organizations, feed and renewableraw materialsproduction.
sectorand academicand scientificinstitutions,shouldim-
proveboth plant and animalbreedingand micro-organisms
throughthe useof traditionalandmodernbiotechnologies, B) DATAAND /NFORMAT/ON
to enhancesustainable agriculturaloutputto achievefood
securiry,particularly in developingcountries,with due 16.6 The following activitiesshouldbe undertaken:
regardto the prior identification of desiredcharacteristics (a) Considerationof comparative assessmentsof the
before modification, taking into account the needs of potential of the different technologiesfor food produc-
farmers.the socio-economic. culturalandenvironmental

137
tion, togetherwith a systemfor assessingthe possible including about $50 million from the internationalcom-
effects of biotechnologies on international trade in munity on grant or concessionalterms.Theseare indica-
agriculturalproducts; tive and order-of-magnitudeestimatesonly and havenot
(b) Examinationof the implicationsof the withdrawal beenreviewedby Governments.Actual costsand finan-
of subsidiesand the possible use of other economic cial terms,includingany that are non-concessional, will
instrumentsto reflectthe environmentalcostsassociated dependupon, inter alia, the specific strategiesand pro-
with the unsustainable use of agrochemicals; grammesGovemmentsdecideupon for implementation.
(c) Maintenance and development of data banks of
information on environmental and health impacts of
organismsto facilitaterisk assessment; B/ SC/ENI/F/C MEANS'
AND TECHNOLOGICAL
(d) Acceleration of technology acquisition,transfer
and adaptationby developing countries to support na-
tional activities fhat promote food security.
C) HUMANRESOURCE
DEVELOPMENI

16.9 Training of competentprofessionalsin the basic


AND REGTONAT.
c/ TNTERNAT/ONAr. and applied sciencesat all levels (including scientific
COOPERATIONAND COORDINAI/ON personnel,technicalstaff and extensionworkers)is one
of the most essentialcomponentsof any programmeof
16.7 Governments at the appropriate level, with the this kind. Creatingawarenessof the benefitsand risks of
support of relevant international and regional organ- biotechnologyis essential.Given the importanceof good
izations, should promote the following activities in managementof research resourcesfor the successful
conformity with international agreementsor illrange- completion of large multidisciplinary projects, contin-
mentson biologicaldiversity,as appropriate: uing programmesof formal training for scientistsshould
(a) Cooperationon issuesrelatedto conservationof,
include managerial training. Training programmes
accessto and exchangeof germ plasm;rights associated shouldalsobe developed,within the contextof specific
with intellectual property and informal innovations,in- projects,to meetregionalor nationalneedsfor compre-
cluding farmers' and breeders'rights; accessto the hensivelytrainedpersonnelcapableof using advanced
benefitsof biotechnology;and bio-safety; technologyto reducethe "brain drain" trom developing
(b) Promotion of collaborative researchprogrammes, to developedcountries.Emphasisshould be given to
especiallyin developingcountries,to supportactivities encouragingcollaborationbetweenandtrainingof scien-
outlinedin this programmearea,with particularreference tists,extensionworkersand usersto produceintegrated
to cooperationwith local andindigenouspeopleandtheir systems. Additionally"specialconsiderationshouldbe
communitiesin the conservationof biological diversity given to the execution of programmesfor training and
and sustainable useof biologicalresources,aswell asthe exchangeof knowledgeon traditionalbiotechnologies
fostering of traditional methodsand knowledge of such and for training on safetyprocedures.
groupsin connectionwith theseactivities;
(c) Accelerationof technologyacquisition,transferand
adaptationby developingcountriesto supportnational
D) CAPACTTY-BUtLDtNG
activities that promote food security, through the
developmentof systemsfor substantialand sustainable
16.10Insti tuti onal upgradi ng or other appr opr iat e
productivity increasesthat do not damageor endanger
a measureswill be neededto build up technical,manage-
localccosystems:
rial. planningandadministrativecapacitiesatthenational
(d) Development of appropriate safety procedures
level to supportthe activitiesin this programmearea.
basedon programmearea D, taking accountof ethical
Such measuresshould be backed up by intemational,
considerations.
scientific,technicaland t'inancialassistance
adequateto
facilitate technicalcooperationand raise the capacities
of the developingcountries.ProgrammeareaE contains
OFIMPLEMENTATION
MEANS
further details.
AND COSTEVALUATTON
A/ FTNANC/NG

16.8 The Conferencesecretariathas estimatedthe


averagetotal annualcost (1993-2000)of implementing
* S e ep o r o g r o p h1s6 . 6 o n d 1 6 . 7 .
the activitiesof this programmeto be about $5 billion,

138
B) tfrIPROVrNGHUMAN HEALTH ogies, with a view to baning the use of those that are
unsafe for the purposesof experimentation;ensure that
drugs and technologiesrelating to reproductivehealth are
BASIS FORACTION safe and effective and take account of ethical consider-
16.ll The improvementof human health is one of the ations;
most important objectivesof development.The deterio- (d) Improve, systematically sample and evaluate
ration of environmentalquality, notably air, water and drinking-water quality by introducing appropriate
soil pollution owing to toxic chemicals,hazardouswas- specific measures,including diagnosisof water-borne
tes, radiation and other sources,is a matter of growing pathogensand pollutants;
concern.This degradationof the environmentresulting (e) Develop and make widely availablenew and im-
from inadequateor inappropriate development has a proved vaccines against major communicablediseases
direct negative effect on human health. Malnutrition, that are efficient and safe and offer protection with a
poverty,poor human settlements,lack of good-quality minimum numberof doses,including intensifyingefforts
potable water and inadequatesanitationfacilities add to directedat the vaccinesneededto combat common dis-
the problemsof communicableand non-communicable easesof children;
diseases.As a consequence, the healthand well-being (0 Develop biodegradabledelivery systemsfor vac-
of peopleare exposedto increasingpressures. cines that eliminate the need for presentmultiple-dose
schedules,facilitatebettercoverageof thepopulationand
reducethe costsof immunization;
OBJECTIVES (g) Develop effective biological control agentsagainst
16.12The main objective of this programmearea is to disease-transmittingvectors, such as mosquitoes and
contribute,through the environmentallysoundapplic_ation resistant variants, taking account of environmental
of biotechnologyto an overall healthprogramme,to:) protectionconsiderations ;
(a) Reinforce or inaugurate (as a matter of urgency) (h) Usingthetoolsprovidedby modembiotechnology,
programmesto helpcombatmajorcommunicable diseases; develop,inter alia,improveddiagnostics, new drugsand
(b) Promotegoodgeneralhealthamongpeople of all ages; improved treatmentsand delivery systems;
(c) Develop and improve programmesto assist in (i) Develop the improvement and more effective
speci fic treatmentof andprotectionfrom major non-com- utilizationof medicinalplantsand otherrelatedsources;
municablediseases; 0) Develop processesto increasethe availability of
(d) Develop and strengthenappropriatesafety proce- materialsderivedfrom biotechnology,for usein improv-
dures basedon programmearea D, taking into account ing humanhealth.
ethicalconsiderations ;
(e) Createenhancedcapabilitiesfor carryingout basic
and appliedresearchand for managinginterdisciplinary B) DATAAND /NFORMAI/ON
research.
16.14The following activitiesshouldbe undertaken:
(a) Researchto assess the comparativesocial,environ-
ACTIVITIES mentaland financialcostsand benefitsof differenttech-
ELATED
A) MANAGEMENI-R IES
ACTIVIT nologiesfor basicand reproductivehealthcarewithin a
frameworkof universalsafetyandethicalconsiderations;
(b) Development of public education programmes
16.13Governmentsat the appropriatelevel, with the
directed at decision makers and the general public to
assistanceof intemationaland regional organizations,
encourageawarenessand understandingof the relative
academicand scientificinstitutions,and the pharmaceu-
benefitsandrisksof modernbiotechnology,accordingto
tical industry,should, taking into accountappropriate
ethicaland culturalconsiderations.
safetyand ethicalconsiderations:
(a) Developnationalandinternationalprogrammesfor
identifying and targetingthosepopulationsof the world
most in need of improvement in general health and AND REGTONAI
cl ,NTERNAT/ONAI
protectionfrom diseases; COOPERAIIONAND COORD/NAI/ON
(b) Develop criteria for evaluatingthe effectiveness
and the benefitsand risks of the proposedactivities; 16.l 5 Governmentsattheappropriatelevels,with thesupport
(c) Establishandenforcescreening,systematicsampling of relevantinternationalandregionalorganizations,should:
and evaluationproceduresfor drugsand medicaltechnol- (a) Develop and strengthenappropriatesafety proce-

r39
dures basedon programmearea D, taking into account C) HUMANRESOURCE
DEVELOPMENT
ethicalconsiderations ;
(b) Supportthe developmentof nationalprogrammes, 16.19Training and technologytransferis neededat the
particularlyin developingcountries,for improvements globallevel,with regionsandcountrieshavingaccessto,
in generalhealth,especiallyprotectionfrom major com- and participationin exchangeof, information and exper-
municablediseases,common diseasesof children and tise,particularlyindigenousor traditionalknowledgeand
disease-transmittins factors. relatedbiotechnology.It is essentialto createor enhance
endogenouscapabilitiesin developing countries to
enable them to participate actively in the processesof
MEANSOF IMPLEMENTATION biotechnology production. The training of personnel
16.16To achievethe abovegoals,the activitiesneedto could be undertakenat threelevels:
be implementedwith urgency if progresstowards the (a) That of scientistsrequired for basic and product-
controlof majorcommunicablediseases is to be achieved orientedresearch;
by the beginningof thenext century.The spreadof some (b) That of health personnel(to be trained in the safe
diseasesto all regions of the world calls for global use of new products)and of sciencemanagersrequired
measures.For more localizeddiseases,regionalor na- for complexintermultidisciplinaryresearch;
tionalpolicieswill bemoreappropriate. The achievement (c) That of tertiary-leveltechnical workersrequiredfor
of goalscalls for: delivery in the field.
(a) Continuousinternationalcommitment;
(b) Nationalprioritieswith a definedtime-frame;
(c) Scientificand financialinput at globalandnational D) CAPACTTY-BU|LD|NG',
levels.

cl ENHANCTNGPROTECnONOF rHE ENURONMEM


A/ F/NANC/NGAND COSTEVALUATTON

BASIS
FORACTION
l6.ll The Conferencesecretariathas estimatedthe
averagetotal annualcost(1993-2000)of implementing 16.20Environmentalprotectionis anintegralcomponent
the activitiesof thisprogrammeto be about$ 14 billion, of sustai nabl edevel opment. The envi r onm entis
including about $130 million from the international threatenedin all its biotic and abiotic components:
communityon grant or concessionalterms.Theseare animals, plants, microbes and ecosystemscomprising
indicativeand order-of-magnitude estimatesonly and biological diversity;water,soil and air, which form the
havenot beenreviewedby Governments.Actual costs physicalcomponentsof habitatsandecosystems; and all
and financialterms,includingany thatarenon-conces- the interactionsbetweenthe componentsof biodiversity
s ional, wi l l d e p e n d u p o n , i n te r a l i a , the speci fi c and their sustaininghabitatsand ecosystems.With the
strategiesand programmesGovernmentsdecide upon continued increasein the use of chemicals,energy and
for implementation. noffenewableresourcesby an expandingglobal popula-
tion, associatedenvironmentalproblems will also in-
crease.Despite increasingefforts to prevent waste
accumulationand to promoterecycling,the amountof
B/ SC/ENilFtCAND TECHNOLOGTCAL
MEANS
environmentaldamagecausedby overconsumption, the
quantitiesof wastegenerated andthedegreeof unsustain-
1 6 . 1 8W e l l - c o o r d i n a t e d m u l t i d i s c i p l i n a r y e f f o r t s
able land useappearlikely to continuegrowing.
involving cooperationbetweenscientists,financialin-
16.21The needfor a diversegeneticpool of plant,animal
stitutionsand industrieswill be required.At the global
and microbial germ plasm for sustainabledevelopment
level. this may mean collaborationbetweenresearch
is well established.Biotechnologyis one of many tools
institutionsin differentcountries,with funding at the
that can play an importantrole in supportingthe rehabili-
intergovernmental level,possiblysupportedby similar
tation of degradedecosystems andlandscapes.This may
c ollabor a ti o n a t th e n a ti o n a l l e v e l . R esearchand
be done throughthe developmentof new techniquesfor
developmentsupportwill alsoneedto be strengthened.
reforestation and afforest ation,germplasmconservation,
togetherwith the mechanismsfor providing the trans-
andcultivationof new plantvarieties.Biotechnol,ogy can
fer of relevanttechnology.

*Seeprogromme
oreo E

140
also contributeto the study of the effects exertedon the (g) Developapplicationsto increasethe availabilityof
remaining organismsand on other organismsby organ- stress-tolerantplanting material for land rehabilitation
isms introducedinto ecosvstems. and soil conservation;
(h) Promote the use of integrated pest management
basedon thejudicious useof bio-controlagents;
OBJECTIVES (i) Promotethe appropriateuseof bio-fertilizerswithin
16.22The aim of this programmeis to prevent,halt and national feftrlizer programmes;
reverseenvironmentaldegradationthroughthe appropri- 0) Promotethe use of biotechnologiesrelevantto the
ate useof biotechnologyin conjunctionwith othertech- conservationand scientificstudyof biologicaldiversity
nologies,while supportingsafetyproceduresas an inte- and the sustainableuseof biologicalresources;
gral componentof the programme.Specific objectives (k) Develop easily applicable technologiesfor the
include the inaugurationas soon as possibleof specific treatmentof sewageand organicwaste;
programmeswith specific targets: (l) Develop new technologiesfor rapid screeningof
(a) To adoptproductionprocesses making optimal use organismsfor usefulbiologicalproperties;
of natural resources,by recycling biomass,recovering (m) Promotenew biotechnologies for tappingrnineral
energyand minimizingwastegeneration;6 resourcesin an environmentallvsustainable manner.
(b) To promote the use of biotechnologies,with em-
phasison bio-remediationof land and water,wastetreat-
ment, soil conservation,reforestation,afforestationand B) DATAAND INFORMAI/ON
8
land rehabilitation;7'
(c) To apply biotechnologiesand their products to 16.24Stepsshould be taken to increaseaccessboth to
protectenvironmentalintegritywith a view to long-term existinginformationaboutbiotechnologyandto facilities
ecologicalsecurity. basedon global databases.

ACTIVITIES
AND REG/ONAI
c/ /NIERNAilONAT
ACTIVITIES
ELATED
A) MANAGEMENT.R COOPERAIION AND COORD/NAIION

16.23Governmentsat the appropriatelevel, with the 16.25Governmentsat the appropriatelevel, with the
support of relevant international and regional organ- support of relevant internationaland regional organ-
izations, the private sector, non-governmentalorgan- izations.should:
izationsandacademicand scientificinstitutions,should: (a) Strengthenresearch,training and development
(a) Develop environmentallysound alternativesand capabilities,particularly in developingcountries,to
i mprovementsfor environmentallydamaging production suppoftthe activitiesoutlinedin this programmearea;
processes; (b) Develop mechanismsfor scalingup and dissemi-
(b) Developapplicationsto minimizetherequirement for nating environmentallysound biotechnologiesof high
unsustainablesyntheticchemicalinput andto maximize ttre environmentalimportance,especiallyin the shortterm,
use of environmentally appropriate products, including even though those biotechnologiesmay have limited
naturalproducts(seeprografirmeareaA); commercialpotential;
(c) Developprocesses to reducewastegeneration,treat (c) Enhancecooperation,includingtransferofbiotech-
waste before disposal and make use of biodegradable nology, between participatingcountries for capacity-
materials; building;
(d) Develop processesto recoverenergyand provide (d) Develop appropriate safety proceduresbased on
renewableenergysources,animal feedandraw materials programme area D, taking accountof ethical consider-
from recyclingorganicwasteand biomass; ations.
(e) Develop processesto remove pollutantsfrom the
environment,including accidentaloil spills,rvherecon-
MEANSOF IMPLEMENTATION
ventionaltechniquesare not availableor are expensive,
inefficientor inadequate; A/ F/NANC'NGAND COSTEVALUATION
(0 Develop processesto increasethe availability of
plantingmaterjals,particularlyindigenousvarieties,for 16.26The Conferencesecretariathas estimatedthe
use in affcrrestationand reforestation and to improve averagetotal annualcost (1993-2000)of implementing
sustainableyieldsfrom forests; the activitiesof this programmeto be about $ I billion,

141
includingabout$10 million from the internationalcom- primary considerationof the organism,building on the
munity on grant or concessionalterms.Theseareindica- principle of familiarity, appliedin a flexible framework,
tive and order-of-magnitudeestimatesonly and havenot taking into accountnationalrequirementsand recogniz-
beenreviewedby Governments.Actual costsand finan- ing that the logicalprogressionis to startwith a step-by-
cial terms,includingany that are non-concessional, will stepandcase-by-case approach,but alsorecognizingthat
dependupon, inter alia, the specific strategiesand pro- experiencehas shown that in many instancesa more
grarnmesGovernmentsdecideupon for implementation. comprehensiveapproachshould be used,basedon the
experiencesof the first period, leading, inter alia, to
streamliningandcategorizing;complementary consider-
A N D T EC H N O L OGICME
8/ S C/ E N IIF IC AL A N S ' ationof risk assessment andrisk management; andclassi-
ficationinto containeduseor releaseto theenvironment.

C) HUMANRESOURCE
DEVELOPMENT OBJECTIVES
16.30The aim of this programmeareais to ensuresafety
16.21The activities for this programme area will in-
in biotechnologydevelopment,application,exchange
creasethe demand for trained personnel. Support for
and transfer through intemational agreementon princi-
existingtrainingprogrammesneedsto be increased,for
ples to be appliedon risk assessment and management,
example,at the universityand technicalinstitutelevel,
with particular reference to health and environmental
as well as the exchangeof trained personnelbetween
considerations, includingthe widestpossiblepublic par-
countries and regions. New and additional training
ticipationand taking accountof ethicalconsiderations.
programmesalsoneedto be developed,for example,for
technicalandsupportpersonnel. Thereis alsoanurgentneed
to improvethe level of understanding of biologicalprinci- ACTIVITIES
ples and their policy implicationsamongdecisionmakers
16.31The proposedactivitiesfor this programmearea
in Governmenls,andfinancialandotherinstin:tions.
call for close internationalcooperation. They should
build uponplannedor existingactivitiesto accelerate
the
environmentally sound application of biotechnology,
D) CAPACITY-BUILDING especiallyin developingcountries.*"

16.28Relevantinstitutionswill needto havetherespon-


sibility for undertaking,andthecapacity(political,finan-
A) MANAGEMENT-R EDACTtVtTlES
ELAT
cial and workforce)to undertake,the above-mentioned
activitiesand to be dynamicin responseto new biotech-
16.32Governmentsat the appropriatelevel, with the
nologicaldevelopments(seeprogrammeareaE).
support of relevant internationaland regional organ-
izations, the private sector, non-governmentalorgan-
Dl ENHANCTNGSAFETYAND DEVELOPTNG izationsand academicand scientificinstitutions,should:
FORCOOPERATION
INTERNATIONAT'VIECHANISMS (a) Make the existingsafetyprocedureswidely avail-
able by collectingthe existinginformationand adapting
it to the specificneedsof differentcountriesandregions;
BASIS
FORACTION (b) Furtherdevelop,as necessary, the existingsafety
16.29There is a need for further developmentof inter- proceduresto promote sci enti fi c devel o pm entand
nationallyagreedprincipleson risk assessment andman- categori zati oni n the areasof ri sk assessm entand
agementof all aspectsof biotechnology,which should r i s k m a n a g e m e n t( i n f o r m a t i o n r e q u i r e m e n t s ;
build upon thosedevelopedat the nationallevel. Only
when adequateandtransparent saf-ety
andborder-control See reseorchpoper No. 55, entitled"Environmentolly sound
proceduresare in place will the community at large be monogement of biotechnology: sofetyin biotechnology---cssess-
able to derive maximumbenefitfrom. and be in a much mentond monogement of risk"(Februory 19921,preporedby the
UnitedNotionsConference on Environment ond Development
betterpositionto, acceptthe potentialbenefltsand risks
secretoriot to tokeoccountof comments modeot thethirdsession
of biotechnology.Severalfundamentalprinciplescould of the Preporotory Committeefor the UnitedNotionsConference
underlie many of these safety procedures,including o n E n v i r o n m e notn d D e v e l o o m e not n o o r t l l o f d o c u m e n t
A/CONF.151/PC/67, whichincorporoted thefindingsof theod
hocworkshopof Senior-level Experts on Assessing ond Monoging
* S e ep o r o g r o p h1s6 . 2 3o n d 1 6 . 2 5o b o v e Biotechnology Risks, heldin Londonin Junel99l .

t42
databases; procedures for assessing
ri sksandconditions MEANSOF IMPLEMENTATION
ofrele ase;establ i shmentofsafetycondi t ion s;moni tori ng
and inspections,taking account of ongoing national, A/ F/NANCINGAND COSTEVALUATTON
regional and international initiatives and avoiding
duplicationwhereverpossible); 16.35The Conferencesecretariathasestimatedthe aver-
(c) Compile, update and develop compatible safety age total annualcost (1993-2000)of implementingthe
proceduresinto a framework of internationally agreed activitiesof this prograrnmesto be about$2 million from
principlesasa basisfor guidelinesto be appliedon safety the internationalcommunity on grant or concessional
in biotechnology, includingconsideration of the needfor terms.Theseare indicative and order-of-magnitudeesti-
and feasibility of an international agreement,and matesonly andhavenot beenreviewedby Governments.
promote information exchange as a basis for further Actual costsand financial terms,including any that are
development,drawing on the work already undertaken non-concessional,will depend upon, inter alia, the
by internationalor otherexpertbodies; specificstrategiesand programmesGovemmentsdecide
(d) Undertaketraining prograrnmesat the nationaland uponfor implementation.
regionallevelson the applicationof the proposedtech-
nical guidelines;
(e) Assist in exchanginginformationaboutthe proce- 8/ SCtENnFrc AND TECHNOLOGTCAL
MEANS
dures required for saf'ehandling and risk management
and about the conditionsof releaseof the productsof
biotechnology,and cooperatein providing immediate
C) HUMANRESOURC
E DEVELOPMFNI
assistancein casesof emergenciesthat may arise in
conjunctionwith the useof biotechnologyproducts.

D) CAPACTTY-BUtLDtNG
B) DATAAND /NFORMAilON'
16.36Adequateinternationaltechnicaland financial
assistanceshould be provided and technicalcooper-
ation to developingcountriesfacilitated in order to
c/ /NTERNAT|ONAL
AND REG/ONAI build up technical,managerial,planningand adminis-
COOPERAIIONAND COORD/NAI/ON trative capacitiesat the national level to support the
activitiesin this programmearea(seealsoprogramme
16.33Governmentsat the appropriatelevel, with the areaE).
slrpportof the relevantintemationaland regional organ-
izations,shouldraise awarenessof the relativebenefits
and risks of biotechnology. El ESTABLTSHTNG
ENABUNG MECHAN|STVISFOR
16.34Furtheractivitiesshouldincludethefollowing (see THE DEVETOP'VIENT
AND THE ENVIRON}IENTALIY
alsopara. 16.32): SOUND APPLICATIONOF BIOTECHNOLOGY
(a) Organizingoneor moreregionalmeetingsbetween
countries to identify further practical stepsto facilitate
BASIS FORACTION
internationalcooperationin bio-safety;
(b) Establishingan internationalnetwork incorpora- 16.37The accelerateddevelopmentand applicationof
ting national.regionaland global contactpoints; biotechnologies,particularly in developing countries,
(c) Providing direct assistanceupon requestthrough will require a major effort to build up institutionalca-
pacitiesat the nationalandregionallevels.In developing
the internationalnetwork, using information networks,
databasesand information procedures; countries,enabling factors such as training capacity,
(d) Consideringthe needfor and feasibilityof interna- know-how, researchand development facilities and
tionally agreedguidelineson safety in biotechnology funds, industrial building capacity,capital (including
venturecapital)protectionof intellectualpropertyrights,
releases,includingrisk assessment andrisk management,
and consideringstudying the feasibility of guidelines and expertisein areas including marketing research,
whichcouldfacilitatenationallesislationon liabilitvand technologyassessment, socio-economicassessment and
c om pens at ion. safetyassessment arefrequentlyinadequate. Efforts will

S e ep o r o g r o p h1s6 . 3 2o n d I 6 . 3 3 . S e ep o r o g r o p h1 6 . 3 2 .

143
thereforeneedto be madeto build up capacitiesin these pation in the economic and commercialbenefitsarisine
andotherareasandto matchsucheffortswith appropriate from developmentsin biotechnology;n
levels of financial support.There is thereforea need to (b) To identify ways and meansof enhancingcurrent
strengthenthe endogenouscapacitiesof developing efforts,building whereverpossibleon existingenabling
countriesby means of new internationalinitiatives to mechanisms,particularly regional, to determine the
support reseerchin order to speedup the developrnent precise nature of the needs for additional initiatives,
and applicationof both new andconventionalbiotechno- particularly in respectof developing countries, and to
logies to servethe needsof sustainabledevelopmentat develop appropriate response strategies,including
t he loc a l , n a ti o n a l a n d re g i o n a l l e v el s. N ati onal proposalsfor any new internationalmechanisms;
mechanisms to allow forinformedcommentbythepublic (c) To establishor adapt appropriatemechanismsfor
with regard to biotechnology researchand application safetyappraisalandrisk assessment at the local,regional
shouldbe part of the process. and internationallevels,as appropriate.
16.38Someactivitiesat the national,regionalandglobal
levelsalreadyaddressthe issuesoutlinedin programme
areasA, B, C and D, as well asthe provisionof adviceto ACTIVITIES
individuai countries on the developmentof national
Al MANAGEA4ENT-R
ELATED
ACTtVtTt
ES
guidelinesand systemsfor the implementationof those
guidelines.Theseactivitiesaregenerallyuncoordinated,
howev er, i n v o l v i n g ma n y d i ffe re n t organi zati ons, 16.40Governments at the appropriate level, with the
priorities. constituencies,time-scales,funding sources support of internationaland regional organizations,the
andresourceconstraints. private sector, non-governmentalorganizations and
Thereis a needfor a muchmore
cohesiveand coordinatedapproachto harnessavailable academicand scientific institutions,should:
resourcesin the most effective manner. As with most (a) Developpoliciesand mobilizeadditionalresources
new technologies.researchin biotechnologyand the to facilitate greateraccessto the new biotechnologies,
applicationof its findingscould havesignificantpositive particularlyby and amongdevelopingcountries;
andnegativesocio-economic (b) Implementprogrammesto creategreaterawareness
aswell asculturalimpacts.
Theseimpactsshouldbe carefullyidentifiedin the earl- of the potential and relative benefits and risks of the
iestphasesof the developmentof biotechnologyin order environmentally sound application of biotechnology
to enableappropriatemanagementof the consequences amongthe public and key decisionmakers;
of transferringbiotechnology. (c) Undertakean urgent review of existing enabling
mechanisms,programmesand activitiesat the national,
regional and global levels to identify strengths,weak-
OBJECTIVES nessesand gaps, and to assessthe priority needs of
16.39The objectivesare as follows: developingcountries;
(a) To promote the development and application of (d) U ndertake an urgent fol l ow -up and cr it ical
biotechnologies,with specialemphasison developing review to identify ways and means of strengthening
countries,by: endogenouscapacitieswithin and among developing
(i) Enhancingexistingefforts at the national,regional countriesfor the environmentallysoundapplicationof
and globallevels; biotechnology,including,asafirst step,waysto improve
(ii) Providingthe necessarysupportfor biotechnology, existing mechanisms,particularlyat the regional level
particularly researchand product development,at the and, as a subsequentstep,the considerationof possible
national.regionaland internationallevels; new internationalmechanisms, suchasregionalbiotech-
(iii) Raising public awarenessregardingthe relative nology centres,
(e) Develop strategic plans for overcoming targeted
beneficialaspectsof and risks relatedto biotechnology,
to contributeto sustainabledevelopment; constraintsby means of appropriateresearch,product
(iv) Helping to createa favourableclimate for invest- developmentand marketing;
m e n t s , i n d u s t r i a l c a p a c i t y - b u i l d i n ga n d d i s t r i b u - (0 Establish additional quality-assurancestandardsfor
tion/marketing; biotechnologyapplicationsandproducts,wherenecessary.
(v) Encouragingthe exchangeof scientistsamong all
countriesand discouragingthe "brain drain";
(vi) Recognizingand fosteringthe traditionalmethods B) DATAAND /NFORMAI/ON
and know'leclgeof indigenouspeoplesand their com-
munitiesand ensuringthe opportunityfor their partici- 16.41The following activities should be undertaken:
facilitation of accessto existine information dissemina-

144
tion systems,especiallyamong developingcountries; andpost-doctoral,aswell asby the trainingof technicians
improvement of such accesswhere appropriate;and and supportstaff, with particularreferenceto the genera-
considerationof the development of a directory of tion of trainedmanpowerin consultantservices,design,
information. engineering and marketing research. Training pro-
grammesfor lecturerstraining scientistsand technolo-
gists in advanced researchinstitutions in different
AND REGIONAI.
C/ /NIERNATIONAL countries throughout the world will also need to be
COOPERAI'ON AND COORDINAI/ON developed, and systemsgiving appropriaterewards,
incentivesandrecognitionto scientistsandtechnologists
16.42 Governmentsat the appropriate level, with the will needto be instituted(seepara. 16.44). Conditions
assistanceof intemationaland regional organizations, of servicewill also need to be improved at the national
should develop appropriatenew initiatives to identify level in developingcountriesto encourageand nurture
priority areasfor researchbasedon specificproblemsand trainedmanpowerwith a view to retainingthatmanpower
facilitateaccessto new biotechnologies, particularlyby locally. Society should be informed of the social and
and amongdevelopingcountries, among relevant under- cultural impact of the developmentand applicationof
takings within those countries, in order to strengthen biotechnology.
endogenouscapacitiesand to support the building of
researchand institutionalcapacityin thosecountries.
D) CAPACITY-BUtLDtNG

MEANSOF IMPLEMENTATION 16.46Biotechnology research and development is


undertakenboth under highly sophisticatedconditions
AND COSTEVALUATION
A/ FTNANC'NG
and at the practicallevel in many countries. Efforts will
be needed to ensure that the necessaryinfrastructure
16.43The Conferencesecretariathasestimatedthe aver- facilities for research,extensionand technologyacti-
age total annualcost (1993-2000)of implementingthe vities areavailableon a decentralized basis. Global and
activitiesof this programmeto be about$5 million from regionalcollaborationfor basicandappliedresearchand
the internationalcommunity on grant or concessional developmentwill also needto be further enhancedand
terms.Theseare indicativeand order-of-magnitude esti-
every effort should be made to ensurethat existing na-
matesonly andhavenot beenreviewedby Governments. tional and regional facilities are fully utilized. Such
Actual costsand financial terms, including any that are institutionsalreadyexist in somecountriesand it should
non-concessional, will depend upon, inter alia, the
be possibleto makeuseof themfor trainingpurposesand
specificstrategies andprogrammesGovernmentsdecide joint researchprojects. Strengtheningof universities,
upon for implementation. technicalschoolsand local researchinstitutionsfor the
developmentof biotechnologiesand extensionservices
for theirapplicationwill needto be developed,especially
A N D T EC H N O L OGICME
B ' S C/ F NI I F I C AL AN S in developingcountries.

16.44Workshops,symposia, seminarsand other ex-


changesamongthe scientificcommunityat the regional
and global levels,on specificpriority themes,will need I
Seechopter15 (Conservotion
of biologicoldiversity).
to be organized,makingfull useof the existingscientific
2See
andtechnologicalmanpowerin eachcountryfor bringing chopter14 (Promoting
sustoinoble ond rurol
ogriculture
aboutsuchexchanges. development).

3See
chopterI i (Comboting
deforestotion).

C) HUM A NRE S OU R CDEEV EL OP M EN T 4See


chopter34 (Tronsfer soundtechnology,
of environmentolly
ond copocity-building).
cooperotion
16.45Personneldevelopmentneeds will need to be
sSee
identifiedandadditionaltrainingprograrnmes developed chopter6 (Protecting
ond promotinghumonheolthcondi-
at the national,regionaland global levels,especiallyin tions).
developing countries.These should be supportedby 6See
of solid
soundmonogement
chopter21 {Environmentolly
increasedtraining at all levels, graduate,postgraduate
issues!.
wostesond sewoge+eloted

145
'See
chopler l0 (lntegroted
opproochto the plonningond
monogement
of londresources).

SSee
chopterI B (Protection
of thequolityond supplyof freshwoter
resources:
opplicotionof integrotedopproochesto the develop
ment,monogement ond useof woter resources).

9See
chopter26 (Recognizingond strengthening
the role of
indigenous
peopleond theircommunities).

146
17 Protection
of theoceons,oll kindsof seos,
includingenclosedond semi-enclosed seos,
ond coostoloreosond theprotection, rotionol
useond development of theirlivingresources

needsand ultimately dependson the technologytransfer


INTRODUCTION
and financial resourcesrequired and made available to
them.

17.1The marine environment- including the oceans


and all seas and adjacent coastal areas - forms an
integratedwhole that is an essentialcomponent of the
P R O G R A M MAER E A S
global life-supportsystemand a positiveassetthat pre-
sentsopportunitiesfor sustainabledevelopment.Interna-
tional law, as reflected in the provisions of the United A} INTEGRATEDMANAGEMENT AND SUSTAINABTE
NationsConventionon the Law of the Seal'2referredto DEVETOPftIENT
OF COASTATAND MARINE AR.EAS,
in this chapterof Agenda 21, setsforth rights and obli- rNcruDrNG
ExctustvE
EcoNolilczoNEs
gations of States and provides the international basis
upon which to pursue the protection and sustainable
developmentof the marine and coastalenvironmentand BASIS
FORACI-ION
This requiresnewapproaches
its resources. to marineand 17.3 The coastal areacontainsdiverse and productive
coastal area managementand development,at the na- habitatsimportant for human settlements,development
tional, subregional,regional and global levels, ap- and local subsistence.More than half the world's popu-
proachesthat are integratedin content and are precau- lation lives within 60 km of the shoreline,and this could
tionary and anticipatory in ^ambit, as reflected in the rise to three quarters by the year 2020. Many of the
following programmeareas:' world's poor are crowded in coastal areas.Coastal re-
(a) Integrated managementand sustainabledevelop- sourcesare vital for many local communities and in-
ment of coastal areas,including exclusive economic digenouspeople.The exclusiveeconomiczone(EEZ) is
ZONCS; also an important marine area where the Statesmanage
(b) Marine environmentalprotection; the developmentand conservationof natural resources
(c) Sustainableuse and conservationof marine livins for the benefit of their people.For small island Statesor
resourcesof the high seas; countries,theseare the areasmost availablefor develop-
(d) Sustainableuse and conservationof marineliving ment activities.
resourcesundernationaljurisdiction; 17.4 Despitenational,subregional,regionaland global
(e) Addressingcritical uncertaintiesfor the manage- efforts,currentapproachesto the managementof marine
ment of the marineenvironmentand climatechange; and coastalresourceshavenot alwaysproved capableof
(f) Strengtheninginternational,including regional, achieving sustainabledevelopment, and coastal re-
cooperationand coordination; sourcesand the coastal environment are being rapidly
(g) Sustainable developmentof small islands. degradedand erodedin many parts of the world.
17.2 The implementationby developingcountriesof
with
the activitiessetforth below shallbe commensurate
their individual technologicaland financial capacities OBJECNVES
and priorities in allocatingresourcesfor development 17.5 Coastal Statescommit themselvesto integrated

1 47
management and sustainabledevelopment of coastal disasters,including likely effects of potential climate
areasand the marine environment under their national changeand sea-levelrise, as well as contingencyplans
jurisdiction.To this end,it is necessaryto, inter alia: for degradationand pollution of antllopogenic origin,
(a) Providefor an integratedpolicy and decision-mak- including spills of oil and othermaterials;
ing process,including all involved sectors,to promote (0 Improvement of coastal human settlements,espe-
compatibilityand a balanceof uses; cially in housing,drinking water and treatmentand dis-
(b) Identify existingand projectedusesof coastalareas posalof sewage,solid wastesand industrialeffluents;
and their interactions; (g) Periodicassessment of the impactsof externalfac-
(c) Concentrateon well-defined issues concernins tors and phenomenato ensure that the objectives of
coastalmanagement; integratedmanagementand sustainabledevelopmentof
(d) Apply preventiveand precautionaryapproachesin coastalareasand the marine environmentare met;
project planning and implementation,including prior (h) Conservationand restoration of altered critical
assessment and systematicobservationof the impactsof habitats;
major projects; (i) Integration of sectoralprogrammeson sustainable
(e) Promote the development and application of developmentfor settlements, agriculture,tourism,fish-
methods, such as national resourceand environmental ing, ports and industriesaffecting the coastalarea;
accounting,that reflect changesin value resultingfrom 0) Infrastructure adaptationand alternative employ-
usesof coastaland marine areas,including pollution, ment;
marineerosion,lossof resources andhabitatdestruction; (k) Human resourcedevelopmentand training;
(0 Provide access,as far as possible,fbr concerned (l ) P ubl i c educati on,aw arenessand inf or m at ion
individuals.groupsand organizationsto relevantinfor- programmes;
mation and opportunitiesfor consultationand participa- (m) Promotingenvironmentallysoundtechnologyand
tion in planning and decision-makingat appropriate sustainablepractices ;
levels. (n) Developmentand simultaneous implementationof
environmentalquality criteria.
l7.7 CoastalStates,with the supportof international
ACTIVITIES organizations, upon request,shouldundertakemeasures
to maintain biological diversity and productivity of
ACTIVITIES
ELATED
A) MANAGEMENI-R
marine speciesand habitatsunder nationaljurisdiction.
Inter alia, these measuresmight include: surveys of
l7 .6 EachcoastalStateshouldconsiderestablishing, or
marine biodiversity,inventoriesof endangeredspecies
wherenecessarystrengthenin g, appropriatecoordinating
and critical coastaland marine habitats;establishment
mechanisms(suchas a high-levelpolicy planningbody) and managementof protectedareas;and supportof scien-
for integratedmanagementand sustainable development
tific researchand disseminationof its results.
of coastaland marine areasand their resources,at both
the local and nationallevels. Such mechanismsshould
include consultation,as appropriate,with the academic
and private sectors,non-governmentalorganizations, B) DATAAND /NFORMAI/ON
local communities,resourceusergroups,andindigenous
people. Such nationalcoordinatingmechanismscould 17.8 CoastalStates,where necessary, shouldimprove
provide,inter alia, for: their capacityto collect,analyse,assessanduseinforma-
(a) Preparationand implementationof land and water tion for sustainableuseof resources,includingenviron-
useand sitingpolicies; mental impacts of activities affecting the coastal and
(b) Implementationof integratedcoastaland marine marine areas. Information for managementpurposes
managementand sustainabledevelopmentplans and shouldreceivepriority supportin view of the intensity
programmesat appropriatelevels; and magnitude of the changesoccurring in the coastal
(c) Preparationof coastalprofiles identifying critical andmarineareas.To thisend,it is necessary to,inter alia:
ar eas ,in c l u d i n g e ro d e d z o n e s ,p h y s i cal processes, (a) Developandmaintaindatabases for assessment and
dev elop m e n tp a tte rn s ,u s e r c o n fl i c ts and speci fi c managementof coastal areasand all seasand their re-
priorities for management, sources;
(d) Prior environmentalimpact assessment, systematic (b) Develop socio-economicand environmentalindi-
observationandfollow-up of majorprojec8,includingthe cators;
systematicincorporationof resultsin decision-making; (c) Conductregularenvironmentalassessment of the
(e) Contingencyplansfor humaninducedand natural stateof the environtnentof coastaland marineareas;

148
(d) Prepareand maintain profiles of coastal area re- States,upon request,in theseefforts, asindicatedabove,
sources, activities, uses, habitats and protected areas devotingspecialattentionto developingcountries.
basedon the criteriaof sustainabledevelopment;
(e) Exchangeinformation and data.
17.9 Cooperation with developing countries, and, C) HUMA,NRESOURCE
DEVELOPMENT
whereapplicable,subregionalandregionalmechanisms,
should be strengthenedto improve their capacities to 17.15CoastalStatesshould promote and facilitate the
achievethe above. organization of education and training in integrated
coastaland marine managementand sustainabledevel-
opmentfor scientists,technologists,managers(including
C' 'NTERNATIONAL
AND REG'ONAI. community-basedmanagers)and users,leaders,indige-
COOPERATIONAND COORD/NAI/ON nous peoples,fisherfolk, women and youth, amongothers.
Managementand development,aswell asenvironmental
17.10The role of internationalcooperationand coordi- protectionconcernsand local planningissues.shouldbe
nation on a bilateral basisand, where applicable,within incorporatedin educationalcurricula and public aware-
a s u b r e g i o n a l ,i n t e r r e g i o n a l , r e g i o n a l o r g l o b a l nesscampaigns,with dueregardto traditionalecological
framework,is to supportand supplementnationalefforts knowledgeand socio-culturalvalues.
of coastalStatesto promote integratedmanagementand 17.16Internationalorganizations,whethersubregional,
sustainabledevelopmentof coastaland marine areas. regionalor global, asappropriate,shouldsupportcoastal
l7.ll States should cooperate,as appropriate,in the States,upon request,in the areasindicatedabove,devot-
preparationof national guidelinesfor integratedcoastal ing specialattentionto developingcountries.
zonemanagementanddevelopment,drawing on existing
experience.Aglobal conferenceto exchangeexperience
in the field could be held before 1994. D) CAPACITY.BUILDING

17.17Full cooperationshouldbe extended,uponrequest,


MEANSOFIMPLEMENTATION to coastal Statesin their capacity-building efforts and,
whereappropriate,capacity-buildingshouldbe included
A/ F'NANC'NGAND COSTEVALUATTON
in bilateral and multilateral developmentcooperation.
CoastalStatesmay consider,inter alia:
17.12The Conferencesecretariat hasestimatedtheaver- (a) Ensuringcapacity-buildingat the local level;
age total annualcost (1993-2000)of implementingthe (b) Consultingon coastaland marineissueswith local
activitiesof thisprogrammeto be about$6 billion includ- administrations,the businesscommunity,the academic
ing about $50 million from the internationalcommunity sector,resourceusergroupsand the generalpublic;
on grantor concessional terms.Theseare indicativeand (c) Coordinatingsectoralprogrammeswhile buildins
order-of-magnitudeestimatesonly and have not been capacity;
reviewed by Govemments.Actual costs and financial (d) Identifying existing and potential capabilities,
terms, including any that are non-concessional,will facilities and needs for human resourcesdevelopment
dependupon, inter alia, the specific strategiesand pro- and scientific and technologicalinfrastructure,
grammesGovernmentsdecideupon for implementation. (e) Developingscientificandtechnologicalmeansand
research;
(0 Promotingand facilitating human resourcedevei-
B/ SC/ENIIFIC
AND TECHNOLOGICAL
MEANs opment and education;
(g) Supporting"centresof excellence"in integrated
17.13States should cooperatein the developmentof coastaland marine resourcemanagement;
necessarycoastalsystematicobservation,researchand (h) Supportingpilot demonstrationprogrammesand
informationmanagementsystems.They shouldprovide projectsin integratedcoastaland marine management.
accessto and transferenvironmentallysafetechnologies
andmethodologiesfor sustainabledevelopmentof coast-
al and marineareasto developingcountries.They should B) r anrnE ENV|RoNMENTATPROTECTTON
alsodeveloptechnologies andendogenous scientificand
technological capacities. BASISFORACTION
17.14Internationalorganizations,whethersubregional,
17.18 Degradation of the marine environment can result
regionalor global, asappropriate,shouldsupportcoastal

149
from a wide range of sources.Land-basedsourcescon- degradationof the marine environmentso as to maintain
tribute 70 per cent of marine pollution. while maritime and improve its life-supportand productivecapacities.
t r ans por t a n d d u mp i n g -a t-s e aa c ti v i ti es contri bute To this end, it is necessaryto:
l0 per centeach.The contaminantsthatposethe greatest (a) Apply preventive, precautionaryand anticipatory
threatto the marineenvironmentare,in variableorderof approachesso as to avoid degradationof the marine
importance apd depending on differing national or environment,as well as tc reducethe risk of long-term
regionalsituations,sewage,nutrients,syntheticorganic or irreversibleadverseeffectsupon it;
c om pound s ,s e d i me n ts ,l i tte r a n d p l a s ti cs,metal s, (b) Ensure prior assessmentof activities that may have
radionuclides,oil/hydrocarbons andpolycyclicaromatic significant adverseimpactsupon the marine environment,
hydrocarbons (PAHs). Many of the polluting substances (c) Integrateprotectionof the marineenvironmentinto
originating from land-based sources are of particular relevant general environmental, social and economic
concernto the marineenvironmentsincethey exhibit at developmentpolicies;
the sametime toxicity,persistenceandbioaccumulation (d) Develop economicincentives,where appropriate,
in the food chain. There is currentlyno global scheme to apply clean technologiesand other meansconsistent
to addressmarinepollution from land-basedsources. with the internalizationof environmentalcosts,such as
17.19Degradationof the marine environmentcan also the polluter pays principle, so as to avoid degradationof
result from a wide rangeof activitieson land. Human the marine environment:
settlements, land use,constructionof coastalinfrastruc- (e) Improve the living standardsof coastalpopulations,
ture, agriculture,forestry,urban development,tourism particularly in developingcountries,so as to contribute
and industry can affect the marineenvironment. Coastal to reducing the degradationof the coastal and marine
erosionand siltationare of particularconcern. environment.
11.20Marine pollution is also causedby shipping and 17.23 Statesagreethat provision of additional financial
sea-based activities.Approximately600,000tons of oil resources,through appropriate international mecha-
enterthe oceanseachyear as a resultof normal shipping nisms, as well as accessto cleaner technologiesand
operations,accidentsandillegaldischarges. With respect relevantresearch,would be necessaryto supportaction
to offshore oil and gas activities,currently machinery by developingcountriesto implementthis commitment.
space dischargesare regulated internationally and six
regionalconventionsto controlplatformdischarges have
been under consideration. The nature and extent of ACTIVITIES
environmentalimpactsfrom offshoreoil explorationand
A) MANAGEMENI-R
ELATED
ACTIVITI
ES
productionactivitiesgenerallyaccountfor a very small
proportionof marinepollution.
17.21A precautionaryand anticipatory rather than a D Prevention,reductionand control of degrodotionof the
reactiveapproachis necessary to preventthedegradation morine enviro nmentfrom I ond-bosedoctivities
of the marineenvironment.This requires,inter alia,the
adoptionof precautionarymeasures,environmentalim- 17.24 ln carryingout their commitrnentto dealwith degra-
pact assessments, clean production techniques,recy- dationof the marineenvironmentfrom land-basedactivities,
cling,wasteauditsandminimization,constructionand/or Statesshould take action at the national level and, where
improvementof sewagetreatmentfacilities, quality appropriate,at theregionalandsubregionallevels,in conceft
managementcriteriafor the properhandlingof hazardous with actionto implementprogamme areaA,andshouldtake
substances, and a comprehensive approachto damaging accountof the Monffeal Guidelinesfor the Protectionof the
impacts from air. land and water. Any management Marine Environmentfrom l,and-BasedSources.
framework must include the improvementof coastal 17.25To this end,States,with the supportof the relevant
human settlementsand the integratedmanagementand internationalenvironmental,scientific,technicaland fi-
development of coastalareas. nancialorganizations, shouldcooperate,inter alia, to:
(a) Considerupdating,strengthening andextendingthe
Montreal Guidelines,as appropriate;
OBJECTIVES (b) Assessthe effectiveness of existingregionalagree-
17.22States,in accordancewith the provisionsof the ments and action plans, where appropriate,with a view
United Nations Conventionon the Law of the Sea on to identifying means of strengtheningaction, where
protectionand preservationof the marineenvironment, necessary,to prevent,reduceand control marine degra-
commit themselves,in accordancewith their policies, dationcausedby land-basedactivities;
priorities and resources,to prevent,reduceand control (c) Initiate and promote the developmentof new
regional agreements,where appropriate;

r50
(d) Developmeansof providing guidanceon technol- (e) Reducingthe emissionor dischargeof other syn-
ogies to deal with the major types of pollution of the theticorganiccompoundsthat threatento accumulateto
marineenvironmentfrom land-basedsources.accordins dangerouslevelsin the marineenvironment;
to the bestscientificevidence; (0 Promoting controls over anthropogenicinputs of
(e) Developpolicy guidancefor relevantglobal fund- nitrogenand phosphorusthat entercoastalwaterswhere
ing mechanisms; such problems as eutrophicationthreatenthe marine
(f) Identify additional steps requiring international environmentor its resources;
cooperation. (g) Cooperatingwith developingcountries,through
17.26The UNEP GoverningCouncil is invited to con- financialandtechnologicalsupport,to maximizethebest
vene,as soonas practicable.an intergovernmentalmeet- practicablecontrol and reductionof substancesand
ing on protectionof the marine environmentfrom land- wastesthat aretoxic, persistentor liable to bio-acculnu-
basedactivities. late and to establishenvironmentallysoundland-based
17.27As concernssewage,priority actionsto be con- wastedisposalalternativesto seadumping;
sideredby Statesmay include: (h) Cooperatingin the developmentand implementa-
(a) Incorporatingsewageconcernswhen formulating tion of environmentallysoundland-usetechniquesand
or reviewing coastal developmentplans, including practicesto reducerun-offto water-courses andestuaries
humansettlementplans; which wouldcausepollutionordegradationof themarine
( b ) B u i l d i n g a n d m a i n t a i n i n gs e w a g et r e a t m e n t environment;
facilitiesin accordancewith nationalpoliciesandcapac- (i) Promotingthe useof environmentallylessharmful
ities and internationalcooperationavailable; pesticidesandfertilizersandalternativemethodsfor pest
(c) Locating coastaloutfalls so as to maintain an ac- control, and consideringthe prohibitionof thosefound
ceptablelevel of environmentalquality and to avoid to be environmentallyunsound;
exposingshellfisheries,waterintakesand bathingareas 0) Adopting new initiatives at national, subregional
to pathogens; and regionallevelsfor controllingthe input of non-point
(d) Promotingenvironmentallysoundco-treatments of sourcepollutants,whichrequirebroadchangesin sewage
domesticand compatibleindustrialeffluents,with the and wastemanagement,agriculturalpractices,mining,
introduction,wherepracticable,of controlson the entry constructionand transportation.
of effluentsthat are not compatiblewith the system; 17.29As concernsphysical destructionof coastaland
(e) Promotingprimary treatmentof municipalsewage marineareascausingdegradationof the marineenviron-
dischargedto rivers,estuariesand the sea,or othersolu- ment,priority actionsshouldincludecontrolandpreven-
tions appropriateto specificsites; tion of coastalerosionand siltationdueto anthropogenic
(0 Establishingand improving local, national, sub- factorsrelatedto, inter alia,land-use and construction
regional and regional, as necessary,regulatory and techniquesand practices.Watershedmanagementprac-
monitoring programmesto control effluent discharge, tices should be promotedso as to prevent,control and
using minimum sewageeffluent guidelinesand water reducedegradationof the marineenvironment.
quality criteria and giving due considerationto the
characteristics of receivins bodiesand the volume and
> Prevention,reductionond controlof degradotionof the
type of pollutants. marine environment from seo-bosedactivit-t
es
17.28As concernsother sourcesof pollution, priority
actionsto be consideredby Statesmay include: 17.30States,acting individually,bilaterally,regionally
(a) Establishingor improving,asnecessary, regulatory or multilaterallyand within the frameworkof IMO and
and monitoring programmesto control effluent dis- other relevantinternationalorganizations,
whethersub-
chargesand emissions,including the developmentand regional,regionalor global,asappropriate,shouldassess
applicationof control and recyclingtechnologies; the needfor additionalmeasuresto addressdesradation
(b) Promotingrisk and environmentalimpact assess- of the marineenvironment:
mentsto helpensureanacceptable levelof environmental
quality:
(c) Promoting assessmentand cooperationat the A) FROMSHIPPING,
BY:
regional level, where appropriate,with respectto the (i) Supportingwiderratificationandimplementationof
input of point sourcepollutantsfrom new installations; relevantshippingconventionsand protocols;
(d) Eliminating the emissionor dischargeof organo- (ii) Facilitatingthe processesin (i), providing support
halogen compounds that threaten to accumulateto to individualStatesupon requestto help them overcome
dangerouslevelsin the marineenvironment; the obstaclesidentifiedbv them:

t5t
(iii) Cooperatingin monitoring marine pollution from D) FROM
PORTS,
BY:
ships,especiallyfrom illegal discharges(e.g.,aerialsur- (i) Facilitatingestablishment ofportreceptionfacilities
veillance),andenforcingMARPOL di schargeprovisions for the collection of oily and chemical residuesand
more rigorously, garbagefrom ships,especiallyin MARPOLspecial areas,
(iv) Assessingthe stateof pollution causedby shipsin and promoting the establishmentof smaller scale
particularlysensitiveareasidentihedby IMO andtaking facilitiesin marinasand fishing harbours.
action to implen-rent applicablemeasures,whereneces- 17.31IMO and as appropriate,other competentUnited
sary, within such areas to ensure compliance with Nations organizations,when requestedby the States
generallyacceptedinternationalregulations; concerned,shouldassess,where appropriate,the stateof
(v) Takingactionto ensurerespectof areasdesignated marine pollution in areasof congestedshipping,such as
by coastalStates,within their exclusiveeconomiczones, heavilyusedinternationalstraits,with a view to ensuring
consistentwith internationallaw, in order to protectand compliance with generally acceptedinternationalregu-
preserverare or fragile ecosystems,such as coral reefs lations, particularly those related to illegal discharges
and mangroves; from ships,in accordancewith the provisionsof Part III
(vi) Consideringthe adoptionof appropriaterules on of the United NationsConventionon the Law of the Sea.
ballastwater dischargeto preventthe spreadof non- 17.32Statesshouldtake measuresto reducewater pol-
indigenousorganisms; lution causedby organotincompoundsused in anti-
(vii) Promotingnavigationalsafetyby adequate charting fouling paints.
of coastsand ship-routittg,as appropriate; 17.33StatesshouldconsiderratifyingtheConventionon
(viii) Assessingthe needfor stricterinternationalregula- Oil PollutionPreparedness, Responseand Cooperation,
tionsto furtherreducethe risk of accidentsandpollution which addresses, inter alia, the developmentof contin-
from cargoships(includingbulk caniers); gency plans on the national and internationallevel, as
(ix) EncouragingIMO and IAEA to work togetherto appropriate,including provision of oil-spill response
complete considerationof a code on the carriage of rnaterialand trainingof personnel,includingits possible
inadiatednuclearfuel in flaskson boarclships; extensionto chemicalspill response.
(x) Revisingand updatingthe IMO Codeof Safetyfor 17.34Statesshould intensify internationalcooperation
Nuclear Merchant Ships and consideringhow best to to strengthenor establish,where necessary,regional
implementa revisedcode; oiVchemical-spillresponsecentresand/or,as appropriate,
(xi) Supportingtheongoingactivitywithin IMO regard- mechanismsin cooperationwith relevant subregional,
ing developmentof appropriatemeasuresfor reducins regionalor global intergovernmental organizationsand,
air pollution from ships; whereappropriate,industry-based organizations.
( x ii) S u p p o rti n gth e o n g o i n g a c ti v i ty w i thi n IMO
regarding the development of an international regime
governingthe transponationof hazardousand noxious AND 'NFORMAilON
B) DATA,
substances carriedby shipsandfurtherconsideringwhether
thecompensation fundssimilarto theonesestablished under 17.35Statesshould,as appropriate,and in accordance
the Fund Conventionwould be appropriatein respectof with the meansat their disposaland with due regardfor
pollutiondamagecausedby substances otherttranoil; their technical and scientific capacity and resources,
make systematicobservationson the stateof the marine
environment.To this end, Statesshould, as appropriate,
B) FROM
DUMPING,
BY; consider:
(i) Supportingwider ratification,implementationand (a) Establishingsystematicobservationsystemsto
participationin relevantConventionson dumpingat sea, measuremarineenvironmentalquality,includingcauses
including early conclusionof a future strategyfor the and effectsof marinedegradation,as a basisfor manage-
London Dumping Convention; ment;
(ii) Encouragingthe LondonDumpingConventionpar- (b) Regularly exchanginginformation on marine deg-
ties to take appropriatestepsto stopoceandumpingand radationcausedby land-basedand sea-based activities
incinerationof hazardoussubstances : and on actions to prevent, control and reduce such
degradation;
(c) Supporting and expanding international pro-
C) FROM
OFFSHORE BY:
OILANDGASPI,ATFORMS,
grammesfor systematicobservationssuchas the mussel
(i) Assessingexisting regulatorymeasuresto address watch prograrnme,building on existing facilities with
discharges, the need
emissionsand safetyand assessing specialattentionto developingcountries;
for additionalmeasures:

152
(d) Establishinga clearing-houseon marinepollution identify those that cannot be adequatelycontrolled and
control information, including processesand technol- to provide a basisfor a decisionon a time schedulefor
ogiesto addressmarinepollution control and to support phasingthem out as soonas practicable;
their transferto developingcountriesandothercountries (0 Establishmentof a clearing-housefor information
with demonstrated needs; on rnarine pollution control, including processesand
(e) Establishinga globalprofileanddatabase providing technologiesto addressmarine pollution control, and
information on the sources,types, amounts and effects support for their transfer to developing and other
of pollutantsreachingthe marineenvironmentfrom land- countrieswith demonstratedneeds.
basedactivitiesin coastalareasand sea-based sources;
(f) Allocating adequatefunding for capacity-building
and training programmesto ensurethe full participation C) HUMANRESOURCE
DEVELOPMENI
of developingcountries,in particular,in anyintemational
schemeunderthe organsand organizationsof the United 17.38Statesindividually or in cooperationwith each
Nationssystemfor thecollection,analysisanduseof data other and with the supportof internationalorganizations,
and information. whether subregional,regional or global, as appropriate,
should:
(a) Provide training for critical personnelrequiredfor
MEANSOF IMPLEMENTATION the adequateprotectionof the marine environmentas
A/ F/NANC/NGAND COSTEVALUATION identified by training needs' surveys at the national,
regionalor subregionallevels;
(b) Promotethe introduction of marine environmental
17.36The Conferencesecretariathas estimatedthe
protectiontopics into the curriculum of marine studies
averagetotal annualcost (1993-2000)of implementing
programmes;
the activitiesof this programrleto be about$200million
(c) Establishtraining coursesfor oil- and chemical-
from the internationalcommunity on grant or conces-
spill responsepersonnel,in cooperation,whereappropri-
sional terms.Theseare indicative and order-of--magni-
ate,with the oil and chemicalindustries;
tude estimatesonly and have not been reviewed by
(d) Conduct workshopson environmentalaspectsof
Governments. Actualcostsandfinancialterms,including
port operationsand development;
any that are non-concessional, will dependupon, inter
(e) Strengthenand provide securefinancing for new
alia, the specific strategiesand programrnesGovern-
and existing specializedinternationalcentresof profes-
mentsdecideupon for implementation.
sionalmaritimeeducation;
(0 Throughbilateralandmultilateralcooperation,sup-
port and supplementthe nationalefforts of developing
MFANS
AND TECHNOT.OG\CAL
8/ SCTENT/F/C
countries as regardshuman resourcedevelopmentin
relationto preventionandreductionof degradation of the
1 7 . 3 7N a t i o n a l , s u b r e g i o n a l a n d r e g i o n a l a c t i o n
marineenvironment.
programmeswill, whereappropriate,requiretechnology
transfer,in conformity with chapter 31, and financial
resources,parlicularly where developingcountriesare
concerned. including: D) CAPACITY-BUILDING
(a) Assistanceto industriesin identifyingand adopting
cleanproductionor cost-eff'ective pollutioncontroltech- 17.39Nationalplanningandcoordinatingbodiesshould
nologies; be given the capacityand authorityto review all land-
(b) Planningdevelopmentand applicationof low-cost basedactivitiesand sourcesof pollutionfor their impacts
and low-maintenancesewageinstallationand treatment on the marine environment and to proposeappropriate
technologiesfor developingcountries; control measures.
(c) Equipmentof laboratoriesto observesystematically 17.40Researchfacilities should be strengthenedor,
humanand otherimpactson the marineenvironment; whereappropriate,developedin developingcountriesfor
(d) Identificationof appropriateoil- andchemical-spill systematicobservationof marinepollution,environmen-
control materials,including low-cost locally available tal impact assessmentand developmentof control rec-
materialsandtechniques,suitablefor pollutionemergen- ommendationsand should be managed and staffed by
ci esin dev elopin cg o u n tri e s . local experts.
(e) Study of the use of persistentorganohalogens that 17.41Specialarrangementswill be neededto provide
are liable to accumulatein the marine environmentto adequatefinancial and technical resourcesto assist

r53
developingcountriesin preventingand solvingproblems OBJECTIVES
associatedwith activitiesthat threatenthe marineenvi- 17.46Statescommit themselvesto the conservationand
ronment. sustainableuse of marine living resourceson the high
17.42An intemationalfunding mechanismshould be seas.To this end,it is necessaryto:
createdfor the applicationof appropriatesewagetreat- (a) Developand increasethe potentialof marineliving
ment technologiesand buildittg sewage treatment resourcesto meet human nutritional needs,as well as
facilities,including grantsor concessionalloansfrom social,economicand developmentgoals;
international agenciesand appropriateregional funds, (b) Maintain or restorepopulationsof marine species
replenishedat leastin part on a revolvingbasisby user at levelsthatcanproducethe maximumsustainable yield
fees. as qualified by relevant environmental and economic
17.43ln carrying out theseprogrammeactivities,par- factors, taking into considerationrelationshipsamong
ticular attention needs to be given to the problems of species;
developingcountriesthat would bear an unequalburden (c) Promotethe developmentand useof selectivefish-
becauseof their lack of facilities,expertiseor technical ing gearand practicesthat minimize wastein the catch
capacities. of target speciesand minimrze by-catch of non-target
species;
(d) Ensureeffective monitoring and enforcementwith
c) SusrArNABrE usE AND CONSERVATIONOF
OF THE I{IGH SEAS respectto fishing activities;
fiTAHNE LIVING RESOURCES
(e) Protectand restoreendangeredmarinespecies;
(f) Preservehabitatsand other ecologicallysensitive
FORACTION
BASIS areas;
(g) Promote scientific researchwith respectto the
11.44Over the last decade,fisherieson the high seas
marineliving resourcesin the high seas.
have considerablyexpandedand currently represent
17.47Nothing in paragraph 17.46 above restricts the
approximately5 per cent of total world landings. The
provisionsof the United Nations Conventionon the right of a State or the competenceof an international
organization,asappropriate,to prohibit, limit or tegulate
Law of the Sea on the marine living resourcesof the
high seassetsforth rights and obligationsof Stateswith the exploitation of marine mammals on the high seas
respect to conservationand utilization of those re- more strictly thanprovidedfor in that paragraph.States
shall cooperatewith a view to the conservationof
sources.
17.45However,managementof high seasfisheries,in- marine mammalsand, in the caseof cetaceans,shall
i n parti cul ar w ork through the appropr iat eint er -
cluding the adoption, monitoring and enforcement of
nationalorganizations for their conservation,manage-
effectiveconservationmeasures,is inadequatein many
areas and some resourcesare overutilized. There are ment and study.
problemsof unregulatedfishing, overcapitalization, ex- 17.48The ability of developingcountriesto fulfil the
above objectivesis dependentupon their capabilities,
cessivefleet size, vesselreflaggingto escapecontrols,
insufficiently selectivegear, unreliabledatabasesand including the tinancial, scientific and technological
lack of sufficientcooperationbetweenStates.Action by meansat theirdisposal.Adequatefinancial,scientificand
Stateswhose nationalsand vesselsfish on the high technologicalcooperationshouldbe providedto support
s eas ,as w e l l a s c o o p e ra ti o na t th e bi l ateral , sub- actionby them to implementtheseobjectives.
regional,regional and global levels, is essentialpar-
ticularly for highly migratory speciesand straddling
ACTIVITIES
stocks. Such action and cooperationshould address
inadequacies in fishing practices,aswell as in biologi- EDACTIVlTtES
ELAT
A) MANAGEMENT-R
cal knowledge,fisheriesstatisticsand improvementof
systemsfor handlingdata.Emphasisshouldalsobe on 17.49States should take effective action, including
multi-speciesmanagementand other approachesthat bilateral and multilateral cooperation,where appropriate
take into account the relationshipsamong species, at the subregional,regionaland global levels,to ensure
especiallyin addressingdepletedspecies,but also in that high seasfisheriesare managedin accordancewith
identifyingthe potentialof underutilizedor unutilized the provisionsof the United NationsConventionon the
populations. Law of the Sea.In particular,they should:
(a) Give f'ull effect to theseprovisionswith regardto
fisheriespopulationswhoserangeslie both within and
beyondexclusiveeconomiczones(straddlingstocks);

154
(b) Give full effect to theseprovisionswith regardto the conservationand sustainableuseof the marinelivine
highly migratoryspecies; resourcesof the high seas;
(c) Negotiate,where appropriate,internationalagree- (b) Exchangeon a regular basisup-to-datedata and
mentsfor the effective managementand conservationof informationadequatefor fisheriesassessment;
fishery stocks; (c) Developand shareanalyticaland predictivetools,
(d) Define and identify appropriatemanagementunits; suchas stockassessment and bioeconomicmodels;
17.50Statesshould convene,as soon as possible,an (d) Establishor expand appropriatenronitoring and
intergovernmentalconference under United Nations assessmentprogrammes.
auspices,taking into accountrelevantactivities at the
subregional,regionaland global levels,with a view to
promotingeffectiveimplementationof the provisionsof c/ /NIERNAI/ONAL
AND REGIONAI
the United NationsConventionon the Law of the Seaon COOPERAIION AND COORDINAI/ON
straddlingfish stocksand highly rnigratorylish stocks.
The conference,drau,ing,inter alia, on scientific and 17.58States,through bilateraland multilateralcooper-
technical studiesby FAO, should identify and assess ation and within the frarnewclrkof subregionaland
existing problems related to the conservationand regional fisheriesbodies,as appropriate,and with the
managementof suchfish stocks,and considermeansof supportof other intemationalintergovernmental agen-
improving cooperationon fisheriesamong States,and cies, should assesshigh seasresourcepotentialsand
formulate appropriaterecofilrnendations.The work and develop profiles of all stocks(targetand non-target).
the resultsof the conferenceshould be fully consistent 17.59Statesshould, where and as appropriate,ensure
with the provisionsof the United NationsConventionon adequatecoordinationand cooperationin enclosedand
theLaw of theSea,in particulartherightsandobligations semi-enclosedseasand betweensubregional,regional
of coastalStatesand Statesfishing on the high seas. and global intergovemmental fisheriesbodies.
17.51Statesshouldensurethatfishingactivitiesby ves- I 7.60 Effectivecooperationwithin existingsubregional,
sels flying their flags on the high seastake place in a regionalor globalfisheriesbodiesshouldbe encouraged.
mannerso as to minimizeincidentalcatches. Where suchorganizations do not exist,Statesshould,as
17.52Statesshouldtake effectiveactionconsistentwith appropriate,cooperateto establishsuchorganizations.
internationallaw to monitorandcontrolfishingactivities 17.61 Stateswith aninterestin ahigh seasfisheryregulated
by vesselsflying their flags on the high seasto ensure by an existing subregionaland/or regional high seas
compliancewith applicableconservationand manage- fisheriesorganizationof whichtheyarenot membersshould
ment rules,including full, detailed,accurateand timely be encouraged to join thatorganization.whereappropriate.
reportingof catchesand effort. 17.62Statesrecognize:
17.53Statesshouldtakeeffectiveaction,consistentwith (a) The responsibilityof theInternationalWhalingCom-
internationallaw, to deterreflaggingof vesselsby their mission fbr the conservationand marlagementof whale
nationalsasa meansof avoidingcompliancewith applic- stocksand the regulationof whaling pursuantto the 1946
able conservationand managementrules for fishing InternationalConventiontbr the Regulationof Whaling;
activitieson the high seas. (b) The work of theIntemationalWhalingCommission
17.54Statesshouldprohibitdynamiting,poisoningand Scientific Cornmitteein carrying out studiesof large
othercomparabledestructivefishing practices. whalesin particular,as well as of othercetaceans;
17.55Statesshouldfully implementGeneralAssembly (c) The work of otherorganizations,suchas the Inter-
resofution 461215on large-scale pelagrcdrift-netfishing. AmericanTropicalTunaCommissionandtheAgreement
17.-56Statesshouldtake measuresto increasethe availa- on Small Cetaceans in theBaltic andNorth Seaunderthe
bility of marineliving resources ashumanfood by reducing Bonn Convention,in the conservation, managementand
wastage,post-harvestlossesand discards,and improving studyof cetaceansand othermarinemammals.
techniques of processi ng, distribution and transportation. 17.63States should cooperatefor the conservation,
managementand studyof cetaceans.

B ) DA T AA ND / NF O R M AT ION
MEANSOF I,\\PLEMENTATION
17.57States.with the supporlof internationalorgan-
Aj F/NANC/NGAND COSTEVALUATTON
izations, whether subregional,regionalor global, as
appropriate,shouldcooperateto:
(a) Promoteenhancedcollectionof datanecessaryfor 17.64 The Conferencesecretariat
hasestimatedthe aver-
age total annualcost (1993-2000)of implementingthe

r55
activitiesof this programmeto be about$12 million from 17.69Special support, including cooperationamong
the internationalcommunity on grant or concessional States, will be needed to enhancethe capacitiesof
terms.Theseare indicative and order-of-magnitudeesti- developingcountriesin theareasof dataandinformation,
matesonly andhavenot beenreviewedby Governments. scientificand technologicalmeans,and humanresource
Actual costsand financial terms,including any that are developmentin order to participateeffectively in the
non-concessional, will depend upon, inter alia, the conservationand sustainableutilization of high seas
specific strategiesand programmesGovernmentsdecide marineliving resources.
upon for implementation.

Dl susrArNABtE usE AND CoNSERVATIONOF


MARINE TIVING RESOURCES UNDER
8/ S C/ E NIF tCA N D T EC H N O L OG| CME
AL AN S NATIONATJURISDICTION

17.65States,with the supportof relevantinternational


organizations, wherenecessary, shoulddevelopcollabo- BASIS
FORACTION
rative technical and researchprograffImesto improve 17.70Marine fisheriesyield 80 to 90 million tons of
understanding of the life cyclesandmigrationsof species fish and shellfishper/year,95 percentof which is taken
found on the high seas,including identifying critical areas from waters under nationaljurisdiction. Yields have
and life stages. increasednearly fivefold over the past four decades.
17.66States,with the supportof relevantinternational The provisionsof the United Nations Conventionon
organizations,whether subregional,regional or global, the Law of the Sea on marine living resourcesof the
as appropriate,should: exclusive economic zone and other areasunder na-
(a) Develop databaseson the high seasmarine living tional jurisdiction set forth rights and obligationsof
resourcesand fisheries: Stateswith respectto conservationand utilization of
(b) Collect and correlatemarine environmentaldata thoseresources.
with high seasmarineliving resources data,includingthe 17.71Marine living resourcesprovide an important
impactsof regionaland globalchangesbroughtaboutby sourceof proteinin many countriesand their useis often
naturalcausesand by humanactivities; of majorimportanceto localcommunitiesandindigenous
(c) Cooperatein coordinatingresearchprogrammesto people. Such resourcesprovidefood and livelihoodsto
provide the knowledge necessaryto managehigh seas millions of peopleand, if sustainablyutilized,offer in-
resources. creasedpotentialto meet nutritional and social needs,
particularly in developingcountries.To realize this
potential requiresimproved knowledgeand identifica-
DEVELOPMENT
C) HUMANRESOURCE tion of marine living resourcestocks, particularly of
underutilizedand unutilizedstocksand species,useof
17.67Humanresourcedevelopmentat the nationallevel new technol ogi es,better handl i ng and pr ocessing
strouldbe targetedat both developmentand management facilities to avoid wastage,and improvedquality and
of high seasresources,including training in high seas training of skilled personnelto manageand conserve
fishing techniquesand in high seasresourceassessment. effectivelythe marine living resourcesof the exclusive
strengthening cadresof personnelto deal with high seas economiczone and other areasunder nationaljurisdic-
resourcemanagement andconservationandrelatedenvi- tion. Emphasisshouldalsobe on multi-speciesmanage-
ronmentalissues,and training observersand inspectors ment and other approachesthat take into account the
to be placedon fishing vessels. relationships amongspecies.
17.72Fisheriesin many areasundernationaljurisdiction
face mounting problems. including local overfishing,
D) CA P A C IT Y -BU IL D IN G unauthorizedincursionsby foreign fleets, ecosystem
degradation, overcapitalizationandexcessivefleet sizes,
17.68States,with the support, where appropriate,of underevaluationof catch. insufficiently selectivegear,
r elev ant in te rn a ti o n a lo rg a n i z a ti o n s ,w hether sub- unreliable databases,and increasingcompetition be-
regional,regionalor global,shouldcooperateto develop tween artisanal and large-scalefishing, and between
or upgradesystemsand institutionalstructuresfor moni- fishing and othertypesof activities.
toring, control and surveillance,as well as the research 17.73Problemsextendbeyondfisheries.Coralreef'sand
capacityfor assessment of marineliving resourcepopu- othermarineandcoastalhabitats,suchasmangrovesand
lations. estuaries,are amongthe most highly diverse,integrated

156
and productive of the Earth's ecosystems. They often ACTIVITIES
serve important ecological functions, provide coastal
protection, and are critical resourcesfor food, energy, A) MANAGEMENI-R
ELATED
ACTIVITIES
tourism and economic development. In many parts of
the world, such marine and coastal systemsare under 17.78Statesshouldensurethat marineliving resources
stressor are threatenedfrom a varietv of sources.Lroth of the exclusiveecononriczone and other areasunder
human and natural. nationaljurisdiction are conservedand managedin ac-
cordancewith the provisionsof the UnitedNationsCon-
ventionon the Law of the Sea.
OBJECTIVES 17.79States,in implementingthe provisionsof the
17.74CoastalStates,particularlydevelopingcountries UnitedNationsConventionon theLaw of the Sea,should
and Stateswhose economiesare overwhelminglyde- addressthe issues of straddling stocks and highly
pendenton theexploitationof themarineliving resources migratory species,and, taking fully into account the
of their exclusiveeconomiczones,shouldobtainthe full objectivesetout in paragraph17,74,accessto the surplus
socialandeconomicbenefitsfrom sustainable utilization of aliowablecatches.
of marine living resourceswithin their exclusiveeco- 17.80CoastalStates,individually or through bilateral
nomic zonesand other areasunder nationaljurisdiction. and/ormultilateralcooperationand with the support,as
17.75Statescommit themselvesto the conservationand appropriateof internationalorganizations, whethersub-
sustainable useof marineliving resources undernational regional,regionalor global,shouldinter alia:
jurisdiction. To this end, it is necessaryto: (a) Assessthe potential of marine living resources,
(a) Developandincreasethe potentialof marineliving includingunderutilizedor unutilizedstocksand species,
resourcesto meet human nutritional needs,as well as by developinginventories,where necessary,for their
social,economicand developmentgoals; conservationand sustainableuse'
(b) Takeinto accounttraditionalknowledgeand inter- (b) Implement strategiesfor the sustainableuse of
estsof local communities,small-scaleartisanalflsheries marineliving resources,taking into accountthe special
and indigenouspeoplein developmentandmanagernent needsandinterestsof small-scaleartisanalfisheries,local
programmes; communitiesand indigenouspeopleto meethuman nu-
(c) Maintain or restorepopulationsof marinespeciesat tritional and other developmentneeds;
levelsthat can producethe maximum sustainable yield as (c) Implement,in particularin developingcountries,
qualifiedby relevantenvironmentalandeconomicfactors, mechanismsto develop rnariculture,aquacultureand
taking into considerationrelationshipsamongspecies; small-scale,deep-seaand oceanicfisherieswithin areas
(d) Promotethe developmentand useof selectivefish- undernationaljurisdictionwhereassessments show that
ing gear and practicesthat minimize wastein the catch marineliving resourcesare potentiallyavailable;
of target speciesand minimize by-catch of non-target (d) Strengthentheir legal and regulatoryframeworks,
species; whereappropriate,including management,enforcement
(e) Protectand restoreendangered marinespecies; andsurveillance capabilities,
to regulateactivitiesrelated
(0 Preserverare or fragile ecosystems,as well as to the abovestrategies:
habitatsand otherecologicallysensitiveareas. (e) Takemeasures to increasetheavailabilityof marine
17.76Nothing in paragraphI1.15 aboverestrictsthe living resourcesas human food by reducing wastage,
right of a coastalStateor the competenceof an inter- post-harvestlossesand discards.and improving tech-
nationalorganization,as appropriate,to prohibit,limit niquesof processing,distributionand transportation;
or regulate the exploitation of marine marrunalsmore (0 Develop and promote the use of environrnentally
strictly than providedfor in that paragraph.Statesshall sound technology under criteria compatible with the
cooperatewith a view to the conservationof marine sustainableuse of marine living resources,including
mammalsand in the caseof cetaceansshallin particular assessment of the environmentalirnpactof major new
work throughthe appropriateinternationalorganizations fishery practices;
for their conservation,managementand study. (g) Enhancethe productivity and utilization of their
17.71The ability of developingcountriesto fulfil the marineliving resourcesfor food and income.
above objectivesis dependentupon their capabilities, 17.81C oastal S tates shoul d expl ore the scope f or
including the financial, scientific and technological expandingrecreationaland tourist activities basedon
meansat their disposal. Adequatefinancial, scientific marine living resources,including those fbr providing
and technologicalcooperationshould be provided to alternativesourcesof income.Such activitiesshouldbe
supportactionby them to implementtheseobjectives. compatiblewith conservationand sustainabledevelop-
ment policiesand plans.

157
17.82CoastalStatesshouldsupportthe sustainabilityof (c) Develop and shareanalyticaland predictivetools,
small-scaleartisanalfisheries.To this end, they should, suchas stockassessment and bioeconomicmodels;
as appropriate: (d) Establishor expand appropriatemonitoring and
(a) Integrate small-scaleartisanaltisheries develop- assessment programmes ;
ment in marineandcoastalplanning,taking into account (e) Complete or update marine biodiversity, marine
the interestsand, whereappropriate,encouragingrepre- living resourceand critical habitat profiles of exclusive
s ent at iono f fi s h e rme n , s m a l l -s c a l efi sherw orkers, economiczonesand otherareasundernationaljurisdic-
women,local communitiesand indigenouspeople; tion, taking account of changesin the environment
(b) Recognizetherightsof small-scale fishworkersand broughtaboutby naturalcausesand humanactivities.
the specialsituationof indigenouspeopleandlocal com-
munities,includingtheir rights to utilizationand protec-
tion of their habitatson a sustainable basis; c/ /NTERNAilONAT.
AND REG'ON,AI
(c) Developsystemsfor the acquisitionand recording COOPERAIION AND COORD'NAI'ON
of traditionalknowledgeconcerningmarine living re-
sourcesand environmentand promotethe incorporation 17.88States,throughbilateraland multilateralcooper-
of suchknowledgeinto managementsystems. ation, and with the support of relevant United Nations
17.83CoastalStatesshouldensurethat, in the negotia- and other internationalorganizations,should cooperate
tion and implementationof internationalagreementson to:
the developmentor conservationof marine living re- (a) Developfinancialand technicalcooperationto en-
sources,the interestsof local communitiesand indige- hance the capacitiesof developingcountriesin small-
nous people are taken into account,in particulartheir scaleandoceanicfisheries,aswell asin coastalaquacul-
right to subsistence. ture and mariculture;
17.84CoastalStates,with the support,asappropriate,of (b) Promotethecontributionof marineliving resources
internationalorganizationsshould conduct analysesof to eliminate malnutrition and to achievefood self-suffi-
the potentialfor aquacultureitr marineand coastalareas ciencyin developingcountries,interalia,by minimizing
under nati o n a l j u ri s d i c ti o n a n d a p p l y appropri ate post-harvestlossesand managingstocksfor guaranteed
safeguards as to the introductionof new species. sustainable yields:
17.85Statesshouldprohibitdynamiting,poisoningand (c) Develop agreedcriteria for the use of selective
othercomparabledestructivefishing practices. fishing gearand practicesto minimize wastein the catch
17.86Statesshouldidentifymarineecosystems exhibit- of target speciesand minimize by-catch of non-target
ing high levelsof biodiversityandproductivityandother species;
critical habitatareasand shouldprovidenecessarylimi- (d) Promote seafoodquality, including through na-
tationson use in theseareas.through,inter alia, desig- tional quality assurancesystemsfor seafood,in order to
nation of protectedareas. Priority shouldbe accorded, promote accessto markets, improve consumer con-
as appropriate,to: fidenceand maximizeeconomicreturns.
(a) Coral reef ecosystems; 17.89Statesshould, where and as appropriate,ensure
(b) Estuaries; adequatecoordinationand cooperationin enclosedand
(c) Temperateandtropicalwetlands,includingmangroves; semi-enclosedseasand between subregional,regional
(d) Seagrass beds: and global intergovernmental fisheriesbodies.
(e) Other spawningand nurseryareas. 17.90Statesrecognize:
(a) The responsibility of the InternationalWhaling
Commissionfor the conservationand managementof
B) DATAAND /NFORMAT/ON whale stocks and the regulation of whaling pursuantto
the 1946InternationalConventionfor the Resulationof
17.87States,individuallyor throughbilateralandmulti- Whaling;
lateralcooperationand with the support,as appropriate, (b) The work of the InternationalWhalingCommission
of internationalorganizations,whether subregional, Scientific Committee in carrying out studies of large
regionalor global,should: whalesin particular,as well as of othercetaceans;
(a) Promoteenhancedcollectionand exchangeof data (c) The work of other organizations,such as the Inter-
necessaryfor the conservationand sustainableuseof the AmericanTropicalTunaCommissionandtheAgreement
marineliving resourcesundernationaljurisdiction; on Small Cetaceans in the Baltic andNorth Seaunderthe
(b) Exchangeon a regular basis up-to-datedata and Bonn Convention,in theconservation, managementand
informationnecessaryfor fisheriesassessment; study of cetaceansand other marine mammals.

r58
17.91States should cooperatefor the conservation, resourcesand to encourageequitableparticipationof-
managementand studyof cetaceans. local communities,small-scalefish workers.womenand
indigenouspeople;
(c) Introduce topics relating to the importanceof
MEANSOF IMPLEMENTATION marine living resourcesin educationalcurricula at all
levels.
A/ F/NANC/NGAND COSTEVALUATTON

17.92The Conference secretariathas estimated the


D) CAPACTTY-BUILD|NG
averagetotal annual cost (1993-2000)of implementing
the activitiesof this programmeto be about $6 billion,
17.95CoastalStates,with the supportof relevantsub-
including about$60 million from the internationalcom-
regional,regionaland global agencies,where appropri-
munity on grantor concessional terms.Theseareindica-
ate,should:
tive andorder-of-magnitude estimatesonly andhavenot
(a) Develop researchcapacitiesfor assessmentof
beenreviewedby Governments. Actualcostswill depend
marineliving resourcepopulationsand monitoring;
upon, inter alia, the specific strategiesand programmes
(b) Provide support to local fishing communities,in
Governmentsdecideupon for implementation.
particularthosethat rely on tishing for subsistence, in-
digenouspeopleand women, including,as appropriate.
the technicaland financialassistance to organize,main-
8/ SCrENrrFtC
AND TECHNOIOG\CAL
MEANS
tain, exchangeand improve traditional knowledge of
marine living resourcesand fishing techniques,and
17.93States,with the supportof relevantintergovern-
upgradeknowledgeon marineecosystems;
mental organizations,as appropriate,should:
(c) Establish sustainableaquaculturedevelopment
(a) Provide for the transferof environmentally sound
strategies,includingenvironmental management in sup-
technologiesto develop fisheries, aquacultureand
port of rural fish-farmingcommunities;
mariculture,particularlyto developingcountries;
(d) Developand strengthen, wherethe needmay arise,
(b) Accord specialattentionto mechanismsfor trans-
institutionscapableof implementingthe objectives and
ferring resourceinformation and improved fishing and
activitiesrelatedto the conseruationand manasementof
aquaculturetechnologiesto fishing communitiesat the
marineliving resources.
local level;
17.96S peci alsupport,i ncl udi ngcooperati onatn ong
(c) Promotethe study,scientific assessment and useof
States,will be neededto enhancetl-recapacitiesof
appropriatetraditional managementsystems;
devel opi ngcountri esi n the areasof dataand i nfb r m a-
(d) Considerobserving,as appropriate,the FAOACES
ti on, sci enti fi cand technol ogi calmeansand hum an
Codeof Practicefor Considerationof Transferand Intro-
resourcedevel opmenti n cl rderto enabl e theln t o
duction of Marine and FreshwaterOrganisms;
participateeffectivelyin the conservationand sustain-
(e) Promotescientificresearchon marineareasof par-
able use of marine livinc resourcesunder national
ticular importancefor marine living resources,such as jurisdiction.
areasof high diversity,endemismand productivity and
migratorystopoverpoints.
E) ADDRESSTNG
CR|T|CATUNCERTATNTTES
FOR
THE'VIANAGEMENT
OF THEMARINE
C) HUMANRESOURCE
DEVELOPMENI ENVIRONMENTAND CLIIAATE
CHANGE

17.94Statesindividually,or throughbilateraland multi-


BASIS
FORACTION
lateral cooperationand with the supportof relevantin-
ternationalorganizations,whethersubregional,regional 17.97The marineenvironmentis vulnerableand sensi-
or global, as appropriate,shouldencourageand provide tive to climate and atmosphencchanges. Rationaluse
supportfor developingcountrtes,inter alia, to:. and developmentof coastalareas,all seasand marine
(a) Expand multidisciplinaryeducation,training and resources, as well asconservationof the marineenviron-
researchon marine living resources,particularlyin the ment, requiresthe ability to determinethe presentstate
socialand economicsciences; of thesesystemsand to predict future conditions.The
(b) Create training opportunities at national and re- high degreeof uncertaintyin presentinfbrmationinhibits
gional levelsto supportartisanal(includingsubsistence) effective managementand limits the ability to make
fisheries,to develop small-scaleuse of marine living predictionsandassess environmentalchange.Systematic

t59
collection of data on marine environmentalparameters ACTIVITIES
will be needed to apply integrated managementap-
A) MANAGEMENT-R EDACTIVITIES
ELAT
proachesand to predict effects of global climate change
and of atmosphericphenomena,suchasozonedepletion,
on living marine resourcesand the marine environment. l7.l0l Statesshouldconsider,inter alia:
In order to determinethe role of the oceansand all seas (a) Coordinating national and regional observation
in driving global systems and to predict natural and programmesfor coastal and near-shorephenomenare-
human-inducedchangesin marine and coastalenviron- lated to climate change and for researchparameters
ments,the mechanismsto collect, synthesizeand dis- essential for marine and coastal managementin all
seminateinformation from researchand systematicob- regions;
servationactivitiesneedto be restructuredandreinforced (b) Providing improved forecastsof marineconditions
considerably. for the safety of inhabitantsof coastalareasand for the
17.98T'herearemanyuncertainties aboutclimatechange efficiency of maritime operations;
and particularlyabout sealevelrise. Small increasesin (c) Cooperating with a view to adopting special
sealevelhavethepotentialof causingsignificantdamage measuresto cope with and adapt to potential climate
to smallislandsandlow-lying coasts.Response strategies changeand sealevelrise, including the developmentof
shouldbe basedon sounddata.A long-termcooperative globally accepted methodologies for coastal vulnera-
researchcommitment is neededto provide the data re- bility assessment,modelling and responsestrategies
quired for global climate models and to reduce uncer- particularly for priority areas,such as small islandsand
tainty. Meanwhile, precautionarymeasuresshould be low-lying and critical coastalareas;
undertakento diminish the risks and effects,particularly (d) Identifying ongoing and planned programmesof
on small islands and on low-lying and coastal areasof systematicobservationof the marineenvironment,with
the world. a view to integratingactivitiesandestablishingpriorities
17.99Increasedultravioletradiationderivedfrom ozone to addresscritical uncertaintiesfor oceansand all seas;
depletionhas been reportedin some areasof the world. (e) Initiating a programmeof researchto determinethe
An assessmentof its effects in the marine environment marinebiological effectsof increasedlevelsof ultraviolet
is neededto reduceuncertaintyand to provide a basisfor rays due to the depletionof the stratosphericozonelayer
action. and to evaluatethe possibleeffects.
17.lO2Recognizingthe importantrole that oceansand
all seasplay in attenuatingpotentialclimatechange,IOC
OBJECIIVES andotherrelevantcompetentUnitedNationsbodies,with
17.100States,in accordancewith provisions of the the supportof countrieshaving the resourcesand exper-
United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea on tise, shouldcarry out analysis,assessments and system-
marine scientific research,commit themselvesto im- atic observationof the role of oceans as a carbon sink.
prove the understandingof the marine environmentand
its role on global processes.To this end, it is necessary
to: B) DATAAND 'NFORMAIION
(a) Promote scientific research on and systematic
observation of the marine environment within the 17.103Statesshouldconsider,inter alia:
limits of nationaljurisdiction and high seas,including (a) Increasing internationalcooperationparticulariy
interactionswith atmosphericphenomena,such as with a view to strengthening nationalscientificandtech-
ozonedepletion; nol ogi cal capabi l i ti esfor anal ysi ng,asse ssingand
(b) Promoteexchangeof dataandinformationresulting predictingglobal climateand environmentalchange;
from scientific researchand systematicobservationand (b) Supportingthe role of the IOC in cooperationwith
from traditional ecological knowledge and ensure its WMO, UNEP and other internationalorganizationsin
availabilityto policy makersandthepublic at thenational the collection,analysisand distributionof data and in-
level; formation from the oceans and all seas, including as
(c) Cooperatewith a view to the developmentof stand- appropriate,through the Global Ocean Observing Sys-
ard inter-calibratedprocedures,measuring techniques, tem, giving special attentionto the need for IOC to
data storageand managementcapabilitiesfor scientific develop fully the strategy for providing training and
researchon and systematicobservation of the marine technicalassistance for developingcountriesthroughits
environment. Training, Education and Mutual Assistance(TEMA)
programme;

r60
(c) Creating national multisectoralinformation bases, organrzeregular scientific reviews, develop options for
covering the resultsof researchand systematicobserva- corrective measures,agreeon formats for presentation
tion prograrnmes; and storage,and communicatethe information gathered
(d) Linking these databasesto existing data and to potentialusers;
information services and mechanisms.such as World (c) Systematicobservationof coastal habitatsand
WeatherWatch and Earthwatch; sealevelchanges,inventoriesof marinepollutionsources
(e) Cooperatingwith a view to the exchangeof data and reviewsof fisheriesstatistics;
and informationand its storageand archivingthroughthe (d) Orgamzationof periodic assessments of oceanand
world and regional data centres; all seasand coastalareastatusand trends.
(0 Cooperatingto ensurefull participationof develop- 17.107Internati onalcooperati on,through rel e vant
ing countries,in particular,in any internationalscheme organi zati ons w i thi n the U ni ted N ati ons syst em ,
underthe organsand organizationsof the United Nations should support countries to develop and integrate
systemfor the collection,analysisand use of data and regi onal systematiclong-termobservation programmes,
information. when applicable,into the RegionalSeasProgrammesin
a coordinatedfashionto implement,whereappropriate,
subregional,regional and global observing systems
Ci 'NIERNAIIONATAND REG'ONAI- basedon the principle of exchangeof data. One aim
COOPERAI'ON AND COORD/NAI/ON shouldbe the predictingof the effectsof climate-related
emergencieson existing coastalphysical and socio-
17.lM Statesshould considerbilaterally and multilat- economicinfrastructure.
erally and in cooperation with international orgamza- 17.108Basedon the resultsof researchon the effectsof
tions, whether subregional,regional, interregionalor the additionalultravioletradiationreachingthe Earth's
global, where appropriate: surface,in the fields of human health,agricultureand
(a) Providingtechnicalcooperationin developingthe marine environment,Statesand international organiza-
capacityof coastaland islandStatesfor marineresearch ti ons shoul d consi der taki ng appropri ateremedial
and systematicobservationand for using its results; measures.
(b) Strengtheningexisting national institutionsand
creating, where necessary,internationalanalysis and
predictionmechanismsin orderto prepareandexchange MEANSOF IMPLEMENTATION
regionalandglobaloceanographic analysesandforecasts A/ F/NANC/NGAND COSTEVALUATION
and to provide facilities for internationalresearchand
training at national, subregionaland regional levels, 11.109The Conference secretariathas estimatedthe
whereapplicable.
averagetotal annualcost ( 1993-2000) of implementing
17.105In recognitionofthe valueof Antarcticaasanarea
the activitiesof this programmeto LreaboutS750million,
for the conduct of scientific research,in particular re-
includingabout$480million from theinternationalcom-
searchessentialto understandingtheglobal environment,
munity on grantor concessional terms.Theseareindica-
Statescarryingout suchresearchactivitiesin Antarctica
tive and order-of-magnitude estimatesonly and havenot
should, as provided for in Article III of the Antarctic
beenreviewedby Governments.Actual costsandfinan-
Treaty,continueto:
cial terms,includingany that are non-concessional,will
(a) Ensure that data and information resulting from
dependupon, inter alia, the specificstrategiesand pro-
such researchare freely available to the international grammesGovernmentsdecideuponfor implementation.
community;
l7.l l0 Developedcountriesshouldprovidethe financ-
(b) Enhanceaccessof the internationalscientificcom-
ing for the further developmentand implementationof
munity and specializedagenciesof the United Nations
the GlobalOceanObservinsSvstem.
to such data and information,including the encourage-
ment of periodicseminarsand symposia.
17.106 Statesshouldstrengthenhigh-levelinter-agency,
8/ SC/ENIIFIC
AND IECHNOI.OGICAL
MEANS
subregional,regionaland global coordination,as appro-
priate,and review mechanismsto developand integrate
l7.l1l To addresscritical uncertainties
throughsystem-
systematicobservationnetworks.This would include:
aticcoastalandmarineobservations andresearch,coastal
(a) Review of existingregionaland global databases;
Statesshouldcooperate in thedevelopmentofprocedures
(b) Mechanismsto developcomparableand compatible
thatallow forcomparableanalysisandsoundness of data.
techniques,validatemethodologiesand measurements,
They shouldalsocooperateon a subregionalandregional

r6t
basis,through existing programmeswhere applicable, including regional,institutions,both within and outside
share infrastructureand expensive and sophisticated the United Nations system,with competencein marine
equipment,develop quality assuranceproceduresand issues,and thereis a needto improve coordinationand
develop human resourcesjointly. Special attention strengthenlinks among them. It is also important to
shouldbe given to transf-erof scientificandtechnological ensurethat an integratedand multisectoralapproachto
knowledge and means to support States, particularly marineissuesis pursuedat all levels.
developingcountries,in the developmentof endogenous
capabilities.
l7.l12 Internationalorganizationsshouldsupport,when OBJECTIVES
requested,coastal countries in implementing research 17.117Statescommit themselves.in accordancewith
projectson the effectsof additionalultraviolet radiation. theirpolicies,prioritiesandresources, to promoteinstitu-
tional arrangementsnecessaryto supportthe implemen-
tation of theprograrnmeareasin this chapter.To this end,
C) HUMANRESOURCE
DEVELOPMENT it is necessary,as appropriate,to:
(a) Integrate relevant sectoral activities addressing
l7. ll3 S t a te s ,i n d i v i d u a l l y o r th ro u g h b i l ateral and environment and development in marine and coastal
multilateral cooperation and with the support, as areasat national,subregional,regionaland global levels,
appropriate,of international organizationswhether as appropriate;
subregional,regional or global. should develop and (b) Promote effective information exchange and,
implement comprehensiveprogrammes,particularly where appropriate, institutional linkages between
in developing countries, for a broad and coherent bilateral and multilateral national,regional, subregional
approachto meeting their core human resourceneeds and interregionalinstitutions dealing with environment
in the marine sciences. and developmentin marineand coastalareas;
(c) Promotewithin the United Nations system,regular
intergovernmental review and consideration of envi-
ronment and developmentissueswith respectto marine
D) CAPACTTY-BUtLDtNG
and coastalareas:
(d) Promote the effective operation of coordinating
17.114Statesshouldstrengthen orestablishasnecessary,
andtechnological oceanographic com- mechanismsfor the componentsof the United Nations
nationalscientific
or equivalent bodies to develop, support and systemdealingwith issuesof environmentand deveiop-
missions
marine scienceactivities and work closely ment in marine and coastalareas,as well as links with
coordinate
relevantinternationaldevelopmentbodies.
with internationalorganizations.
l7.l15 Statesshould use existing subregionaland re-
gional mechanisms, whereapplicable,to developknow-
AC-IIVITIES
ledgeof the marine environment, exchangeinformation,
organizesystematic observations and assessments, and A) MANAGEA/ENI-R ED ACTIVITIES
ELAT
make the most effective use of scientists,facilities and
equipment. They shouldalsocooperate in the promotion
of endogenousresearchcapabilities in developing GLOBAL
countries. 17.1l8 The GeneralAssemblyshouldprovideforregular
consideration,within the United Nationssystem,at the
intergovernmentallevel of general marine and coastal
|NTERNATIONAL,INCIUDING
F) STRENGTHENTNG
REGIONAL,COOPERATIONAND COORDINATION issues,includingenvironmentanddevelopmentmatters,
and should requestthe Secretary-Generaland executive
headsof United Nationsagenciesand organizationsto:
BASIS FORACTION (a) Strengthencoordination and develop improved
17.116It is recognizedthat the role of international arrangementsamongthe relevantUnited Nationsorgan-
cooperationis to supportandsupplementnationalefforts. izationswith major marine and coastalresponsibilities,
Implementationof strategiesand activities under the including their subregionaland regionalcomponents;
programmeareasrelativeto marineand coastalareasand (b) Strengthencoordination between those organiza-
seasrequireseffective institutional arrangementsat na- tions and otherUnited Nationsorganizations.i nstitutions
andspecialized agenciesdealingwith development, trade
tional. subregional,regionaland global levels,as appro-
priate. There are numerous national and international, and otherrelatedeconomicissues,as appropriate;

162
(c) Improverepresentation of UnitedNationsagencies B) DATAAND 'NFORMAT/ON
dealing with the marine environmentin United Nations
system-wide coordinationefforts; l7.l2l Statesshould,whereappropriate:
(d) Promote, where necessary,greater collaboration (a) Promote exchangeof information on marine and
betweenthe United Nations agenciesand subregional coastalissues;
and regional coastaland marine programmes; (b) Strengthenthe capacity of internationalorganiza-
(e) Develop a centralized system to provide for tions to handleinformation and supportthe development
informationon legislationandadviceon implementation of national,subregionaland regional data and informa-
of legal agreementson marine environmentaland tion systems,whereappropriate.This couldalsoinclude
developmentissues. networks linking countrieswith comparableenviron-
17.119States recognize that environmentalpolicies mentalproblems;
should deal with the root causesof environmental (c) Furtherdevelopexistinginternationalmechanisms
degradation,thus preventing environmental measures such as Earthwatchand GESAMP.
from resultingin unnecessaryrestrictionsto trade.Trade
policy measuresfor environmentalpurposesshouldnot
constitutea meansof arbitraryor unjustifiablediscrimi- MEANSOF IMPLEMENTATION
nation or a disguisedrestrictionon internationaltrade.
A/ F/NANC/NGAND COSTEVALUATTON
Unilateralactionsto dealwith environmentalchallenges
outsidethejurisdiction of the importing country should
17.122The Conference secretariathas estimatedthe
be avoided.Environmentalmeasuresaddressing interna-
averagetotal annualcosr (1993-2000)of implementing
tionalenvironmentalproblemsshould,asfar aspossible,
the activitiesof this prograinmeto be about$50 million
be based on an international consensus.Domestic
from the international community on grant or conces-
measurestargetedto achievecertain environmentalob-
jectives may need trade measuresto render them effec- sional terms. These are indicative and order-of'-magni-
tude estimates only and have not been reviewed by
tive. Shouldtradepolicy measuresbe found necessary
Governments. Actualcostsandflnancialterms,including
for the enforcementof environmental policies, certain
principlesand rules shouldapply. Thesecould include, any that are non-concessional, will depend upon,inter
alia, the specific strategiesand programmesGovern-
inter alia, the principleof non-discrimination;the prin-
mentsdecideupon for implementation.
ciple that the trademeasurechosenshouldbe the least
trade-restrictive necessaryto achievethe objectives;an
obligation to ensure transparencyin the use of trade
measuresrelated to the environment and to provide ade- B/ SCIENI/F/C
AND TFCHNO/OGtCALMEANS,
HUMAN
quatenotificationof nationalregulations;and the needto RESOURCE DEVELOPMENIAND CAPACITY.
BUILDING
give considerationto the specialconditionsand develop-
ment requirementsof developingcountriesas they move ll.l23 The means of implementationoutlined in the
towardsintemationallyagreedenvironmentalobjectives. other programmeareason marine and coastalissues,
underthe sectionson scientificandtechnologicalmeans,
humanresourcedevelopmentand capacity-buildingare
SUBREGIONAL
ANDREGIONAL entirelyrelevantfor this programmeareaas well. Addi-
17.120Statesshouldconsider,as appropriate: tionally, Statesshould, through internationalcooperation,
(a) Strengthening, and extendingwherenecessary, developa comprehensiveprogrammefor meetingthe core
in-
tergovernmentalregionalcooperation,the RegionalSeas humanresourceneedsin marinesciencesat all levels.
Programmesof UNEP,regionaland subregionalfisheries
organizationsand regionalcommissions;
Gl st sTAtNABtE DEVETOPMENT
OF SrvrAUFIANDS
(b) Introduce,where necessary,coordinationamong
relevantUnited Nationsand othermultilateralorganiza-
tions at the subregionaland regional levels, including BASIS FORACTION
considerationof co-locationof their staff;
17.124Small islanddevelopingStates,and islandssup-
(c) Arrangefor periodicintraregionalconsultations;
porting small communitiesare a specialcase both for
(d) Facilitateaccessto and use of expertiseand tech-
environmentand development.They are ecologically
nology throughrelevantnationalbodiesto subregional
fragile and vulnerable. Their small size, limited re-
and regionalcentresand networks,suchas the Regional
sources,geographi cdi spersi onand i sol ati on fr om
Centresfor Marine Technology.
markets,placethem at a disadvantageeconomicallyand

r63
preventeconomiesof scale.For small islanddeveloping (a) Studythe specialenvironmentalanddevelopmental
Statesthe oceanand coastalenvironmentis of strategic characteristics of small islands,producingan environ-
importance and constitutesa valuable development mental profile and inventory of their natural resources,
resource. critical marinehabitatsand biodiversity;
17.125Their geographicisolationhasresultedin their (b) Develop techniquesfor determiningand monitor-
habitationby a comparativelylarge number of unique ing the carryingcapacityof smallislandsunderdifferent
speciesof flora and fauna,giving them a very high share developmentassumptions and resourceconstraints;
of global biodiversity.They also have rich and diverse (c) Preparemedium- and long-termplansfor sustainable
cultureswith specialadaptationsto islandenvironments developmentttrat emphasizemultiple use of resources,
and knowledge of the sound managementof island integrateenvironmentalconsiderationswith economicand
resources. sectoralplanningand policies,define measuresfor main-
llJ26 Small islanddevelopingStateshave all the envi- taining cultural and biologicaldiversity and conserveen-
ronmentalproblemsand challengesof the coastalzone dangeredspeciesandcritical marinehabitats;
concentrated in a limited land area.They areconsidered (d) Adapt coastalarea managementtechniques,such
extremely vulnerableto global warming and sealevel as planning, siting and environmentalimpact assess-
rise, with certain small low-lying islandsfacing the in- ments,using GeographicalInformationSystems(GIS),
creasingthreatof the loss of their entire nationalterri- suitableto the specialcharacteristicsof small islands,
tories.Most tropical islandsare also now experiencing taking into accountthe traditionaland culturalvaluesof
the more immediateimpactsof increasingfrequencyof indigenouspeopleof islanCcountries;
cyclones,stormsand hurricanesassociated with climate (e) Review the existinginstitutionalarrangements and
change.Thesearecausingmajor set-backsto their socio- identify and undertakeappropriateinstitutional reforms
economicdevelopment. essentialto the effective implementationof sustainable
17.127Becausesmall island developmentoptions are developmentplans,includingintersectoralcoordination
limited, thereare specialchallengesto planningfor and and communityparticipationin the planningprocess;
implementing sustainabledevelopment.Small island (f) Implementsustainabledevelopmentplans,includ-
developingStateswill be constrainedin meetingthese ing thereview andmodificationof existingunsustainable
challengeswithout the cooperationand assistance of the policiesand practices;
internationalcommunitv. (g) Based on precautionaryand anticipatory ap-
proaches,design and implement rational response
strategiesto addressthe environmental,social and eco-
OBJECTIVES nomic impactsof climate changeand sealevelrise, and
17J28 States commit themselvesto addressingthe prepareappropriatecontingencyplans;
problems of sustainabledeveloprnentof small island (h) Promote environmentally sound technology for
developingStates.To this end,it is necessary: sustainable developmentwithin small islanddeveloping
(a) To adoptand implementplansand programmesto Statesand identify technologiesthat shouldbe excluded
supportthe sustainabledevelopmentand utilization of becauseof their threatsto essentialislandecosvstems.
their marine and coastalresources,including meeting
essentialhumanneeds,maintainingbiodiversityand im-
proving the quality of life for islandpeople; B) DATAAND /NFORMATTAN
(b) To adopt measureswhich will enablesmall island
developing Statesto cope effectively, creatively and 17.130Additional informationon the geographic,envi-
sustainablywith environmentalchangeand to mitigate ronmental,cultural and socio-economiccharacteristics
impacts and reduce the threats posed to marine and of islandsshouldbe compiledand assessed to assistin the
coastalresources. planningprocess.Existingislanddatabases shouldbe ex-
pandedandgeographicinfbrmationsystemsdevelopedand
adaptedto suit the specialcharacteristics
of islands.
ACTIVITIES
A) MANAGFMFNI-R
ELATED
ACTIVITIES

c/ /NTERNATIONAL
AND REG/ONAI.
17.129Small islanddevelopingStates,with the assist-
COOPERAIIONAND COORDINAI/ON
anceas appropriateof the internationalcommunityand
on thebasisof existingwork of nationalandinternational 17.131Small islanddevelopingStates,with the support,
organizations,should:
as appropriate,of international organizations,whether

164
subregional,regional or global, should develop and be modified to meet these needs and special training
strengtheninter-island,regional and interregionalco- programmesdevelopedin integratedislandmanagement
operationand informationexchange,includingperiodic and development. Local planning should be integrated
regionalandglobalmeetingson sustainable development in educationalcurriculaof all levelsandpublic awareness
of small island developingStateswith the first global campaignsdevelopedwith the assistanceof non-govern-
conferenceon the sustainabledevelopmentof small mentalorganizationsandindigenouscoastalpopulations.
island developingStates,to be held in 1993.
whethersubregional,
17.132 Internationalorganizations,
regionalor global, must recognrzethe specialdevelop- D) CAPACTTY-BU|LDING
mentrequirementsof smallislanddevelopingStatesand
give adequatepriority in the provision of assistance, 17.136The total capacity of small island developing
particularly with respectto the developmentand im- Stateswill always be limited. Existing capacity must
plementationof sustainabledevelopmentplans. thereforebe restructuredto meetefficiently the immedi-
ate needs for sustainabledevelopment and integrated
management. At the same time, adequateand appro-
MEANSOF IMPLEMENTATION priate assistancefrom the internationalcommunity must
A/ F/NANCINGAND COSTEVALUATION be directed at strengtheningthe full range of human
resourcesneeded on a continuous basis to implement
sustainabledevelopmentplans.
17.133The Conlerence secretariathas estimatedthe
17.137 New technologies thatcanincreasetheoutputand
averagetotal annualcost ( 1993-2000)of implementing
rangeof capabilityof the limited humanresourcesshould
theactivitieso1'thisprogrammeto be about$ 130million,
be employed to increase the capacity of very small
including about$50 million from the internationalcom-
populationsto meet their needs. The developmentand
munity on grantor concessional terms.Theseareindica-
application of traditional knowledge to improve the
tive and order-of-magnitude estimatesonly andhavenot
capacity of countriesto implement sustainabledevelop-
beenreviewedby Governments.Actual costsand finan-
ment shouldbe fostered.
cial terms, including any that are non-concessional,will
depend upon, inter aliu. ttre specific strategiesand pro-
gfturrmesGovemmentsdecideupon for implementation.

8/ S C/ E NI I F I A ME AN S
CN D IE C H N IC AT

17.134Centres for the developmentand diffusion of


scientificinformationand adviceon technicalmeansand
technologiesappropriateto small island developing
States,especiallywith referenceto the managementof
thecoastalzone,theexclusiveeconomiczoneandmarine
resources,should be establishedor strengthened,as
appropriate.on a regionalbasis.

C) HUM A NRE S O U R CDEEV EL OP M EN T 'References


to the UnitedNotionsConvenlionon the Low of the
Seoin thischopterof Agendo2l do notpreiudice thepositionof
i7.135 Since populationsof srnall island developing of or occession
ony Stotewith respectto signoture,rotificotion to
Statescannot maintain all necessaryspecializations, theConvention.
trainingfor integratedcoastalmanagement anddevelop-
2R"f"r"n.",
rnentshouldaim to producecadresof managersor scien- to the UnitedNolionsConventionon the Low of the
tists,engineersand coastalplannersableto integratethe Seoin thischopterof Agendo2l do not preiudicethe positionof
Stoteswhichview the Conventionos hovingo unifiedchorocler.
manv factors that need to be consideredin integrated
coastalmanagement. Resourceusersshouldbe prepared 3Norhing
in the progrommeoreos of this choptershouldbe
to executeboth managementand protectionfunctions interpretedos preiudicingthe rightsof the Stotesinvolvedin o
and to apply the polluter paysprinciple and supportthe or in the delimitotion
disputeof sovereignty of the moritimeoreos
training of their personnel.Educationalsystemsshould concerned.

r65
IB Protection
of thequolityond supplyof freshwoter
resources:
Applicotionof integroted
opprooches
to thedevelopment,
monogement ond useof
woter resources

Rational water utilization schemesfor the development


INTRODUCTION
of surface and undergroundwater-supply sourcesand
other potential sourceshave to be supportedby concur-