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Annotated Bibliography Related to Testing

the Air-Permeability of the Concrete Cover

according to the “Torrent” Method

(Swiss Standard SIA 162/1-E)


Updated 1st March 2014

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This Annotated Bibliography on analytical, research and application (in the laboratory and on site)
work regarding the “Torrent Method” to measure the Air-Permeability of the concrete cover, has
been compiled from the public literature available. Important references may be missing, as well as
incomplete or inaccurate description of the references and/or their content may be included.
Readers are encouraged to enrich this list by sending additional references or comments to
Materials Advanced Services Ltd. (
The reported experimental results correspond, some to tests made with prototypes built by the
inventor (Dr. Roberto Torrent), the majority to tests made with the commercial instrument “Torrent
Permeability Tester” (Proceq S.A.) and, more recently, to tests made with the new commercial
instrument “PermeaTORR” (Materials Advanced Services Ltd.).

The document consists of two parts, the first one containing a List of References, ordered by year
of publication, identified by a code of four digits, the first two indicating the year of publication and
the last two a correlative number.
The second part contains Comments to Selected References, ordered by Code of the List of
References, followed by the comments themselves and an indication of the type of work
(Analytical, Laboratory, Site) and the ISO Code of the land(s) where the work was done.

List of References

No. Code Reference

1 92-01 Torrent, R. J., "A two-chamber vacuum cell for measuring the coefficient of
permeability to air of the concrete cover on site", Mater. & Struct., v.25, n.150,
July 1992, 358-365.
2 93-01 Torrent, R. u. Ebensperger, L., “Studie über Methoden zur Messung und
Beurteilung der Kennwerte des Überdeckungsbetons auf der Baustelle” (in
German), Office Fédéral des Routes, Rapport No. 506, Bern, Suisse, Januar
1993, 119 p.
3 94-01 Torrent, R.J., Ebensperger, L. and Gebauer, J., "On site evaluation of the
permeability of the ‘covercrete’: possibilities and limitations", 3rd CANMET/ACI
International Conference on Durability of Concrete - Nice, France, May 22-28,
4 95-01 Torrent, R.J. and Frenzer, G., "A method for the rapid determination of the
coefficient of permeability of the ‘covercrete’", Intern. Symp. Non-Destructive
Testing in Civil Engineering, Berlin, Germany, Sept. 26-28, 1995.
5 95-02 Torrent, R.J. and Frenzer, G., "An innovative approach to the durability of
concrete structures", Concrete 95, FIP Conference, Brisbane, Australia, 4-7
September 1995.
6 95-03 Torrent, R. und Frenzer, G., "Methoden zur Messung und Beurteilung der
Kennwerte des Ueberdeckungsbetons auf der Baustelle -Teil II" (in German),
Office Fédéral des Routes, Rapport No. 516, Bern, Suisse, Oct. 1995, 106 p.
7 95-04 Kattar, J.E., Abreu, J.V. de and Cruz, L.O., “Concreto de alto desempenho
modificado con polímero para pisos industriais”, 37ª Reunião Anual do IBRACON,
Goiânia, 3-7 Julho, 1995.
8 97-01 Torrent, R.J., “Un método rápido y no-destructivo para medir la permeabilidad al
aire del hormigón”, Hormigón, n 31, 1997, pp. 51-61.
9 97-02 Torrent, R.J., “Repeatability of kT Measurements”, Communication to C.
Edwardson (COWIconsult, Denmark), Holderbank, Switzerland, Feb. 4, 1997,
10 98-01 Adey, B., Roelfstra, G., Hajdin, R. and Brühwiler, E., “Permeability of existing
concrete bridges”, 2nd Intern. PhD Symp. In Civil Engng., Budapest, 1998.

11 99-01 Roelfstra G., Adey B., Hajdin R., and Brühwiler E., “The condition evolution of
concrete bridges based on a segmental approach, non-destructive test methods
and deterioration models”, 78th Annual Meeting Transp. Res. Board, Denver, April
1999, 13p.
12 99-02 Torrent, R., “The gas-permeability of high-performance concretes: site and
laboratory tests”, High-Performance Concr., Performance & Quality of Concr.
Struct., ACI SP-186, Paper 17, pp. 291-308, 1999.
13 99-03 Torrent, R., “Un enfoque innovador para asegurar la durabilidad de las
estructuras”, Concreto 99, México DF, 22-24 Sept., 1999.
14 99-04 Kattar, J., Abreu, J.V. and Regattieri, C.E.X., “Inovações na metodologia para
avaliação da permeabilidade por difusão ao ar” (in Portuguese), 41° Congresso
Brasileiro do Concreto, Ibracon, Salvador, Bahia, 1999.
15 99-05 Brühwiler E. and Mivelaz, P., “From Corrosion of Existing to Durability of New
Concrete Structures”, IABSE Symposium - Rio de Janeiro - August 25-27, 1999
16 00-01 Fernández Luco, L., Descauche pavimento (in Spanish), Informe ICPA, Febrero
17 00-02 Torrent, R., “On the tracks of the durability-meter / Sulle traccie del durabilimetro”,
L’Industria Italiana del Cemento, n. 752, March 2000, 262-269.
18 00-03 Andrade, C., González Gasca, C. and Torrent, R., “The suitability of the ‘TPT’ to
measure the air-permeability of the covercrete”, ACI SP-192: 2000 Canmet/ACI
Conference on Durability of Concrete, Barcelona, June 4-9, 2000, pp.301-318.
19 00-04 “The Effects of Higher Strength and Associated Concrete Properties on Pavement
Performance”, FHWA-RD-00-161 Report, Chapter 5 ‘Concrete Properties’, Fed.
Highway Admin., USDoT, 2000, pp. 143-182.
20 00-05 Mohr, P., Hansen, W., Jensen, E. and Pane, I., “Transport properties of concrete
pavements with excellent long-term in-service performance”, Cement & Concr.
Res., v.30, 2000, pp. 1903-1910.
21 00-06 Sato, N., Higa, T., Shoya, M. and Sugita, S., “Some properties of concrete mixed
with effective microorganisms and the on-site investigation of the completed
structures”, 2000.
22 01-01 Roelfstra, G., “Modèle d’évolution de l’état des ponts-routes en béton“ (in French),
Ph.D. Thesis, EPFL, Lausanne, 2001, 175 p.
23 01-02 Torrent, R., "Diseño por Durabilidad - Técnicas de Ensayo y su Aplicación" (in
Spanish), CENCO Seminar on Durability of Concrete and Evaluation of Corroded
Structures, Instituto Eduardo Torroja, Madrid, 17-19 April, 2001.
24 02-01 Fornasier, G., Fava, C., Fernández Luco, L. and Zitzer, L., “Diseño por
Durabilidad de Hormigones Autocompactantes. Aspectos a Considerar desde el
Punto de Vista Reglamentario”,
25 02-02 Calo, D., Fernández Luco L., Pombo, R. and Torrent, R., “Shrinkage-
Compensating Concrete, Made with Different Cement Types, for Industrial
Floors”, III International Conference High Performance Concrete, October 2002,
Recife, Brasil.
26 02-03 Brühwiler, E., Denarié, E., Urlau, U., Hasler, S. und Peter, H., "Betonstahl mit
erhöhtem Korrosionwiderstand - Eine Massnahme chloridinduzierte Korrosion von
Stahlbeton", Beton- und Stahlbetonbau, v.97, No. 5, 2002, 239-249.
27 03-01 Andrade C., Sagrera J.L., Martínez I., García M. and Zuloaga, P., "Monitoring of
Concrete Permeability, Carbonation and Corrosion Rates in the Concrete of the
Containers of El Cabril (Spain) Disposal”, Transactions of the 17th Intern. Conf.

Struct. Mechanics in Reactor Technol. (SMiRT 17)”, Prague, Czech Rep., Aug. 17
–22, 2003.
28 03-02 Denarié E., Conciatori D., Simonin P., "Essais comparatifs de caractérisation de
bétons d'enrobage - phase I: bétons de laboratoire", Rapport d'essais MCS
02.12.07-1, Laboratoire de Maintenance, Construction et Sécurité des Ouvarges
(MCS), Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Switzerland, 2004.
29 03-03 Brühwiler, E., "Durabilité", Construction en béton, Introduction à la norme SIA 262,
SIA Dokumentation D 0182, 2003, Chap. 9, pp. 99-105. (In German and French).
30 03-04 Kubens, S., Wassermann, R. and Bentur, A. "Non destructive air permeability
tests to assess the performance of the concrete cover", 15th ibausil Intern.
Baustofftagung, Bauhaus, Univ. Weimar, 24-27 September 2003.
31 03-05 Norme Suisse SIA 262/1:2003: "Construction en béton - Spécifications
complémentaires", Annexe E, "Perméabilité à l'air dans les Structures", p. 30-31
(German + French). Translation into English available at http://www.m-a-
32 03-06 Fornasier, G., Fava, C., Fernández Luco, L. and Zitzer, L., “Design of Self
Compacting Concrete for Durability of Prescriptive vs. Performance-Based
Specifications”, ACI SP 212, 2003, pp.197-210
33 04-01 Roeflstra, G., Hajdin, R., Adey, B. and Brühwiler, E., “Condition Evolution in
Bridge Management Systems and Corrosion-Induced Deterioration”, J. Bridge
Engng., ASCE, May/June, 2004, pp. 268-277.
34 04-02 Ramallo de Goldschmidt T.R., “Low and Intermediate Level Waste Package
Assessment under Interim Storage and Final Disposal Conditions”, Report IAEA-
TECDOC-1397, Intern. Atomic Energy Agency, June 2004, pp. 33-50.
35 04-03 Bueno V., “Estudio de Factibilidad de un Nuevo Ensayo de Permeabilidad en
Rocas” (in Spanish), Univ. del Zulia, Maracaibo, Venezuela, Octubre, 2004, 88 p.
36 04-04 Pasquel Carvajal E., Guerra Cisneros C., Bendezú Acero J., Gonzáles Montoro
M.A., “Evaluación de los concretos coloreados y blancos” (in Spanish), UNICOR,
Lima, Perú, 2004, 8 p.
37 04-05 Fernández Luco, L., Hormigones Especiales, Capítulo 6, “Hormigón de
Contracción Compensada “, AATH, Buenos Aires, Aug. 2004, 32 p.
38 05-01 Conciatori, D., “Effet du microclimat sur l’initiation de la corrosion des aciers
d’armature dans les ouvrages en béton armé“ (in French), Ph.D. Thesis, EPFL,
Lausanne, 2005, 264 p.
39 05-02 Mathur VK., Verma CL., Gupta BS., Agarwal SK. And Kumar A., “Use of High
Volume Fly Ash in Concrete for Building Sector”, Report No. T(S)006, Central
Build. Res. Inst., Roorkee, Jan. 2005, 35 p.
40 05-03 Kubens, St., E. Zellhuber, K. Rabald und R. Heidel, “Einfluss der Dichtigkeit und
Druckfestigkeit von Beton“ (in German), beton 1+2, 2005, pp. 20 - 22.
41 05-04 Brühwiler, E., Denarié, E., Wälchli, Th., Maître, M. et Conciatori, D., “Applicabilité
de la mesure de perméabilité selon Torrent pour le contrôle de qualité du béton
d’enrobage” (in French), Office Fédéral Suisse des Routes, Rapport n. 587, Avril
2005, pp. 1-48.
42 05-05 Romer, M., “Effect of moisture and concrete composition on the Torrent
permeability measurement”, Mater. & Struct., v. 38, n. 279, June 2005, pp. 541-
43 05-06 Fernández Luco, L. and Revuelta Crespo, D., “Ensayo de penetración de agua
bajo presión y Ensayo de permeabilidad al aire, método de Torrent, sobre
probetas de hormigón de 150x300mm” (in Spanish), Informe N° 18’728, Instituto
Eduardo Torroja, Madrid, Julio 2005, 8 p.
44 05-07 Rodríguez de Sensale, G., Sabalsagaray, B.S., Cabrera, J., Marziotte, L. and
Romay, C., “Effect of the Constituents on the Properties of SCC in Fresh and
Hardened State”, fib Symposium “Structural Concrete and Time”, La Plata,
Argentina, Sept. 2005.
45 05-08 Torrent, R., "Towards a Performance-based Specification and Conformity Control

of Durability", fib Symposium “Structural Concrete and Time”, La Plata, Argentina,
Sept. 2005.
46 05-09 Denarié, E., “Structural rehabilitations with Ultra-High Performance Fibre
Reinforced Concretes (UHPFRC)”, Intern. Conf. Concr. Repair, Rehabilitation and
Retrofitting, Cape Town, 21-23 Nov., 2005.
47 05-10 Denarié, E., Conciatori, D., Maître, M. and Brühwiler, E., “Air permeability
measurements for the assessment of the in situ permeability of cover concrete”,
Intern. Conf. Concr. Repair, Rehabilitation and Retrofitting, Cape Town, 21-23
Nov., 2005.
48 05-11 Fernández Luco, L. and Pombo, R., “Innovative non-destructive assessment of
adherence failure of the top layer in an industrial floor”, Intern. Conf. Concr.
Repair, Rehabilitation and Retrofitting, Cape Town, 21-23 Nov., 2005.
49 05-12 Romer, M. and Leeman, A., “Sensitivity of a non-destructive vacuum test method
to characterize concrete permeability”, Intern. Conf. Concr. Repair, Rehabilitation
and Retrofitting, Cape Town, 21-23 Nov., 2005.
50 05-13 Czerner Ch., Huber J., “Gaspermeabilitätsmessungen an Beton –
Probenkonditionierung und Versuchsdurchführung“ (in German),
Wissenschaftlicher Kurzbericht Nr. 8, Technische Univ. München, 2005.
51 05-14 Romer M., RILEM TC 189-NEC "Comparative test - Part I - Comparative test of
penetrability methods”.- Materials & Structures, v38, Dec 2005, pp. 895 - 906.
Updated by R. Torrent in v41, April 2008, pp. 443-447.
52 06-01 Rodríguez de Sensale, G., “Strength development of concrete with rice-husk ash”,
Cement and Concr. Composites, v. 28, n. 2 , Feb. 2006, pp 158-160.
53 06-02 Beushausen H.-D., Alexander M. and Torrent R., “Durability design criteria and
permeability tests – An international overview”, Concrete Plant Intern., n.2, April
2006, pp. 54-61.
54 06-03 Jacobs, F. and Hunzeler, F., “Non destructive testing of the concrete cover -
Evaluation of permeability test data”, Intern. RILEM Workshop on “Performance
Based Evaluation and Indicators for Durability”, Madrid, Spain, 19-21 March 2006.
55 06-04 Torrent, R., "Performance-based Specification and Conformity Control of
Durability", Intern. RILEM Workshop on “Performance Based Evaluation and
Indicators for Durability”, Madrid, Spain, 19-21 March 2006.
56 06-05 Jacobs, F., “Luftpermeabilität als Kenngrösse für die Qualität des
Überdeckungsbetons von Betonbauwerken” (in German), Office Fédéral Suisse
des Routes, Rapport n. 604, September 2006, 100 p.
57 06-06 Huber H., “Beton für Kläranlagen – Stand der Technik“ (in German), ÖVBB, Wien,
30. Nov. 2006, 3 p.
58 06-07 Adámek, J., Juránková V., “Air Impermeability of Concrete Increased by Different
Ingredients and Admixtures”, BTU Brno,CZ, 2006.
59 06-08 Leemann, A., Hoffman, C., Malioka, V. und Faber, M.H., “Streuung der
Betoneigenschaften in Bauwerken” (in German), Bundesamt für Strassen, Bericht
611, Switzerland, December, 2006, 68 p.
60 06-09 Wasserman R. and Bentur, A., “Effect of concrete composition on durability in
natural acidic environment”, Advances in Cement Research, v.18, n.4, October,
2006, pp. 135-143.
61 06-10 Quoc P.H.D. and Kishi T., “Measurement of air permeation property of cover
concrete”, Proc. JSCE Annual Meeting, v. 61, Disk 2, 2006, 2 p.
62 06-11 Denarié, E. and Brühwiler, E., “ Guidance for the use of UHPFRC for rehabilitation
of concrete highway structures”, SAMARIS Report SAM_GE_DE25v04_01, 23
May 2006, 64 p.
63 07-01 Jacobs F. and Hunkeler F., “Air permeability as a characteristic parameter for the
quality of cover concrete”, Concrete Platform 2007, Belfast, 18-20 April, 2007, pp.

64 07-02 Portugal P., “Concretos de Alto Desempeño” (in Spanish), Cap. V: Propiedades
del Concreto Endurecido, Link to Webpage, April 2007, 57 p.
65 07-03 Imamoto K., Shimozawa K., Nagayama M., Yamasaki J. and Nimura S., “A novel
approach to evaluate the steel corrosion risk induced by transverse cracks in
concrete”, Proc. Intern. RILEM Workshop on ‘Transport Mechanisms in Cracked
Concrete” (Eds. K. Audenaert, L. Marsavina and G. De Schutter), Ghent, Belgium,
7 Sept. 2007, pp. 77-86.
66 07-04 RILEM TC 189 NEC, "Non-Destructive Evaluation of the Penetrability and
Thickness of the Concrete Cover", Torrent, R. and Fernández Luco, L. (Eds.),
RILEM Report 40, May 2007, 223p.
67 08-01 Di Pace G., Calo D. and Torrent, R., “Assessment of concrete permeability in
tunnels”, SACoMaTIS 2008, Proc. of Intern. RILEM Confer. (Eds. L. Binda, M. di
Prisco and R. Felicetti), Varenna, Italy, 1-2 September 2008, Vol. 1, pp. 327-336.
68 08-02 Imamoto K., Shimozawa K., Nagayama M., Yamasaki J. and Nimura S.,
“Threshold values of air permeability of concrete cover – a case study in Japan”,
SACoMaTIS 2008, Proc. of Intern. RILEM Confer. (Eds. L. Binda, M. di Prisco and
R. Felicetti), Varenna, Italy, 1-2 September 2008, Vol. 1, pp. 169-177.
69 08-03 Neves R.D. and Vinagre Santos J., “Air permeability assessment in a reinforced
concrete viaduct”, SACoMaTIS 2008, Proc. of Intern. RILEM Confer. (Eds. L.
Binda, M. di Prisco and R. Felicetti), Varenna, Italy, 1-2 September 2008, Vol. 1,
pp. 299-307.
70 08-04 LI, Min, KAO, Hongtao and QIAN, Chunxiang, “Degradation of permeability
resistance of high strength concrete after combustion”, Front. Archit. Civ. Eng.,
China 2008, v.2, n.3, pp. 281-287.
71 08-05 Misák P., Kucharczyová B. and Vymazal T., “Evaluation of permeability of
concrete by using instrument Torrent” (in Czech), JUNIORSTAV 2008, 2.5
Stavebni zkusebnictví, Brno, 23 Jan. 2008, 3p.
72 08-06 Jacobs F., “Beton zerstörungsfrei untersuchen“ (in German), der Bauingenieur,
n.3, 2008, pp. 24-27.
73 08-07 Torrent, R., “Assessment of the long-term effect of Zemdrain on the air-
permeability and hardness of the cover concrete”, M-A-S Report No. 09-001,
Materials Advanced Services Ltd., Buenos Aires, October 2008
74 08-08 Torrent, R., “Permeability tests on sound and damaged areas of a shrinkage-
compensating concrete industrial floor”, M-A-S Report No. 09-002, Materials
Advanced Services Ltd., Buenos Aires, November 2008
75 08-09 Quoc P.H.D. and Kishi T., “Effect of curing condition on air permeability of cover
concrete”, 3rd ACF International Conference-ACF/VCA 2008
76 08-10 Bentur, A. and Mitchell, D., “Material performance lessons”, Cement and Concr.
Res., 38 (2008), 259-272.
77 08-11 Beushausen, H. and Alexander, M.G., “The South African durability index tests in
an international comparison”, J. South African Institution Civil Engs., v.50, n.1,
2008, 25–31, Paper 671
78 08-12 Sánchez Stasiw, Carol, "Estudio experimental del empleo de diatomita en la
producción de concreto de alto desempeño", Tesis de Ing. Civil, Universidad
Peruana de Ciencias Aplicadas, Lima, Perú, 2008.
79 08-13 Brühwiler, E., "Dauerhafter Stahlbeton", TEC 21, v. 48, 2008, pp. 21-25
80 09-01 Jacobs, F. and Torrent, R., “Swiss Standard SIA 262:2003, a step towards
performance-based specifications for durability”, submitted to RILEM Conference
“Concrete in aggressive aqueous environments - Performance, Testing, and
Modeling”, Toulouse, France, 3 - 5 June 2009
81 09-02 Ebensperger, L. y Torrent, R., “Medición ‘in situ’ de la permeabilidad al aire del
hormigón: Status quo”, CONPAT 2009, Valparaíso, Chile, 29 de Setiembre al 2
de Octubre, 2009.

82 09-03 Torrent, R., “Comparison of the operation and air-permeability test results of the
TPT and the Permea-TORR”, M-A-S Report No. 09-003, Materials Advanced
Services Ltd., Buenos Aires, September 2009, 18 slides
83 09-04 Quoc, P. H. D. and Kishi, T., “Strong effect of curing conditions on air-permeability
of concrete”, Concrete Plant Intern., n. 4, August 2009, pp. 72-76
84 09-05 Solís-Carcaño, R. G. and Moreno, E. I., “Durabilidad del concreto en clima cálido
subhúmedo: Efecto del curado”, CONPAT 2009, Valparaíso, Chile, 29 de
Setiembre al 2 de Octubre, 2009.
85 09-06 Teruzzi, T., “Estimating the service-life of concrete structures subjected to
carbonation on the basis of the air permeability of the concrete cover”,
EUROINFRA 2009, Helsinki, October 14-15, 2009
86 09-07 Bhutta, M.A.R., Imamoto, K. and Ohama, Y., “Air permeability of hardener-free
epoxy-modified mortars as repair materials”, Concrete Repair, Rehabilitation and
Retrofitting II – Alexander et al (Eds), 2009
86 09-08 Van Eijk, R.J., “Evaluation of concrete quality with Permea-TORR, Wenner Probe
and Water Penetration Test”, KEMA Report, Arnhem, 8 July 2009 (in Dutch) -
87 09-09 Jacobs, F., Denarié, E., Leemann, A. und Teruzzi T., “Empfehlungen zur
Qualitätskontrolle von Beton mit Luftpermeabilitätsmessungen”, Office Fédéral
des Routes, VSS Report 641, December 2009, Bern, Switzerland, 53 p.
Downloadable from
88 09-10 Bohus, S. and Drochytka, R, “Testing of modified matters on crystallization base”,
1st WTA-International PhD Symposium - Building Materials and Building
Technology for Preservation of the Built Heritage, Leuven, Belgium, October 8-9,
89 09-11 Kishi, T. and Kurashige, I., “JSCE sub-committee on the verification system for
surface quality and durability performance of RC/PC structures”, 2009,
Presentation, 26 slides
90 09-12 Paulík, P. and Hudoba, I., "The influence of the amount of fibre reinforcement on
the air permeability of high performance concrete", Slovak J. of Civil Engng.,
2009, n. 2, pp 1-7.
91 09-13 Adámek, J. and Juránková, V., "Durability of Concrete as Function of the
Properties of the Concrete Layer", Transactions of Transport Sciences, v.2, n.4,
Prague, 2009, 188-195
92 09-14 Ribeiro, B. and Gonçalves, A., "Use of Durability-Related Tests for Quality
Control: Variability obtained in a Real Case", RILEM Proccedings Pro063, 2009,
93 10-01 Kurashige, I. and Hironaga, M., “Nondestructive quality evaluation of surface
concrete with various curing conditions”, CONSEC’10, Mérida, México, June 7-9,
94 10-02 Fernández Luco, L. y Torrent, R., “La medición in situ de la permeabilidad al aire:
una herramienta para el diagnóstico y el control de calidad de ejecución”,
CINPAR 2010, Córdoba, Argentina, 2-4 Junio 2010.
95 10-03 Dobel, T., Balzamo, H. y Fernández Luco, L., “Aplicaciones de la Medida de
Permeabilidad al Aire del Hormigón de Recubrimiento en Situaciones de
Heterogeneidad del Sustrato”, 18°. R.T AATH, Mar del Plata, Argentina, 8 - 10
Noviembre, 2010
96 10-04 Torrent, R., ”Recommendations for Quality Control of Concrete with Air-
Permeability Measurements”, Translation into English of Chapters 1 and 2 of Ref.
09-09 available at
97 10-05 Adámek, J. and Juránková, V.,” Evaluation of Durability of Concrete by
Measurement of Permeability for Air and Water”, 1oth Intern. Conf. Modern
Building Materials, Structures and Techniques, Vilnius, Lithuania, May 19-21,

98 10-06 Misak, P., Kucharczykova, B., Vymazal, T., Danek, P. and Schmid, P.,
“Determination of the quality of the surface layer of concrete using the TPT
method and specification of the impact of humidity on the value of air permeability
of concrete”, Ceramics – Silikáty 54 (3) 290-294 (2010)
99 10-07 Glinicki, M. and Nowowiejski, G., “Air permeability of superplasticized concrete
with 0.5 clinker factor”, Anna Maria Workshop, Nov. 10-12, 2010
100 10-08 Ebensperger, L. and Torrent, R., “Concrete air permeability ‘in situ’ test: status
quo / Medición ‘in situ’ de la permeabilidad al aire del hormigón: status quo”,
Revista Ing. de Constr., v25, n3, Santiago, Chile, Dic. 2010, 371-382.
101 10-09 Fernández Luco, L., “Propuesta de indicadores de la eficacia del curado en obra”,
Concreto y Cemento – Investigación y Desarrollo, v.1, n.2, 2010, 17-29
102 10-10 Panesar, D. K. and Churchill, C. J., " The influence of design variables and
environmental factors on life-cycle cost assessment of concrete culverts",
Structure and Infrastructure Engineering, Dec. 2010
103 10-11 Kucharczykova, B., Misak, P. and Vymazal, T., "Determination and Evaluation of
the Air Permeability Coefficient using Torrent Permeability Tester", Russian
Journal of Nondestructive Testing, 2010, Vol. 46, No. 3, pp. 226–233
104 11-01 Jornet, A., Corredig, G. and Mühlethaler, U., “Concretes made with CEM II/A-LL:
Relationship between microstructure and properties”, 13th Euroseminar on
Microscopy Applied to Building Materials, 14-18 June 2011, Ljubljana, Slovenia
105 11-02 Denarié, E., Jacobs, F., Leemann, A., Teruzzi, T. and Torrent, R., “Specification
and site control of the permeability of the cover concrete: the Swiss approach”,
International Conference on Advances in Construction Materials through Science
and Engineering, 65th RILEM Week, Hong Kong, China, 5-7 September 2011
106 11-03 Positieri, M., Oshiro, A., Helene, P. y Baronetto, C., "Influencia de la adición de
pigmentos en la durabilidad del hormigón", CONPAT 2011, Antigua Guatemala,
4-6 Octubre, 2011
107 11-04 WANG Aiguo, DENG Min, SUN Daosheng, MO Liwu, WANG Jun, TANG
Mingshu, " Effect of combination of steel fiber and MgO-type expansive agent on
properties of concrete", Journal of Wuhan University of Technology, Materials
Science Edition, 2011, Pages 786-790
108 11-05 Usman A., Hosoda, A., Hayashi, K. and Motoshige, N., "Inspection of cover
concrete of an actual structure by surface water absorption test", Proc. 9th Intern.
Symp. High Performance Concrete, Rotorua, New Zealand, 9-11 August 2011.
109 11-06 Nakarai, K., Kurashige, I. and Kishi, T., "Completion inspection method to check
impermeability of cover concrete - Recommendations in Switzerland", Concrete
Journal, v.49, n.3, March, 2011, 3-6 (in Japanese)
110 11-07 Holčapek, O., "Influence of Surface Layer on the Permeability of Concrete",
JUNIORSTAV 2011, Brno, Czech Rep., 4 Feb. 2011, 4 p.
111 12-01 Zhutowsky, S. and Kovler, K., "Effect of internal curing on durability-related
properties of high-performance concrete", Cement and Concrete Research, 42
(2012), 20-26.
112 12-02 Torrent, R., "Non-Destructive Air-Permeability Measurement: from Gas-Flow
Modelling to Improved Testing", Paper 151, Microdurability 2012, Amsterdam, 11-
13 April, 2012.
113 12-03 Torrent, R., Griesser, A., Moro, F. and Jacobs, F., "Technical-economical
consequences of the use of Controlled Permeable Formwork", ICCRRR 2012,
Cape Town, South Africa, 2-5 September 2012.
114 12-04 Neves, R., Branco, F. and de Brito, J., " About the statistical interpretation of air
permeability assessment results", Materials and Structures, v. 45, (2012), 529-539
115 12-05 Torrent, R. and Ebensperger, L., " Measurement of the air permeability of
concrete 'in situ': status quo", ICCRRR 2012, Cape Town, South Africa, 2-5
September 2012.

116 12-06 Imamoto, K., Tanaka, A. and Kanematsu, M., "Non-destructive assessment of
concrete durability of the National Museum of Western Art in Japan", Paper 180,
Microdurability 2012, Amsterdam, 11-13 April, 2012.
117 12-07 Beushausen, H., Starck, S. and Alexander, M., " The integration of non-
destructive test methods into the South African durability index approach, Paper
113, Microdurability 2012, Amsterdam, 11-13 April, 2012.
118 12-08 Dobel, T. and Fernández Luco, L., " Coefficient of air permeability of non-
homogeneous substrates and drying concrete", Paper 191, Microdurability 2012,
Amsterdam, 11-13 April, 2012.
119 12-09 Neves, Rui D., "A Permeabilidade ao Ar e a Carbonatação do Betão nas
Estruturas", PhD Thesis, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, Instituto Superior
Técnico, Portugal, 2012, 502 p.
120 12-10 Torrent, R., Denarié, E., Jacobs, F., Leemann, A. and Teruzzi, T.,"Specification
and site control of the permeability of the cover concrete: the Swiss approach",
Materials and Corrosion , V. 63, n 12, December 2012, pp. 1127–1133.
121 12-11 Imamoto, K. and Tanaka, A., " Evaluation of carbonation progress of existing
concrete structure based on air permeability of concrete cover—a case study in
Japan", ICCRRR 2012, Cape Town, South Africa, 2-5 September 2012.
122 13-01 Torrent, R., Armaghani, J. and Taibi, Y., "Evaluation of Port of Miami Tunnel
Segments: Carbonation and service life assessment made using on-site air
permeability tests", Concrete International, May 2013, pp. 39-46
123 13-02 Torrent, R., "Service Life Prediction: Theorecrete, Labcrete and Realcrete
Approaches", Keynote Paper, SCTM3 Conference, Kyoto, Japan, 18-21 August,
124 13-03 Glinicki, M.A. and Nowowiejski, G., " Strength and Permeability of Concrete with
CEM II and CEM V Cements Containing High Calcium Fly Ash", SCTM3
Conference, Kyoto, Japan, 18-21 August, 2013
125 13-04 Torrent, R.J. and Ebensperger, L., " Site Air-Permeability Test: Credentials as
'Durability Meter", CONSEC'13, Nanjing, China, 23-25 Sept., 2013
126 13-05 Sakai, Y., Nakamura, C. and Kishi, T., "Correlation between Permeability of
Concrete and Threshold Pore Size obtained with Epoxy-Coated Sample", J.
Advanced Concr. Technol., v. 11, August 2013, 189-195.
127 13-06 Kwon, S., Nishiwaki, T., Kikuta, T. and Mihashi, H., "Experimental Study on Self-
Healing Capability of Cracked Ultra-High-Performance Hybrid-Fiber-Reinforced
Cementitious Composites", SCTM3 Conference, Kyoto, Japan, 18-21 August,
2013, Paper e271, 9 p.
128 13-07 Kato, Y., "Characteristics of the Surface Air Permeability Test and the Evaluation
of Quality Variation in Cover Concrete due to Segregation of Concrete", J.
Advanced Concr. Technol., v.11, 2013, 322-332
129 13-08 Starck, S., "The Integration of Non-destructive Test Methods into the South
African Durability Index Approach", MSc Dissertation, 2nd Draft, Univ. Cape
Town, February 2013, 184 p.
130 13-09 SIA 262/1:2013, "Constructions en béton - Spécifications complémentaires",
Norme Suisse , 1 August 2013, 52 p. (in French)
131 13-10 SIA 262/1:2013, "Betonbau - Ergänzende Festlegungen", Schweizer Norm , 1
August 2013, 52 p. (in German)
132 14-01 Jacobs, F., " Qualitätskontrolle von Beton mit Luftpermeabilitätsmessungen", TFB
Bulletin, n1, 2014, Wildegg, Switzerland, 2 p.
133 14-02 Torrent, R., "Swiss Standards 2013: World's most Advanced Durability
Performance Specifications", submitted to 3rd Russian Intern. Confer. on Concr.
and Ferrocement, Moscow, 12-15 May 2014

134 14-03 Torrent, R., Moro, F. and Jornet, A., "Coping with the Effect of Moisture on Air-
Permeability measurements", accepted for Intern. Workshop on Performance-
based Specification and Control of Concr. Durability, Zagreb, Croatia, 11-13 June
135 14-04 Torrent, R. and Fernández Luco, L., " Service Life Assessment of concrete
Structures based on Site testing", submitted to DBMC 2014 Conference, São
Paulo, Brazil, 1-5 September, 2014

Comments on Selected References
Ref. Comments Type
92-01 Original paper describing the method. Comparison with single-cell Lab
permeability method. Correlation with Oxygen Permeability kO CH
(Cembureau). Tests performed with prototype TM device. Derivation of
formula (not longer valid) to calculate kT.
93-01 Extensive laboratory test programme, applied on a variety of concretes of Lab
widely different compositions, under different curing conditions and testing CH
the upper and lower faces of slabs. Besides kT and kO, the following tests
were applied: water suction and absorption, ISAT, Figg and TUD methods,
natural and accelerated carbonation, chloride penetration by ponding, frost-
salt resistance and mercury intrusion porosimetry.
Investigation on the effect of moisture content on kT and electrical resistivity
ρ. First attempt to correct kT for moisture with ρ (to be improved later).
Preliminary application on site.
First attempt of classification of concretes by kO, and indirectly by kT using
a correlation kO-kT.
Tests performed with prototype TM device.
95-03 Derivation of currently used formulae to calculate kT and L. Site
First application of current Proceq’s TPT instrument. Correlation with till then CH
used prototype (New kT = 1.846 Old kT).
Application of TM on site, on 3 “young” concrete elements (tunnel deck,
bridge deck and bridge pylon) and on 2 “old” bridges. Comparison between
kT measured on site and on companion laboratory specimens (“realcrete”
vs . “labcrete”). Comparison with other durability-related properties (kO,
suction, carbonation).
Refinement of moisture compensation of kT by means of electrical resistivity
ρ (current formula and nomogram).
Classification of “covercrete” quality by kT.
97-02 Data on the Testing and the Within-Sample Variability of kT, the latter Lab
compared against that of kO, based on Spanish and Swiss results. ES+CH
98-01 Investigation of old bridge elements. Repeatability of kT readings with time Site
on old bridge elements (during 6 months in laboratory environment). Tests CH
performed on site, on different occasions, on 7 other bridges.
Conclusions are positive regarding TM repeatability and suitability to predict
and model the deterioration process.
99-01 Modelling chloride-induced corrosion in reinforced concrete structures using Anal.
a Markov-chain Model. For the modelling, three “covercrete” classes are CH
defined as function of the kT (0.1, 1.0 and 10 10-16 m²). Values of water and
chloride diffusion coefficients are associated with those classes, in order to
feed the model.
99-02 Paper based on the data reported in 95-03. Compares “labcrete” and Lab+Site
“realcrete” kT, with emphasis on concretes of high-strength. The higher kT CH
values measured on the Pylon of Schaffhausen bridge, as compared with
lab specimens and a 1 m cube, are attributed to thermal microcracking
(temperature evolution data are presented). These microcracks were later
detected visually and led to a complex impermeabilization work of the
00-01 Evaluation of possible damage to the surface of an airport concrete Site
pavement by measuring the effect of different techniques to remove the AR
tires’ rubber on the kT values.
00-02 State-of-the-art of the Torrent Method at that time. Could be a first reading Summary
for someone who wants to know about the method. AR

00-03 Results of kT obtained in Instituto Torroja (Spain) and Holcim Group Lab
Support (Switzerland), within the framework of RILEM TC 116-PCD, are ES+CH
presented. Comparative data are reported of kT, KO, water suction,
carbonation and rapid chloride penetration test (ASTM C1202). Conclusions
on the TM: good repeatability of the measurements (28 d., 6 and 12
months), reported by Torroja; sensitivity to concrete quality, correlates well
with other durability indicators.
00-04 Comprehensive investigation on concrete pavements performance. Cores Site
were drilled from old concrete pavements with compressive strengths in the US
range 40 – 80 MPa (4.5 - 6.5 MPa in bending). Test programme included:
compressive, flexural and splitting strength, E-modulus, fracture resistance,
rapid chloride penetration, water permeability, water suction and TM.
Conclusion: “An excellent strength correlation is achieved using this method
(R² = 0.83)”. For rapid chloride penetration R²=0.79, for water permeability
R²=0.73 and for water suction R²= 0.72.
02-02 Presents results of kT of Shrinkage Compensated Concrete mixes made Lab
with different cement types: OPC, Portland-slag cement (slag content = AR
35%), Portland-filler cement (limestone filler content= 18%) and Portland
Composite cement (17% slag + 15% filler) and moist cured during 14 and
76 days. All the concretes cured 14 days showed similar low permeabilities
(class PK2); the concrete made with Portland-slag cement, cured 76 days
showed a kT corresponding to the best permeability class PK1.
03-01 Results are presented on the measurement of kT on a nuclear disposal Site
container during 5-6 years; other measurements used during the monitoring ES
were: corrosion potential and rate, electrical resistivity and carbonation.
The kT results correspond to “covercretes” ranging between Classes 1
(Excellent) and 3 (Normal).
Conclusion: “The quality of concrete cover can be determined by a non-
destructive technique measuring air permeability. This measurement
together with to the carbonation velocity provides important information
about the service life of the structure”.
03-02 Laboratory tests on panels made with 3 different concretes, with and without Lab
the application of Zemdrain membrane. Measurement of kT, water CH
penetration under pressure (EN and DIN methods), water suction and
absorption. A good correlation is found between kT and water penetration,
as well as with water suction. Poor correlation was observed with water
A kT<0.1 10-16 m² is required to satisfy the requirements of low water
A significant reduction in “penetrability” (by all methods) is observed on the
surfaces cast against the Zemdrain membrane.
03-03 Description of the approach to Durability of new Swiss Standard SIA 262, Standard
with special reference to the use of kT. CH
03-04 Concretes of two qualities were subjected to 5 different curing conditions. Lab
The “penetrability” of the “covercrete” was measured by 3 methods: IL
accelerated carbonation, rapid chloride penetration (ASTM C1202) and kT.
Remark: “The air permeability tests, which measures more directly the
concrete cover properties, is clearly seen here to be more sensitive to curing
effects, and can thus better reflect the durability performance, providing a
much better estimate than strength. The torrent test method which was used
here for determining air permeability was also found to be more friendly than
other surface tests, and could lend itself to be more readily used on site”
03-05 Swiss Standard describing test methods. For “penetrability” of the Norma
“covercrete”, 3 methods are standardized: Annex A: Water suction, Annex CH
B: Chloride migration and Annex E: Air permeability kT.

04-02 Results are presented on the measurement of kT on site on the prototype of Lab+Site
a nuclear disposal container, as well as on companion lab specimens. Other AR
site measurements were kO, water suction, ultrasound. An average of kT =
0.31 10-16 m² at 56 days was reported for the site concrete, higher than that
of the lab specimens.
04-03 Tests of kT were performed on different types of rocks, at EMPA and SUPSI Lab
laboratories. VE
The results showed that the range of kT values for the tested rocks (0.004
10-16 m² for Orsenone Gneiss to ~200 10-16 m² for Fribourg Sandstone) is
similar to that found for concretes of extremely good and extremely bad
qualities. In addition, tests made on visible cracks showed a huge increase
of kT. On the other hand, on hairline, barely visible cracks, the values of kT
measured were similar to those made on sound rock.
05-02 High-Volume Fly-Ash concretes (30-50% of Fly Ash) of 3 different strength Lab
grades were tested for durability by the rapid chloride penetration test IN
(ASTM C1202) and kT. Very low values of kT were reported, in the range
0.002-0.038 10-16 m². A good correlation was found between kT and the
rapid chloride penetration test.
05-03 Laboratory and site tests of kT and ρ were performed on 3 different Lab+Site
concretes for the Allianz Arena Project in München. The variation of kT with DE
age (from 2 to 28 days) was recorded. The results, both at the lab and on
site are not very consistent, with the stronger concretes (Mix B) showing
extremely low kT values. For cured concretes, the kT in the lab is lower than
on site (which is to be expected), whilst for non cured concrete the opposite
holds, which is a bit strange.
05-04 A chapter is devoted to the interpretation of test results, including the effect Lab+Site
of temperature and actual porosity on kT as well as of different factors on CH
the electrical resistivity ρ.
A log-normal distribution of kT is proposed, by which a set of measurements
is characterized by the geometric mean of the kT results and the standard
deviation of their logarithms. A probabilistic compliance criterion, based on
those statistical parameters, is proposed.
A laboratory investigation was conducted on concrete panels made with
concrete of two different w/c ratios; one face of the panels was cast in
contact with Zemdrain membrane. Other panels were made of old concrete
covered by repair mortars. Measurements of kT and water suction were
made on the panels. In the case of the concrete panels, measurements of
kT and ρ were performed at 10 different ages, from 4 to 389 days. The
location of the points on the TM nomogram kT- ρ is explained on the basis
of combined hydration and drying processes. The positive effect of
Zemdrain was confirmed by the kT measurements.

Results of site tests are presented for different concrete structures. In

addition, a controlled experiment was made in a tunnel, investigating panels
of different concretes attached to one of its walls. Some additional tests
were conducted on the natural wall of a tunnel, affected by bleeding, with
and without hydrophobic treatments.

Finally, an approach for the sampling, testing and evaluation of kT results,

applicable to compliance control, is presented.
Conclusion: “Les différents types d'essais réalisés au laboratoire et sur
ouvrages ont permis de confirmer l'applicabilité et le pouvoir discriminant de
la méthode Torrent de mesure de perméabilité à l'air, pour le contrôle de la
qualité du béton d'enrobage, in situ, de manière totalement non destructive“.
05-05 Cubes (200 mm) were prepared from 4 concretes of different w/c ratios and Lab

stored at 48 h at 35, 70 and 90% RH (20°C). Measurements of kT were CH
made at ages from 7 days to 1 year. At 9 and 12 months tests of kO, water
suction and porosity were conducted. Companion cubes (150 mm) were
used to measure compressive strength .
The evolution of kT is explained in terms of the combined hydration and
drying processes. It seems that around 1 month both effects balance each
other. After 1 month storage, only samples stored at 35%RH showed a
steady increase in kT with age.
An analytical derivation, not shown in the paper, proves that, assuming kT
constant with the depth of the covercrete, the relation between ΔP (increase
in pressure in measuring chamber) and √t (t being the time of test) should
be linear. In general, it was observed that the ΔP -√t evolution in the
measuring cell of the TM is more or less linear for concretes stored at low
RH, but that it is curved for high RH.
The initial high rate of P increase at high RH is attributed to the evaporation
of liquid water present in the sample and being exposed to absolute
pressures below 23 mbar (corresponding to vapour pressure of water at
20°C). Thus, the kT values given by the instrument may be overestimated
for concretes with relatively high moisture contents. The shape of the ΔP -t
evolution (recorded by the instrument) may give an indication on whether
the results are affected by the moisture in the concrete or not.

Conclusion: ”Under identical and controlled environmental conditions the

Torrent method is able to differentiate the quality of concrete in the correct
way. However, the absolute values of kT are affected by the age of the
concrete and also by its moisture condition [......]. The analysis of the
pressure evolution in the inner chamber during a measurement offers an
interesting possibility to improve the reliability of the method. Alternatively
the applied vacuum could be adjusted to reduce evaporation effects”.
05-06 Comparative tests of kT and water penetration under pressure (EH Spanish Lab
standard, similar to EN method). ES
05-08 Approach to durability specification, based on kT and cover depth. Analyt.
06-04 Compliance control based on the combined measurements of both CH
parameters to ensure specified service life.
05-09 Measurement of kT on Ultra High Performance Fibre Reinforced Concrete Lab
of 182 MPa compressive strength and mean kT of 0.004 10-16 m². CH
05-10 A very good summary of some of the extensive tests reported in Ref. 05-04 Lab+Site
is presented. The log-normal distribution curves of different concretes are CH
presented and a compliance criterion based on that distribution is
05-11 The measurement of kT was used as a NDT to determine the extent of Site
damage due to debonding of the finishing layer of an industrial floor. AR
Comparative kT values of the shrinkage-compensating concrete used, of
the sound and damaged finishing layers and of the repaired surface are
05-12 Cubes (200 mm) were prepared from 6 concretes of different w/c ratios Lab
(OPC + Limestone Filler cement) and stored at 48 h at 35, 70 and 90% RH CH
(20°C). Direct measurements of kT, complemented with measurements of
kO, South African O2 Permeability and Chloride conductivity and water
suction + porosity (on drilled cores) were made at 28 and 365 days.
Companion cubes (150 mm) were used to measure compressive strength.
Of the tests on cores, only the preconditioning of the kO specimens before
testing are described.

Correlations between the different transport tests and the compressive

strength and among themselves are presented and discussed. In general, a
good correlation was found between the different method to measure
transport properties, although the ranking proposed by the South African
approach is more optimistic than that proposed by kT approach.
The correlations with strength are affected by the storage conditions and the
concrete composition (e.g. cement type, air content).
05-14 Results of the Comparative Test, organized by RILEM TC 189-NEC are Lab
presented and discussed. The NDT applied were Autoclam (air and water), Intern.
Electrical Resistivity, Parrott and the TM. The capability to differentiate
covercretes’ qualities and the degree of correlation with laboratory
(Reference) tests was compared. With the exception of Electrical Resistivity
(lab test), the reference tests were able to differentiate successfully all the
cases (7 out of 7). Of the NDT, Parrott and the TM differentiated
successfully 6 out of 7 cases and Autoclam 5 out of 7. The best correlations
with related reference tests were those of TM (R=0.97) and Parrott
06-09 Evaluation of the effect of curing (accelerated and normal) and concrete Lab
composition on the resistance to acidic attack, combined with artificial UV IL
exposure. TM was used in parallel to other transport tests (water sorption
rate, chloride migration, etc.).
06-10 Analysis of the heterogeneity of two 6-year old walls, one of them with one Site
side coated. The non-coated surfaces showed relatively high kT values and JP
considerable scatter of results. Contours indicate that the variability is due to
identifiable areas of low and high permeability, rather than to random
scatter. The coated surface showed in general low permeability, except in
localized areas of high permeability associated with faulty coatings. The
authors recommend to perform the analysis with the logarithms of kT.
07-02 Webpage with detailed description of TM, plus report of kT and ρ on high Lab
performance concretes made with different contents of silica fume.
07-03 Three air-permeability site test methods and the RILEM Cembureau method Lab
were applied on concretes of different strengths and subjected to different JP
curing conditions. It was concluded that all were capable of significantly
differentiating the penetrability of the cover concrete. “Among them, the TPT
yields the best results”.
08-01 Application during the extension of the Metro in Buenos Aires. It shows how Site
the use of the instrument helped to increase the quality of the work, after AR
initial unsatisfactory results
08-02 Results published in 07-03 complemented with measurements of Lab
carbonation depths at 4 years of age. The kT classes correspond closely to JP
the different grades of Japanese concretes.
08-04 The residual penetrability of concretes of normal and high strength exposed Lab
to high temperatures (200 – 1000 °C) was evaluated by three tests: Cl- ion CN
Penetrability, Water Permeability and Torrent air-permeability. All three tests
reflected the change in permeability after exposure to high temperatures.
The results of the three tests correlate well among them. The selection of
the Torrent air-permeability test as “first choice”, by being the only one
applicable on site, is recommended.
08-05 Statistical analysis of 32 measurement results of kT. Advocates the use of Site
Lognormal distribution and a characteristic value (kT0.95) based on it, using CZ
Student’s t for the factor multiplying SDlog
08-06 Presents results of measurement of kT in 12 bridges of 30 years of age. Site
The individual values of kT ranged between 0.001 and 100 (10-16 m2), i.e. CH
they covered the 5 Permeability Classes. No correlation was found between
site kT and the results of standard cube strength reported at 28 days. On
the other hand, good correlation was found between kT and water sorptivity

measured on cores. Carbonation depth and chloride content at 25 mm
depth were in general higher where higher kT values were measured.
10-10 Data of kT, measured at 28 days on concretes of w/b = 0.38, made with 0, Lab
25 and 50% replacement of GGBS are used to estimate the service life of CND
culverts of different sizes and cover depths against carbonation and chloride
induced corrosion. kT decreases with increasing level of GGBS
replacement. The results are used for life-cycle analysis of the culverts and
CO2 balance (emission and uptake) through service life.
11-02 The paper summarizes the recommendations issued by the Swiss FHWA Site
on the application of the air-permeability test for quality control of finished CH
structures on site. It provides guidelines on: lot definition and sampling,
conditions to get meaningful results (age, temperature and moisture),
recommended values of kT for several exposure classes, acceptance
criterion and reporting of the data
11-04 The paper shows the positive effect of adding steel fibers in combination Lab
with a MgO-based expansive agent on the mechanical and physical CN
performance of concrete. In particular, a 40% reduction of kT was measured
with the combined addition of steel fibers and expansive agent.