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Introduction to Unix

SECTION 1 INTRODUCTION TO UNIX


Structure Page Nos.
1.0 Introduction 5
1.1 Objectives 5
1.2 Overview of Unix 5
1.3 Unix Commands 8
1.4 Summary 18
1.5 Further Readings 18

1.0 INTRODUCTION
This section is intended to introduce you to the Unix operating system. It will provide
you with a basic understanding of the Unix operating system, its file and directory
structure. We have also explained the architecture and components of Unix, further
the section contains different useful Unix commands, and those are explained in
detail with the help of examples.

1.1 OBJECTIVES
After completing this lab manual, you should be able to:
• get basic understanding of the Unix operating system;
• understand file and directory structure of Unix;
• know the basic Unix commands; and
• know how to get Unix help.

1.2 OVERVIEW OF UNIX


Even after thirty-five years of its creation Unix is still regarded as one of the most
versatile, flexible and powerful operating systems in the computer world. Before you
start swimming in your Unix shell, you must find out why people still regard it as
powerful. As you may know, it was created at Bell Labs in 1970, written in the
C Programming Language, which was developed at the same time. It supports a large
number of simultaneous users, runs with few alterations on many hardware platforms
(provides some platform independence), and of course it was and is, a simple,
elegant, and easy to use (at least compared to its predecessors) operating system. In
the early 1980s, the two strands of Unix development – AT&T and Berkeley –
continued in parallel. The Berkeley strand got a major boost from Sun Microsystems,
which used the Berkeley code as the basis for its Sun OS operating system.

This section is only a brief introduction to Unix operating system and does not
include information on how to use all of its capabilities. Let’s see the historical
development of Unix at a glance:
• Kenneth Thompson, Dennis Ritchie, and others at AT&T Bell Labs developed
first Unix version in 1969-1970.
• The above system was rewritten in the programming language C in 1972-1973.
• The seventh version (V7) of Unix was released in 1979.
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Lab Manual During these 35 years of its development, different flavors of Unix system have
evolved. Some of these Unix flavors are given on following Table 1 with the name of
the organization which participated in that development.

Table 1: List of Unix Flavors

Unix flavor Organization name


AIX IBM
FreeBSD FreeBSD Group
HP-UX Hewlett-Packard Company
Irix Silicon Graphics, Inc.
Linux Several groups
MacOS X Server Apple Computer, Inc.
NetBSD NetBSD Group
OpenBSD OpenBSD Group
OpenLinux Caldera Systems, Inc.
Red Hat Linux Red Hat Software, Inc.
Reliant Unix Siemens AG
SCO Unix The Santa Cruz Operation Inc.
Solaris Sun Microsystems
SuSE S.u.S.E., Inc.

Due to, Unix is multi-user and multi-tasking environment, its flexibility and
portability, facilities like electronic mail and the numerous programming, text
processing and scientific utilities available, Unix became popular amongst the
scientific and academic communities.
Basic Unix Elements
The six basic elements of Unix are:
1) Commands
2) Files
3) Directories
4) Environment
5) Processes
6) Jobs

1) Commands are the instructions you give to the system to inform it what it is to
do.
2) Files are collections of data. A file is similar to a container in which you can
store documents or raw facts and figures, which are stored in directories.
3) Directory is similar to a file basket that contains many files. A directory can
also contain other directories.
4) Environment is a collection of different items that explain or modify how your
computing session will be carried out.
5) Process is a command or application running on a computer.

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6) Job is the sequence of instructions given to a computer from the time to initiate Introduction to Unix
a particular task. A job may have one or more processes in it.
In our next discussion we will use and explore these elements in detail but first you
need to understand different components of the Unix operating system.

Unix Components
The Unix operating system is made up of three componentsthe kernel, the shell and
the programs (applications). As we have earlier defined the program, so here we will
only define the kernel and the shell.

The Kernel
The kernel is the core of the Unix operating system. Its main responsibilities are to
allocate time and memory to programs, file management and communications in
response to system calls.

The Shell
The interface between the user and the kernel is called the shell. When a user logs in,
the login program checks the username and password, and then starts another
program called the shell. The shell is a command line interpreter (CLI). It interprets
the commands the user types in and arranges for them to be carried out. The
commands are themselves programs: when they terminate, the shell gives the user
another prompt (% on our systems). Shell and kernel work together, for example a
user types a command, which has the effect of removing some file. The shell searches
the file store for the file containing the command, and then requests the kernel,
through system calls, to execute a command on file. When the process has finished
running, the shell then returns the Unix prompt to the user, indicating that it is waiting
for further commands.

Unix System Architecture


Broadly, the Unix architecture is divided into three layersApplication Program,
System Calls and Kernel. As we can see in Figure 1, the layers of Unix operating
system are:

Application Programs Created by Users


Shells editor and commands (who, we, grep, comp)
Compilers and system libraries
System call interface to the kernel
Signals File system
CPU scheduling
terminal handling swapping
pages replacement
character I/O block I/O system
demand paging
system terminal disk & tape
visual memory
drivers drivers
Kernel interface to Hardware
Terminal Device controllers Memory
controllers disks and Controllers
terminals tapes Physical memory
Figure 1: Unix System Architecture
Everything below the system call interface and above the physical hardware is the
Kernel. The Kernel provides the file system, CPU Scheduling, memory management
and other operating system functions through system calls. Programs such as shell
(Sh) and editors (vi) shown in the top layer interact with the Kernel by invoking a 7
Lab Manual well-defined set of system calls. The system calls instruct the Kernel to do various
operations for the calling programs and exchange data between the Kernel and the
program. System calls for Unix can be roughly grouped into three categories: file
manipulation, process control and information manipulation. Another category can be
considered for device manipulation, but since devices in Unix are treated as (special)
files, the same system calls support both files and devices.

Files and Processes


Everything in Unix is either a file or a process. In Unix, Process is identified by a
unique number called process identifier (PID). They are created by users using text
editors, running compilers etc. and must have a file name according to Unix rules.
Following are the few examples of files in Unix.
• A document.
• A program written in some high-level programming language.
• A collection of binary digits
• A directory.
The Directory Structure
Let’s see how files are grouped together in the directory structure in Unix. The files
are arranged in a hierarchical structure, like an inverted tree as shown in Figure 2.
The top of the hierarchy is called the root.

Figure 2: Directory structure of Unix

1.3 UNIX COMMANDS


When you start using Unix first you interact with a command interpreter program
called the shell. Generally, Unix has two different shells C and Bourne shell. The
shell you will find here in this manual is the C shell. The C shell command prompt
ends with the percent sign (%). Another shell is the Bourne shell, which ends with a
dollar sign ($).
Unix shells have their commands, syntax and control constructs. You can use these
commands, syntax and control constructs to make your processing more efficient, or
to perform repetitive tasks. In addition to this, you can store shell commands in a file
(which is called a shell script) and run it as a simple program.

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Commands Introduction to Unix

Using different commands in Unix you can manipulate files, data and environment.
In this section we have explained the general syntax of Unix commands so that you
can start working on it. A Unix command line consists of the name of the command
followed by its arguments and ends with a RETURN. The general syntax for a
command is:
Command Name [-flag options] filename or expression
You should follow these rules with Unix commands:
1) Commands are case-sensitive.
2) Most Commands are in lowercase.
3) Commands must be entered at the shell prompt.
4) Command lines must end with a RETURN.
5) Options generally begin with a “–” (minus sign).

List
When you first log in to the Unix environment, the directory in which you enter is
your home directory. The simple ls (list) command lists the contents of your current
working directory. There may be no files visible in your home directory, in which
case, the Unix prompt will be returned. List command does not show all the files in
your home directory; it shows only those files whose name does not start with a dot
(.). What are these dot files? Files beginning with a dot (.) are known as hidden files
and generally contain important information.

s To list all files in your home directory including those whose names begin with
a dot.
 % ls –a
ls is an example of a command which can take options: –a is a case of an option. The
options change the performance of the command. There are online manual pages
(man) that inform you which options a particular command can take, and how each
option modifies the performance of the command. Later on, we will discuss man
pages in detail. Let see a few options of list command:
ls -a lists all the contents of the current directory, including files with initial
periods, which are not usually listed.
ls -l lists the contents of the current directory in long format, including file
permissions, size, and date information.
ls -s lists contents and file size in kilobytes of the current directory.
Working with directories
As you know directories are similar to files in Unix, in this section you will learn how
to create or change the directories. Also, we will know about different special
directories in Unix.
Make directory
Let’s make a subdirectory in your home directory to hold the files you will be using
and creating in this course. Use the following comments:
s To make a subdirectory called netprogs in your current working directory.
 % mkdir netprogs.
s To see the directory netprogs which just you have just created
 % ls.
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Lab Manual Change directory
The command cd directory means change the current working directory to
‘directory’. The current working directory may be thought of as the directory you are
working in:
s To change to the directory you have just made, type
 % cd netprogs.

Special directories
As you can see there are two special directories called (.) and (..) in the netprogs
directory and in all other directories in your file system.
(.) means the current directory, so typing % cd. will take you to current directory
which is netprogms at this moment. But you should remember that there is a space
between cd and the dot. Using (.) as the name of the current directory will save a lot
of typing time.
(..) means the parent of the current directory, so typing % cd .. will take you one
directory up the hierarchy (back to your home directory). Remember typing cd with
no argument always returns you to your home directory. This is very useful if you are
lost in the file system.
Print working directory
Pathnames enable you to work out where you are in relation to the whole file-system.
For example,
s To find out the absolute pathname of your home directory, type cd to get back
to your home directory and then type
 % pwd
The full pathname will look something like this - /a/fservb/fservb/fservb22/ gd/ hd
which means that hd (your home directory) is in the directory gd (the group
directory), which is located on the fservb file-server.
Understanding pathnames
What is a pathname? To understand the actual meaning of pathnames, let’s takes an
example where you want to see the contents of directory backups but currently you
are in some other directory. Normally you can write the command as given below:
s To list the contents of your backups directory,
 % ls backups

After this command you will get a message like this - backups: No such file or
directory.
Because a backup is not your current working directory. To use a command on a file
(or directory) not in the current working directory (the directory you are currently in),
you must either cd to the correct directory, or specify its full pathname.
s To list the contents of your backups directory,
 % ls netprogs/backups
Home directory
Home directories can also be referred to by the tilde ~ character. It can be used to
specify paths starting at your home directory. So typing % ls ~/netprogs will list the
contents of your netprogs directory, no matter where you are currently in the file
system.

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Copying Files Introduction to Unix

cp file1 file2 is the command which makes a copy of file1 in the current working
directory and calls it file2 .
s Take a file stored in an open access area of the file system, and use the cp
command to copy it to your netprogs directory.
 % cd ~/netprogs
% cp /vol/examples/tutorial/science.txt .

Remember the dot (.) at the end of cp command. The dot means the current directory
in Unix. The given command means copy the file science.txt to the current directory
and keeping the same name. Assume directory /vol/examples/tutorial/ is an area to
which everyone in the class has read and copy access.
Moving/Renaming files
mv file1 file2 command is used to move a file from one place to another. This has
the effect of moving rather than copying the file, so you end up with only one file
rather than two. It can also be used to rename a file, by moving the file to the same
directory, but giving it a different name. Assume you have a science.bak file
s To move the file science.bak to your backup directory
 inside the netprogs directory write % mv science.bak backups/.
Removing files and directories
To remove a file from a directory, use the rm command. For example, we are going
s To create a copy of the science.txt file then delete that file.
 //when you are in netprogs directory, write//
% cp science.txt tempfile.txt
% ls (to check if it has created the file)
% rm tempfile.txt
% ls (to check if it has deleted the file)
You can use the rmdir command to remove an empty directory.
Displaying File on Screen
Clear
s To clear the terminal window of the previous commands
 % clear
This will clear all text and leave you with the % prompt at the top of the screen.
cat (concatenate)
s The command cat can be used to display the contents of a file on the screen.
 % cat science.txt
Less
s To display the contents of a file onto the screen a page at a time.
 % less science.txt
Press the [space-bar] if you want to see another page, type [q] if you want to quit
reading.
Head
s To display the first ten lines of a file to the screen.
 % head science.txt
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Lab Manual Tail
s To display the last ten lines of a file on the screen
 % tail science.txt
Searching contents using less
You can search through a text file for a keyword (pattern) using the less command.
For example,
s To search through science.txt for the word ‘science’
 % less science.txt
/science
less finds and highlights the keyword. To search the next occurrence of the word
type [n].
Searching contents using grep
grep command searches files for specified words or patterns.
s To search through science.txt for the word ‘science’
 % grep science science.txt

After this command you will see each line containing the word science. Always
remember that the grep command is case sensitive which means it distinguishes
between Science and science. If you want to ignore upper/lower case distinctions, you
should use -i option like % grep -i science science.txt. To search for a pattern, you
must enclose it in single quotes (the apostrophe symbol). For example,
s To search for computer science in science.txt
 % grep -i ‘computer science’ science.txt
Some of the other options of grep are given below:
Options of grep Meaning
-v Display those lines that do NOT match
-n Precede each matching line with the line number
-c Print only the total count of matched lines

Word count
We counts lines, words and characters in the named files, or in the standard input if
no name appears. A word is a maximal string of characters delimited by spaces, tabs
or newlines. If the optional argument is present, just the specified counts (lines, words
or characters) are selected by the letters l, w, or c. For example,
s To count the words in science.txt
 % wc -w science.txt
s To find out the lines in a file
 % wc -l science.txt
Redirecting input and output
Most commands write to the standard output and many take their input from the
standard input. When we run the cat command without specifying a file to read, it
reads from the standard input (the keyboard), and on receiving the EOF (end of file)
(^D), copies it to the standard output (the screen). We have option to redirect both the
input and the output of commands. Let see how:

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Output Redirection Introduction to Unix

We use the > symbol to redirect the output of a command. For example, first create
two files list1 and list2. One contains six fruit names; the other contains four fruit
names.
s To join (concatenate) list1 and list2 into a new file called biglist
 % cat list1 list2 > biglist
Here the system is reading the contents of list1 and list2 and, then the output is
redirected to the file biglist.
Input Redirection
We use the < symbol to redirect the input of a command. The input will be accepted
from a file rather than the keyboard. For example,
s To sort the list of fruits
 % sort < biglist

The redirect input and output can be done together as given below in an example:

s To output the sorted list to a file


 % sort < biglist > slist
Who
Who command without any with it argument, lists the login name, terminal name,
and login time for each current Unix user.
s To see who is on the system with you, type
 % who
Pipes
Pipes (indicated by vertical bar |) create an inter-process channel between the
commands. Let’s see how, if you want
s To get a sorted list of user names you can write:
 % who > names.txt
% sort < names.txt
But in this case we need a temporary file called names.txt. If you want to connect the
output of the who command directly to the input of the sort command. This is called
as inter-process channel between two commands. The symbol for a pipe is the
vertical bar |
s To get a sorted list of user names
 % who | sort
s To find out how many users are logged on
 % who | wc -l
Wildcards
The characters * and ? are known as wildcards. Character * will match against none
or more character(s) in a file (or directory) name. For example,
s To list all files in the current directory starting with list-----
 % ls list*
The character? will match exactly one character. So ls? onkey will match files like
donkey and monkey.
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Lab Manual Help Manuals
There are on-line manuals, which give information about most commands. The
manual pages tell you which options a particular command can take, and how each
option modifies the performance of the command. man command locates and prints
the section of this manual named title in the specified chapter.
We have different options given with man command. Some of these are given below:
Man command options Meaning
–t Phototypeset the section using troff(1).
–n Print the section on the standard output using nroff(1).
–k Display the output on a Tektronix 4014 terminal using
troff(1) and tc(1).
–e Appended or prefixed to any of the above causes the
manual section to be

For example,
s To find out more about the wc (word count) command
 % man wc
File access rights
When you give ls -l command you get lots of details about the contents of your
directory, similar to the example given below:
-rwxrw-r-- 1 nav nav06 2450 Sept29 11:52 file1
-rwxrw-r-- 1 ee51ab beng95 2450 Sept29 11:52 file1

In the left-hand column is a 10 symbol string consisting of the symbols d, r, w, x, -,


and, occasionally, s or S. If d is present, it will be at the left hand end of the string,
and indicates a directory: otherwise - will be the starting symbol of the string. The
9 remaining symbols indicate the permissions, or access rights, and are taken as three
groups of 3 each.
• The left group of 3 gives the file permissions for the user that owns the file (or
directory)
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• The middle group gives the permissions for the group of people to whom the file Introduction to Unix
(or directory) belongs.
• The rightmost group gives the permissions for all others.

The symbols r, w, etc., have slightly different meanings depending on whether they
refer to a simple file or to a directory. Access rights for files are given below:
• r (or -), indicates read permission (or otherwise), that is, the presence or absence
of permission to read and copy the file.
• w (or -), indicates write permission (or otherwise), that is, the permission
(or otherwise) to change a file.
• x (or -), indicates execution permission (or otherwise), that is, the permission to
execute a file, where appropriate.
Access rights for directories
• r allows users to list files in the directory;
• w means that users may delete files from the directory or move files into it;
• x means the right to access files in the directory for execution.
Let us take a few examples to understand the access rights:
-rwxrwxrwx a file that everyone can read, write and execute.
-rw------- a file that only the owner can read and write - no-one else can read.
chmod
To change the access right of a file use chmod command that will change the mode of
the file. Only the owner of a file can use chmod to change the permissions of a file.
The options of chmod are as follows:

Symbol Meaning
u user
g group
o other
a all
r read
w write (and
delete)
x execute (and
access
directory)
+ add permission
- take away
permission
For example,
s To remove, read, write, and execute permissions on the file biglist for the group
and others
 % chmod go-rwx biglist.
s To give read and write permissions on the file biglist to all.
 % chmod a+rw biglist.
We can make some shortcut options for changing the mode. It can be constructed by
ORing together some combination of numbers as given below:
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Lab Manual
Combination Meaning
04000 set user ID on execution
02000 set group ID on execution
01000 save text image after execution
00400 read by owner
00200 write by owner
00100 execute (search on directory) by owner
00070 read, write, execute (search) by group
00007 read, write, execute (search) by others

Command for Processes and Jobs


A process is an executing program identified by a unique PID (process identifier).

s To see information about your processes with their associated PID and status,
 % ps
A process may be in the foreground, in the background, or be suspended. In general,
the shell does not return the Unix prompt until the current process has finished
executing.

Some processes take a long time to run and hold up the terminal. Using the facility of
multitasking the Unix prompt is returned immediately when a long process is sent to
the background, and other tasks can be carried out while the original process
continues executing. To make a process to run in the background, use and symbol at
the end of the command line. For example, the command sleep command waits a
given number of seconds before continuing, that is why % sleep 100 will hang up you
for100 seconds. To utilize the time properly you can use & and send sleep in
background.

s To run sleep in the background, type


 % sleep 10 &
The & runs the job in the background and returns the prompt. When sleep command
will finish it will return the job number and PID (process ID). Background execution
is useful for jobs which will take a long time to complete. You can also suspend the
process running in the foreground by holding down the [control] key and typing [z]
(written as ^Z).

When a process is running, backgrounded or suspended, it will be entered onto a list


along with a job number. To examine this list, type % jobs an example of a job list
could be as given below with the job number in [] brackets:
[11] Suspended sleep 100
[12] Running netscape
[33] Running nedit
To restart a suspended processes write % fg %jobnumber. For example,
s To restart sleep 100
 % fg %11

It is sometimes necessary to kill a process (for example, when an executing program


is in an infinite loop) .To kill a job running in the foreground, type ^C (control c). To
kill a suspended or background process, type % kill %jobnumber. Otherwise,
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processes can be killed by finding their process numbers (PIDs) and using kill Introduction to Unix
PID_number, If a process refuses to be killed, uses the -9 option, i.e., write

 % kill -9 PID_number
Miscellaneous
quota
s To check your current quota of amount of disk space on the file system and
how much of it you have used
 % quota -v
Disk free (df)
The df command reports on the space left on the file system. For example,
s To find out how much space is left on the fileserver, type
 % df .
Disk Utilized (du)
The du command outputs the number of kilobytes used by each subdirectory. Useful
if you have gone over you quota and you want:
s To find out which directory has the most files. In your home-directory,
 % du
Compress
This reduces the size of a file, thus freeing valuable disk space. For example, type %
ls -l science.txt and note the size of the file. Then to compress science.txt, type %
compress science.txt. This will compress the file and place it in a file called
science.txt.Z. To see the change in size, type ls -l again. To uncompress the file, use
the uncompress command. % uncompress science.txt.Z
gzip
This also compresses a file, and is more efficient than compress. For example,
s To zip science.txt, type

 % gzip science.txt
This will zip the file and place it in a file called science.txt.gz
s To unzip the file, use the gunzip command.
 % gunzip science.txt.gz

File
File classifies the named files according to the type of data they contain, for example,
ASCII (text), pictures, compressed data, etc.
s To report on all files in your home directory, type

 % file *

history
The C shell keeps an ordered list of all the commands that you have entered. Each
command is given a number according to the order it was entered. % history
command shows the command history list. If you are using the C shell, you can use
the exclamation character (!) to recall commands easily.

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Lab Manual
Command Meaning
% !! Recall last command
% !-3 Recall third most recent command
% !5 Recall 5th command in list
% !grep Recall last command starting with grep

1.4 SUMMARY
In this section, we studied that Unix that is know as one of the most versatile, flexible
and powerful operating systems in the computer world, Unix was created at Bell Labs
in 1970 written in the C programming language. We studied that the command, files
and directories are the basic components of Unix. We have also studied the Unix
architecture, which is divided into three layers Application Program, System calls and
Kernel. This section also covered the detailed description of Unix command those are
used to manipulate files, data and environment. The next section of this manual
covers the basic introduction to the C language.

1.5 FURTHER READINGS


1) http://www.programmersheaven.com
2) http://www.ee.surrey.ac.uk/Teaching/Unix/unixintro.html
3) http://rcsg-gsir.imsb-dsgi.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca/documents/basic/node105.html.
4) Sumitabha Das, Unix Concepts and applications Tata Mcgraw Hill, 2003
5) www.rice.edu/Computer/Documents/Unix/unix1.pdf

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