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fiziks

Forum for CSIR-UGC JRF/NET, GATE, IIT-JAM, GRE in PHYSICAL SCIENCES

SYLLABUS FOR GATE EXAMINATION IN PHYSICS (PH)


Mathematical Physics
Linear vector space; matrices; vector calculus; linear differential equations; elements of
complex analysis; Laplace transforms, Fourier analysis, elementary ideas about tensors.

Classical Mechanics
Conservation laws; central forces, Kepler problem and planetary motion; collisions and scattering
in laboratory and centre of mass frames; mechanics of system of particles; rigid body dynamics;
moment of inertia tensor; noninertial frames and pseudo forces; variational principle; Lagrange's
and Hamilton's formalisms; equation of motion, cyclic coordinates, Poisson bracket; periodic
motion, small oscillations, normal modes; special theory of relativity - Lorentz transformations,
relativistic kinematics, mass-energy equivalence.

Electromagnetic Theory
Solution of electrostatic and magnetostatic problems including boundary value problems;
dielectrics and conductors; Biot-Savart's and Ampere's laws; Faraday's law; Maxwell's equations;
scalar and vector potentials; Coulomb and Lorentz gauges; Electromagnetic waves and their
reflection, refraction, interference, diffraction and polarization. Poynting vector, Poynting
theorem, energy and momentum of electromagnetic waves; radiation from a moving charge.

Quantum Mechanics
Physical basis of quantum mechanics; uncertainty principle; Schrodinger equation; one, two and
three dimensional potential problems; particle in a box, harmonic oscillator, hydrogen atom;
linear vectors and operators in Hilbert space; angular momentum and spin; addition of angular
momenta; time independent perturbation theory; elementary scattering theory.

Thermodynamics and Statistical Physics


Laws of thermodynamics; macrostates and microstates; phase space; probability ensembles;
partition function, free energy, calculation of thermodynamic quantities; classical and quantum
statistics; degenerate Fermi gas; black body radiation and Planck's distribution law; Bose-Einstein
condensation; first and second order phase transitions, critical point.

Atomic and Molecular Physics


Spectra of one- and many-electron atoms; LS and jj coupling; hyperfine structure; Zeeman and
Stark effects; electric dipole transitions and selection rules; X-ray spectra; rotational and
vibrational spectra of diatomic molecules; electronic transition in diatomic molecules, Franck-
Condon principle; Raman effect; NMR and ESR; lasers.

fiziks c/o Anand Institute of mathematics, 28-B/6 Jia Sarai


Near IIT, Hauz Khas, New Delhi, PIN- 110016 (INDIA)
Phone: 011-32718565, +91-9871145498
Website: http://www.physicsbyfiziks.com 1
Email: fiziks.physics@gmail.com
fiziks
Forum for CSIR-UGC JRF/NET, GATE, IIT-JAM, GRE in PHYSICAL SCIENCES

Solid State Physics


Elements of crystallography; diffraction methods for structure determination; bonding in solids;
elastic properties of solids; defects in crystals; lattice vibrations and thermal properties of solids;
free electron theory; band theory of solids; metals, semiconductors and insulators; transport
properties; optical, dielectric and magnetic properties of solids; elements of superconductivity.

Nuclear and Particle Physics


Nuclear radii and charge distributions, nuclear binding energy, Electric and magnetic moments;
nuclear models, liquid drop model - semi-empirical mass formula, Fermi gas model of nucleus,
nuclear shell model; nuclear force and two nucleon problem; Alpha decay, Beta-decay,
electromagnetic transitions in nuclei; Rutherford scattering, nuclear reactions conservation
laws; fission and fusion; particle accelerators and detectors; elementary particles, photons,
baryons, mesons and leptons; quark model.

Electronics
Network analysis; semiconductor devices; Bipolar Junction Transistors, Field Effect Transistors,
amplifier and oscillator circuits; operational amplifier, negative feedback circuits , active filters
and oscillators; rectifier circuits, regulated power supplies; basic digital logic circuits, sequential
circuits, flip-flops, counters, registers, A/D and D/A conversion

fiziks c/o Anand Institute of mathematics, 28-B/6 Jia Sarai


Near IIT, Hauz Khas, New Delhi, PIN- 110016 (INDIA)
Phone: 011-32718565, +91-9871145498
Website: http://www.physicsbyfiziks.com 2
Email: fiziks.physics@gmail.com
fiziks
Institute for NET/JRF, GATE, IIT‐JAM, JEST, TIFR and GRE in PHYSICAL SCIENCES 
 
MATEMATICAL PHYSICS SOLUTIONS
GATE-2010
Q1. Consider an anti-symmetric tensor Pij with indices i and j running from 1 to 5. The
number of independent components of the tensor is
(a) 3 (b) 10 (c) 9 (d) 6
Ans: (b)
Solution: The number of independent components of the tensor

= N  N   1 25  5  10 N  5
1 2
2 2
e 2 sin z 
Q2. The value of the integral  dz , where the contour C is the unit circle: z  2  1 ,
C z2

is
(a) 2πi (b) 4πi (c) πi (d) 0
Ans: (d)
e z sin z
Solution: Pole is at z  0 , Circle z  2  1   dz  2i  0  0 .
C z2
2 3 0
 
Q3. The eigenvalues of the matrix  3 2 0  are
0 1 
 0

(a) 5, 2, -2 (b) -5, -1, -1 (c) 5, 1, -1 (d) -5, 1, 1


Ans: (c)
Solution: The characteristic equation of the matrix A , A  I  0

2 3 0
 A  I  3 2 0  0  3  52    5  0    5,1,  1
0 0 1 

0 for x  3,
Q4. If f  x    then the Laplace transform of f(x) is
x  3 for x  3

(a) s 2 e sx (b) s 2 e sx (c) s 2 (d) s 2 e  sx

                                                                                
Head office  Branch office 
 
fiziks, H.No. 23, G.F, Jia Sarai,  Anand Institute of Mathematics, 
 
Near IIT, Hauz Khas, New Delhi‐16  28‐B/6, Jia Sarai, Near IIT 
 
Phone: 011‐26865455/+91‐9871145498 Hauz Khas, New Delhi‐16 
                                                   
                                             Website: www.physicsbyfiziks.com                                                                                          
                                                            Email: fiziks.physics@gmail.com                                                                   1 
fiziks
Institute for NET/JRF, GATE, IIT‐JAM, JEST, TIFR and GRE in PHYSICAL SCIENCES 
 
Ans: (d)
 3  
Solution: L f  x    e  sx
f  x  dx   e s x
f  x  dx   e  sx
f  x  dx    x  3 e  sx dx
0 0 3 3

   
e  sx  e  sx  1  e  sx 
L f  x    x  3
1
  1    dx  0   e  sx dx    2  sx
 s e
s 3 3  s  s3 s   s 3

d2y
Q5. The solution of the differential equation for y t  :  y  2 cosh(t ) , subject to the
dt 2
dy
initial conditions y 0   0 and  0 , is
dt t  0

cosh t   t sinh t  (b)  sinh t   t cosh t 


1
(a)
2
(c) t cosh t  (d) t sinh t 
Ans: (d)
Solution: For C.F D 2  1y  0  m  1  C.F .  C1e t  C 2 e t

 e t  e t 
P.I .  2
1
2 cosh t   2 2
1
  2
1
et  2
1
 t t
e t  e t   e t    
D 1 D 1  2  D 1 D 1 2 2

t t t t
 y  C1e t  C 2 e t  e  e  y 0   0  C1  C 2  0
2 2
dy t 1 t 1
 C1e t  C 2 e t  e t  e t  e t  e t
dt 2 2 2 2
dy 1 1
 0  C1  C 2  0   0   0  C1  C 2  0
dt t 0 2 2

Since C1  C 2  0 and C1  C 2  0  C1  0, C 2  0 .
t t t t
Thus  y  e  e  y  t sinh t
2 2

                                                                                
Head office  Branch office 
 
fiziks, H.No. 23, G.F, Jia Sarai,  Anand Institute of Mathematics, 
 
Near IIT, Hauz Khas, New Delhi‐16  28‐B/6, Jia Sarai, Near IIT 
 
Phone: 011‐26865455/+91‐9871145498 Hauz Khas, New Delhi‐16 
                                                   
                                             Website: www.physicsbyfiziks.com                                                                                          
                                                            Email: fiziks.physics@gmail.com                                                                   2 
fiziks
Institute for NET/JRF, GATE, IIT‐JAM, JEST, TIFR and GRE in PHYSICAL SCIENCES 
 
GATE-2011
Q6. Two matrices A and B are said to be similar if B = P-1AP for some invertible matrix P.
Which of the following statements is NOT TRUE?
(a) DetA = DetB (b) Trace of A = Trace of B
(c) A and B have the same eigenvectors (d) A and B have the same eigenvalues
Ans: (c)
Solution: If A and P be square matrices of the same type and if P be invertible then matrices A
and B = P-1AP have the same characteristic roots
Then B  I  P 1 AP  P 1IP  P 1  A  I P where I is identity matrix.

B  I  P 1  A  I P  P 1 A  I P  A  I P 1 P  A  I PP 1  A  I

Thus the matrices A and B (= P-1AP) have the same characteristic equation and hence
characteristic roots of eigen values. Since the sum of the eigen values of a matrix and
product of eigen values of a matrix is equal to the determinant of matrix hence third
alternative is incorrect.

Q7. If a force F is derivable from a potential function V(r), where r is the distance from the
origin of the coordinate system, it follows that

(a)   F  0 (b)   F  0 (c)  V  0 (d)  2 V  0


Ans: (a)
 
Solution: Since F is derivative from potential V(r) and F  V r 

   F    V  0 .  
Q8. A 33 matrix has elements such that its trace is 11 and its determinant is 36. The
eigenvalues of the matrix are all known to be positive integers. The largest eigenvalues of
the matrix is
(a) 18 (b) 12 (c) 9 (d) 6
Ans: (c)
Solution: We know that for any matrix
1. The product of eigenvalues is equal to determinant of that matrix.

                                                                                
Head office  Branch office 
 
fiziks, H.No. 23, G.F, Jia Sarai,  Anand Institute of Mathematics, 
 
Near IIT, Hauz Khas, New Delhi‐16  28‐B/6, Jia Sarai, Near IIT 
 
Phone: 011‐26865455/+91‐9871145498 Hauz Khas, New Delhi‐16 
                                                   
                                             Website: www.physicsbyfiziks.com                                                                                          
                                                            Email: fiziks.physics@gmail.com                                                                   3 
fiziks
Institute for NET/JRF, GATE, IIT‐JAM, JEST, TIFR and GRE in PHYSICAL SCIENCES 
 
2. 1   2  3  .......  Trace of matrix
1   2  3  11 and 12 3  36 . Hence the largest eigen value of the matrix is 9.
Q9. The unit vector normal to the surface x2 + y2 – z = 1 at the point P(1, 1, 1) is
iˆ  ˆj  kˆ 2iˆ  ˆj  kˆ iˆ  2 ˆj  kˆ 2iˆ  2 ˆj  kˆ
(a) (b) (c) (d)
3 6 6 3

Ans: (d)
Solution: The equation of the system is f x, y, z   x 2  y 2  z  1  0
   ˆ  ˆ 2
The gradient of the above function is f   iˆ  j  k x  y 2  z  1
 x y z 

 2 xiˆ  2 yˆj  lˆ

f 2iˆ  2 ˆj  kˆ
Hence unit normal vector at (1, 1, 1)  .
f 3

Q10. Consider a cylinder of height h and radius a, closed at both ends, centered at the origin.

Let r  iˆx  ˆjy  kˆz be the position vector and n̂ a unit vector normal to the surface. The

surface integral  r  nˆ ds over the closed surface of the cylinder is


S
z

O y

x
(a) 2πa2 (a + h) (b) 3πa2h (c) 2 πa2h (d) zero
Ans: (b)

 
Solution:  r.nˆ ds   .r d  3 d  3a 2 h
S V V

dy x
Q11. The solutions to the differential equation  are a family of
dx y 1

(a) circles with different radii


(b) circles with different centres

                                                                                
Head office  Branch office 
 
fiziks, H.No. 23, G.F, Jia Sarai,  Anand Institute of Mathematics, 
 
Near IIT, Hauz Khas, New Delhi‐16  28‐B/6, Jia Sarai, Near IIT 
 
Phone: 011‐26865455/+91‐9871145498 Hauz Khas, New Delhi‐16 
                                                   
                                             Website: www.physicsbyfiziks.com                                                                                          
                                                            Email: fiziks.physics@gmail.com                                                                   4 
fiziks
Institute for NET/JRF, GATE, IIT‐JAM, JEST, TIFR and GRE in PHYSICAL SCIENCES 
 
(c) straight lines with different slopes
(d) straight lines with different intercepts on the y-axis
Ans: (a)
dy x x2 y2
Solution:   xdx  ydy  dy  0    y  C1  x 2  y 2  2 y  2C1
dx y 1 2 2

  x  0    y  1  2C1  1  C
2 2

which is family of circles with different radii.


z sin z
Q12. Which of the following statements is TRUE for the function f  z   ?
 z   2
(a) f  z  is analytic everywhere in the complex plane

(b) f  z  has a zero at z  

(c) f  z  has a pole of order 2 at z  

(d) f  z  has a simple pole at z  

Ans: (c)
z sin z
Solution: f  z   has a pole of order 2 at z  
z  
2

Q13. Consider a counterclockwise circular contour z 1 about the origin. Let

z sin z
f z   , then the integral  f z dz over this contour is
 z   2
(a) –iπ (b) zero (c) iπ (d) 2iπ
Ans: (b)

                                                                                
Head office  Branch office 
 
fiziks, H.No. 23, G.F, Jia Sarai,  Anand Institute of Mathematics, 
 
Near IIT, Hauz Khas, New Delhi‐16  28‐B/6, Jia Sarai, Near IIT 
 
Phone: 011‐26865455/+91‐9871145498 Hauz Khas, New Delhi‐16 
                                                   
                                             Website: www.physicsbyfiziks.com                                                                                          
                                                            Email: fiziks.physics@gmail.com                                                                   5 
fiziks
Institute for NET/JRF, GATE, IIT‐JAM, JEST, TIFR and GRE in PHYSICAL SCIENCES 
 
GATE-2012
 
Q14. Identify the correct statement for the following vectors a  3iˆ  2 ˆj and b  iˆ  2 ˆj
 
(a) The vectors a and b are linearly independent
 
(b) The vectors a and b are linearly dependent
 
(c) The vectors a and b are orthogonal
 
(d) The vectors a and b are normalized
Ans: (a)
   
Solution: If a  3iˆ  2 ˆj, b  iˆ  2 ˆj are linearly dependent a  mb  0, for some values of m but
3 + m = 0 and 2 + 2m = 0 do not have any solution. So they are linearly independent.
   
a  b  0 (Not orthogonal); a  b  0 (Not normalized)
Q15. The number of independent components of the symmetric tensor Aij with indices
i, j  1, 2,3 is
(a) 1 (b) 3 (c) 6 (d) 9
 A11 A12 A13 
Ans: (c) For symmetric tensor Aij   A21 A22 A23 
 A31 A32 A33 

 A12  A21 , A23  A32 , A13  A33 , hence there are six independent components.

0 1 0
Q16. The eigenvalues of the matrix 1 0 1  are
0 0 
 1

(a) 0, 1, 1 (b) 0, 2 , 2


1 1
(c) , ,0 (d) 2 , 2 ,0
2 2
Ans: (b)
 1 0
Solution: A  I  0  1   
1  0   2  1    0    0,  2 ,  2
0 1 

                                                                                
Head office  Branch office 
 
fiziks, H.No. 23, G.F, Jia Sarai,  Anand Institute of Mathematics, 
 
Near IIT, Hauz Khas, New Delhi‐16  28‐B/6, Jia Sarai, Near IIT 
 
Phone: 011‐26865455/+91‐9871145498 Hauz Khas, New Delhi‐16 
                                                   
                                             Website: www.physicsbyfiziks.com                                                                                          
                                                            Email: fiziks.physics@gmail.com                                                                   6 
fiziks
Institute for NET/JRF, GATE, IIT‐JAM, JEST, TIFR and GRE in PHYSICAL SCIENCES 
 
GATE-2013
    
Q17. If A and B are constant vectors, then  A  B  r is   
    
(a) A  B (b) A  B (c) r (d) zero
Ans: (d)

Solution: Let A  A0  xˆ  yˆ  zˆ  , B  B0  xˆ  yˆ  zˆ  and r  xxˆ  yyˆ  zzˆ .
    
B  r  xˆ  z  y B0  yˆ  z  x B0  zˆ  y  x B0   A  B  r  0 .   
16 z
Q18. For the function f  z   , the residue at the pole z  1 is (your answer
z  3z  12
should be an integer) ____________.
Ans: 3

1 d 21   z  1 16 z 
2

Solution: At z  1 pole is of order 2 so residue is   =3


2  1 dz 21   z  3 z  12 
  z 1

 4  1  1
Q19. The degenerate eigenvalue of the matrix  1 4  1 is (your answer should be an
 1  1 4 

integer) ____________
Ans: 2,5,5

4   1 1   1 1 1 
 1 4  
1   (4   ) 0 5   0  = (4   )(5   )2  0    2,5,5 .

 1 1 4    0 0 5   

Q20. The number of distinct ways of placing four indistinguishable balls into five
distinguishable boxes is ___________.
Ans: 120
Solution: 4  C 45 =120 ways

                                                                                
Head office  Branch office 
 
fiziks, H.No. 23, G.F, Jia Sarai,  Anand Institute of Mathematics, 
 
Near IIT, Hauz Khas, New Delhi‐16  28‐B/6, Jia Sarai, Near IIT 
 
Phone: 011‐26865455/+91‐9871145498 Hauz Khas, New Delhi‐16 
                                                   
                                             Website: www.physicsbyfiziks.com                                                                                          
                                                            Email: fiziks.physics@gmail.com                                                                   7 
fiziks
Institute for NET/JRF, GATE, IIT‐JAM, JEST, TIFR and GRE in PHYSICAL SCIENCES 
 
GATE-2014
Q21. The unit vector perpendicular to the surface x 2  y 2  z 2  3 at the point (1, 1, 1) is
xˆ  yˆ  zˆ xˆ  yˆ  zˆ xˆ  yˆ  zˆ xˆ  yˆ  zˆ
(a) (b) (c) (d)
3 3 3 3
Ans: (d)

Solution: Let f  x 2  y 2  z 2  3  0   f  2 xxˆ  2 yyˆ  2 zzˆ

f 2 xˆ  2 yˆ  2 zˆ xˆ  yˆ  zˆ
 nˆ   at 1,1,1  
f 12 3

Q22. The matrix


1  1 1  i
A   is
3 1  i  1 
(a) orthogonal (b) symmetric (c) anti-symmetric (d) Unitary
unitary
unitary A† A  I
Q23. The value of the integral
z2
C e z  1 dz
where C is the circle z  4 , is

(a) 2 i (b) 2 2 i (c) 4 3i (d) 4 2 i


Ans. (c)
Solution: Pole e z  1  e z  ei 2 m 1 where m  0,1, 2,3.....

  z 2
Residue Res z i    i   2
 z  e

Similarly, z  i , Res   2

I  2 i  2   2   4 3i

                                                                                
Head office  Branch office 
 
fiziks, H.No. 23, G.F, Jia Sarai,  Anand Institute of Mathematics, 
 
Near IIT, Hauz Khas, New Delhi‐16  28‐B/6, Jia Sarai, Near IIT 
 
Phone: 011‐26865455/+91‐9871145498 Hauz Khas, New Delhi‐16 
                                                   
                                             Website: www.physicsbyfiziks.com                                                                                          
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fiziks
Institute for NET/JRF, GATE, IIT‐JAM, JEST, TIFR and GRE in PHYSICAL SCIENCES 
 
d y
2
Q24. The solution of the differential equation 2  y  0 , subject to the boundary conditions
dt

y 0   1 and y    0 is
(a) cos t  sin t (b) cosh t  sinh t
(c) cos t  sin t (d) cosh t  sinh t
Ans: (d)
Soluiton:
D 2  1  0  D  1  y  t   c1et  c2 e  t

Applying boundary condition


y 0   1  1  c1  c2 and y     0  0  c1e  c2 e 

 c1  0, c2  1

 y  t   e t  y  t   cosh t  sinh t

GATE-2015
1
Q25. Consider a complex function f  z   . Which one of the following
 1
z  z   cos  zx 
 2
statements is correct?
(a) f  z  has simple poles at z  0 and z  
1
2
(b) f  z  has second order pole at z  
1
2
(c) f  z  has infinite number of second order poles
(d) f  z  has all simple poles
Ans.: (a)
1
Solution: f  z 
 1
z  z   cos  z 
 2

 lim  z  a  f  z   finite and  0


n
For nth order pole
z a

                                                                                
Head office  Branch office 
 
fiziks, H.No. 23, G.F, Jia Sarai,  Anand Institute of Mathematics, 
 
Near IIT, Hauz Khas, New Delhi‐16  28‐B/6, Jia Sarai, Near IIT 
 
Phone: 011‐26865455/+91‐9871145498 Hauz Khas, New Delhi‐16 
                                                   
                                             Website: www.physicsbyfiziks.com                                                                                          
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fiziks
Institute for NET/JRF, GATE, IIT‐JAM, JEST, TIFR and GRE in PHYSICAL SCIENCES 
 
At z  0
lim zf  z   finite  z  0 is a simple pole.
z 0

1
At z  
2
2
 1  1
z  z 
lim  2
 lim  2
 lim
1
 1 z cos z z  1.cos z  z.   sin z 
1 1 1
 cos z
z  z 
2 zz  2 2
 2
1 1 2
 lim1
   finite
z  cos z  z sin z  
2
2
1
 f  z  has second order pole at z  
2
3
Q26. The value of  t 2 3t  6 dt is_______________ (upto one decimal place)
0

Ans.: 1.33
3 3 3
1 4
Solution:  t   3t  6  dt   t  3  t  2   dt   t 2  t  2  dt 
2 2

0 0
30 3

If f  x   e  x and g  x   x e  x , then
2 2
Q27.

(a) f and g are differentiable everywhere


(b) f is differentiable everywhere but g is not
(c) g is differentiable everywhere but f is not
(d) g is discontinuous at x  0
Ans. (b)

Solution: f ( x)  e  x is differentiable but g ( x)  x e  x is not differentiable.


2 2

 xe  x ; x  0
2

g ( x)  
 x2
 xe ; x  0
2
 x h
Left hand Limit lim g  x  h     x  h  e
h 0

                                                                                
Head office  Branch office 
 
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Phone: 011‐26865455/+91‐9871145498 Hauz Khas, New Delhi‐16 
                                                   
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Institute for NET/JRF, GATE, IIT‐JAM, JEST, TIFR and GRE in PHYSICAL SCIENCES 
 
2
 xh
Right hand Limit lim g  x  h    x  h  e
h 0

 lim g  x  h   lim g  x  h 
h 0 h o

Q28. Consider w  f  z   u  x, y   iv x, y  to be an analytic function in a domain D . Which


one of the following options is NOT correct?
(a) u  x, y  satisfies Laplace equation in D
(b) v x, y  satisfies Laplace equation in D
z2

(c)  f z dz is dependent on the choice of the contour between z and z


z1
1 2 in D

(d) f  z  can be Taylor expended in D


Ans.: (c)
Solution: w  f ( z )  u  x, y   iv  x, y  to be an analytic function in a domain D,  zz12 f ( z )dz is

independent on the choice of the contour between z1 and z2 in D .

 1 for t  0
Q29. The Heaviside function is defined as H t    and its Fourier transform is
 1 for t  0

given by  2i /  . The Fourier transform of


1
H t  1 / 2  H t  1 / 2 is
2
   
sin   cos 
(a) 2 (b) 2
 
2 2
 
(c) sin   (d) 0
2
Ans.: (a)

Solution: H  f    h t  e
 i 2 ft
dt


2i
For a function h  t  , H  f   

                                                                                
Head office  Branch office 
 
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Phone: 011‐26865455/+91‐9871145498 Hauz Khas, New Delhi‐16 
                                                   
                                             Website: www.physicsbyfiziks.com                                                                                          
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fiziks
Institute for NET/JRF, GATE, IIT‐JAM, JEST, TIFR and GRE in PHYSICAL SCIENCES 
 
For h  t  t0  , Fourier Transform is e  i 2 ft0
Hf

Shifting theorem

1   1   1   1  i 2 
 i  2i 1  i 2 
 i  2i
For  h  t  
 h t     e  e 2
   e  e 2
 i
2   2   2  2    2i   

 
sin  
1
The Fourier transform of  H  t  1/ 2   H  t  1/ 2    2 .
2 
2
m2
A function y  z  satisfies the ordinary differential equation y 
1
Q30. y  2 y  0, where
z z
m  0, 1, 2, 3, ..... Consider the four statements P, Q, R, S as given below.

P: z m and z  m are linearly independent solutions for all values of m


Q: z m and z  m are linearly independent solutions for all values of m  0
R: ln z and 1 are linearly independent solutions for m  0
S: z m and ln z are linearly independent solutions for all values of m
The correct option for the combination of valid statements is
(a) P, R and S only (b) P and R only (c) Q and R only (d) R and S only
Ans.: (c)
1 m2
Solution: y   y  2 y  0  z 2 y  zy  m 2 y  0

z z
d
m  0,1, 2,3,.... z  ex , D 
dx
If m  0 ; z 2 y  zy  0

 D  D  1  D  y  0   D 2  D  D  y  0  D 2  m 2 y  0  
y  c1  c2 x D  m

y  c1  c2 ln z c1e mx  c2 e  mx

R is correct. c1em log z  c2 e m log z

                                                                                
Head office  Branch office 
 
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Phone: 011‐26865455/+91‐9871145498 Hauz Khas, New Delhi‐16 
                                                   
                                             Website: www.physicsbyfiziks.com                                                                                          
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Institute for NET/JRF, GATE, IIT‐JAM, JEST, TIFR and GRE in PHYSICAL SCIENCES 
 
or if m  0, m  0

y  c1 cosh  m log  z    ic2 sinh  m log  x   m0

GATE-2016
dy
Q31. Consider the linear differential equation  xy . If y  2 at x  0 , then the value of y at
dx
x  2 is given by
(a) e 2 (b) 2e 2 (c) e 2 (d) 2e 2
Ans.: (d)
dy 1 x2
 xy  dy  xdx  ln y   ln c  y  ce x / 2
2
Solution:
dx y 2

If y  2 at x  0  c  2  y  2e x
2
/2
.

The value of y at x  2 is given by y  2e2


Q32. Which of the following is an analytic function of z everywhere in the complex plane?

(a) z 2 (b) z *  2
(c) z
2
(d) z

Ans.: (a)

Solution: z 2   x  iy   x 2  y 2  i  2 xy   u  x 2  y 2 and v  2 xy
2

u v v u
Cauchy Riemann equations   2 x,   2 y satisfies.
x y x y

The direction of f for a scalar field f  x, y, z   x 2  xy  z 2 at the point P1,1,2  is
1 1
Q33.
2 2

(a)
 ˆj  2kˆ (b)
 ˆj  2kˆ (c)
 ˆj  2kˆ (d)
 ˆj  2kˆ
5 5 5 5
Ans.: (b)
  
 f  ˆj  2kˆ
Solution: f   x  y  iˆ  xjˆ  zkˆ  nˆ     
 f  5
 1,1,2

                                                                                
Head office  Branch office 
 
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Phone: 011‐26865455/+91‐9871145498 Hauz Khas, New Delhi‐16 
                                                   
                                             Website: www.physicsbyfiziks.com                                                                                          
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fiziks
Institute for NET/JRF, GATE, IIT‐JAM, JEST, TIFR and GRE in PHYSICAL SCIENCES 
 
Q34. A periodic function f  x  of period 2 is defined in the interval    x   

 1,    x  0
f x   
 1, 0 x 

The appropriate Fourier series expansion for f  x  !is

4
(a) f  x    sin x  sin 3x  / 3  sin 5 x  / 5  ...
 
4
(b) f  x    sin x  sin 3x  / 3  sin 5 x  / 5  ..
 
4
(c) f  x    cos x  cos 3x  / 3  cos 5 x  / 5  ...
 
4
(d) f  x    cos x  cos 3x  / 3  cos 5 x  / 5  ...
 
Ans.: (a)
 1,    x  0
Solution: f  x   
 1, 0 x 

Let f  x   a0    an cos nx  bn sin nx 
n 1

1 
 a0 
2   f  x dx

 
  f  x dx  2     1 dx   1 dx   2   x    x   0
1 1 0 1 
 a0 
0

2   0  0

This can also be seen without integration, since the area under the curve of f x  between
 to  is zero.
1 
f  x  cos nxdx

 an 


1   sin nx   sin nx  
0
1 0 

 1 cos nxdx  0 1 cos nxdx     
  
 an     0
   n   n 0 

1 
f  x  sin nxdx

 bn 

                                                                                
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Phone: 011‐26865455/+91‐9871145498 Hauz Khas, New Delhi‐16 
                                                   
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Institute for NET/JRF, GATE, IIT‐JAM, JEST, TIFR and GRE in PHYSICAL SCIENCES 
 

 bn     1 sin nxdx   1 sin nxdx 
1 0

   0 

 cos nx   1  1  1  1 1  1  2 2  1n 



1   cos nx 
0 n n

 bn               
   n   n 0    n n n n    n n 

4
If n is even bn  0 and If n is odd bn  .
n
4 1 1 
Thus Fourier series is f  x   sin x  sin 3x  sin 5 x  ...
 3 5 
GATE-2017

dz
Q35. The contour integral  1  z 2
evaluated along a contour going from  to  along the

real axis and closed in the lower half-plane circle is equal to………….. (up to two
decimal places).
Ans. : 

1 1 1
Solution: C 1  z 2 dz   1  x 2 dx  C 1  z 2 dz
Poles, 1  z 2  0
z  i
z  i is inside C
1 1 1
 Res  z  i   lim  z  i   
z  i  z  i  z  i  i  i 2i

1 1
 dx    2 i  

1 x 2
2i
(Since here we use lower half plane i.e. we traversed in clockwise direction hence we
have to take 2 i )

                                                                                
Head office  Branch office 
 
fiziks, H.No. 23, G.F, Jia Sarai,  Anand Institute of Mathematics, 
 
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Phone: 011‐26865455/+91‐9871145498 Hauz Khas, New Delhi‐16 
                                                   
                                             Website: www.physicsbyfiziks.com                                                                                          
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fiziks
Institute for NET/JRF, GATE, IIT‐JAM, JEST, TIFR and GRE in PHYSICAL SCIENCES 
 
Q36. The coefficient of e in the Fourier expansion of u  x   A sin 2  x  for k  2 is
ikx

A A A A
(a) (b) (c) (d)
4 4 2 2
Ans.: (b)
ei x  e  i x
Solution: We can write sin  x  
2i
ei 2 x  2  e2i x
Hence, sin  x  2

 4 
Since, 2   k , hence
e  ikm  2  eikx
sin 2  x  
 4 
Hence

A
ck    sin  x  dx
2

8 

  
A   ikx ikx 
  
 ikx
 e e dx  2 e dx  e  ikx eikx dx 
8     
  
A  2ikx 
  
 ikx
 e dx  2 e dx  dx 
8     
The first two integrals are zero and the third integral has the value 2 .
Thus
A A
ck    2   
8 4
Q37. The imaginary part of an analytic complex function is v  x, y   2 xy  3 y . The real part of

the function is zero at the origin. The value of the real part of the function at 1  i is
……………... (up to two decimal places)
Ans. : 3
Solution: The imaginary part of the given analytic function is v  x , y   2 xy  3 y . From the

Cauchy – Riemann condition


                                                                                
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v u
  2x  3
y x
Integrating partially gives
u  x , y   x 2  3x  g  y 

From the second Cauchy – Riemann condition


u v
 , we obtain
y x
dg  y 
 2 y  g  y    y 2  c
dy

Hence u  x , y   x 2  3 x  y 2  c

Since the real part of the analytic function is zero at the origin. Hence
0  000c  c  0

Thus u  x , y   x 2  3 x  y 2

Thus f  z    x 2  3x  y 2   i  2 xy  3 y 

Thus the value of real part when z  1  i , that is x  1 and y  1 is 1  3 1  1  3 .
2

Q38. Let X be a column vector of dimension n  1 with at least one non-zero entry. The
number of non-zero eigenvalues of the matrix M  XX T is
(a) 0 (b) n (c) 1 (d) n  1
Ans. : (c)
0
0
 
a 
Solution: Let X    then X T   0 0... a... 0
0
0
 
 0 

                                                                                
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Phone: 011‐26865455/+91‐9871145498 Hauz Khas, New Delhi‐16 
                                                   
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Here X is an n 1 column vector with the entry in the i th row equal to a. X T is a row

vector having entry in the i th column equal to a. Then XX T is an n 1 matrix having the

entry in the i th row and i th column equal to a 2 .


Hence
0 0 0...0...0 0 
0 0 0...0...0 0 
 ith row
XX  0 0 0...0...0 0 
T
.....................
..................... 
0 0 0...0...0 0 

ith row
Since this matrix is diagonal its eigenvalues are a 2 , 0, 0.....0 . Hence the number of

nonzero eigenvalues of the matrix XX T is 1 .

dy  
Q39. Consider the differential equation  y tan  x   cos  x  . If y  0   0, y   is
dx 3
…………... (up to two decimal places)
Ans.: 0.52
The given differential equation is a linear differential equation of the form
dy
 p  x  y  cos x
dx

Integrating factor  e 
p  x  dx

Thus integrating factor  e 


tan x dx

 I  F  eln sec x  sec x


Thus the general solution of the given differential equation is
y  sec x   sec x  cos xdx  c

 y sec x  x  c -(i)

It is given that y  0   0 . Hence

0  sec 0  0  c  c  0

                                                                                
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Thus the solution satisfying the given condition is
x
y sec x  x  y 
sec x
 
Thus the value of y   is
3
 /3  /3 
y    0  52
sec  / 3 2 6

                                                                                
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Phone: 011‐26865455/+91‐9871145498 Hauz Khas, New Delhi‐16 
                                                   
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CLASSICAL MECHANICS SOLUTIONS
GATE- 2010
Q1. For the set of all Lorentz transformations with velocities along the x-axis consider the two
statements given below:
P: If L is a Lorentz transformation then, L-1 is also a Lorentz transformation.
Q: If L1 and L2 are Lorentz transformations then, L1L2 is necessarily a Lorentz
transformation.
Choose the correct option
(A) P is true and Q is false (B) Both P and Q are true
(C) Both P and Q are false (D) P is false and Q is true
Ans: (b)
1 2  3
Q2. A particle is placed in a region with the potential V x   kx  x , where k, λ > 0.
2 3
Then,
k
(A) x = 0 and x  are points of stable equilibrium

k
(B) x = 0 is a point of stable equilibrium and x  is a point of unstable equilibrium

k
(C) x = 0 and x  are points of unstable equilibrium

(D) There are no points of stable or unstable equilibrium
Ans: (b)
1 2 x 3 V k
Solution: V  kx    kx  x 2  0  x  0, x  .
2 3 x 
 2V
  k  2x
x 2
 2V k  2V
 At x  0,   ve (Stable) and  At x  ,  ve (unstable)
x 2  x 2

                                                                                
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0
Q3. A π meson at rest decays into two photons, which move along the x-axis. They are both
detected simultaneously after a time, t = 10s. In an inertial frame moving with a velocity
V = 0.6c in the direction of one of the photons, the time interval between the two
detections is
(A) 15 s (B) 0 s (C) 10 s (D) 20 s
Ans: (a)
v v
1 1
c 1  0.6 c
Solution: t1  t 0  10  10  2  20sec , t 2  t 0
v 1  0.6 v
1 1
c c

1  0.6 1
 10  10   5sec
1  0.6 2
 t1  t 2  15sec
Statement for Linked Answer Questions 4 and 5:
1 2 2
The Lagrangian for a simple pendulum is given by L  ml   mgl 1  cos  
2
Q4. Hamilton’s equations are then given by
p p
(A) p   mgl sin  ;   2 (B) p   mgl sin  ;   2
ml ml
p g p
(C) p   m;    (D) p     ;  
m l ml
Ans: (b)
P2 H H P
Solution: H   mgl 1  cos     P  P  mglsin ;       2 .Q5. The
2ml 2
 P ml

Poisson bracket between θ and  is

 
(A)  ,  1   1
(B)  ,  2
ml

 
(C)  , 
1
m
 
(D)  , 
g
l
Ans: (b)
                                                                                
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Phone: 011‐26865455/+91‐9871145498 Hauz Khas, New Delhi‐16 
                                                   
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   P  P 1   
 ,   ,  2  where    2 .  2  
 P  1 1
  1  2  0  2 .
 ml  ml ml   P P   ml ml

GATE- 2011
1  q
Q6. A particle is moving under the action of a generalized potential V q, q   . The
q2

magnitude of the generalized force is


21  q  21  q  2 q
(A) (B) (C) (D)
q3 q3 q3 q3

Ans: (c)
d  V  V 2
Solution:     Fq  Fq  3 .
dt  q  q q
Q7. Two bodies of mass m and 2m are connected by a spring constant k. The frequency of the
normal mode is
(A) 3k / 2m (B) k/m (C) 2k / 3m (D) k / 2m

Ans: (a)

k k 3k 2mm 2m
Solution: m k
2m     where reduce mass    .
 2m 2m 2m  m 3
3
Q8. Let (p, q) and (P, Q) be two pairs of canonical variables. The transformation
Q  q  cosp  , P  q  sinp 

is canonical for
(A) α = 2, β = 1/2 (B) α = 2, β =2 (C) α = 1, β = 1 (D) α = 1/2, β = 2
Ans: (d)
Q P Q P
Solution:    1
q p p q

 q  1 cosp   q   cosp   q    sin p   q  1 sin p   1

q 2 1  cos 2 p  sin 2 p   1  q 2 1  1    ,   2 .


1
2

                                                                                
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Q9. Two particles each of rest mass m collide head-on and stick together. Before collision, the
speed of each mass was 0.6 times the speed of light in free space. The mass of the final
entity is
(A) 5m / 4 (B) 2m (C) 5m / 2 (D) 25 m / 8
Ans: (c)
Solution: From conservation of energy
mc 2 mc 2 2mc 2
  m1c 2   m1c 2
2
v2
v2
v
1 1 1
c2 c2 c2

Since v  0.6c  m1  5m / 2

GATE- 2012
Q10. In a central force field, the trajectory of a particle of mass m and angular momentum L in
plane polar coordinates is given by,
1 m
 1   cos  
r L2
where, ε is the eccentricity of the particle’s motion. Which one of the following choice
for ε gives rise to a parabolic trajectory?
(a) ε = 0 (b) ε = 1 (c) 0 < ε < 1 (d) ε > 1
Ans: (b)
l m
Solution:  1   cos   for parabolic trajectory   1 .
r l2
Q11. A particle of unit mass moves along the x-axis under the influence of a potential,
V  x   x x  2 . The particle is found to be in stable equilibrium at the point x = 2. The
2

time period of oscillation of the particle is


 3
(a) (b)  (c) (d) 2
2 2
Ans: (b)

                                                                                
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V 2
V  x   x x  2     x  2   2 x x  2   0  x  2, x 
2 2

x 3

 2V  2V
 2 x  2 2
 2 x  2   2 x   2 2  4
x 2 x 2

 2V 2
    2 T  .
x 2 x2
T

Q12. A rod of proper length l0 oriented parallel to the x-axis moves with speed 2c/3 along the
x-axis in the S-frame, where c is the speed of the light in free space. The observer is also
moving along the x-axis with speed c/2 with respect to the S-frame. The length of the rod
as measured by the observer is
(a) 0.35l0 (b) 0.48l0 (c) 0.87l0 (d) 0.97l0
Ans: (d)

u2x
Solution: l  l0 1   0.97 l0
c2
Q13. A particle of mass m is attached to fixed point O by a weightless inextensible string of
length a. It is rotating under the gravity as shown in the figure. The
z
Lagrangian of the particle is

1
 
L ,    ma 2  2  sin 2  2  mga cos  where θ and  are the
2 a

polar angles. The Hamiltonian of the particles is m

1  2 p2  g
(a) H   p    mga cos  (b)
2ma 2  sin 2
 
 

1  2 p2 
H  p    mga cos
2ma 2  sin 2
 
 

(c) H 
1
2ma 2
 p2  p2   mga cos  (d) H 
1
2ma 2
 p2  p2   mga cos 

Ans: (b)
                                                                                
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1
Solution: H  P  P  L  P   P   ma 2  2  sin 2  2  mga cos 
2
 
L P L P
 P  ma 2   P     2 and P    ma 2 sin 2    
 ma  ma 2 sin 2 

Put the value of  and 

 2
 
2
2 
P P 1 2   P 
P
H  P   P    ma    sin     mga cos
ma 2 ma 2 sin 2  2   ma 2   ma 2 sin 2   
 

P2 P2 P2 P2


H     mga cos
ma 2 2ma 2 ma 2 sin 2  2ma 2 sin 2 

1  2 P2 
H  P    mga cos 
2ma 2  sin 2  
 

Statement for Linked Answer Questions 14 and 15:


Q14. A particle of mass m slides under the gravity without friction along the parabolic path
y  ax 2 axis shown in the figure. Here a is a constant.
y

x
The Lagrangian for this particle is given by

m1  4a 2 x 2 x 2  mgax 2


1 2 1
(a) L  mx  mgax 2 (b) L 
2 2

(c) L 
1 2
2
mx  mgax 2 (d) L 
1
2
 
m 1  4a 2 x 2 x 2  mgax 2

Ans: (d)

                                                                                
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Phone: 011‐26865455/+91‐9871145498 Hauz Khas, New Delhi‐16 
                                                   
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Institute for NET/JRF, GATE, IIT‐JAM, JEST, TIFR and GRE in PHYSICAL SCIENCES 
 
1
Solution: Equation of constrain is given by y  ax 2 , K.E T  m  x 2  y 2 
2
1 1
y  2axx  T  m  x 2  4ax 2 x 2   mx 2 1  4ax 2 
2 2

V   mgy   mgax 2 . Since particle is moving downward direction so potential V is

negative.

 L  T V  L 
1
2
 
m 1  4a 2 x 2 x 2  mgax 2

Q15. The Lagrange’s equation of motion of the particle for above question is given by
(a) x  2 gax (b) m 1  4a 2 x 2  
x  2mgax  4ma 2 xx 2

 
(c) m 1  4a 2 x 2 x  2mgax  4ma 2 xx 2 (d) x  2 gax
Ans: (c)
d  dL  dL
Solution:    m(1  4a 2 x 2 ) 
x  4ma 2 xx 2  2mgax
dt  dx  dx

GATE- 2013
Q16. In the most general case, which one of the following quantities is NOT a second order
tensor?
(a) Stress (b) Strain
(c) Moment of inertia (d) Pressure
Ans: (b)
Solution: Strain is not a tensor.
Q17. An electron is moving with a velocity of 0.85c in the same direction as that of a moving
photon. The relative velocity of the electron with respect to photon is
(a) c (b)  c
(c) 0.15c (d)  0.15c
Ans: (b)

                                                                                
Head office  Branch office 
 
fiziks, H.No. 23, G.F, Jia Sarai,  Anand Institute of Mathematics, 
 
Near IIT, Hauz Khas, New Delhi‐16  28‐B/6, Jia Sarai, Near IIT 
 
Phone: 011‐26865455/+91‐9871145498 Hauz Khas, New Delhi‐16 
                                                   
                                             Website: www.physicsbyfiziks.com                                                                                          
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fiziks
Institute for NET/JRF, GATE, IIT‐JAM, JEST, TIFR and GRE in PHYSICAL SCIENCES 
 
Q18. The Lagrangian of a system with one degree of freedom q is given by L  q 2  q 2 ,
where  and  are non-zero constants. If p q denotes the canonical momentum

conjugate to q then which one of the following statements is CORRECT?


(a) p q  2  q and it is a conserved quantity.

(b) p q  2  q and it is not a conserved quantity.

(c) p q  2 q and it is a conserved quantity.

(d) p q  2q and it is not a conserved quantity.

Ans: (d)
L L
Solution:  pq but 0
q q
Q19. The relativistic form of Newton’s second law of motion is

mc dv m c 2  v 2 dv
(a) F  (b) F 
c 2  v 2 dt c dt

mc 2 dv c 2  v 2 dv
(c) F  (d) F  m
c 2  v 2 dt c2 dt
Ans:
mv dP dv 1  1 1 2v dv
Solution: P  F m   mv     3/ 2
 2
v2 dt dt v2  2   v2  c dt
1 1 2  1 2 
c2 c  c 

   
 v 2 
2  2 
dv 1  1 dv  1 v 
F m 1 c m 2c 2
 
v 2  2 1  v   dt   v 2  3 2
2
dt 
1  2   
2 
c   c   1  c 2  
  

                                                                                
Head office  Branch office 
 
fiziks, H.No. 23, G.F, Jia Sarai,  Anand Institute of Mathematics, 
 
Near IIT, Hauz Khas, New Delhi‐16  28‐B/6, Jia Sarai, Near IIT 
 
Phone: 011‐26865455/+91‐9871145498 Hauz Khas, New Delhi‐16 
                                                   
                                             Website: www.physicsbyfiziks.com                                                                                          
                                                            Email: fiziks.physics@gmail.com                                                                   8 
fiziks
Institute for NET/JRF, GATE, IIT‐JAM, JEST, TIFR and GRE in PHYSICAL SCIENCES 
 
Q20. Consider two small blocks, each of mass M, attached to two identical springs. One of the
springs is attached to the wall, as shown in the figure. The spring constant of each spring
is k . The masses slide along the surface and the friction is negligible. The frequency of
one of the normal modes of the system is,

3 2 k
(a)
2 M

3 3 k
(b)
2 M
k k
3 5 k M M
(c)
2 M

3 6 k
(d)
2 M
Ans: (c)
1 2 1 2
Solution: T  mx1  mx 2 ,
2 2

V 
1 2 1
2
1 1 1

kx1  k  x 2  x1   kx12  k x 22  x12  2 x 2 x1  k 2 x 2  x 2  2 x 2 x1
2
2

2 2 2
  
m 0   2k k 
T  ; V   
 0 m  k k 

2k   2 m k 3 5 k
 0   2 k   2 m  k   2 m   k 2  0   
k k  m2
2 m

GATE- 2014
Q21. If the half-life of an elementary particle moving with speed 0.9c in the laboratory frame is
5  10 8 s, then the proper half-life is _______________ 10 8 s. c  3  10 8 m / s  
Ans: 2.18

                                                                                
Head office  Branch office 
 
fiziks, H.No. 23, G.F, Jia Sarai,  Anand Institute of Mathematics, 
 
Near IIT, Hauz Khas, New Delhi‐16  28‐B/6, Jia Sarai, Near IIT 
 
Phone: 011‐26865455/+91‐9871145498 Hauz Khas, New Delhi‐16 
                                                   
                                             Website: www.physicsbyfiziks.com                                                                                          
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fiziks
Institute for NET/JRF, GATE, IIT‐JAM, JEST, TIFR and GRE in PHYSICAL SCIENCES 
 
t0 v2
Solution: t  , t0  t  1  2 = t0  5  10 8  .19  2.18 108 s
v2 c
1
c2
Q22. Two masses m and 3m are attached to the two ends of a massless spring with force
constant K . If m  100 g and K  0.3 N / m , then the natural angular frequency of
oscillation is ________ Hz .
Ans: 0.318

1 k m1.m2 3m.m 3m 4k
Solution: f       2  0.318 Hz
2  m1  m2 4m 4 3m
Q23. The Hamilton’s canonical equation of motion in terms of Poisson Brackets are
(a) q  q, H ; p  p, H  (b) q  H , q; p  H , p

(c) q  H , p; p  H , p (d) q  p, H ; p  q, H 


Ans: (a)
df f q f p f
Solution:  .  . 
dt q t p t t
df f H f H f df f
 .  .     f , H 
dt q p p q t dt t
dq dp
 q, H  and   p, H 
dt dt
Q24. A bead of mass m can slide without friction along a mass less rod kept at 45 o with the
vertical as shown in the figure. The rod is rotating about the vertical axis with a constant
angular speed  . At any instant r is the distance of the bead from the origin. The

momentum conjugate to r is

(a) mr
1
(b) mr
2
1 m
(c) mr
2 45 o
r
(d) 2mr

                                                                                
Head office  Branch office 
 
fiziks, H.No. 23, G.F, Jia Sarai,  Anand Institute of Mathematics, 
 
Near IIT, Hauz Khas, New Delhi‐16  28‐B/6, Jia Sarai, Near IIT 
 
Phone: 011‐26865455/+91‐9871145498 Hauz Khas, New Delhi‐16 
                                                   
                                             Website: www.physicsbyfiziks.com                                                                                          
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fiziks
Institute for NET/JRF, GATE, IIT‐JAM, JEST, TIFR and GRE in PHYSICAL SCIENCES 
 
Ans: (a)
1
Solution: L  m(r 2  r 2 2  r 2 sin 2  2 )  mgr cos 
2

equation of constrain is   and it is given   
4
1 1 1
L m(r 2  r 2 2 )  mgr
2 2 2
L
the momentum conjugate to r is p r  = p r  mr
r
Q25. A particle of mass m is in a potential given by
a ar02
V r    
r 3r 3
when a and r0 are positive constants. When disturbed slightly from its stable equilibrium
position it undergoes a simple harmonic oscillation. The time period of oscillation is
3 3
mr03 m r0 2m r0 mr03
(a) 2 (b) 2 (c) 2 (d) 4
2a a a a
Ans: (a)
a ar02 V a 3ar02
Solution: V  r     3 for equilibrium   0 r   r0
r 3r r r 2 3r 4

 2V 2a 4ar02 2a 4ar02 2a
 3  5  3  5  3
r 2 r r r0
r0 r0 r0

 2V
r 2 mr03
  T  2
r0

m 2a
Q26. A planet of mass m moves in a circular orbit of radius r0 in the gravitational potential

k
V r    , where k is a positive constant. The orbit angular momentum of the planet is
r
(a) 2r0 km (b) 2r0 km (c) r0 km (d) r0 km

Ans: (d)
                                                                                
Head office  Branch office 
 
fiziks, H.No. 23, G.F, Jia Sarai,  Anand Institute of Mathematics, 
 
Near IIT, Hauz Khas, New Delhi‐16  28‐B/6, Jia Sarai, Near IIT 
 
Phone: 011‐26865455/+91‐9871145498 Hauz Khas, New Delhi‐16 
                                                   
                                             Website: www.physicsbyfiziks.com                                                                                          
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fiziks
Institute for NET/JRF, GATE, IIT‐JAM, JEST, TIFR and GRE in PHYSICAL SCIENCES 
 
J 2
k dVeffect J 2
k
Solution: Veffctive  2
    3  2 =0 at r  r0
2mr r dr mr r
so J  r0 km

Q27. Given that the linear transformation of a generalized coordinate q and the corresponding
momentum p ,
Q  q  4ap
P  q  2p
is canonical, the value of the constant a is _________________
Ans: 0.5
Q P Q P
Solution: .  .  0  1.2  4a.1  0  a  0.5
q p p q

p2  q2
Q28. The Hamiltonian of particle of mass m is given by H   .which one of the
2m 2
following figure describes the motion of the particle in phase space?
(a) (b)
p p

q q

(c) (d)
p p

q q

Ans: (d)

                                                                                
Head office  Branch office 
 
fiziks, H.No. 23, G.F, Jia Sarai,  Anand Institute of Mathematics, 
 
Near IIT, Hauz Khas, New Delhi‐16  28‐B/6, Jia Sarai, Near IIT 
 
Phone: 011‐26865455/+91‐9871145498 Hauz Khas, New Delhi‐16 
                                                   
                                             Website: www.physicsbyfiziks.com                                                                                          
                                                            Email: fiziks.physics@gmail.com                                                                   12 
fiziks
Institute for NET/JRF, GATE, IIT‐JAM, JEST, TIFR and GRE in PHYSICAL SCIENCES 
 
GATE- 2015
Q29. A satellite is moving in a circular orbit around the Earth. If T ,V and E are its average
kinetic, average potential and total energies, respectively, then which one of the
following options is correct?
(a) V  2T ; E  T (b) V  T ; E  0
T T  3T T
(c) V   ;E  (d) V  ;E 
2 2 2 2
Ans.: (a)
n 1
Solution: From Virial theorem T  V where V  r n 1
2
k 1
V   V   n  2  V  2 T
r r

Q30. In an inertial frame S , two events A and B take place at ct A  0, rA  0  and
ct B  0, rB  2 yˆ  , respectively. The times at which these events take place in a frame
S  moving with a velocity 0.6cyˆ with respect to S are given by
3
(a) ct A  0; ct B   (b) ct A  0; ct B  0
2
3 1
(c) ct A  0; ct B  (d) ct A  0; ct B 
2 2
Ans.: (a)
Solution: Velocity of S ' with respect to S is v  .6c
v
tA  y
t A'  c2 for event A t A  0, y  0 so ct A'  0
v2
1 2
c
v
tB  y
c2 3
t B'  for event B t B  0, y  2 so ct B'  
v2 2
1 2
c

                                                                                
Head office  Branch office 
 
fiziks, H.No. 23, G.F, Jia Sarai,  Anand Institute of Mathematics, 
 
Near IIT, Hauz Khas, New Delhi‐16  28‐B/6, Jia Sarai, Near IIT 
 
Phone: 011‐26865455/+91‐9871145498 Hauz Khas, New Delhi‐16 
                                                   
                                             Website: www.physicsbyfiziks.com                                                                                          
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fiziks
Institute for NET/JRF, GATE, IIT‐JAM, JEST, TIFR and GRE in PHYSICAL SCIENCES 
 
 
Q31. The Lagrangian for a particle of mass m at a position r moving with a velocity v is given
m  
by L  v 2  Cr .v  V r  , where V r  is a potential and C is a constant. If pc is the
2
canonical momentum, then its Hamiltonian is given by
1 
(a)  pc  Cr 2  V r  (b)
1 
 pc  Cr 2  V r 
2m 2m
pc2 1 2
(c)  V r  (d) pc  C 2 r 2  V r 
2m 2m
Ans.: (b)
m 2  
Solution: L  v  Cr.v  V  r  where v  r
2
m 2
H   r pc  L  rp
 c L where L  r  Cr.r  V  r 
2
L p  Cr
  pc   mr  Cr   r  c
r m
2
 p  Cr  m  pc  Cr   pc  Cr 
 H  c  pc     cr   V r 
 m  2 m   m 
2
 p  Cr  m  pc  Cr 
 H  c   pc  Cr     V r 
 m  2 m 

 p  Cr   p  Cr 
2 2
1
V r   pc  Cr   V  r 
2
H  c  c H 
m 2m 2m
 
Q32. The Hamiltonian for a system of two particles of masses m1 and m2 at r1 and r2 having
  1 1 C  
velocities v1 and v2 is given by H  m1v12  m2v22    2 zˆ   r1  r2  , wrong where
2 2  r1  r2 
C is constant. Which one of the following statements is correct?
(a) The total energy and total momentum are conserved
(b) Only the total energy is conserved
(c) The total energy and the z - component of the total angular momentum are conserved
(d) The total energy and total angular momentum are conserved
Ans.: (c)

                                                                                
Head office  Branch office 
 
fiziks, H.No. 23, G.F, Jia Sarai,  Anand Institute of Mathematics, 
 
Near IIT, Hauz Khas, New Delhi‐16  28‐B/6, Jia Sarai, Near IIT 
 
Phone: 011‐26865455/+91‐9871145498 Hauz Khas, New Delhi‐16 
                                                   
                                             Website: www.physicsbyfiziks.com                                                                                          
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fiziks
Institute for NET/JRF, GATE, IIT‐JAM, JEST, TIFR and GRE in PHYSICAL SCIENCES 
 
 
Solution: Lagrangian is not function of time so energy is conserve and component of  r1  r2  are

Only in ẑ direction means potential is symmetric under  so Lz is conserve.

Q33. A particle of mass 0.01 kg falls freely in the earth’s gravitational field with an initial

velocity 0  10ms 1 . If the air exerts a frictional force of the form, f  kv , then for

k  0.05 Nm 1 s , the velocity (in ms 1 ) at time t  0.2 s is _________ (upto two decimal

places). (use g  10 ms 2 and e  2.72 )


Ans.: Data given is incorrect
u 0.2
dv dv k dv dv
Solution: m  mg  kv  g v   dt     dt
dt dt m k k
g v 10 g v 0
m m
u
m  k  m   k   10k  
   ln  g  v    t 0    ln  g  u    ln  g 
0.2
   0.2
k   m  10 k   m   m 

m  0.05   .05  
 ln 10  u   ln 10  10     0.2
k  0.01   .01  
m

k
ln 10  5u   ln  40   0.2
 ln  40  can not be defined. So given data are not correct.

Q34. Consider the motion of the Sun with respect to the rotation of the Earth about its axis. If
 
Fc and FCo denote the centrifugal and the Coriolis forces, respectively, acting on the
Sun, then
  
(a) Fc is radially outward and FCo  Fc
  
(b) Fc is radially inward and FCo  2 Fc
  
(c) Fc is radially outward and FCo  2 Fc
  
(d) Fc is radially outward and FCo  2 Fc
Ans.: (b)

                                                                                
Head office  Branch office 
 
fiziks, H.No. 23, G.F, Jia Sarai,  Anand Institute of Mathematics, 
 
Near IIT, Hauz Khas, New Delhi‐16  28‐B/6, Jia Sarai, Near IIT 
 
Phone: 011‐26865455/+91‐9871145498 Hauz Khas, New Delhi‐16 
                                                   
                                             Website: www.physicsbyfiziks.com                                                                                          
                                                            Email: fiziks.physics@gmail.com                                                                   15 
fiziks
Institute for NET/JRF, GATE, IIT‐JAM, JEST, TIFR and GRE in PHYSICAL SCIENCES 
 
Q35. A particle with rest mass M is at rest and decays into two particles of equal rest masses
3
M which move along the z axis. Their velocities are given by
10
   
(a) v1  v 2  0.8c zˆ (b) v1  v 2  0.8c zˆ
   
(c) v1  v 2  0.6c zˆ (d) v1  0.6c zˆ; v 2   0.8c zˆ
Ans.: (b)
3 3
Solution: M M M
10 10
From momentum conservation
   
0  P1  P 2  P1   P 2  P1  P2
From energy conservation E  E1  E2

3 Mc 2 3 Mc 2 3 Mc 2
 Mc 2    Mc 2 
10 v 2 10 v2 5 v2
1 2 1 2 1 2
c c c

 v2  9 v 2 16
1  2    2   v  0.8c
 v  25 v 25

GATE-2016
Q36. The kinetic energy of a particle of rest mass m0 is equal to its rest mass energy. Its

momentum in units of m0 c , where c is the speed of light in vacuum, is _______.


(Give your answer upto two decimal places
Ans. : 1.73

m0c 2
Solution:  2m0 c 2  E
2
v
1
c2
E 2  p 2 c 2  m02 c 4  4m02c 4  m02c 4  p 2 c 2  p  3m0 c  1.732m0 c

                                                                                
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Q37. In an inertial frame of reference S , an observer finds two events occurring at the same
time at coordinates x1  0 and x 2  d A different inertial frame S  moves with velocity
v with respect to S along the positive x -axis. An observer in S  also notices these two
events and finds them to occur at times t1 and t 2 and at positions x1 and x2 respectively.
1
If t   t 2  t1 , x   x 2  x1 and   , which of the following statements is true?
v2
1 2
c
d
(a) t   0, x   d (b) t   0, x  

 vd  vd d
(c) t   , x   d (d) t   , x  
c2 c 2

Ans.: (c)
 vx   vx 
 t2  22   t1  21 
Solution: t2'  t1'   c  c   t '  t   vx it is given t  0, x  d
 v2   v2  c2
 1  2   1  2 
 c   c 
 vx
 t '  
c2
   
   
x  vt2    x1  vt1
x2  x1   2
' '   x '    x  vt  it is given t  0, x  d
 v2   v2 
 1  2   1  2 
 c   c 
 x '   d
Q38. The Lagrangian of a system is given by

L
1 2 2
2
 
ml   sin 2  2  mgl cos  , where m, l and g are constants.

Which of the following is conserved?


 
(a)  sin 2  (b)  sin  (c) (d)
sin  sin 2 

                                                                                
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Ans.: (a)
L
Solution:  is cyclic coordinate so  p  ml 2 sin 2  is constant hence m, l and g are


constants. Then  sin 2 


Q39. A particle of rest mass M is moving along the positive x -direction. It decays into two
photons  1 and  2 as shown in the figure. The energy of  1 is 1 GeV and the energy of
GeV
 2 is 0.82 GeV . The value of M (in units of ) is ________. (Give your answer
c2
1
upto two decimal places)

M 450
600

2
Ans.: 1.40

Solution: p 2 c 2  M 2 c 4  E1  E2  1.82GeV

E1 E 1GeV 1 .82GeV 1 1.11GeV


p cos 1  2 cos  2   
c c c 2 c 2 c

 p 2 c 2  m 2c 4  3.312

 m 2 c 4  3.312  1.21  2.077


 m  2.076  1.40

                                                                                
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Phone: 011‐26865455/+91‐9871145498 Hauz Khas, New Delhi‐16 
                                                   
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GATE- 2017

2
1  dq  1  dq 
Q40. If the Lagrangian L0  m    m 2 q 2 is modified to L  L0   q   , which one
2  dt  2  dt 
of the following is TRUE?
(a) Both the canonical momentum and equation of motion do not change
(b) Canonical momentum changes, equation of motion does not change
(c) Canonical momentum does not change, equation of motion changes
(d) Both the canonical momentum and equation of motion change
Ans. : (b)
2
1  dq  1
Solution: For lagrangian L0  m    m 2 q 2 canonical momentum is p  mq and
2  dt  2

d  L   L 
       0 mq  m q  0
2
equation of motion is given by
dt  q   q 
2
 dq  1  dq  1
For langrangian L  L0   q    L  m    m 2 q 2   qq
 dt  2  dt  2
Canonical momentum is p  mq   q

d  L   L 
      0 mq  m q  0
2
Equation of motion
dt  q   q 
Q41. Two identical masses of 10 gm each are connected by a massless spring of spring
constant 1 N / m . The non-zero angular eigenfrequency of the system is…………rad/s.
(up to two decimal places)
Ans. : 14.14

k m 10 1
Solution:   , where     and k  1N / m   14.14
 2 2 1000 200

                                                                                
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Q42. The phase space trajectory of an otherwise free particle bouncing between two hard walls
elastically in one dimension is a
(a) straight line (b) parabola
(c) rectangle (d) circle
Ans. : (c)

p2
Solution: E  p   2mE
2m
Q43. The Poisson bracket  x, xp y  ypx  is equal to

(a)  x (b) y (c) 2 px (d) p y

Ans. : (b)
Solution:  x, xp y  ypx    x, xp y    x, ypx   0  y  x, px   y

c
Q44. An object travels along the x -direction with velocity in a frame O . An observer in a
2
c
frame O sees the same object travelling with velocity . The relative velocity of O
4
with respect to O in units of c is…………….. (up to two decimal places).
Ans. : 0.28

c c u'  v
Solution: u x'  , v  u x  x '
2 4 uv
1  x2
c
c c

ux  2 4  2c  0.28c
c c 1 7
1 . . 2
2 4 c
Q45. A uniform solid cylinder is released on a horizontal surface with speed 5 m / s without
any rotation (slipping without rolling). The cylinder eventually starts rolling without
slipping. If the mass and radius of the cylinder are 10 gm and 1cm respectively, the final
linear velocity of the cylinder is……………… m / s . (up to two decimal places).
Ans. : 3.33
                                                                                
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1 v 3 2 10
Solution: mvr  mvcm r  I cm  mvcm r  mr 2 cm  v  vcm  vcm  v   3.33m / sec
2 r 2 3 3
Q46. A person weighs wp at Earth’s north pole and we at the equator. Treating the Earth as a

perfect sphere of radius 6400 km , the value 100 


w p  we 
is………….. (up to two
wp

decimal places). (Take g  10 ms 2 ).


Ans. : 0.33
Solution: g p  g

ge  g   2 R

wp  we 2R
100  
wp g

Put the value of g  10 m / sec 2


2 2
 
T 24  3600
R  6400  103
wp  we
Then 100   0.33
wp

                                                                                
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ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY SOLUTIONS
GATE- 2010
Q1. An insulating sphere of radius a carries a charge density


 r   0 a 2  r 2 cos  ; r  a .
The leading order term for the electric field at a distance d, far away from the charge
distribution, is proportional to
(a) d-1 (b) d-2 (c) d-3 (d) d-4
Ans: (c)
1 1 
Solution: V r     d  2   cos d   ,
r V r 
a  2
Ist term,   d     0  a  r  cos   r sin  drd d  0
2 2 2

0 0 0

a  2
IInd term,   cos  d     0  a  r  cos   r sin  drd d  0 .
2 2 2 2

0 0 0

1 1
 V 2
 E 3
r r
Q2. Two magnetic dipoles of magnitude m each are placed in a plane as shown in figure.
m
The energy of interaction is given by
45 o 2
0 m 2
(a) Zero (b)
4d 3 d
3 0 m 2
3 0 m 2 45 o
(c) (d) 
2d 3 8d 3 m 1
Ans: (d)
0 
Solution: U  m1  m2  3m 1  rˆ m 2  rˆ ,
4r 3


   
Since m1  m2  m1  m2  0  U  0 3  3  m cos 45 0  m cos 45 0
4d
 

                                                                                
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3 m 2
U   0 3 .
8 d
Statement for Linked Answer Questions 3 and 4:
Consider the propagation of electromagnetic waves in a linear, homogenous and isotropic
material medium with electric permittivity ε and magnetic permeability μ.

Q3. For a plane wave of angular frequency ω and propagation vector k propagating in the
medium Maxwell’s equations reduce to

(a) k  E  0; k  H  0; k  E   H ; k  H   E

(b) k  E  0; k  H  0; k  E   H ; k  H   E

(c) k  E  0; k  H  0; k  E   H ; k  H   E

(d) k  E  0; k  H  0; k  E   H ; k  H   E
Ans: (d)
Q4. If ε and μ assume negative values in a certain frequency range, then the directions of the

propagation vector k and the Poynting vector S in that frequency range are related as

(a) k and S are parallel

(b) k and S are anti-parallel

(c) k and S are perpendicular to each other

(d) k and S makes an angle that depends on the magnitude of |ε| and |μ|
Ans: (a)

                                                                                
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Q5. Consider a conducting loop of radius a and total loop resistance R placed in a region with
a magnetic field B thereby enclosing a flux 0. The loop is connected to an electronic
circuit as shown, the capacitor being initially uncharged

 C


 

   
 Vout

 



If the loop is pulled out of the region of the magnetic field at a constant speed u, the final
output voltage Vout is independent of
(a) 0 (b) u (c) R (d) C
Ans: (a)
GATE-2011

Q6. If a force F is derivable from a potential function V(r), where r is the distance from the
origin of the coordinate system, it follows that

(a)   F  0 (b)   F  0 (c) V  0 (d)  2 V  0


Ans: (a)
Q7. Tow charges q and 2q are placed along the x-axis in front of a grounded, infinite
conducting plane, as shown in the figure. They
are located respectively at a distance of 0.5 m and
1.5 m from the plane. The force acting on the
0 .5 m q 2q
charge q is   x
1 .5 m
7q 2
1 1 2
(a) (b) 2q
4 0 2 4 0

1 1 q2
(c) q2 (d)
4 0 4 0 2
Ans: (a)
Solution: Using method of Images we can draw equivalent figure as shown below:

                                                                                
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 2q q 0 .5 m 0 .5 m q 2q
    x
1 .5 m 1 .5 m

q  2q q 2q  q 7q 1 7q 2
F       
4 0  12 12  2 2  4 0 2 4 0 2

Q8. A uniform surface current is flowing in the positive y-direction over an infinite sheet
lying in x-y plane. The direction of the magnetic field is
(a) along iˆ for z > 0 and along  iˆ for z < 0
(b) along k̂ for z > 0 and along  k̂ for z < 0
(c) along  iˆ for z > 0 and along iˆ for z < 0
(d) along  k̂ for z > 0 and along k̂ for z < 0
Ans: (a)
Q9. A magnetic dipole of dipole moment m is placed in a non-uniform magnetic field B . If

the position vector of the dipole is r , the torque acting on the dipole about the origin is

(a) r  m  B  (b) r   m  B 
(c) m  B (d) m  B  r   m  B  
Ans: (c)

Q10. A spherical conductor of radius a is placed in a uniform electric field E  E 0 kˆ . The


potential at a point P(r, θ) for r > a, is given by
E0 a 3
Φ(r, θ) = constant – E 0 r cos   cos 
r2
where r is the distance of P from the centre O of the sphere and θ is the angle OP makes
with the z-axis P
The charge density on the sphere at θ = 30o is r
(a) 3 3 0 E 0 / 2 (b) 3 0 E 0 / 2 
O k̂

                                                                                
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(c) 3 0 E 0 / 2 (d))  0 E 0 / 2
Ans: (a)

V  2E a 3 
Solution:    0   0  E 0 cos   03 cos   .
r r a  r  r a

3 3
   0  E 0 cos   2 E 0 cos      3E 0  0 cos   3E 0  0 cos 30 0   0 E0
2
Q11. Which of the following expressions for a vector potential A DOES NOT represent a
uniform magnetic field of magnitude B0 along the z-direction?
(a) A  0, B0 x,0 (b) A   B0 y,0,0 

 B0 x B0 y   B0 y B0 x 
(c) A   , ,0  (d) A    , ,0 
 2 2   2 2 
Ans: (c)
 
Solution: B    A .

Statement for Linked Questions 12 and 13:


A plane electromagnetic wave has the magnetic field given by
 k 
B x, y, z , t   B0 sin x  y    t  kˆ
 2 

where k is the wave number and iˆ, ˆj and kˆ are the Cartesian unit vectors in x, y and z
directions respectively.

Q12. The electric field E  x, y, z , t  corresponding to the above wave is given by


(a) cB0 sin  x  y 
k  iˆ  ˆj
  t
  
(b) cB0 sin  x  y 
k  iˆ  ˆj
  t
 
 2  2  2  2
 k   k 
(c) cB0 sin  x  y    t  iˆ (d) cB0 sin  x  y    t  ˆj
 2   2 
Ans: (a)

                                                                                
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Phone: 011‐26865455/+91‐9871145498 Hauz Khas, New Delhi‐16 
                                                   
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c  k  xˆ  yˆ    x  y k
 c 
Solution: E   k  B   
k k
   B0 sin 
 
 t  zˆ 
2  2  
  k  xˆ  yˆ 
E  cB0 sin  x  y   t 
 2  2

Q13. The average Poynting vector is given by

(a)

cB02 iˆ  ˆj  (b) 
cB02 iˆ  ˆj   (c)
cB02 iˆ  ˆj  (d) 
cB02 iˆ  ˆj  
2 0 2 2 0 2 2 0 2 2 0 2
Ans: (d)
 cB02 cB02  xˆ  yˆ   cB02  xˆ  yˆ 
Solution: S  ˆ
k     
2 0 2 0  2  2 0  2 

GATE-2012
Q14. The space-time dependence of the electric field of a linearly polarized light in free space
is given by xE0 cost  kz  where E0, ω and k are the amplitude, the angular frequency
and the wavevector, respectively. The time average energy density associated with the
electric field is
1 1
(a)  0 E 02 (b)  0 E 02 (c)  0 E 02 (d) 2 0 E 02
4 2
Ans: (a)
1 1 1
Solution: u E   0 E 2   0 E 2 cos 2 wt  kz   u E   0 E 02
2 2 4
Q15. A plane electromagnetic wave traveling in free space is incident normally on a glass plate
of refractive index 3/2. If there is no absorption by the glass, its reflectivity is
(a) 4% (b) 16% (c) 20% (d) 50%
Ans: (a)

                                                                                
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Phone: 011‐26865455/+91‐9871145498 Hauz Khas, New Delhi‐16 
                                                   
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2 2
 n  n2  1 3/ 2  1 4
Solution: R   1        .04 or 4%
 n1  n2  1 3/ 2  4 25

Q16. The electric and the magnetic field E  z , t  and B  z , t  , respectively corresponding to the

scalar potential   z , t   0 and vector potential A z , t   iˆtz are
   
(a) E  iˆz and B  -ĵt (b) E  iˆz and B  ĵt
   
(c) E  iˆz and B  -ĵt (d) E  iˆz and B  -ĵt
Ans: (d)
 
  A A   
Solution: E      iˆz , B    A   ˆjt .
t t
Q17. A plane polarized electromagnetic wave in free space at time t=0 is given
 
by E  x, y   10 ˆj expi6 x  8 z  . The magnetic field B x, z , t  is given by
 1
 
(a) B x, z , t   6kˆ  8iˆ expi 6 x  8 z  10ct 
c
 1
 
(b) B x, z , t   6kˆ  8iˆ expi 6 x  8 z  10ct 
c
 1
 
(c) B x, z , t   6kˆ  8iˆ expi 6 x  8 z  ct 
c
 1
 
(d) B x, z , t   6kˆ  8iˆ expi 6 x  8 z  ct 
c
Ans: (a)

 1  k  
 1

Solution: B  kˆ  E    E  
c c k
 1  6iˆ  8kˆ 
c  10 
 10


ˆjexp i k .r  t 

 
 1
 
B  6kˆ  8iˆ expi 6 x  8 z  10ct ,   10c.
c

                                                                                
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Phone: 011‐26865455/+91‐9871145498 Hauz Khas, New Delhi‐16 
                                                   
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Q18. Two infinitely extended homogeneous isotopic dielectric media (medium-1and medium-2
1 
with dielectric constant  2 and 2  5 , respectively)
0 0
medium - 1
meet at the z = 0 plane as shown in the figure. A uniform
electric field exists everywhere. For z ≥ 0, the electric field
 medium - 2 z=0
is given by E1  2iˆ  3 ˆj  5kˆ . The interface separating the
two media is charge free. The electric displacement vector
in the medium-2 is given by


(a) D 2   0 10iˆ  15 ˆj  10kˆ  
(b) D 2   0 10iˆ  15 ˆj  10kˆ 
(c) D 2   4iˆ  6 ˆj  10kˆ 
0 (d) D 2   4iˆ  6 ˆj  10kˆ 
0

Ans: (b)
 E1  E 2  E 2  2iˆ  3 ˆj

1  2  5 ˆ 
and  f  0  D1  D2  E 2  E1  k  2kˆ  E 2  2iˆ  3 ˆj  2kˆ
2 5
 

 D2   2 E 2   0 10iˆ  15 ˆj  10kˆ . 
GATE-2013
Q19. At a surface current, which one of the magnetostatic boundary condition is NOT
CORRECT?
(a) Normal component of the magnetic field is continuous.
(b) Normal component of the magnetic vector potential is continuous.
(c) Tangential component of the magnetic vector potential is continuous.
(d) Tangential component of the magnetic vector potential is not continuous.
Ans: (d)

                                                                                
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fiziks, H.No. 40 D, G.F, Jia Sarai,  Anand Institute of Mathematics, 
 
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Phone: 011‐26865455/+91‐9871145498 Hauz Khas, New Delhi‐16 
                                                   
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Institute for NET/JRF, GATE, IIT‐JAM, JEST, TIFR and GRE in PHYSICAL SCIENCES 
 
Q20. Interference fringes are seen at an observation plane z  0 , by the superposition of two
 
  
 
plane waves A1 exp i k1  r  t and A2 exp i k 2  r  t , where A1 and A2 are real 
amplitudes. The condition for interference maximum is
     
 
(a) k1  k 2  r  2m  1 (b) k1  k 2  r  2m  
     
 
(c) k1  k 2  r  2m  1 (d) k1  k 2  r  2m  
Ans: (b)

Q21. For a scalar function  satisfying the Laplace equation,  has


(a) zero curl and non-zero divergence
(b) non-zero curl and zero divergence
(c) zero curl and zero divergence
(d) non-zero curl and non-zero divergence
Ans: (c)

 
 2  0  .   0 and      0 .  
Q22. A circularly polarized monochromatic plane wave is incident on a dielectric interface at
Brewaster angle. Which one of the following statements is correct?
(a) The reflected light is plane polarized in the plane of incidence and the transmitted
light is circularly polarized.
(b) The reflected light is plane polarized perpendicular to the plane of incidence and the
transmitted light is plane polarized in the plane of incidence.
(c) The reflected light is plane polarized perpendicular to the plane of incidence and the
transmitted light is elliptically polarized.
(d) There will be no reflected light and the transmitted light is circularly polarized.
Ans: (c)

                                                                                
Head office  Branch office 
 
fiziks, H.No. 40 D, G.F, Jia Sarai,  Anand Institute of Mathematics, 
 
Near IIT, Hauz Khas, New Delhi‐16  28‐B/6, Jia Sarai, Near IIT 
 
Phone: 011‐26865455/+91‐9871145498 Hauz Khas, New Delhi‐16 
                                                   
                                             Website: www.physicsbyfiziks.com                                                                                          
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Institute for NET/JRF, GATE, IIT‐JAM, JEST, TIFR and GRE in PHYSICAL SCIENCES 
 
Q23. A charge distribution has the charge density given by   Q x  x 0     x  x0  . For

this charge distribution the electric field at 2 x0 ,0,0

2Qxˆ Qxˆ Qxˆ Qxˆ


(a) (b) (c) (d)
9 0 x02 4 0 x03 4 0 x 02 16 0 x02
Ans:

Solution: Potential V  r  
1   x

a '

dx  
a  x'
 
a  x'
    
   a x3    
2
x dx x dx ....
4 0   a x x2 
  a 

First term, total charge


x0 x0

QT     x dx  Q    x   x 0 dx   Q    x   x 0 dx   Q  Q  0


 x0  x0

Second term, dipole moment


x0 x0

p   x   x dx  Q  x   x   x 0 dx   Q  x  x   x 0 dx   Qx 0  Q   x 0  2Qx 0


 x0  x0

2Qx 0 V 4Qx 0 4Qx 0 Q


V E xˆ  xˆ  xˆ  xˆ
4 0 x x 4 0 x 4 0 2 x 0  8 0 x 20
2 3 3

Q24. A monochromatic plane wave at oblique incidence undergoes reflection at a dielectric


interface. If kˆi , kˆr and n̂ are the unit vectors in the directions of incident wave, reflected
wave and the normal to the surface respectively, which one of the following expressions
is correct?
 
(a) kˆi  kˆr  nˆ  0  
(b) kˆi  kˆr  nˆ  0

(c) kˆ  nˆ  kˆ
i r 0 (d) kˆ  nˆ  kˆ
i r 0
Ans: (c)

                                                                                
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Phone: 011‐26865455/+91‐9871145498 Hauz Khas, New Delhi‐16 
                                                   
                                             Website: www.physicsbyfiziks.com                                                                                          
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Institute for NET/JRF, GATE, IIT‐JAM, JEST, TIFR and GRE in PHYSICAL SCIENCES 
 
Q25. In a constant magnetic field of 0.6 Tesla along the z direction, find the value of the path

integral  A  dl in the units of (Tesla m 2 ) on a square loop of side length 1 / 2 meters.  
The normal to the loop makes an angle of 60 0 to the z-axis, as shown in the figure. The
answer should be up to two decimal places. ___________

60 o

Ans: 0.15

 
2
  1  1
Solution:  A  dl     A .d a   B.d a  BA cos 60  0.6  
0
   0.15T .m 2
S S  2 2

GATE-2014

Q26. Which one of the following quantities is invariant under Lorentz transformation?
(a) Charge density (b) Charge (c) Current (d) Electric field
Ans: (b)
Q27. An unpolarized light wave is incident from air on a glass surface at the Brewster angle.
The angle between the reflected and the refracted wave is
(a) 0 o (b) 45 o (c) 90 o (d) 120 o
Ans: (c)

                                                                                
Head office  Branch office 
 
fiziks, H.No. 40 D, G.F, Jia Sarai,  Anand Institute of Mathematics, 
 
Near IIT, Hauz Khas, New Delhi‐16  28‐B/6, Jia Sarai, Near IIT 
 
Phone: 011‐26865455/+91‐9871145498 Hauz Khas, New Delhi‐16 
                                                   
                                             Website: www.physicsbyfiziks.com                                                                                          
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fiziks
Institute for NET/JRF, GATE, IIT‐JAM, JEST, TIFR and GRE in PHYSICAL SCIENCES 
 
Q28. The electric field of a uniform plane wave propagating in a dielectric non-conducting

medium is given by E  xˆ 10 cos  6 107 t  0.4 z  V / m . The phase velocity of the

wave is _________ 10 8 m / s
Ans: 1.5
 6  107
v   1.5 108 m / sec
k 0.4

Q29. If the vector potential A  xxˆ  2 yyˆ  3zzˆ , satisfies the Coulomb gauge, the value of the
constant  is _______
Ans: 1
 
Solution: Coulomb gauge condition . A  0    2  3  0    1
Q30. A ray of light inside Region 1 in the xy -plane is incident at the semicircular boundary

 
that carries no free charges. The electric field at the point P  r0 ,  in plane polar
 4

coordinates is E1  7eˆr  3eˆ where êr and ê are the unit vectors. The emerging ray in

Region 2 has the electric field E 2 parallel to x -axis. If  1 and  2 are the dielectric

2
constants of Region-1 and Region-2 respectively then is ________
1
y

P r0 ,  / 4 

O
1 2 x
Region 1 Region 2

                                                                                
Head office  Branch office 
 
fiziks, H.No. 40 D, G.F, Jia Sarai,  Anand Institute of Mathematics, 
 
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Phone: 011‐26865455/+91‐9871145498 Hauz Khas, New Delhi‐16 
                                                   
                                             Website: www.physicsbyfiziks.com                                                                                          
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Institute for NET/JRF, GATE, IIT‐JAM, JEST, TIFR and GRE in PHYSICAL SCIENCES 
 
Ans: 2.32
 y
Solution:  E1  7er  3e
ˆ ˆ P r0 ,  / 4 

10  E2
 Ex   7eˆr  3eˆ  .xˆ  7 cos 45  3sin 45 
2
1 
2 E1

O
4 1 x
 E y   7eˆr  3eˆ  . yˆ  7 sin 45  3sin 45  2
2 Region 1 Region 2

 E   4
Thus E1 makes an angle   tan 1  y   tan 1    21.80
 Ex   10 
tan  2  2  tan 45
   2   2.32 where 1    450 and  2  450
tan 1  2  2 tan 23.2
Q31. The value of the magnetic field required to maintain non-relativistic protons of energy
1MeV in a circular orbit of radius 100 mm is _______Tesla
(Given: m p  1.67  1027 kg , e  1.6  1019 C )

Ans: 1.44

1.6  1019  B 2  0.1 1.6 1013  2 1.67 1027 


2 2
q2 B2 R2 13
E  1.6  10  B 
2

2 1.67  1027  1.6 1019   0.12


2
2m p

1013  2 1.67  1027  3.34  1040


B  2
  2.08  B  2.08 Tesla  1.44Tesla
1.6 10   0.01
38
1.6 1040

Q32. In an interference pattern formed by two coherent sources, the maximum and minimum
of the intensities are 9 I 0 and I 0 respectively. The intensities of the individual wave are

(a) 3I 0 and I 0 (b) 4 I 0 and I 0

(c) 5I 0 and 4 I 0 (d) 9 I 0 and I 0


Ans: (b)

   
2 2
Solution: I max  I1  I 2 and I min  I1  I 2

   
2 2
9I0  I1  I 2 and I 0  I1  I 2  I1  4 I 0 and I 2  I 0

                                                                                
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Phone: 011‐26865455/+91‐9871145498 Hauz Khas, New Delhi‐16 
                                                   
                                             Website: www.physicsbyfiziks.com                                                                                          
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fiziks
Institute for NET/JRF, GATE, IIT‐JAM, JEST, TIFR and GRE in PHYSICAL SCIENCES 
 
Q33. The intensity of a laser in free space is 150mW / m 2 . The corresponding amplitude of the

electric field of the laser is _________


V
m
 0  8.854  10 12 C 2 / N .m 2 
Ans: 10.6

1 2I 2  150 103
Solution: I  c 0 E02  E0    10.6 V / m
2 c 0 3  108  8.854 1012

                                                                                
Head office  Branch office 
 
fiziks, H.No. 40 D, G.F, Jia Sarai,  Anand Institute of Mathematics, 
 
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Phone: 011‐26865455/+91‐9871145498 Hauz Khas, New Delhi‐16 
                                                   
                                             Website: www.physicsbyfiziks.com                                                                                          
                                                            Email: fiziks.physics@gmail.com                                                                   14 
fiziks
Institute for NET/JRF, GATE, IIT‐JAM, JEST, TIFR and GRE in PHYSICAL SCIENCES 
 
GATE-2015
Q34. A point charge is placed between two semi-infinite conducting plates which are inclined
at an angle of 30 o with respect to each other. The number of image charges
is___________.
Ans.: 11
360 360
Solution: n  1   1  11
 30
R  
Q35. Given that the magnetic flux through the closed loop PQRSP is  . If  A  dl   along
P
1

R 
PQR , the value of   dl along PSR is
P
A Q
R

S
(a)   1 (b) 1   (c)  1 (d) 1
Ans.: (b)
    R   P 
Solution:    s B.d a   A.dl   A  dl   A  dl
P R

R   R  
   1   A  dl   A  dl  1  
P P

Q15. The space between two plates of a capacitor carrying charges  Q and  Q is filled with
two different dielectric materials, as shown in the figure. Across the interface of the two
dielectric materials, which one of the following statements is correct?
 
(a) E and D are continuous
 
(b) E is continuous and D is discontinuous
 
(c) D is continuous and E is discontinuous Q Q
 
(d) E and D are discontinuous
Ans.: (d)

                                                                                
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fiziks, H.No. 40 D, G.F, Jia Sarai,  Anand Institute of Mathematics, 
 
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Phone: 011‐26865455/+91‐9871145498 Hauz Khas, New Delhi‐16 
                                                   
                                             Website: www.physicsbyfiziks.com                                                                                          
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fiziks
Institute for NET/JRF, GATE, IIT‐JAM, JEST, TIFR and GRE in PHYSICAL SCIENCES 
 
Q22. Four forces are given below in Cartesian and spherical polar coordinates
   r2  
(i) F1  K exp 2 rˆ 
(ii) F2  K x 3 yˆ  y 3 zˆ 
 R 
   ˆ 
(iii) F3  K x 3 xˆ  y 3 yˆ  (iv) F4  K  
r
where K is a constant Identify the correct option
(a) (iii) and (iv) are conservative but (i) and (ii)are not
(b) (i) and (ii) are conservative but (iii) and (iv) are not
(c) (ii) and (iii) are conservative but (i) and (iv) are not
(d) (i) and (iii) are conservative but (ii) and (iv) are not
Ans.: (d)

r rˆ r sin 


  1   
Solution:   F 1  0
r sin 
2
r  
 r2 
k exp   2  0 0
 R 

x y z
    
 F2   x  3ky 2  0   3ky 2 x
x y z
0 kx 3  ky 3

x y z
    
 F3  0
x y z
kx3 ky 3 0

                                                                                
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fiziks, H.No. 40 D, G.F, Jia Sarai,  Anand Institute of Mathematics, 
 
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Phone: 011‐26865455/+91‐9871145498 Hauz Khas, New Delhi‐16 
                                                   
                                             Website: www.physicsbyfiziks.com                                                                                          
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fiziks
Institute for NET/JRF, GATE, IIT‐JAM, JEST, TIFR and GRE in PHYSICAL SCIENCES 
 

r r r sin 


  1   
 F4  2  r  k cos  
r sin  r  
k
0 0 r sin  
r
Q23. A monochromatic plane wave (wavelength  600 nm ) E 0 expi kz   t  is incident
 
normally on a diffraction grating giving rise to a plane wave E1 exp i k1  r   t in the  
  1 3 
first order of diffraction. Here E1  E 0 and k1  k1  xˆ  zˆ  . The period (in m ) of
2 2 

the diffraction grating is ______________ (upto one decimal place)


Ans.: 1.2

Solution: d sin   n  d  n 1
sin 
  1 3  1
 k1  k1  xˆ  zˆ   sin      300
2 2  2

600
d  nm  1200 nm  1.2  m
sin 30
Q24. A long solenoid is embedded in a conducting medium and is insulated from the medium.
If the current through the solenoid is increased at a constant rate, the induced current in
the medium as a function of the radial distance r from the axis of the solenoid is
proportional to
1 1
(a) r 2 inside the solenoid and outside (b) r inside the solenoid and outside
r r2
1 1
(c) r 2 inside the solenoid and outside (d) r inside the solenoid and outside
r2 r
Ans.: (d)

  B 
Solution:  E  dl     da ;
t

                                                                                
Head office  Branch office 
 
fiziks, H.No. 40 D, G.F, Jia Sarai,  Anand Institute of Mathematics, 
 
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Phone: 011‐26865455/+91‐9871145498 Hauz Khas, New Delhi‐16 
                                                   
                                             Website: www.physicsbyfiziks.com                                                                                          
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fiziks
Institute for NET/JRF, GATE, IIT‐JAM, JEST, TIFR and GRE in PHYSICAL SCIENCES 
 
For r  R
 dI
r
dI 2 r 2  1 dI
 E  2 r   0 n
dt 
r  0
2 r dr    0 n 
dt

2
 E   0 n r
2 dt

For r  R
 dI
R
dI 2 R 2  1 dI
 E  2 r   0 n
dt 
r  0
2 r dr    0 n 
dt

2
 E   0 n R 2
2r dt

Q25. A plane wave xˆ  iyˆ E 0 expikz  t  after passing through an optical element emerges

as xˆ  iyˆ E 0 expi kz  t  , where k and  are the wavevector and the angular
frequency, respectively. The optical element is a
(a) quarter wave plate (b) half wave plate
(c) polarizer (d) Faraday rotator
Ans.: (b)

 
Solution: Incident wave: x  i y E0 ei   E0 cos  x  E0 sin  y 
 
Left circular polarization with phase angle 1     ei

 
Emergent wave: x  i y E0 ei   E0 cos  xˆ  E0 sin  y 
 
Right circular polarization with phase angle 1     ei 0


Thus there is phase change of  and hence path difference of .
2

                                                                                
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fiziks, H.No. 40 D, G.F, Jia Sarai,  Anand Institute of Mathematics, 
 
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Phone: 011‐26865455/+91‐9871145498 Hauz Khas, New Delhi‐16 
                                                   
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fiziks
Institute for NET/JRF, GATE, IIT‐JAM, JEST, TIFR and GRE in PHYSICAL SCIENCES 
 
Q26. A charge  q is distributed uniformly over a sphere, with a positive charge q at its center
in (i). Also in (ii), a charge  q is distributed uniformly over an ellipsoid with a positive
charge q at its center. With respect to the origin of the coordinate system, which one of
the following statements is correct?

X X

Z Z

Y Y
(i ) (ii )
(a) The dipole moment is zero in both (i) and (ii)
(b) The dipole moment is non-zero in (i) but zero in (ii)
(c) The dipole moment is zero in (i) but non-zero in (ii)
(d) The dipole moment is non-zero in both (i) and (ii)
Ans.: (a)
 
Solution: p   qi ri  0 in both cases.

GATE-2016
Q27. Which of the following magnetic vector potentials gives rise to a uniform magnetic field
B0 kˆ ?

(a) B0 z kˆ (b)  B0 x ˆj (c)


B0
2

 yiˆ  xˆj  (d)
B0 ˆ ˆ
2

yi  xj 
Ans.: (c)
 
Solution: (a)   A  0
 
(b)   A   B0 kˆ
 
(c)   A  B0 kˆ
 
(d)   A  0

                                                                                
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fiziks, H.No. 40 D, G.F, Jia Sarai,  Anand Institute of Mathematics, 
 
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Phone: 011‐26865455/+91‐9871145498 Hauz Khas, New Delhi‐16 
                                                   
                                             Website: www.physicsbyfiziks.com                                                                                          
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fiziks
Institute for NET/JRF, GATE, IIT‐JAM, JEST, TIFR and GRE in PHYSICAL SCIENCES 
 
Q28. The magnitude of the magnetic dipole moment associated with a square shaped loop
carrying a steady current I is m . If this loop is changed to a circular shape with the same
pm
current I passing through it, the magnetic dipole moment becomes . The value of p

is ______.
Ans.: 4
Solution: Magnetic dipole moment associated with a square shaped loop (let side is a) carrying a
steady current I is m  Ia 2 .
Magnetic dipole moment associated with a circular shaped loop (let radius is r) carrying a
steady current I is m  I  r 2 .
2
2a 2a  4 Ia 2 4m
Here 4a  2 r  r   m  I  r  I      2

    
Q29. In a Young’s double slit experiment using light, the apparatus has two slits of unequal
widths. When only slit- 1 is open, the maximum observed intensity on the screen is 4 I 0 .

When only slit- 2 is open, the maximum observed intensity is I 0 . When both the slits are
open, an interference pattern appears on the screen. The ratio of the intensity of the
principal maximum to that of the nearest minimum is ________.
Ans.: 9

      2 I  I   9I
2 2
I max I1  I 2 4I0  I0 0 0
Solution:  0
9
    2 I  I  I
2 2 2
I min I1  I 2 4I0  I0 0
0 0

                                                                                
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Phone: 011‐26865455/+91‐9871145498 Hauz Khas, New Delhi‐16 
                                                   
                                             Website: www.physicsbyfiziks.com                                                                                          
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fiziks
Institute for NET/JRF, GATE, IIT‐JAM, JEST, TIFR and GRE in PHYSICAL SCIENCES 
 
Q30. An infinite, conducting slab kept in a horizontal plane carries a uniform charge density  .
Another infinite slab of thickness t, made of a linear dielectric material of dielectric
constant k , is kept above the conducting slab. The bound charge density on the upper
surface of the dielectric slab is
   k  2  k  1
(a) (b) (c) (d)
2k k 2k k

Ans.: (d)  1
k  1 z
Solution: 
  
Electric field due to infinite, conducting slab inside the dielectric is E  zˆ  zˆ
  0k
     k  1    k  1
Polarisation P   0  e E   0  k  1 zˆ  zˆ   1  P.zˆ 
 0k k k
Q31. The electric field component of a plane electromagnetic wave travelling in vacuum is

given by E  z , t   E 0 coskz  t iˆ . The Poynting vector for the wave is

 c   c 
(a)  0  E 02 cos 2 kz  t  ˆj (b)  0  E 02 cos 2 kz  t kˆ
 2   2 

(c) c 0 E 02 cos 2 kz  t  ˆj (d) c 0 E 02 cos 2 kz  t kˆ


Ans.: (d)
  1  E
Solution: E  z , t   E 0 coskz  t iˆ  B  zˆ  E  z , t   0 cos  kz  t  ˆj
c c
The Poynting vector for the wave is
 1   E2
S
0
0 c

E  B  0 cos 2  kz  t  kˆ  c 0 E02 cos 2  kz  t  kˆ

                                                                                
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Phone: 011‐26865455/+91‐9871145498 Hauz Khas, New Delhi‐16 
                                                   
                                             Website: www.physicsbyfiziks.com                                                                                          
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fiziks
Institute for NET/JRF, GATE, IIT‐JAM, JEST, TIFR and GRE in PHYSICAL SCIENCES 
 
Q32. The x  y plane is the boundary between free space and a magnetic material with relative

permeability  r . The magnetic field in the free space is Bx iˆ  Bz kˆ . The magnetic field in
the magnetic material is
(a) B x iˆ  B z kˆ (b) B x iˆ   r B z kˆ

1
(c) B x iˆ  B z kˆ (d)  r B x iˆ  B z kˆ
r
Ans.: (d)
B B
Solution: B1  Bz kˆ  B2 and H1  H1  1  2  B2  r B1  r Bx iˆ
0 0 r

The magnetic field in the magnetic material is  r B x iˆ  B z kˆ

GATE- 2017
Q33. Identical charges q are placed at five vertices of a regular hexagon of side a . The
magnitude of the electric field and the electrostatic potential at the centre of the hexagon
are respectively
q q
(a) 0, 0 (b) ,
4 0 a 2
4 0 a

q 5q 5q 5q
(c) , (d) ,
4 0 a 2
4 0 a 4 0 a 4 0 a
2

Ans. : (c)
q
q
Solution: The resultant field at P is E 
4 0 a 2 q q
5q a
The electrostatic potential at P is V 
4 0 a q P q

                                                                                
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fiziks, H.No. 40 D, G.F, Jia Sarai,  Anand Institute of Mathematics, 
 
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Phone: 011‐26865455/+91‐9871145498 Hauz Khas, New Delhi‐16 
                                                   
                                             Website: www.physicsbyfiziks.com                                                                                          
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fiziks
Institute for NET/JRF, GATE, IIT‐JAM, JEST, TIFR and GRE in PHYSICAL SCIENCES 
 
Q34. A parallel plate capacitor with square plates of side 1 m separated by 1 micro meter is
filled with a medium of dielectric constant of 10 . If the charges on the two plates are 1C
and 1C , the voltage across the capacitor is………….. kV . (up to two decimal places).

(  0  8.854  1012 F / m )
Ans. : 1.29
 0 r A qd 1 1 106
Solution: q  CV  V V    1.29kV
d  0 r A 8.854  1012  10  1
Q35. Light is incident from a medium of refractive index n  1.5 onto vacuum. The smallest
angle of incidence for which the light is not transmitted into vacuum is…………...
degrees. (up to two decimal places)
Ans. : 41.8
n2 1  1 
Solution: sin C    C  sin 1    C  41.8
n1 1.5  1.5 
Q36. A monochromatic plane wave in free space with electric field amplitude of 1 V / m is
normally incident on a fully reflecting mirror. The pressure exerted on the mirror
is……………… 1012 Pa . (up to two decimal places) (  0  8.854  1012 F / m )
Ans. : 8.85
2I 2 1
  c 0 E02   0 E02  8.854  1012  1  8.85  1012 Pa
2
Solution: P 
c c 2
Q37. Three charges  2C , 1C , 1C  are placed at the vertices of an equilateral triangle of side

1 m as shown in the figure. The component of the electric dipole moment about the
marked origin along the ŷ direction is……… C m .
y
2C

1m

0 1C 1C x
Ans. : 1.73 1.5m


Solution: p  11xˆ   1 2 xˆ   2 1.5 xˆ  1  0.25 yˆ 
                                                                                
Head office  Branch office 
 
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Phone: 011‐26865455/+91‐9871145498 Hauz Khas, New Delhi‐16 
                                                   
                                             Website: www.physicsbyfiziks.com                                                                                          
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fiziks
Institute for NET/JRF, GATE, IIT‐JAM, JEST, TIFR and GRE in PHYSICAL SCIENCES 
 
Along the ŷ direction  2  1  0.25  1.73

Q38. An infinite solenoid carries a time varying current I  t   At 2 , with A  0 . The axis of

the solenoid is along the ẑ direction. r̂ and ˆ are the usual radial and polar directions in

cylindrical polar coordinates. B  Br rˆ  Bˆ  Bz zˆ is the magnetic field at a point outside
the solenoid. Which one of the following statements is true?
(a) Br  0, B  0, Bz  0 (b) Br  0, B  0, Bz  0

(c) Br  0, B  0, Bz  0 (d) Br  0, B  0, Bz  0
Ans. : (d)
Q39. A uniform volume charge density is placed inside a conductor (with ressistivity
1
102 m ). The charge density becomes of its original value after
 2.718
time……………….fem to seconds (up to two decimal places) (  0  8.854  1012 F / m )
Ans. : 88.54
 t  1
Solution:   t     0  e t /  0   t /  0  ln  ln 1
 0 2.718

0
t   8.854  1012  102  88.54  1015 sec  88.54 fs

Q40. Consider a metal with free electron density of 6 1022 cm 3 . The lowest frequency

electromagnetic radiation to which this metal is transparent is 1.38 1016 Hz . If this metal

had a free electron density of 1.8  1023 cm 3 instead, the lowest frequency

electromagnetic radiation to which it would be transparent is…………… 1016 Hz (up to


two decimal places).
Ans. : 2.39
Solution: Cut-off frequency is f  n .

f2 n n 1.8  1023
Thus  2  f 2  f1 2  f 2  1.38 1016  2.39 1016 Hz
f1 n1 n1 6  1022

                                                                                
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Institute for NET/JRF, GATE, IIT‐JAM, JEST, TIFR and GRE in PHYSICAL SCIENCES 
 
QUANTUM MECHANICS SOLUTIONS
GATE- 2010
Q1. Which of the following is an allowed wavefunction for a particle in a bound state? N is
a constant and α, β > 0.
e r
(a)   N (b)   N 1  e r 
r3
(c)   Ne x e   x  (d)   0non - zero constant if r  R
2
 y2 z2
 if r  R
Ans: (c)
Q2. A particle of mass m is confined in the potential
 1
V  x    2 m x
2 2
for x  0
 for x  0
Let the wavefunction of the particle be given by
1 2
 x     0  1 ,
5 5
where  0 and  1 are the eigenfunctions of the ground state and the first excited state

respectively. The expectation value of the energy is


31 25 13 11
(a)  (b)  (c)  (d) 
10 10 10 10
Ans: (a)
Solution: For half parabolic potential
3 7 1 3 4 7 31
E0   , E1    E       .
2 2 5 2 5 2 10
2
Q3. For a spin-s particle, in the eigen basis of S , Sz the expectation value sm S z2 sm is

(a)

 2 s s  1  m 2  
(b)  2 s s  1  2m 2 
2

(c)  s s  1  m 2
2
 (d)  2 m 2
Ans: (a)
1 1
sm S   S   sm  sm S 2  S 2  S  S   S  S  sm
2
Solution: sm S z2 sm 
2 2
1
 sm S  S   S  S  sm 
2
2
2
s s  1  m 2  
                                                                                
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Phone: 011‐26865455/+91‐9871145498 Hauz Khas, New Delhi‐16 
                                                   
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fiziks
Institute for NET/JRF, GATE, IIT‐JAM, JEST, TIFR and GRE in PHYSICAL SCIENCES 
 
Q4. A particle of mass m is confined in an infinite potential well:

V x   0 if 0  x  L,
 otherwise.
 2x 
It is subjected to a perturbing potential V p  x   Vo sin  
 L  V x 
within the well. Let E(a) and E(2) be corrections to the ground
state energy in the first and second order in V0, respectively. V p x 
0 L
Which of the following are true?
(a) E(a) = 0; E(2) < 0 (b) E(a) >
0; E(2) = 0
(c) E(a) = 0; E(2) depends on the sign of V0 (d) E(a) < 0; E(2) < 0
Ans: (a)
2
2
L
2x  m VP  1
Solution: E   V0 sin
1
1 dx  0 ; E12    E1  E m so E12  ve .
L0 L m 1 E1  Em

GATE- 2011
Q5. The quantum mechanical operator for the momentum of a particle moving in one
dimension is given by
d d  2 d 2
(a) i (b)  i (c) i (d) 
dx dx t 2m dx 2
Ans: (b)
Q6. An electron with energy E is incident from left on a potential barrier, given by
V ( x) = 0 for x < 0 V x 
= V0 for x > 0
V0
as shown in the figure. For E < V0, the space part of the
E
wavefunction for x > 0 is of the form
(a) eax (b) e-ax (c) eiax x
0
(d)e-iax
Ans: (b)
Solution:  E  V0 , so there is decaying wave function.

                                                                                
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Phone: 011‐26865455/+91‐9871145498 Hauz Khas, New Delhi‐16 
                                                   
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Institute for NET/JRF, GATE, IIT‐JAM, JEST, TIFR and GRE in PHYSICAL SCIENCES 
 
Q7. If Lx, Ly and Lz are respectively the x, y and z components of angular momentum operator
L. The commutator [Lx Ly, Lz] is equal to
(a) i L2x  L2y  (b) 2iLz (c) i L2x  L2y  (d) 0

Ans: (c)
 
Solution: Lx L y , Lz = Lx Ly Lz   Lx , Lz Ly = iL2x  L2y 

Q8. The normalized ground state wavefunciton of a hydrogen atom is given by


1 2
 r   e r / a , where a is the Bohr radius and r is the distance of the electron
4 a
3/ 2

1
from the nucleus, located at the origin. The expectation value is
r2
8 4 4 2
(a) (b) (c) (d)
a2 a2 a2 a2
Ans: (d)
  2
1 1 1 2  2ar 2
3  2
Solution:  r e dr   sin  d d  2
r2 4a 0 r 0 0
a

Q9. The normalized eigenstates of a particle in a one-dimensional potential well

V x   0 if 0  x  a
 otherwise

2  nx 
are given by  n  x   sin   , where n = 1, 2, 3,….
a  a 
The particle is subjected to a perturbation
 x  a
V '  x   Vo cos  for 0  x 
 a 2
=0 otherwise
Q10. The shift in the ground state energy due to the perturbation, in the first order perturbation
theory,
2Vo Vo Vo 2Vo
(a) (b) (c)  (d) 
3 3 3 3

                                                                                
Head office  Branch office 
 
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Phone: 011‐26865455/+91‐9871145498 Hauz Khas, New Delhi‐16 
                                                   
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Institute for NET/JRF, GATE, IIT‐JAM, JEST, TIFR and GRE in PHYSICAL SCIENCES 
 
Ans: (a)
a/2
3 x
sin
 x   x 
a/2 a/2
2 2 2V0
Solution: E11   1 V x  1dx    V0 a 
*
sin 2  V0 cos dx
a  a  a a  3
0 0 3
a 0

Common data questions Q-10 and Q-11


Q11. In a one-dimensional harmonic oscillator, φ0, φ1 and φ2 are respectively the ground, first
and the second excited states. These three states are normalized and are orthogonal to one
another. ψ1 and ψ2 are two states defined by
ψ1 = φ0 - 2φ1 + 3φ2 , ψ2 = φ0 – φ1 + αφ2
where α is a constant

Q12. The value of α which ψ2 is orthogonal to ψ1 is


(a) 2 (b) 1 (c) – 1 (d) – 2
Ans: (c)
Solution: For orthogonal condition scalar product (ψ2, ψ1)=0 so 1  2  3  0    1 .

Q13. For the value of α determined in Q30, the expectation value of energy of the oscillator in
the state ψ2 is
(a) ħω (b) 3 ħω/2 (c) 3 ħω (d) 9 ħω/2
Ans: (b)
 3 5
2 H 2  
Solution:  2  0  1  2 put   1 , H   2 2 2  3 
2 2 3 2

                                                                                
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Phone: 011‐26865455/+91‐9871145498 Hauz Khas, New Delhi‐16 
                                                   
                                             Website: www.physicsbyfiziks.com                                                                                          
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Institute for NET/JRF, GATE, IIT‐JAM, JEST, TIFR and GRE in PHYSICAL SCIENCES 
 
GATE- 2012

Q14. A particle of mass m is confined in a two dimensional square well potential of


dimension a. This potential V(x, y) is given by
V(x, y) = 0 for –a < x < a and –a < y < a
= ∞ elsewhere
The energy of the first excited state for this particle is given by,
 2 2 2 2  2 5 2  2 4 2  2
(a) (b) (c) (d)
ma 2 ma 2 8ma 2 ma 2
Ans: (c)
 2 2 5 2  2
 2 2
Solution: E   n  n 2 2
  n  n 
2
x
2
y  n x  1, n y  2 .
2m  2a 
x y 2
8ma 2 8ma 2
 
Q15. Consider the wavefunction    r1 , r2  s for a fermionic system consisting of two spin-
half particles. The spatial part of the wavefunction is given by
 
 r1 , r2  
1
1 r1  2 r2    2 r1 1 r2 
2
where 1and 2 are single particle states. The spin part χs of the wavefunction with spin
states   1 / 2 and - 1/2  should be
1 1
(a)     (b)     (c) αα (d) ββ
2 2
Ans: (b)
Solution: Since  r1 , r2  is symmetric the total wavefunction must be antisymmetric for fermions
so spin part must be antisymmetric.

                                                                                
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Phone: 011‐26865455/+91‐9871145498 Hauz Khas, New Delhi‐16 
                                                   
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Institute for NET/JRF, GATE, IIT‐JAM, JEST, TIFR and GRE in PHYSICAL SCIENCES 
 
Q16. A particle is constrained to move in a truncated harmonic potential well (x > 0) as shown
in the figure. Which one of the following statements is CORRECT?
(a) The parity of the first excited state is even
(b) The parity of the ground state is even Vx
1
(c) the ground state energy is 
2
7
(d) The first excited state energy is 
2
Ans: (d) x
3 7
Solution: There is only odd parity. Ground state is  and first excited  
2 2

Q17. Consider a system in the unperturbed state described by the Hamiltonian, H0  1 0 .
0 1 

The system is subjected to a perturbation of the form H'   


   , when δ<< 1. The
energy eigenvalues of the perturbed system using the first order perturbation
approximation are
(a) 1 and (1 + 2δ) (b) (1 + δ) and (1 - δ)
(c) (1+ 2δ) and (1 - 2δ) (d) (1+ δ) and (1 - 2δ)
Ans: (a)
Solution: H 0  H  , H0 is degenerate so after using degenerate perturbation through diagonalized

 2 0 1 0  2 0
H  one will get H    , H      .
0 0 0 1 0 0
So E  1  2 and 1 0 .

                                                                                
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Phone: 011‐26865455/+91‐9871145498 Hauz Khas, New Delhi‐16 
                                                   
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Institute for NET/JRF, GATE, IIT‐JAM, JEST, TIFR and GRE in PHYSICAL SCIENCES 
 
Q18. The ground state wavefunction for the hydrogen atom is given by
3/ 2
1  1 
 100    e  r / a0 , where a 0 is the Bohr radius. The plot of the radial probability
4  a 0 
density, P(r) for the hydrogen atom in the ground state is
(a) (b)

P(r) P(r)

r/a 0 r/a 0
(c) (d)

P(r) P(r)

r/a 0 r/a 0
Ans: (d)
3/ 2
1 1
Solution: The ground state is given by  100    e r / a0
4  a0 
Radial probability function
Pr 
1 1 2  2 r / a0
Pr    r =
2 2
r e
4 a0 r / a0
Common Data for Questions 19–20
The wavefunction of particle moving in free space is given by,   e ikx  2e ikx
Q19. The energy of the particle is
5 2 k 2 3 2 k 2 2k 2 2k 2
(a) (b) (c) (d)
2m 4m 2m m
Ans: (c)

                                                                                
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Phone: 011‐26865455/+91‐9871145498 Hauz Khas, New Delhi‐16 
                                                   
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Institute for NET/JRF, GATE, IIT‐JAM, JEST, TIFR and GRE in PHYSICAL SCIENCES 
 
   
2 2 2
Solution: H  E , H   ik ik e ikx  2 ik  ik e ikx
2m x 2
2m
 2 k 2 ikx 2 k 2
 H  (e  2e 2ikx )  
2m 2m

Q20. The probability current density for the real part of the wavefunction is
k k
(a) 1 (b) (c) (d) 0
m 2m
Ans: (d)
Solution: The real part of the wave function real  cos kx  2 cos kx
Current density for real part of wave function = 0

GATE- 2013
Q21. Which one of the following commutation relations is NOT CORRECT? Here, symbols
have their usual meanings.

(a) L2 , L z  0   
(b) L x , L y  iL z

(c) L z , L   L (d) L z , L   L


Ans: (d)
Q22. A proton is confined to a cubic box, whose sides have length 10 12 m . What is the
minimum kinetic energy of the proton? The mass of proton is 1.67  10 27 kg and

Planck’s constant is 6.63  10 34 Js .


(a) 1.1  10 17 J (b) 3.3  10 17 J (c) 9.9  10 17 J (d) 6.6  10 17 J
Ans: (c)
3 2  2
Solution: 2
 9.9 1017
2ma

                                                                                
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Phone: 011‐26865455/+91‐9871145498 Hauz Khas, New Delhi‐16 
                                                   
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fiziks
Institute for NET/JRF, GATE, IIT‐JAM, JEST, TIFR and GRE in PHYSICAL SCIENCES 
 
Q23. A spin-half particle is in a linear superposition 0.8   0.6  of its spin-up and spin-

down states. If  and  are the eigenstates if  z then what is the expectation value

up to one decimal place, of the operator 10 z  5 x ? Here, symbols have their usual
meanings. _______________
Ans: 76
1  0   .8 
Solution:   .8   .6   .8   .6    
 0  1   .6 
1 0 0 1 10 5 
Operator A  10 z  5 x  10   5   A   
0 1 1 0  5 10 
10 5  .8 
A   A  .8 .6   = 88  12   76
 5 10  .6 
Q24. Consider the wave function Ae i k r r0 / r  , where A is the normalization constant.

For r  2r0 , the magnitude of probability current density up to two decimal places, in

 
units of A 2 k / m is. _____________
Ans:
2 2
 2 k 2 r k 2 r k 2 k
Solution: J    A 0 J A 0 J A
m r m 2r0 m 4m

Common data questions 25 and 26


5 2 0 
To the given unperturbed Hamiltonian 2 5 0
0 0 2

1 1 1
we add a small perturbation given by  1 1  1 where  is small quantity.

1  1 1 

                                                                                
Head office  Branch office 
 
fiziks, H.No. 23, G.F, Jia Sarai,  Anand Institute of Mathematics, 
 
Near IIT, Hauz Khas, New Delhi‐16  28‐B/6, Jia Sarai, Near IIT 
 
Phone: 011‐26865455/+91‐9871145498 Hauz Khas, New Delhi‐16 
                                                   
                                             Website: www.physicsbyfiziks.com                                                                                          
                                                            Email: fiziks.physics@gmail.com                                                                   9 
fiziks
Institute for NET/JRF, GATE, IIT‐JAM, JEST, TIFR and GRE in PHYSICAL SCIENCES 
 
Q25. The ground state eigenvector of the unperturbed Hamiltonian is

(a) 1 / 2 ,1 2 ,0  
(b) 1 / 2 ,1 / 2 ,0 
(c) 0,0,1 (d) 1,0,0 
Ans: (c)
5 2 0 1 1 1
   
H 0   2 5 0  , H P    1 1  1
0 0 2 1  1 1 
 
Eigen value of H 0 is E1  2, E2  3, E3  7 and the Eigen vector corresponds

0 1 1


  1   1  
to 1   0  , 2  1 , 3  1 .
1 2   2  
  0 0
Q26. A pair of eigenvalues of the perturbed Hamiltonian, using first order perturbation theory,
is
(a) 3  2 ,7  2 (b) 3  2 ,2  
(c) 3, 7  2 (d) 3, 2  2
Ans: (c)
Solution: E1  1 H P 1  1  E1  2  1

1 1 1 1 1
1   1   1  
E2  2 H P 2  1  1 0. 1 1  1.   1 = 0 0 1  1  0
2 1  1 1  2  0  2 0
     

1 1 1  1 1
1   1   1  
E3  3 H P 3  1 1 0  . 1 1 1 .  1  =  . 2 2 0. 1 
2 1 1 1  2  0  2  0
     
1
 E 3  4  2
2
E1  2  1 , E 2  3  0 , E3  7  2 .

                                                                                
Head office  Branch office 
 
fiziks, H.No. 23, G.F, Jia Sarai,  Anand Institute of Mathematics, 
 
Near IIT, Hauz Khas, New Delhi‐16  28‐B/6, Jia Sarai, Near IIT 
 
Phone: 011‐26865455/+91‐9871145498 Hauz Khas, New Delhi‐16 
                                                   
                                             Website: www.physicsbyfiziks.com                                                                                          
                                                            Email: fiziks.physics@gmail.com                                                                   10 
fiziks
Institute for NET/JRF, GATE, IIT‐JAM, JEST, TIFR and GRE in PHYSICAL SCIENCES 
 
GATE- 2014
Q27. The recoil momentum of an atom is p A when it emits an infrared photon of wavelength
1500 nm , and it is p B when it emits a photon of visible wavelength 500 nm . The ratio

pA
is
pB

(a) 1 : 1 (b) 1 : 3 (c) 1 : 3 (d) 3 : 2


Ans: (c)
h p A B  B 500
Solution: p  ,  ,  =1 : 3
 pB A  A 1500
Q28. The ground state and first excited state wave function of a one dimensional infinite
potential well are  1 and  2 respectively. When two spin-up electrons are placed in this

potential which one of the following with x1 and x2 denoting the position of the two
electrons correctly represents the space part of the ground state wave function of the
system?
1 1
(a)  1 x1  2 x1    1 x2  2 x2  (b)  1 x1  2 x2    1 x2  2 x1 
2 2
1 1
(c)  1 x1  2 x1    1 x2  2 x2  (d  1 x1  2 x 2    1 x 2  2 x1  )
2 2
Ans: (d)
Solution: From the given information only possible spin configuration is symmetric in nature so
space part will anti symmetric
1
 1 x1  2 x 2    1 x 2  2 x1 
2
 
Q29. If L is the orbital angular momentum and S is the spin angular momentum, then L.S
does not commute with
 
(a) S z (b) L2 (c) S 2 
(d) L  S 2

Ans: (d)

                                                                                
Head office  Branch office 
 
fiziks, H.No. 23, G.F, Jia Sarai,  Anand Institute of Mathematics, 
 
Near IIT, Hauz Khas, New Delhi‐16  28‐B/6, Jia Sarai, Near IIT 
 
Phone: 011‐26865455/+91‐9871145498 Hauz Khas, New Delhi‐16 
                                                   
                                             Website: www.physicsbyfiziks.com                                                                                          
                                                            Email: fiziks.physics@gmail.com                                                                   11 
fiziks
Institute for NET/JRF, GATE, IIT‐JAM, JEST, TIFR and GRE in PHYSICAL SCIENCES 
 
Q30. An electron in the ground state of the hydrogen atom has the wave function
 r 
  
 1
 r   e  a0 

a 03

where a0 is constant. The expectation value of the operator Qˆ  z 2  r 2 , where

z  r cos  is
 n  n  1! )
(Hint:  0
e ar r n dr 
a n 1

a n 1
 a 02  3a 02
(a) (b)  a 02 (c) (d)  2a02
2 2
Ans: (d)

Solution: Qˆ  z 2  r 2  a02  3a02  2a02

Q31. A particle of mass m is subjected to a potential

V  x, y  
1
2
 
m 2 x 2  y 2 ,    x  ,  y  

The state with energy 4  is g  fold degenerate. The value of g is______


Ans: 4
Solution: This is two isotropic dimensional harmonic oscillator the energy eigen value for nth
state is E n  (n  1) with degeneracy g n  (n  1) so degeneracy for 4  is 4 .
Q32. A hydrogen atom is in the state

8 3 4
  200   310   321
21 7 21
where n, l , m in  nl m denote the principal. Orbit and magnetic quantum numbers,

respectively. If L is the angular momentum operator, the average value of L2 is
_______  2
Ans: 2

                                                                                
Head office  Branch office 
 
fiziks, H.No. 23, G.F, Jia Sarai,  Anand Institute of Mathematics, 
 
Near IIT, Hauz Khas, New Delhi‐16  28‐B/6, Jia Sarai, Near IIT 
 
Phone: 011‐26865455/+91‐9871145498 Hauz Khas, New Delhi‐16 
                                                   
                                             Website: www.physicsbyfiziks.com                                                                                          
                                                            Email: fiziks.physics@gmail.com                                                                   12 
fiziks
Institute for NET/JRF, GATE, IIT‐JAM, JEST, TIFR and GRE in PHYSICAL SCIENCES 
 
Solution: If L will measure on state  the measurement is 0 2 , 2 2 and 6 2 with probability
2

8 3 4 3 4
, and so L2  2 2   6 2  = 2 2
21 7 21 7 21
1
Q33.  1and 2 are two orthogonal states of a spin system. It is given that
2
1 1 2 0
1      ,
3 0 3  1 

1  0
where   and   represent the spin-up and spin-down states, respectively. When the
0 1
system is in the state  2 its probability to be in the spin-up state is _______
2
Ans:
3
1 1 2 0 2 1 1  0
Solution: If is  1      , then  2      ,
3 0 3  1  3  0 3  1 

2
so probability that  2 is in up state is
3
Q34. A particle is confined to a one dimensional potential box, with the potential
V x   0, 0xa
 , otherwise
If particle is subjected to a perturbation within the box. W   x . Where  is small
constant, the first order correction to the ground state energy is
(a) 0 (b) a / 4 (c) a / 2 (d) a
Ans: (c)
Solution: First order energy correction is W   x the average value position in ground state

a
is x  so ans is a / 2
2

                                                                                
Head office  Branch office 
 
fiziks, H.No. 23, G.F, Jia Sarai,  Anand Institute of Mathematics, 
 
Near IIT, Hauz Khas, New Delhi‐16  28‐B/6, Jia Sarai, Near IIT 
 
Phone: 011‐26865455/+91‐9871145498 Hauz Khas, New Delhi‐16 
                                                   
                                             Website: www.physicsbyfiziks.com                                                                                          
                                                            Email: fiziks.physics@gmail.com                                                                   13 
fiziks
Institute for NET/JRF, GATE, IIT‐JAM, JEST, TIFR and GRE in PHYSICAL SCIENCES 
 
Q35. A one dimensional harmonic oscillator is in the superposition of number state n given

by
1 3
  2  3
2 2
The average energy of the oscillator in the given state is______  .
Ans: 3.25
1 5 3 7
.  .
Solution: Average energy will 4 2 4 2  3.25
1 3

4 4
Q36. If L and L are the angular momentum ladder operators then the expectation value of

L L  L L  in the state l  1, m  1 of an atom is _____  2

Ans: 2
Solution: L L  L L   2( L2  L2z )  2(l.(l  1)  m 2 ) 2 = 2 2
GATE- 2015
1  
Q37. An operator for a spin  particle is given by     B ,where
2
 B 
B  xˆ  yˆ  ,  denotes Pauli matrices and  is a constant. The eigenvalues of  are
2
B
(a)  (b)  B (c) 0, B (d) 0,   B
2
Ans.: (b)
   B
Solution: Aˆ     , B  xˆ  yˆ 
2

Aˆ    x Bx   y By   z Bz   Aˆ    x Bx   y By 

 0 1  B  0 i  B  ˆ B  0 1 i
Aˆ         A  
 1 0  2  i 0  2  2 1  i 0 

 B   1  i 
A   I  0     0      B
2 1  i  

                                                                                
Head office  Branch office 
 
fiziks, H.No. 23, G.F, Jia Sarai,  Anand Institute of Mathematics, 
 
Near IIT, Hauz Khas, New Delhi‐16  28‐B/6, Jia Sarai, Near IIT 
 
Phone: 011‐26865455/+91‐9871145498 Hauz Khas, New Delhi‐16 
                                                   
                                             Website: www.physicsbyfiziks.com                                                                                          
                                                            Email: fiziks.physics@gmail.com                                                                   14 
fiziks
Institute for NET/JRF, GATE, IIT‐JAM, JEST, TIFR and GRE in PHYSICAL SCIENCES 
 
1   
Q38. The Pauli matrices for three spin  particles are  1 ,  2 and  3 , respectively. The
2
  
dimension of the Hilbert space required to define an operator Oˆ   1   2   3 is_______
Ans.: 8
Solution:  2   3 has dimension of 4 and  1.  2   3 has dimension of 2  4  8
 
Q39. Let L and p be the angular and linear momentum operators, respectively, for a a particle.
The commutator L x , p y gives  
(a) i pz (b) 0 (c) i px (d) i pz
Ans.: (d)
Solution:  Lx , p y    ypz  zp y , p y    ypz , p y    zp y , p y    y, p y  pz

  p y , p y   0 and  z , p y   0

  Lx , p y   ipz   y, p y   i
3
Q40. Consider a system of eight non-interacting, identical quantum particles of spin  in a
2
one dimensional box of length L . The minimum excitation energy of the system, in units
 2 2
of is ________
2mL2
Ans.: 5
3  3 
Solution: spin  degeneracy   2S  1   2   1  4
2  2 
 22 4 2  2 20 2  2
Eground  4   4 
2mL2 2mL2 2mL2
st  22  22  22  2 2
I
Eexcited  4  3 4  1 9  25
2mL2 2mL2 2mL2 2mL2
st  22  22  2 2
Now minimum excitation energy E  Eexcited
I
 Eground  25  20 5
2mL2 2mL2 2mL2

                                                                                
Head office  Branch office 
 
fiziks, H.No. 23, G.F, Jia Sarai,  Anand Institute of Mathematics, 
 
Near IIT, Hauz Khas, New Delhi‐16  28‐B/6, Jia Sarai, Near IIT 
 
Phone: 011‐26865455/+91‐9871145498 Hauz Khas, New Delhi‐16 
                                                   
                                             Website: www.physicsbyfiziks.com                                                                                          
                                                            Email: fiziks.physics@gmail.com                                                                   15 
fiziks
Institute for NET/JRF, GATE, IIT‐JAM, JEST, TIFR and GRE in PHYSICAL SCIENCES 
 
Q41. A particle is confined in a box of length L as shown below.

V0
L/2
If the potential V0 is treated as a perturbation, including the first order correction, the
ground state energy is
 2 2  2  2 V0
(a) E   V0 (b) E  
2mL2 2mL2 2
 2  2 V0  2  2 V0
(c) E   (d) E  
2mL2 4 2mL2 2
Ans.: (d)
L
2
x L
x
Solution: E01   V0 sin 2 dx   0  sin 2 dx
0
L L L
2

L L
V0  2
2 x  V0   2 x  L  2
 E01  
2 0
1  cos
L 
dx 
2  x  sin  L  2 x 
   0

V0  2 2 V0
 E01  E 
2 2mL2 2
 
Q42. Let the Hamiltonian for two spin-½ particles of equal masses m , momenta p1 and p2
 
and positions r1 and r2 be H 
1 2
2m
p1 
1 2 1
2m
  
p 2  m 2 r12  r22  k 1   2 , where  1
2
 

and  2 denote the corresponding Pauli matrices,   0.1eV and k  0.2 eV . If the
ground state has net spin zero, then the energy (in eV ) is ___________
Ans.: -0.3

                                                                                
Head office  Branch office 
 
fiziks, H.No. 23, G.F, Jia Sarai,  Anand Institute of Mathematics, 
 
Near IIT, Hauz Khas, New Delhi‐16  28‐B/6, Jia Sarai, Near IIT 
 
Phone: 011‐26865455/+91‐9871145498 Hauz Khas, New Delhi‐16 
                                                   
                                             Website: www.physicsbyfiziks.com                                                                                          
                                                            Email: fiziks.physics@gmail.com                                                                   16 
fiziks
Institute for NET/JRF, GATE, IIT‐JAM, JEST, TIFR and GRE in PHYSICAL SCIENCES 
 
1 2 1 2 1  
Solution: H  p1  p2  m 2  r12  r22   k 1. 2
2m 2m 2
    2      2
   1   2     12   22  2 1. 2  2 1. 2     12   22
   
 2 1. 2  0  3I  3I  6 I   1. 2  3
3
Now energy E  2    k  3  3   0.1   0.2  3  0.3 eV
2
Q43. Suppose a linear harmonic oscillator of frequency  and mass m is in the state

1  i 
  
 0  e 2
 1  at t  0 where  0 and  1 are the ground and the first
2 


excited states, respectively. The value of  x  in the units of at t  0 is _____
m
Ans. : 0
1   
Solution:     0  e i 1 
2 2 

 
 x  
2m
 a  a     x  
2m
a   a  
1 i 2 1  i


a   e 0 and a    
 0  2 e 2
2 
2 2 

  1 1 i 2 1 1  i 2 
  x    e    e 1 1 
2m  2 2
0 0
2 2 

  x   0  0
2m
GATE-2016
Q44. Which of the following operators is Hermitian?
d d2 d2 d3
(a) (b) (c) i (d)
dx dx 2 dx 2 dx 3
Ans.: (b)

                                                                                
Head office  Branch office 
 
fiziks, H.No. 23, G.F, Jia Sarai,  Anand Institute of Mathematics, 
 
Near IIT, Hauz Khas, New Delhi‐16  28‐B/6, Jia Sarai, Near IIT 
 
Phone: 011‐26865455/+91‐9871145498 Hauz Khas, New Delhi‐16 
                                                   
                                             Website: www.physicsbyfiziks.com                                                                                          
                                                            Email: fiziks.physics@gmail.com                                                                   17 
fiziks
Institute for NET/JRF, GATE, IIT‐JAM, JEST, TIFR and GRE in PHYSICAL SCIENCES 
 

Q45. The scattering of particles by a potential can be analyzed by Born approximation. In


particular, if the scattered wave is replaced by an appropriate plane wave, the
corresponding Born approximation is known as the first Born approximation. Such an
approximation is valid for
(a) large incident energies and weak scattering potentials.
(b) large incident energies and strong scattering potentials.
(c) small incident energies and weak scattering potentials.
(d) small incident energies and strong scattering potentials.
Ans.: (a)
Q46. Consider an elastic scattering of particles in l  0 states. If the corresponding phase shift
 0 is 900 and the magnitude of the incident wave vector is equal to 2 fm 1 then the

total scattering cross section in units of fm 2 is _______.


Ans.: 2
4
Solution:     2l  1 sin  l for l  0 it is given  0  90 0 and k  2 fm 1
k 2 l 0
4
 sin 90  2
2
Q47. A hydrogen atom is in its ground state. In the presence of a uniform electric field

E  E0 zˆ , the leading order change in its energy is proportional to  E0  . The value of
n

the exponent n is _______.


Ans.: 2
Solution: First order energy correction is zero  1,0,0 E0 r cos   1,0,0  0
2
 n,l ,m E0 r cos   1,0,0
So one need to find correction of second   E02
n 1 E10  Em0

So value of n  2

                                                                                
Head office  Branch office 
 
fiziks, H.No. 23, G.F, Jia Sarai,  Anand Institute of Mathematics, 
 
Near IIT, Hauz Khas, New Delhi‐16  28‐B/6, Jia Sarai, Near IIT 
 
Phone: 011‐26865455/+91‐9871145498 Hauz Khas, New Delhi‐16 
                                                   
                                             Website: www.physicsbyfiziks.com                                                                                          
                                                            Email: fiziks.physics@gmail.com                                                                   18 
fiziks
Institute for NET/JRF, GATE, IIT‐JAM, JEST, TIFR and GRE in PHYSICAL SCIENCES 
 
 
Q48. If s1 and s2 are the spin operators of the two electrons of a He atom, the value of
 
s1 .s 2 for the ground state is

3 3 1 2
(a)   2 (b)   2 (c) 0 (d) 
2 4 4
Ans.: (b)
   1 1   s s  1 2  s1 s1  1 2  s 2 s 2  1 2
Solution: s  s1  s2 s1  , s1  , s  0,1 , s1 .s 2 
2 2 2
3 3
22  2  2
  4 4  3 2
For s  1, s1.s2 
2 4
3 3
02  2  2
  4 4   3 2
s  0, s1.s2 
2 4
Q49. A two-dimensional square rigid box of side L contains six non-interacting electrons at
T  0 K . The mass of the electron is m . The ground state energy of the system of
 2 2
electrons, in units of is _________.
2mL2
Ans.: 24

Solution: 2 
1 2

 12  2  2
 4
2 2

 12  2  2

24 2  2
2mL2 2mL2 2mL2
Q50.  x ,  y and  z are the Pauli matrices. The expression 2 x y   y x is equal to

(a)  3i z (b)  i z (c) i z (d) 3i z


Ans.: (c)
Solution: 2 x y   y x   x y   x y   y x   x y  i z

Q51. If x and p are the x components of the position and the momentum operators of a

particle respectively, the commutator x 2 , p 2 is  


(a) i  xp  px  (b) 2i  xp  px  (c) i  xp  px  (d) 2i  xp  px 
Ans.: (d)

                                                                                
Head office  Branch office 
 
fiziks, H.No. 23, G.F, Jia Sarai,  Anand Institute of Mathematics, 
 
Near IIT, Hauz Khas, New Delhi‐16  28‐B/6, Jia Sarai, Near IIT 
 
Phone: 011‐26865455/+91‐9871145498 Hauz Khas, New Delhi‐16 
                                                   
                                             Website: www.physicsbyfiziks.com                                                                                          
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fiziks
Institute for NET/JRF, GATE, IIT‐JAM, JEST, TIFR and GRE in PHYSICAL SCIENCES 
 
2 2
 2
 
2
  
Solution: x , p  p x , p  x p p  2ipx  2ixp  2i  xp  px 

Q52. Let l , m be the simultaneous eigenstates of L2 and L z . Here L is the angular

momentum operator with Cartesian components L x , L y , L z , l is the angular momentum

quantum number and m is the azimuthal quantum number. The value of

1, 0 ( Lx  iLy ) 1, 1 is

(a) 0 (b)  (c) 2 (d) 3


Ans.: (c)

Solution: 1, 0 ( Lx  iLy 1, 1  1, 0 L 1, 1  2 1, 0 1, 0  2

Q53. For the parity operator P , which of the following statements is NOT true?
(a) P†  P (b) P 2   P (c) P 2  I (d) P †  P 1
Ans.: (b)
Q54. The state of a system is given by
  1  2  2  3 3

Where 1 , 2 and 3 form an orthonormal set. The probability of finding the system

in the state  2 is ________. (Give your answer upto two decimal places)

22 4 4 2
Ans probability that  in state 2      0.28
2 2
1 2 32
1  4  9 14 7
Q55. A particle of mass m and energy E , moving in the positive x
V0
direction, is incident on a step potential at x  0 , as indicated in the
E
figure. The height of the potential is V0 , where V0  E . At x  x0 ,

1
where x0  0 , the probability of finding the electron is times the
e x0 x  x0
2mV0  E 
probability of finding it at x  0 . If   , the value of x0 is
2
2 1 1 1
(a) (b) (c) (d)
  2 4
                                                                                
Head office  Branch office 
 
fiziks, H.No. 23, G.F, Jia Sarai,  Anand Institute of Mathematics, 
 
Near IIT, Hauz Khas, New Delhi‐16  28‐B/6, Jia Sarai, Near IIT 
 
Phone: 011‐26865455/+91‐9871145498 Hauz Khas, New Delhi‐16 
                                                   
                                             Website: www.physicsbyfiziks.com                                                                                          
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fiziks
Institute for NET/JRF, GATE, IIT‐JAM, JEST, TIFR and GRE in PHYSICAL SCIENCES 
 
Ans.: (c)
1 1
Solution:  e 2 x0  e 1  e 2 x0  x0 
e 2
GATE-2017

Q56. The Compton wavelength of a proton is…………….. fm. (up to two decimal places).
Ans. : 3  108
Solution:  m p  1.67 1027 kg , h  6.626  1034 Js, e  1.602 1019 C , c  3 108 ms 1 

p2 1 2
Q57. A one dimensional simple harmonic oscillator with Hamiltonian H 0   kx is
2m 2
subjected to a small perturbation, H1   x   x 3   x 4 . The first order correction to the
ground state energy is dependent on
(a) only  (b)  and 
(c)  and  (d) only 
Ans. : (d)

Solution: H1   x   x 3   x 4 E1g   x   x3   x 4

x  0, x3  0, x 4  0
  
Q58. For the Hamiltonian H  a0 I  b . where a0  R, b is a real vector, I is the 2  2

identity matrix, and  are the Pauli matrices, the ground state energy is
(a) b (b) 2a0  b (c) a0  b (d) a0

Ans. : (c)
  1 0 0 1  0 i   1 0   a0  bz bx  iby 
Solution: a0 I  b .  a0    bx    by    bz   
0 1 1 0 i 0   0 1  bx  iby a0  bz 

   a0  bz bx  iby 
H  a0 I  b .   
 bx  iby a0  bz 

                                                                                
Head office  Branch office 
 
fiziks, H.No. 23, G.F, Jia Sarai,  Anand Institute of Mathematics, 
 
Near IIT, Hauz Khas, New Delhi‐16  28‐B/6, Jia Sarai, Near IIT 
 
Phone: 011‐26865455/+91‐9871145498 Hauz Khas, New Delhi‐16 
                                                   
                                             Website: www.physicsbyfiziks.com                                                                                          
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fiziks
Institute for NET/JRF, GATE, IIT‐JAM, JEST, TIFR and GRE in PHYSICAL SCIENCES 
 
 a0  bz   bx  iby 
For eigen value  0
 b x  ib y a0  b z   

 a0  bz    a0  bz      bx2  by2   0
1  a0  b , 1  a0  b
Q59. The degeneracy of the third energy level of a 3-dimensional isotropic quantum harmonic
oscillator is
(a) 6 (b) 12 (c) 8 (d) 10
Ans. : (a)
Solution: First energy level is n  0
Second energy level is n  1
Third energy level is n  2

Degeneracy of third level


 n  1 n  2   3  4  6
2 2
Q60. A free electron of energy 1 eV is incident upon a one-dimensional finite potential step of
height 0.75 eV . The probability of its reflection from the barrier is…………. (up to two
decimal places).
Ans. : 0.11
2 2
 E  E  V0   1  0.25   1  0.5 2
Solution: R           0.11
  
 E  E  V0   1  0.25   1 0.5 

Q61. Consider a one-dimensional potential well of width 3nm . Using the uncertainty principle

 
 x  p   , an estimate of the minimum depth of the well such that it has at least one
 2

bound state for an electron is ( me  9.311031 kg , h  6.626 1034 Js,

e  1.602  1019 C )
(a) 1  eV (b) 1meV (c) 1eV (d) 1MeV
Ans. : (b)

                                                                                
Head office  Branch office 
 
fiziks, H.No. 23, G.F, Jia Sarai,  Anand Institute of Mathematics, 
 
Near IIT, Hauz Khas, New Delhi‐16  28‐B/6, Jia Sarai, Near IIT 
 
Phone: 011‐26865455/+91‐9871145498 Hauz Khas, New Delhi‐16 
                                                   
                                             Website: www.physicsbyfiziks.com                                                                                          
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fiziks
Institute for NET/JRF, GATE, IIT‐JAM, JEST, TIFR and GRE in PHYSICAL SCIENCES 
 
2
p  
Solution: E  , p   p 
2m 2x 2a

so E 


2
h

2  6.6 10  34 2

 .0011019 J  1 meV
31 18
8ma 2
32 ma
2 2
32 10  9.3110  9 10

x e
2  x2
Q62. The integral dx is equal to……….. (up to two decimal places).
0

Ans. : 0.44

x
2
Solution: The given integral is 2
e  x dx
0

dt
Let x 2  t then 2 xdx  dt  dx 
2 t
Thus the given integral can be written as
  3 
dt 1 1 1
t e   e  t t1/ 2 dt   e  t t 2 dt
t

0 2 t 20 20

1 3 1 1 1 
       
2 2 2 2 2 4
Hence the value of the integral up to two decimal places is 0.44 .
Q63. Which one of the following operators is Hermitian?

(a) i
p x x
2
 x 2 px 
(b) i
p x x
2
 x 2 px 
2 2
(c) ei px a (d) e  i px a
Ans. : (a)

Solution: A  i
p x x
2
 x 2 px 
, A  i

 p x    x p    i  p x  x p 
x
2 † 2
x

x
2 2
x

2 2 2

                                                                                
Head office  Branch office 
 
fiziks, H.No. 23, G.F, Jia Sarai,  Anand Institute of Mathematics, 
 
Near IIT, Hauz Khas, New Delhi‐16  28‐B/6, Jia Sarai, Near IIT 
 
Phone: 011‐26865455/+91‐9871145498 Hauz Khas, New Delhi‐16 
                                                   
                                             Website: www.physicsbyfiziks.com                                                                                          
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fiziks
Institute for NET/JRF, GATE, IIT‐JAM, JEST, TIFR and GRE in PHYSICAL SCIENCES 
 
THERMODYNAMICS AND STATISTICAL PHYSICS SOLUTIONS
GATE 2010
Q1. A system of N non-interacting classical point particles is constrained to move on the two-
dimensional surface of a sphere. The internal energy of the system is
3 1 5
(a) Nk BT (b) Nk BT (c) Nk BT (d) Nk BT
2 2 2
Ans: (c)
Solution: There are 2 N degree of freedom.
Nk BT Nk BT
The internal energy of the system is   Nk BT
2 2
Q2. Which of the following atoms cannot exhibit Bose-Einstein condensation, even in
principle?
(a) 1H1 (b) 4H2 (c) 23Na11 (d) 30K19
Ans: (d)
Solution: For Bose-Einstein condensation:
Number of electron + number of proton + number of neutron = Even
For 30 K19
Number of proton = 19, Number of electron = 19, Number of neutron = 11.
19 + 19 + 11 = 49 this is odd. So it will not exhibit Bose-Einstein condensation.
Q3. For a two-dimensional free electron gas, the electronic density n, and the Fermi energy
EF, are related by

2mE F  2
3
mE F
(a) n  (b) n 
3  2 3
 2

mE F 23
2
mE F  3 2
(c) n  (d) n 
2 2 
Ans: (c)
EF
2m f E   1 if E  E F
Solution: n   g(E)f (E)dE ,
0
g(E)dE 
h2
dE , at T=0
0 if E  E F

                                                                                
Head office  Branch office 
 
fiziks, H.No. 23, G.F, Jia Sarai,  Anand Institute of Mathematics, 
 
Near IIT, Hauz Khas, New Delhi‐16  28‐B/6, Jia Sarai, Near IIT 
 
Phone: 011‐26865455/+91‐9871145498 Hauz Khas, New Delhi‐16 
                                                   
                                             Website: www.physicsbyfiziks.com                                                                                          
                                                            Email: fiziks.physics@gmail.com                                                                   1 
fiziks
Institute for NET/JRF, GATE, IIT‐JAM, JEST, TIFR and GRE in PHYSICAL SCIENCES 
 
2mE F mE F
n 
h 2
2 2
Q4. Which among the following sets of Maxwell relations is correct? (U-internal energy, H-
enthalpy, A-Helmholtz free energy and G-Gibbs free energy)
 U   U   H   H 
(a) T    and P    (b) V    and T   
 V  S  S V  P  S  S  P

 G   G   A   A 
(c) P    and V    (d) P    and S   
 V T  P  S  S T  P V
Ans: (b)
 H   H 
Solution: dH  TdS  VdP     T,  V
 S  P  P  S

 2V k 0T 3
Q5. Partition function for a gas of photons is given as ln Z  . The specific heat of
45 3 C 3
the photon gas varies with temperature as
(a) (b)

CV CV

T T
(c) (d)

CV
CV

T
T
Ans: (a)
 ln z  U 
Solution: U  K B T 2 , CV     CV  T .
3

T  T  v

                                                                                
Head office  Branch office 
 
fiziks, H.No. 23, G.F, Jia Sarai,  Anand Institute of Mathematics, 
 
Near IIT, Hauz Khas, New Delhi‐16  28‐B/6, Jia Sarai, Near IIT 
 
Phone: 011‐26865455/+91‐9871145498 Hauz Khas, New Delhi‐16 
                                                   
                                             Website: www.physicsbyfiziks.com                                                                                          
                                                            Email: fiziks.physics@gmail.com                                                                   2 
fiziks
Institute for NET/JRF, GATE, IIT‐JAM, JEST, TIFR and GRE in PHYSICAL SCIENCES 
 
Q6. From Q. no. 5, the pressure of the photon gas is
 2 k B T 3  2 k B T 4  2 k B T 4  2 k B T 3 / 2
(a) (b) (c) (d)
15 3 C 3 8 3 C 3 45 3 C 3 45 3 C 3
Ans: (c)

2  k 0 T 
4
  ln z 
Solution: P  KT   
 V T 45 3C3
GATE 2011

Q7. A Carnot cycle operates on a working substance between two reservoir at temperatures T1
and T2 with T1 > T2. During each cycle, an amount of heat Q1 is extracted from the
reservoir at T1 and an amount Q2 is delivered in the reservoir at T2. Which of the
following statements is INCORRECT?
(a) Work done in one cycle is Q1 – Q2
Q1 Q2
(b) 
T1 T2

(c) Entropy of the hotter reservoir decreases


(d) Entropy of the universe (consisting of the working substance and the two reservoirs)
increases
Ans: (a)
Solution: Entropy of hotter reservoirs decreases.
Q8. In a first order phase transition, at the transition temperature, specific heat of the system
(a) diverges and its entropy remains the same
(b) diverges and its entropy has finite discontinuity
(c) remains unchanged and its entropy has finite discontinuity
(d) has finite discontinuity and its entropy diverges
Ans: (b)
Q9. A system of N non-interacting and distinguishable particle of spin 1 is in thermodynamic
equilibrium. The entropy of the system is
(a) 2kB ln N (b) 3kB ln N (c) NkB ln 2 (d) NkB ln 3

                                                                                
Head office  Branch office 
 
fiziks, H.No. 23, G.F, Jia Sarai,  Anand Institute of Mathematics, 
 
Near IIT, Hauz Khas, New Delhi‐16  28‐B/6, Jia Sarai, Near IIT 
 
Phone: 011‐26865455/+91‐9871145498 Hauz Khas, New Delhi‐16 
                                                   
                                             Website: www.physicsbyfiziks.com                                                                                          
                                                            Email: fiziks.physics@gmail.com                                                                   3 
fiziks
Institute for NET/JRF, GATE, IIT‐JAM, JEST, TIFR and GRE in PHYSICAL SCIENCES 
 
Ans: (d)
Solution: S  k B  ln  ,  =3 is number of microstate. S  1; Sz  1, 0, 1
i

The entropy of the system is NkB ln 3.


Q10. A system has two energy levels with energies ε and 2ε. The lower level is 4-fold
degenerate while the upper level is doubly degenerate. If there are N non-interacting
classical particles in the system, which is in thermodynamic equilibrium at a temperature
T, the fraction of particles in the upper level is
1 1
(a) (b)
1  e  / k BT 1  2e  / k BT
1 1
(c)  / k BT
(d)
2e  4e 2  / k B T 2e  / k BT
 4e 2  / k B T
Ans: (b)
Solution: Partition function Z  4e / kT  2e / kT
2e 2/ kT
P2  
1
/ kT  2/ kT

4e  2e 1  2e/ kT
GATE 2012

Q11. The isothermal compressibility,  of an ideal gas at temperature T0, and V0, is given by
1 V 1 V P P
(a)  (b) (c)  V0 (d) V0
V0 P T0 V0 P T0 V T0 V T0

Ans: (c)
 P 
Solution: Isothermal compressibility   V  
 V T
Q12. For an ideal Fermi gas in three dimensions, the electron velocity VF at the Fermi surface
is related to electron concentration n as,
(a) VF  n 2 / 3 (b) VF  n (c) VF  n1 / 2 (d) V F  n1 / 3
Ans: (d)
1
Solution: E F  mV F2  E F  n 2 / 3  VF2  n 2 / 3  VF  n1 / 3 .
2

                                                                                
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Phone: 011‐26865455/+91‐9871145498 Hauz Khas, New Delhi‐16 
                                                   
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Q13. A classical gas of molecules, each of mass m, is in thermal equilibrium at the
absolute temperature T. The velocity components of the molecules along the Cartesian

axes are v x , v y and v z . The mean value of v x  v y  is


2

k BT 3 k BT 1 k BT 2k B T
(a) (b) (c) (d)
m 2 m 2 m m
Ans: (d)

Solution: Vx  Vy 
2k B T
 V x2  V y2  2 V x  V y  Vx2  Vy2  2 Vx    Vy 
2

m
2k B T
 Vx    Vy  0 and Vx2  V y2  .
m
Q14. The total energy, E of an ideal non-relativistic Fermi gas in three dimensions is given by
N 5/3
E where N is the number of particles and V is the volume of the gas. Identify the
V 2/3
CORRECT equation of state (P being the pressure),
1 2 5
(a) PV  E (b) PV  E (c) PV  E (d) PV  E
3 3 3
Ans: (b)
5 5
 E  2  N 3 2N 3 2
Solution: P         PV   E.
 V  N 3  V  3 V23 3
Q15. Consider a system whose three energy levels are given by 0, ε and 2ε. The energy level ε
is two-fold degenerate and the other two are non-degenerate. The partition function of the
1
system with   is given by
k BT

(a) 1  2e   (b) 2e    e 2  (c) (1  e   ) 2 (d) 1  e    e 2 


Ans: (b)
Solution: E1  0, E 2   , E 3  2 ; g1  1, g 2  2, g 3  1 where g1 , g 2 and g 3 are degeneracy.

The partition function Z  g1e   E1  g 2 e   E2  g 3 e   E3  1  2e    e   2  1  e     2

                                                                                
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GATE 2013

Q16. If Planck’s constant were zero, then the total energy contained in a box filled with
radiation of all frequencies at temperature T would be ( k is the Boltzmann constant and
T is nonzero)
3
(a) zero (b) Infinite (c) kT (d) kT
2
Ans: (d)
Solution: If Planck’s constant were zero, then the system behaved as a classical system and the
energy is kT .
Q17. Across a first order phase transition, the free energy is
(a) proportional to the temperature
(b) a discontinuous function of the temperature
(c) a continuous function of the temperature but its first derivative is discontinuous
(d) such that the first derivative with respect to temperature is continuous
Ans: (c)
Q18. Two gases separated by an impermeable but movable partition are allowed to freely
exchange energy. At equilibrium, the two sides will have the same
(a) pressure and temperature (b) volume and temperature
(c) pressure and volume (d) volume and energy
Ans: (a)
Q19. The entropy function of a system is given by S E   aEE0  E  where a and E0 are
positive constants. The temperature of the system is
(a) negative for some energies (b) increases monotonically with energy
(c) decreases monotonically with energy (d) Zero
Ans: (a)
Solution: From first and second law of thermodynamics
1  S  1
TdS  dU  PdV  dS   dU  PdV       E  U
T  E V T

                                                                                
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 S 
S E   aE E0  E   
1
    E0  E    E    E0  2 E   T  .
 E V   E0  2 E 
Q20. Consider a linear collection of N independent spin ½ particles, each at a fixed location.
The entropy of this system is ( k is the Boltzmann constant)

(d) Nk ln 2 
1
(a) zero (b) Nk (c) Nk
2
Ans: (d)
Solution: There are two microstates possible for one so entropy is given by Nk ln 2 
Q21. Consider a gas of atoms obeying Maxwell-Boltzmann statistics. The average value of
   
e a p over all the moments p of each of the particles (where a is a constant vector and a
is the magnitude, m is the mass of each atom, T is temperature and k is Boltzmann’s
constant) is,
1 3
 a 2 mkT  a 2 mkT
(a) one (b) zero (c) e 2
(d) e 2

Ans: (c)
  

   f  p , p , p e dpx dp y dpz where f  px , p y , pz  is Maxwell probability


   
Solution:  e p.a   x y z
p .a

  

distribution at temperature T.
 p x2  p 2y  p z2
    
 Ae  Ae  Ae
py ay
e  
p.a
x
2 mkT
e px ax
dpx y
2 mkT
e dp y z
2 mkT
e pz az dpz
  

 ( a x2  a 2y  a z2 ) mkT  ( px  mkTax )2  ( p y  mkTa y )2  ( pz  mkTa z )2


    
e   e  Ae dx  Ay e dy  Ax e
p.a 2 2 mkT 2 mkT 2 mkT
x
  

 ( ax2  a 2y  a z2 ) mkT 1
   a 2 mkT
e p .a
e 2
.1.1.1 = e 2

Common Data for Questions 22 and 23: There are four energy levels E , 2E , 3 E and
4 E (where E  0 ). The canonical partition function of two particles is, if these particles
are
Q22. Two identical fermions

                                                                                
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2 E 4 E 6 E 8 E
(a) e e e e
(b) e 3 E  e 4 E  e 5 E  e 6 E  e 7 E

(c) e  E  e  2 E  e 3 E  e  4 E 
2

(d) e 2 E  e 4 E  e 6 E  e 8 E
Ans: (b)
Solution: The possible value of Energy for two Fermions
E1  3E, E2  4 E , E3  5E, E4  6 E , E5  7 E

The partition function is Z  e 3E  e 4 E  2e 5 E  e 6 E  e 7 E


Q23. Two distinguishable particles
(a) e 2 E  e 4 E  e 6 E  e 8 E
(b) e 3 E  e 4 E  e 5 E  e 6 E  e 7 E

(c) e  E  e  2 E  e 3 E  e  4 E 
2

(d) e 2 E  e 4 E  e 6 E  e 8 E
Ans: (c)
Solution: When two particles are distinguishable then minimum value of Energy is 2 E and
maximum value is 8 E .

So from checking all four options Z  e  E  e 2 E  e 3 E  e 4 E 


2

GATE 2014

Q24. For a gas under isothermal condition its pressure p varies with volume V as P  V 5 / 3 .
The bulk modules B is proportional to
(a) V 1 / 2 (b) V 2 / 3 (c) V 3 / 5 (d) V 5 / 3
Ans: (d)
dP
Solution: P  KV 5 / 3 , B  V B  V 5 / 3
dV
Q25. At a given temperature T , the average energy per particle of a non-interacting gas of
two-dimensional classical harmonic oscillators is _________ k B T

                                                                                
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( k B is the Boltzmann constant)

Ans: 2k B T
Q26. Which one of the following is a fermion?
(a)  particle (b) 4 Be 2 nucleus
(c) Hydrogen atom (d) deuteron
Ans (d)
Solution: Total number of particles: P  N  E  3
Q27. For a free electron gas in two dimensions the variations of the density of states. N E  as a
function of energy E , is best represented by
(a) (b)

N E  N E 

E E

(c) (d)

N E  N E 

E E

ans (c)
N E   E 0
Q28. For a system of two bosons each of which can occupy any of the two energy levels 0 and
1
 the mean energy of the system at temperature T with   is given by
k T

                                                                                
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  2  
e  2 e 1   e  
(a) (b)
1  2e     e  2   2e     e  2  
2 e     e 2    e     2 e 2  
(c) (d)
2  e    e 2   2  e    e  2  
if both particle will in ground state the energy will 0 which is non degenerate
if one particle is in ground state and other is in first excited state then energy is  and
non degenerate
if both particle will in first excited state the energy will 2 which is non degenerate
then partition function is Z  1  exp   exp 2
exp    2 exp  2 
average value of energy
1  exp    exp  2 
no one ans. is correct .
Q29. Consider a system of 3 fermions which can occupy any of the 4 available energy states
with equal probability. The entropy of the system is
(a) k B ln 2 (b) 2k B ln 2 (c) 2k B ln 4 (d) 3k B ln 4
Ans: (b)
Solution: Number of ways that 3 fermions will adjust in 4 available energy is 4
C3  4 so

entropy is k B ln 4 = 2k B ln 2
GATE 2015
Q30. In Boss-Einstein condensates, the particles
(a) have strong interparticle attraction
(b) condense in real space
(c) have overlapping wavefunctions
(d) have large and positive chemical potential
Ans.: (c)
Solution: In Bose- Einstein condensates, the particles have overlapping wave function.

                                                                                
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Q31. For a black body radiation in a cavity, photons are created and annihilated freely as a
result of emission and absorption by the walls of the cavity. This is because
(a) the chemical potential of the photons is zero
(b) photons obey Pauli exclusion principle
(c) photons are spin-1 particles
(d) the entropy of the photons is very large
Ans.: (a)
Solution: The chemical potential of photon is zero
1
Q32. Consider a system of N non-interacting spin  particles, each having a magnetic
2

moment  , is in a magnetic field B  Bzˆ . If E is the total energy of the system, the
number of accessible microstates  is given by
 E 
 N  !
N! B 
(a)   (b)   
1 E  1 E   E 
 N   !  N  !  N  !
2 B  2  B   B 

1 E  1 E  N!
(c)    N  !  N  ! (d)  
2 B  2  B   E 
 N  !
 B 
Ans.: (a)
1
Solution: Number of microstate is N
Cn1 where n1 is number of particle in  state and
2
n2  N  n1 is

1
Number of state in  state.
2
1 E  1 E 
n1   N   , n2   N 
2 B  2  B 
N
So number of microstate is
1 E  1 E 
 N   N
2 B  2   B 

                                                                                
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Q33. The average energy U of a one dimensional quantum oscillator of frequency  and in
contact with a heat bath at temperature T is given by
1 1  1 1 
(a) U   coth    (b) U   sinh    
2 2  2 2 
1 1  1 1 
(c) U   tanh    (d) U   cosh   
2 2  2 2 
Ans.: (a)
  1
 Ei    n   
 1 1
Solution:  Z   e  e  2
where E   n     Z 
0  2    
2sinh  
 2 
 
   1      
U  ln Z  U   ln   U  coth  
        2  2 
2sinh  
  2  
Q34. The entropy of a gas containing N particles enclosed in a volume V is given by
 aVE 3 / 2 
S  Nk B ln  , where E is the total energy, a is a constant and k B is the
 N
5/ 2

Boltzmann constant. The chemical potential  of the system at a temperature T is given
by
  aVE 3 / 2  5   aVE 3 / 2  3
(a)    k B T ln    (b)    k B T ln   
  N   N
5/ 2 5/ 2
 2  2

  aVE 3/ 2  5    aVE 3 / 2  3
(c)   k BT ln  3/ 2 
  (d)   k B T ln   
  N   N
3/ 2
 2  2
Ans.: (a)
 3
  3

 G   aVE 2
  S  Nk ln  aVE 2

Solution:     S   Nk ln
 T  P
B  5  B  5 
 N2   N2 
   

                                                                                
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Near IIT, Hauz Khas, New Delhi‐16  28‐B/6, Jia Sarai, Near IIT 
 
Phone: 011‐26865455/+91‐9871145498 Hauz Khas, New Delhi‐16 
                                                   
                                             Website: www.physicsbyfiziks.com                                                                                          
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 3

 aVE 
2

 G   Nk BT ln  5
  ln A
N2
  3
  5 
  aVE 2
 5
 3
 G     N 2  2 
      k BT ln  Nk BT . aVE 2 
 N 
5 3 7 
 N2 aVE 2 N 2 
 

  3
 
aVE
    k BT ln    5
2

 5  2
 
  N  
2

GATE-2016
Q35. The total power emitted by a spherical black body of radius R at a temperature T is P1 .
R
Let P2 be the total power emitted by another spherical black body of radius kept at
2
P1
temperature 2T . The ratio, is _______. (Give your answer upto two decimal places)
P2
Ans.: 0.25

p1 R12T14 R 2T 4 4 1
Solution: p  AT   2 4  4
   0.25
p2 R2 T2  R  2
16 4
   2T 
4

2
Q36. The entropy S of a system of N spins, which may align either in the upward or in the
downward direction, is given by S   k B N  p ln p  1  p  In(1  p)  . Here k B is the

Boltzmann constant. The probability of alignment in the upward direction is p. The value
of p, at which the entropy is maximum, is _______. (Give your answer upto one decimal
place)
Ans.: 0.5
Solution: S   k B N  p ln p  1  p  In(1  p) 

                                                                                
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dS 1 1
For maximum entropy  0  ln p  p   ln 1  p   1  p    1  0
dp p 1 p

 p 
ln p  1  ln 1  p   1  0  ln    0  p  1  p  p  0.5
 1 p 
Q37. For a system at constant temperature and volume, which of the following statements is
correct at equilibrium?
(a) The Helmholtz free energy attains a local minimum.
(b) The Helmholtz free energy attains a local maximum.
(c) The Gibbs free energy attains a local minimum.
(d) The Gibbs free energy attains a local maximum.
Ans.: (a)
Solution: dF   SdT  PdV
Q38. N atoms of an ideal gas are enclosed in a container of volume V . The volume of the
container is changed to 4V , while keeping the total energy constant. The change in the
entropy of the gas, in units of Nk B ln 2 , is _______, where k B is the Boltzmann constant.
Ans.: 2
1
Solution: S1   Nk B ln1 S2   Nk B ln
4
S  S2  S1  Nk B ln 4  2 Nk B ln 2

Q39. Consider a system having three energy levels with energies 0, 2 and 3 ,with
respective degeneracies of 2,2 and 3 . Four bosons of spin zero have to be
accommodated in these levels such that the total energy of the system is 10  . The
number of ways in which it can be done is ______.
Ans.: 18
Solution: The system have energy 10  if out of four boson two boson are in energy level
2 and two boson are in energy level 3 and
ni  gi  1
W  n1  2, g1  2 and n2  2, g 2  3
i ni gi  1

                                                                                
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2  2 1 2  3 1
  3  6  18
2 2 1 2 3 1
Q40. A two-level system has energies zero and E . The level with zero energy is non-
degenerate, while the level with energy E is triply degenerate. The mean energy of a
classical particle in this system at a temperature T is
E E E E
k BT k BT k BT k BT
Ee Ee 3Ee 3Ee
(a) E
(b) E
(c) E
(d) E

1  3e k BT
1 e k BT
1 e k BT
1  3e k BT
Ans.: (d)
Ei
 0 E E
 gi Ei e kT  
k BT
0e kT  3 E  e kT 3Ee
Solution: E  i
E
 0 E
 E
 i  
 gi e kT e kT  3  e kT 1  3e k BT
i

GATE-2017

Q41. Consider a triatomic molecule of the shape shown in the figure in three
dimensions. The heat capacity of this molecule at high temperature
(temperature much higher than the vibrational and rotational energy scales
of the molecule but lower than its bond dissociation energies) is:
3 9
(a) kB (b) 3k B (c) kB (d) 6k B
2 2
Ans. : (d)
Solution: If given molecule are low temperature i.e. atoms are attached to rigid rod then degree
6 k BT
of freedom is 6 so internal energy is is but at high temperature vibration mode
2
will active so there are three extra vibration mode will active so total enegy
U  3k BT  3k BT  6k BT

 U 
CV     6k B
 T V

                                                                                
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Q42. A reversible Cannot engine is operated between temperatures T1 and T2 T2  T1  with a

photon gas as the working substance. The efficiency of the engine is


3/ 4 4/3
3T T T  T 
(a) 1  1 (b) 1  1 (c) 1   1  (d) 1   1 
4T2 T2  T2   T2 
Ans. : (b)
Solution: Efficiency of carnot enegine does not depends on nature of working substance rather
depends on temperature of source and sink
T1
  1
T2

Q43. Water freezes at 00 C at atmospheric pressure 1.01 105 Pa  . The densities of water and

ice at this temperature and pressure are 1000 kg / m3 and 934 kg / m3 respectively. The

latent heat of fusion is 3.34 105 J / kg . The pressure required for depressing the melting

temperature of ice by 100 C is…………… GPa . (up to two decimal places)


Ans. : 1105
p2
 dP  L L T2 dT L T
Solution:      dP    P2  P1  ln 2
 dT V T  v2  v1  P1  v2  v1  T1 T  v2  v1  T1
L T
 P2  P1  ln 2  1 105
 v2  v1  T1
Q44. Consider N non- interacting, distinguishable particles in a two-level system at
temperature T . The energies of the levels are 0 and  , where   0 . In the high
temperature limit  k BT    , what is the population of particles in the level with energy

?
N N 3N
(a) (b) N (c) (d)
2 4 4
Ans. : (a)

                                                                                
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exp 
Solution: P     kT population of particle in the level with energy  is

1  exp
kT
 
exp exp
kT kT 1 N
NP     N for  k BT    NP     N N 
  11 2
1  exp 1  exp
kT kT
u
Q45. The energy density and pressure of a photon gas are given by u  aT 4 and P  . Where
3
T is the temperature and a is the radiation constant. The entropy per unit volume is given
by  aT 3 . The value of  is…………… (up to two decimal places)
Ans. : 1.33
 S   U 
Solution: TdS  dU  PdV  T     P
 V T  V T

 S  1  U  P aT 4 aT 4 4 3
         aT  1.33
 V T T  V T T T 3T 3
Q46. Consider two particles and two non-degenerate quantum levels 1 and 2. Level 1 always
contains a particle. Hence, what is the probability that level 2 also contains a particle for
each of the two cases:
(i) when the two particles are distinguishable and (ii) when the two particles are bosons?
1 1 1 1
(a) (i) and (ii) (b) (i) and (ii)
2 3 2 2
2 1
(c) (i) and (ii) (d) (i) 1 and (ii) 0
3 2
Ans. : (c) A
B
2
Solution: A B AB For distinguishable h So
3

A
1
A AA For indistinguishable h So
2

                                                                                
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ELECTRONICS SOLUTIONS

GATE-2010
Q1. The voltage resolution of a 12-bit digital to analog converter (DAC), whose output varies
from  10 V to  10 V is, approximately
(a) 1 mV (b) 5 mV (c) 20 mV (d) 100 mV
Ans: (b)
20V
Solution: Voltage resolution=  4.8 mV
212  1
Q2. The figure shows a constant current source charging a capacitor that is initially
uncharged. Vout

If the switch is closed at t = 0, which of the following plots depicts correctly the output
voltage of the circuit as a function of time?
(a) (b)

Vout Vout

t t
(c) (d)

Vout Vout

t t

Ans: (d)
CdV0 I
Solution: I 0   V0  0 t
dt C

                                                                                
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Q3. In one of the following circuits, negative feedback does not operate for a negative input.
Which one is it? The opamps are running from ± 15 V supplies.
(a) (b)
 

 

(c) (d)
 

 

Ans: (c)
Q4. For any set of inputs, A and B, the following circuits give the same output, Q, except one.
Which one is it?
(a)  (b) 
Q
 Q 

(c)  (d) 
Q
 Q 

Ans: (d)

                                                                                
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GATE-2011

Q5. Which of the following statements is CORRECT for a common emitter amplifier
circuit?
(a) The output is taken from the emitter
(b) There is 180o phase shift between input and output voltages
(c) There is no phase shift between input and output voltages
(d) Both p-n junctions are forward biased
Ans: (b)
Q6. For an intrinsic semiconductor, me* and mh* are respectively the effective masses of
electrons and holes near the corresponding band edges. At a finite temperature the
position of the Fermi level
(a) depends on me* but not on mh* (b) depends on mh* but not on me*
(c) depends on both me* and mh* (d) depends neither on me* nor on mh*
Ans: (c)
Q7. In the following circuit, the voltage across and the current through the 2 kΩ resistance are

500 1k

20V 10V
2k
30V

(a) 20 V, 10 mA (b) 20 V, 5 mA (c) 10 V, 10 mA (d) 10 V, 5 mA


Ans: (d)

                                                                                
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Q8. In the following circuit, Tr1 and Tr2 are identical transistors having VBE = 0.7 V. The
current passing through the transistor Tr2 is

100
Tr2
5V

Tr1

(a) 57 mA (b) 50 mA (c) 48 mA (d) 43 mA


Ans: (d)
5  0.7
Solution: Current through 100 , I   43 mA
100
I  I C  2 I B  I C  43 mA .
Q9. The following Boolean expression
Y  A  B  C  D  A  B  C  D  A  B  C  D  A  B  C  D  A  B  C  D  A  B  C  D can
be simplified to
(a) A  B  C  A  D (b) A  B  C  A  D
(c) A  B  C  A  D (d) A  B  C  A  D
Ans: (c)
CD CD CD CD
AD
AB 1 1
AB 1 1
AB
AB 1 1

AB C

                                                                                
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Q10. Consider the following circuit 1k 4k
 10V

 Vout
Vin
 10V
Which of the following correctly represents the output Vout corresponding to the input
Vin?
 5V  5V
(a) (b)
 2V  2V
Vin Vin
 2V time  2V time
 5V  5V

 10V
 10V Vout
Vout time
- 10V
time
- 10V

(c)  5V (d)
 5V
 2V
Vin  2V
 2V time Vin
 2V time
 5V
 5V

 10V
 10V
Vout
Vout
time
time - 10V
- 10V

Ans: (a)
 1   1 
Solution: Vut     10  2V , Vlt     10  2V .
1 4  1 4 
                                                                                
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GATE-2012
Q11. If the peak output voltage of a full wave rectifier is 10 V, its d.c. voltage is
(a) 10.0 V (b) 7.07 V (c) 6.36 V (d) 3.18 V
Ans: (c)
2Vm 2  10 14  10 70
Solution: Vdc      6.36V
 22 / 7 22 11
Q12. A Ge semiconductor is doped with acceptor impurity concentration of 1015 atoms/cm3.
For the given hole mobility of 1800 cm2/V-s, the resistivity of the material is
(a) 0.288 Ω cm (b) 0.694 Ω cm (c) 3.472 Ω cm (d) 6.944 Ω cm
Ans: (c)
1 1 1
Solution:     15  3.47 cm
 N A e u h 10  1.6  10 19  1800
Q13. Identify the CORRECT energy band diagram for silcon doped with Arsenic. Here CB,
VB, ED and EF are conduction band, valence band, impurity level and Fermi level,
respectively.
(a) (b)
CB CB
ED
ED
EF
EF

VB VB

(c) (d)
CB CB

EF EF
ED ED
VB VB

Ans: (b)
Solution: N-type material ( Si doped with AS ).
                                                                                
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 10V
Q14. Consider the following OP-AMP circuit
Which one of the following correctly represents the Vin 

output Vout corresponding to the input Vin? 5V Vout



4k
- 10V
1k

(a) (b)
 5V  5V
Vin Vin
 1V  1V
0V t 0V t

 10V  10V
Vout Vout

t t

 10V  10V
(c) (d)
 5V  5V
Vin Vin

0V t 0V t

 10V  10V
Vout Vout

t t

 10V  10V

Ans: (a)
 1 
Solution: Voltage at inverting input V2     5  1V .
1 4 
When vin  1V , v0  VCC and when vin  1V , v0  VCC
                                                                                
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Phone: 011‐26865455/+91‐9871145498 Hauz Khas, New Delhi‐16 
                                                   
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fiziks
Institute for NET/JRF, GATE, IIT‐JAM, JEST, TIFR and GRE in PHYSICAL SCIENCES 
 
Q15. In the following circuit, for the output voltage to be V0   V1  V2 / 2  the ratio R1/R2 is
(a) 1/2 R

(b) 1  VCC
R
(c) 2 V1 

Vo
(d) 3 
V2
R1
- VCC
Ans: (d) R2

Solution: When V2  0, v01  V1

 R   R2 
when V1  0, v02  1     V2
 R   R1  R2 
V2 R2 1 R
Since V0  V1   2   1 3
2 R1  R2 2 R2
Q16. In the following circuit, the voltage drop across the ideal diode in forward bias condition
is 0.7V. The current passing through the diode is
(a) 0.5 mA
12k
(b) 1.0 mA
 24 Volt

(c) 1.5 mA 

(d) 2.0 mA 6k 3.3 k

Ans: (b)
Solution: Let current through 12k is I and through diode is I D
Then 0 .7  I D  3 .3   I  I D   6 (1)
and  24  I  12  I  I D   6  0 (2)
From (1) and (2) I D  1mA.

                                                                                
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Phone: 011‐26865455/+91‐9871145498 Hauz Khas, New Delhi‐16 
                                                   
                                             Website: www.physicsbyfiziks.com                                                                                          
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fiziks
Institute for NET/JRF, GATE, IIT‐JAM, JEST, TIFR and GRE in PHYSICAL SCIENCES 
 
Q17. Consider the following circuit in which the current gain βdc of the transistor is 100.
 15 V

100 k 900 

100 

Which one of the following correctly represents the load line (collector current IC with
respect to collector-emitter voltage VCE) and Q-point of this circuit?
(a) (b)
15 mA Q - point 13 mA Q - point
(2 V, 13 mA) (2 V, 10 mA)
IC →

IC →

VCE  15 V VCE  15 V

(c) (d)
15 mA 13 mA
Q - point Q - point
(7.5 V, 7.5 mA) (7.5 V, 6.5 mA)
IC →

IC →

VCE  15 V VCE  15 V

Ans: (a)
VCC  V BE 15  0.7 14.3
Solution: I B    mA.
RB  RE 100  10  100 100
3

I C  I B  14.3mA  13mA , VCE  VCC  I C RC  RE   15  900  100  13  10 3  2V .

VCC 15
I C , Sat    15 mA.
R C  R E 1000
                                                                                
Head office  Branch office 
 
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Phone: 011‐26865455/+91‐9871145498 Hauz Khas, New Delhi‐16 
                                                   
                                             Website: www.physicsbyfiziks.com                                                                                          
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fiziks
Institute for NET/JRF, GATE, IIT‐JAM, JEST, TIFR and GRE in PHYSICAL SCIENCES 
 
GATE-2013
Q18. What should be the clock frequency of a 6  bit A / D converter so that its maximum
conserved time is 32s ?
(a) 1 MHz (b) 2 MHz (c) 0.5 MHz (d) 4 MHz
Ans: (c)
Q19. A phosphorous doped silicon semiconductor (doping density: 1017/cm3) is heated from
100C to 200C. Which one of the following statements is CORRECT?
(a) Position of Fermi level moves towards conduction band
(b) Position of dopant level moves towards conduction band
(c) Position of Fermi level moves towards middle of energy gap
(d) Position of dopant level moves towards middle of energy gap
Ans: (c)

Statement for Linked Answer Questions 20 and 21:


Consider the following circuit
Q20. For this circuit the frequency above which the gain will decrease by 20 dB per decade is
(a) 15.9 kHz (b) 1.2kHz 10 k 
Vin  
(c) 5.6 kHz (d) 22.5 kHz
Vout 
1000pF 
Ans: (a)
1 1 k
Solution: f H   16kHz
2RC

2 k
Q21. At 1.2 kHz the closed loop gain is
(a) 1 (b) 1.5 (c) 3 (d) 0.5
1  R F 
v0  R1 

Ans: (b)   1 .5
v in 2
1   f 

 fH 

                                                                                
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Phone: 011‐26865455/+91‐9871145498 Hauz Khas, New Delhi‐16 
                                                   
                                             Website: www.physicsbyfiziks.com                                                                                          
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fiziks
Institute for NET/JRF, GATE, IIT‐JAM, JEST, TIFR and GRE in PHYSICAL SCIENCES 
 
GATE-2014
Q22. The input given to an ideal OP-AMP integrator circuit is
V

V0

t
t0
The correct output of the integrator circuit is
(a) V (b) V

V0 V0

t0 t t0 t

(c) V (d) V

V0
V0
t0 t
t0 t
Ans: (a)
Q23. The minimum number of flip-flops required to construct a mod-75 counter is
__________
Ans: 7
Q24. The donor concentration in a sample of n -type silicon is increased by a factor of 100.
The shift in the position of the Fermi level at 300K, assuming the sample to non
degenerate is ________ meV
k BT  25meV at 300 K 
Ans: 115.15
N   Nc   Nc 
Solution: EC  EF  kT ln  c  and EC  EF  kT ln    kT ln    kT ln 100 
 Nd   100 N d   Nd 
Thus shift is E  kT ln 100   25ln 100  meV  115.15 meV

                                                                                
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Phone: 011‐26865455/+91‐9871145498 Hauz Khas, New Delhi‐16 
                                                   
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fiziks
Institute for NET/JRF, GATE, IIT‐JAM, JEST, TIFR and GRE in PHYSICAL SCIENCES 
 
Q25. The current gain of the transistor in the following circuit is  dc  100 . The value of

collector current I C is_________ mA 12V

3k  20  F
V0
150 k 
Vi
20  F

3k 

Ans: 1.6
VCC  VBE 12  0
Solution: I B    0.016 mA  I C   I B  1.6 mA
RB    RC  RE  150  100  3  3

Q26. In order to measure a maximum of 1V with a resolution of 1mV using a n  bit


A
converter working under the principle of ladder network the minimum value of n is
D
___________
Ans: 10
1
Solution: 1103   n  10
2 1 n

Q27. A low pass fliter is formed by a resistance R and a capacitance C . At the cut-off angular
1
frequency C  the voltage gain and the phase of the output voltage relative to the
RC
input voltage respectively are
(a) 0.71and 45 o (b) 0.71and  45 o (c) 0.5 and  90 o (d) 0.5 and 90 o
Ans: (b)
v0 XC 1 1
Solution:   
 1 1  jCR
vin R  X C R
XC
1 v 1 1 1  j 450
At   C   0   0  e
RC vin 1 j 2e j 45 2

                                                                                
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Phone: 011‐26865455/+91‐9871145498 Hauz Khas, New Delhi‐16 
                                                   
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Institute for NET/JRF, GATE, IIT‐JAM, JEST, TIFR and GRE in PHYSICAL SCIENCES 
 
GATE-2015
Q28. The band gap of an intrinsic semiconductor is E g  0.72 eV and mn*  6m*g . At 300 K ,

the Fermi level with respect to the edge of the valence band (in eV ) is at _______(upto
three decimal places) k B  1.38  10 23 JK 1
Ans.: 0.395
Ec  E 3  m* 
Solution: Ei   kT ln  h* 
2 4  mn 
  Ei  Ev  / kT  Eg / 2 kT
ni  NV e  Nc Nv e

  Ei  Ev  / kT N c  Eg / 2 kT N v Eg / 2 kT
 e i v  
E  E / kT
e  e e
Nv Nc
3
Ei  Ev  N v  Eg  mh*  4 Eg 3 E
 ln     ln  *   Ei  Ev  kT ln  6   g
kT  N c  2kT  me  2kT 4 2

3 0.72
 Ei  Ev   0.026 1.7917   0.3949eV  0.395 eV
4 2
Q29. Which one of the following DOES NOT represent an exclusive OR operation for inputs
A and B ?
(a)  A  B AB (b) AB  BA

(c)  A  B A  B  (d)  A  B AB


Ans.: (d)
Solution: (a) ( A  B) AB  ( A  B)( A  B)  AB  AB

(b) AB  AB
(c) AB  AB
(d)  A  B  AB  AB

                                                                                
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Phone: 011‐26865455/+91‐9871145498 Hauz Khas, New Delhi‐16 
                                                   
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fiziks
Institute for NET/JRF, GATE, IIT‐JAM, JEST, TIFR and GRE in PHYSICAL SCIENCES 
 
Q30. Consider the circuit shown in the figure, where RC  1 . For an input signal Vi shown

below, choose the correct V0 from the options:


R
Vi
C
Vi 
V0 1

R

1 2 3 t

V0 V0
(a) (b)
1 1

1 2 3 t 1 2 3 t
1 1

(c) V0 (d) V
i

0 .1
1
1 2 3 t

 0 .1 3 t
1 2

Ans.: (b)
dvi 0  v0 dv dv
Solution: C   v0   RC in   in
dt R dt dt
vin  t  v0  1V and vin  t  v0  1V

                                                                                
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Phone: 011‐26865455/+91‐9871145498 Hauz Khas, New Delhi‐16 
                                                   
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fiziks
Institute for NET/JRF, GATE, IIT‐JAM, JEST, TIFR and GRE in PHYSICAL SCIENCES 
 
Q31. In the simple current source shown in the figure, Q1 and Q2 are identical transistors with
current gain   100 and VBE  0.7 V
Vice  30 V

5 k I0

Q1 Q2

The current I 0 in mA is __________ (upto two decimal places)


Ans.: 5.86
Solution: VCC  I C RC  VBE  0

30  0.7 29.3
IC    5.86 mA
5 5
Q32. In the given circuit, if the open loop gain A  10 5 the feedback configurations and the
closed loop gain A f are Vi 
V0

9 k
1 k RL

(a) series-shunt, A f  9 (b) series-series, A f  10

(c) series-shunt, A f  10 (d) shunt-shunt, A f  10

Ans.: (c)
 R 
Solution: AF  1  F   1  9   10.
 R1 

                                                                                
Head office  Branch office 
 
fiziks, H.No. 23, G.F, Jia Sarai,  Anand Institute of Mathematics, 
 
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Phone: 011‐26865455/+91‐9871145498 Hauz Khas, New Delhi‐16 
                                                   
                                             Website: www.physicsbyfiziks.com                                                                                          
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fiziks
Institute for NET/JRF, GATE, IIT‐JAM, JEST, TIFR and GRE in PHYSICAL SCIENCES 
 
Q33. In the given circuit, the voltage across the source resistor is 1 V . The drain voltage (in V )
is ___________ 25V

5k 

2 M
500 

Ans.: 15
1 1
Solution: VS  I D RS  I D  A  VD  VDD  I D RD  25   5000  VD  15V
500 500

GATE-2016
Q34. The number density of electrons in the conduction band of a semiconductor at a given
temperature is 2  1019 m 3 . Upon lightly doping this semiconductor with donor
impurities, the number density of conduction electrons at the same temperature
becomes 4  10 20 m 3 . The ratio of majority to minority charge carrier concentration is
________.
Ans : 400
Solution: Intrinsic carrier concentration is ni  2 1019 m 3

Majority carrier concentration is n  4 1020 m 3

ni2  2  10 
19 2

Minority carrier concentration is p    1018 m 3


n 4  10 20

n 4  1020
The ratio of majority to minority charge carrier concentration is   400
p 1018

                                                                                
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Phone: 011‐26865455/+91‐9871145498 Hauz Khas, New Delhi‐16 
                                                   
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Institute for NET/JRF, GATE, IIT‐JAM, JEST, TIFR and GRE in PHYSICAL SCIENCES 
 
Q35. For the digital circuit given below, the output X is

X
B
C

(a) A  B.C (b) A . B  C  (c) A . B  C  (d) A  B.C 


Ans.: (b)
Q36. For the transistor shown in the figure, assume V BE  0.7V and  dc  100 . If Vin  5V , Vout
(in Volts) is _________. (Give your answer upto one decimal place)

10V

3 k

Vin Vout

200 k 

1k 

Ans.: 5.7
Vin  VBE 5  0.7 4.3
Solution: I B    mA I C   I B  1.433 mA
RB   RE 200  100 300

Vout  VCC  I C RC  Vout  10  1.433  3  5.7 V

                                                                                
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Phone: 011‐26865455/+91‐9871145498 Hauz Khas, New Delhi‐16 
                                                   
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Institute for NET/JRF, GATE, IIT‐JAM, JEST, TIFR and GRE in PHYSICAL SCIENCES 
 
GATE-2017
Q37. The best resolution that a 7 bit A/D convertor with 5V full scale can achieve
is…………… mV . (up to two decimal places)
Ans. : 39.37
5
Solution: Resolution   39.37 mV
2 1
7

Q38. In the figure given below, the input to the primary of the transformer is a voltage varying
sinusoidally with time. The resistor R is connected to the centre tap of the secondary.
Which one of the following plots represents the voltage across the resistor R as a
function of time?
C

V V
(a) 0 (b) 0
t t

(c) V (d) V
0 0
t t

Ans. : (a)
Solution: Full wave rectifier with RC filter.
Q39. The minimum number of NAND gates required to construct an OR gate is:
(a) 2 (b) 4 (c) 5 (d) 3
Ans. : (d)

                                                                                
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Phone: 011‐26865455/+91‐9871145498 Hauz Khas, New Delhi‐16 
                                                   
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Institute for NET/JRF, GATE, IIT‐JAM, JEST, TIFR and GRE in PHYSICAL SCIENCES 
 
Q40. For the transistor amplifier circuit shown below with R1  10 k , R2  10 k , R3  1 k  ,

and   99 . Neglecting the emitter diode resistance, the input impedance of the amplifier
looking into the base for small ac signal is…………. k . (up to two decimal places)
VCC

R1
C
Vin B

E Vout
R2 R3

Ans. : 4.75
Solution: Z i  Z b  R where Z b   R3  99k  and R  R1  R2  5k 

 Z i  Z b  R  4.75k 
Q41. Consider an ideal operational amplifier as shown in the figure below with
R1  5 k , R2  1 k , RL  100 k  . For an applied input voltage V  10 mV , the current

passing through R2 is……………..  A . (up to two decimal places)




R1
V
RL
R2
Ans. : 10.0
V 10
Solution: I 2    10 A
R2 1

                                                                                
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Phone: 011‐26865455/+91‐9871145498 Hauz Khas, New Delhi‐16 
                                                   
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ATOMIC AND MOLECULAR PHYSICS SOLUTIONS

GATE-2010

Q1. To detect trace amounts of gaseous species in a mixture of gases, the preferred probing
tool is
(a) Ionization spectroscopy with X-rays (b) NMR spectroscopy
(c) ESR spectroscopy (d) Laser spectroscopy
Ans: (a)
Q2. A collection of N atoms is exposed to a strong resonant electromagnetic radiation with Ng
atoms in the ground state and Ne atoms in the excited state, such that
Ng+Ne=N. This collection of two-level atoms will have the following population
distribution:
(a) Ng << Ne (b) Ng >> Ne (c) Ng ≈ Ne ≈ N/2 (d) Ng – Ne ≈ N/2
Ans: (c)
Solution: In two level lair population inversion is possible to achieve at any power level. The
N
maximum possible situation can be N g  N e 
2
Q3. Two states of an atom have definite parities. An electric dipole transition between these
states is
(a) Allowed if both the sates have even parity
(b) Allowed if both the states have odd parity
(c) Allowed if the two states have opposite parities
(d) Not allowed unless a static electric field is applied
Ans: (c)
Q4. The spectrum of radiation emitted by a black body at a temperature 1000 K peaks in the
(a) Visible range of frequencies (b) Infrared range of frequencies
(c) Ultraviolet range of frequencies (d) Microwave range of frequencies
Ans: (a)

                                                                                
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Institute for NET/JRF, GATE, IIT‐JAM, JEST, TIFR and GRE in PHYSICAL SCIENCES 
 
Q5. The three principal moments of inertia of a methanol (CH3OH) molecule have the
property Ix = Iy = I and Iz ≠ I. The rotation energy eigenvalues are
2  2 m12  1 1  2
(a) l l  1     (b) l l  1
2I 2 I  I z I  2I

 2 m12  1 1  2  2 m12  1 1 
(c)    (d) l l  1    
2 I  I z I  2I 2  I z I 
Ans: (a)
Solution: CH 3 OH is example of symmetric rotar where I x  I y  I z ( I x  I y  I and I z  I )

The classical expression for energy is E 


1 2
2I

J x  J y2 
1 2
2I z

Jz

This can be expressed in term of J 2  J x2  J y2  J z2 by adding and subtracting J z2

1 2  1 1 
E J     J z2 .
2I  2I z 2I 
2  2 m J2  1 1 
Quantum mechanically E  J J  1    
2I 2  I z I 
Q6. Match the typical spectra of stable molecules with the corresponding wave-number range
1. Electronic spectra (i) 106 cm-1 and above
2. Rotational spectra (ii) 105 – 106 cm-1
3. Molecule dissociation (iii) 108 – 102 cm-1
(a) 1 – ii, 2 – i, 3 – iii (b) 1 – ii, 2 – iii, 3 – i
(b) 1 – iii, 2 – ii, 3 – i (d) 1 – i, 2 – ii, 3 – iii
Ans: (b)

Q7. Consider the operations P : r   r (parity) and T: t → - t (time reversal). For the electric

and magnetic fields E and B , which of the following set of transformations is correct?

(a) P : E   E , B  B; (b) P : E  E , B  B;

T : E  E, B   B T : E  E, B  B

(c) P : E   E , B  B; (d) P : E  E , B   B;

                                                                                
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Phone: 011‐26865455/+91‐9871145498 Hauz Khas, New Delhi‐16 
                                                   
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Institute for NET/JRF, GATE, IIT‐JAM, JEST, TIFR and GRE in PHYSICAL SCIENCES 
 
T : E   E, B   B T : E  E, B  B

Ans: (b)
Common Data Questions 8 and 9:
In the presence of a weak magnetic field, atomic hydrogen undergoes the transition:
2
P1 / 2 1S1 / 2 , by emission of radiation

Q8. The number of distinct spectral lines that are observed in the resultant Zeeman spectrum
is
(a) 2 (b) 3 (c) 4 (d) 6
Ans: (c)
Solution: 2 p1 / 2  2 S 1 / 2 is sodium D1 lines and it has total 4 zeeman components.
Q9. The spectral line corresponding to the transition
 1  1
2
P1  m j   1S1 / 2  m j   
2 2  2
is observed along the direction of the applied magnetic field. The emitted electromagnetic
field is
(a) Circularly polarized (b) Linearly polarized
(c) Unpolarized (d) Not emitted along the magnetic field direction
Ans: (a)
 1  1
Solution: For 2
P1  m j   1S1 / 2  m j   
2 2  2

Here m j  1 gives   component. In longitudinal observation   is circularly

polarized.
GATE-2011

Q10. The population inversion in a two layer material CANNOT be achieved by optical
pumping because
(a) the rate of upward transitions is equal to the rate of downward transitions
(b) the upward transitions are forbidden but downward transitions are allowed
(c) the upward transitions are allowed but downward transitions are forbidden
                                                                                
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Phone: 011‐26865455/+91‐9871145498 Hauz Khas, New Delhi‐16 
                                                   
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(d) the spontaneous decay rate of the higher level is very low
Ans: (a)
Q11. A heavy symmetrical top is rotating about its own axis of symmetry (the z-axis). If I1, I2
and I3 are the principal moments of inertia along x, y and z axes respectively, then
(a) I2 = I3; I1 ≠ I2 (b) I1 = I3; I1 ≠ I2 (c) I1 = I2; I1 ≠ I3 (d) I1 ≠ I2 ≠ I3
Ans: (c)
Q12. A neutron passing through a detector is detected because of
(a) the ionization it produces (b) the scintillation light it produces
(c) the electron-hole pairs it produces
(d) the secondary particles produced in a nuclear reaction in the detector medium
Ans: (b)
Q13. An atom with one outer electron having orbital angular momentum l is placed in a weak
magnetic field. The number of energy levels into which the higher total angular
momentum state splits, is
(a) 2l + 2 (b) 2l + 1 (c) 2l (d) 2l – 1
Ans: (b)
Q14. For a multi-electron atom l, L and S specify the one-electron orbital angular momentum,
total orbital angular momentum and total spin angular momentum, respectively. The
selection rules for electric dipole transition between the two electronic energy levels,
specified by l, L and S are
(a) ∆L = 0, ±1; ∆S = 0; ∆l = 0, ±1 (b) ∆L = 0, ±1; ∆S = 0; ∆l = ±1
(c) ∆L = 0, ±1; ∆S = ±1; ∆l = 0, ±1 (d) ∆L = 0, ±1; ∆S = ±1; ∆l = ±1
Ans: (b)
Q15. The lifetime of an atomic state is 1 nanosecond. The natural line width of the spectral line
in the emission spectrum of this state is of the order of
(a) 10-10 eV (b) 10-9 eV (c) 10-6 eV (d) 10-4 eV
Ans: (c)
h 6.625  10 34 J  S 6.625  10 25
Solution: E  h   9
 19
eV  4.14  10 6 eV
t 10 1.6  10

                                                                                
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Phone: 011‐26865455/+91‐9871145498 Hauz Khas, New Delhi‐16 
                                                   
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Institute for NET/JRF, GATE, IIT‐JAM, JEST, TIFR and GRE in PHYSICAL SCIENCES 
 
Q16. The degeneracy of an excited state of nitrogen atom having electronic configuration
1s22s22p23d1 is
(a) 6 (b) 10 (c) 15 (d) 150
Ans: (b)
Solution: Degeneracy = 2 (2l + 1)
Q17. The far infrared rotational absorption spectrum of a diatomic molecule shows equilibrium
lines with spacing 20 cm-1. The position of the first Stokes line in the rotational Raman
spectrum of this molecule is
(a) 20 cm-1 (b) 40 cm-1 (c) 60 cm-1 (d) 120 cm-1
Ans: (c)
Solution: Given 2B = 20 cm-1  B = 10 cm-1
The position of the first stokes line in the rotational Raman spectrum = 6B
   6 B  6  10  60 cm 1 .
GATE-2012
Q18. The ground state of sodium atom ( 11 Na ) is a 2 S1 / 2 state. The difference in energy levels
arising in the presence of a weak external magnetic field B, given in terms of Bohr
magnet on,  B , is
(a)  B B (b) 2  B B (c) 4  B B (d) 6  B B
Ans: (b)
Solution: The energy separation in the Zeeman level is E  gM J  B B 

1
For 2 S1 / 2 state; g  2 and M J   . Therefore E1   B B  and E 2   B B  .
2
Thus E  2  B B
Q19. The first Stokes line of a rotational Raman spectrum is observed at 12.96 cm-1.
Considering the rigid rotor approximation, the rotational constant is given by
(a) 6.48 cm-1 (b) 3.24 cm-1 (c) 2.16 cm-1 (d) 1.62 cm-1
Ans: (c)
Solution: The first Stoke line of the Rotational Raman spectrum lies at = 6B

                                                                                
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Phone: 011‐26865455/+91‐9871145498 Hauz Khas, New Delhi‐16 
                                                   
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1 1
Thus 6 B  12.96 cm  B  1.16 cm .
Q20. Match the typical spectroscopic regions specified in Group I with the corresponding type
of transitions in Group II.
Group I Group II
(P) Infra-red region (i) electronic transitions involving valence electrons
(Q) Ultraviolet-visible region (ii) nuclear transitions
(R) X-ray region (iii) vibrational transitions of molecules
(S) γ-ray region (iv) transitions involving inner shell electrons
(a) (P, i); (Q, iii); (R, ii); (S, iv) (b) (P, ii); (Q, iv); (R, i); (S, iii)
(c) (P, iii); (Q, i); (R, iv); (S, ii) (d) (P, iv); (Q, i); (R, ii); (S, iii)
Ans: (c)
Q21. The term  j1 , j 2 J arising from 2s1 3d 1 electronic in j-j coupling scheme are

1 3  1 5  1 1  1 3
(a)  ,  and  ,  (b)  ,  and  , 
 2 2  2,1  2 2  3, 2  2 2 1, 0  2 2  2,1

1 1  1 5  3 1 1 5 
(c)  ,  and  ,  (d)  ,  and  , 
 2 2 1,0  2 2  3, 2  2 2  2,1  2 2  3, 2
Ans: (c)
Q22. The equilibrium vibration frequency for an oscillator is observed at 2990 cm-1. The ratio
of the frequencies corresponding to the first and the fundamental spectral lines is 1.96.
Considering the oscillator to be anharmonic, the anharmonicity constant is
(a) 0.005 (b) 0.02 (c) 0.05 (d) 0.1
Ans: (b)
2 e 1  3 xe  1  3xe 
Solution:  e 1  2 xe   2990cm 1 and  1.96cm 1   0.98cm 1
 e 1  2 xe  1  2 xe 
 xe  0.02 .

                                                                                
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Phone: 011‐26865455/+91‐9871145498 Hauz Khas, New Delhi‐16 
                                                   
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GATE-2013
Q23. The number of spectral lines allowed in the spectrum for the 3 2 D  3 2 P transition in
sodium is _____________.
Ans: 28
Solution: The numbers of Zeeman components for 2D5/2 → 2P3/2 transition = 12
The numbers of Zeeman components for 2D3/2 → 2P3/2 transition = 10
The numbers of Zeeman components for 2D3/2 → 2P1/2 transition = 6
Q24. In a normal Zeeman Effect experiment, spectral splitting of the line at the wavelength
643.8 nm corresponding to the transition 5 1 D2  5 1 P1 of cadmium atoms is to be
observed. The spectrometer has a resolution of 0.01 nm. Minimum magnetic field needed

to observe this is me  9.1  10 31 kg , e  1.6  19 C , c  3  10 8 m / s 
(a) 0.26T (b) 0.52T (c) 2.6T (d) 5.2T
Ans: (b)
Solution: Separation of Zeeman Components
eB 2 2 eB
      
4m c c 4m
4mc  4  3.14  9.1  10 31  3  10 8 0.01  10 9
B   0.514T
e 2 1.6  10 19 643.8  10 9
2
 
Q25. The spacing between vibrational energy levels in CO molecule is found to
be 8.44  10 2 eV . Given that the reduced mass of CO is 1.14  10 26 kg , Planck’s constant

is 6.626  10 34 Js and 1 eV  1.6  10 19 J . The force constant of the bond in CO
molecule is
(a) 1.87 N/m (b) 18.7 N/m (c) 187 N/m (d) 1870 N/m
Ans: (c)
Solution: The energy of the quantum harmonic oscillator is
 1
E  h  n  , n  0,1,2,........
 2
1 k
The frequency of oscillation is   .
2 
                                                                                
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Phone: 011‐26865455/+91‐9871145498 Hauz Khas, New Delhi‐16 
                                                   
                                             Website: www.physicsbyfiziks.com                                                                                          
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Where k = Spring constant and  = reduced mass
h k
The energy levels are equally spaced with energy separation of E  h 
2 
2 2
 2   2  3.14 
k  E     34
 8.44  10  2  1.6  10 19   1.14  10  26  186.7 N / m
 h   6.626  10 
GATE-2014
Q26. The number of normal Zeeman splitting components of 1 P  1D transition is
(a) 3 (b) 4 (c) 8 (d) 9
Ans: (a)
Solution: This is singlet transition.
Q27. The moment of inertia of a rigid diatomic molecule A is 6 times that of another rigid
diatomic molecule B . If the rotational energies of the two molecules are equal, then the
corresponding values of the rotational quantum numbers J A and J B are
(a) J A  2, J B  1 (b) J A  3, J B  1
(c) J A  5, J B  0 (d) J A  6, J B  1
Ans: (b)
J A  J A  1 I B I
Solution:   B
J B  J B  1 I A 6I B

J A  6, J B  1
Q28. The value of the magnetic field required to maintain non-relativistic protons of energy
1MeV in a circular orbit of radius 100mm is_______Tesla
(Given: m p  1.67  10 27 kg . e  1.6  10 19 C )

Ans: 1.44

mv 2 1 2mE
Solution:  qvB, E  mv 2  B   1.44
r 2 qr

                                                                                
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3
Q29. Neutrons moving with speed 10 m / s are used for the determination of crystal structure.

If the Bragg angle for the first order diffraction is 30 o the interplannar spacing of the
0
crystal is ______ A
(Given: mn  1.675  1027 kg h  6.626 1034 J .s )
Ans: 4
h 0
Solution: 2d sin     d  4 A
mv
Q30. The emission wavelength for the transition D2  F3 is 3122 Ǻ. The ratio of population

of the final to the initial states at a temperature 5000 K is


h  6.626  10 34
J .s, c  3  10 8 m / s k B  1.380  10 23 J / K 

(a) 2.03  10 5 (b) 4.02  10 5 (c) 7.02  10 5 (d) 9.83  10 5


Ans: (c)

N F  2 J f  1   kBT 5 9.227641144
hc

Solution:  e  e  7.02 105


NI  2 J i  1 7

GATE-2015
Q31. In a rigid rotator of mass M , if the energy of the first excited state is ( 1 meV ), then the
fourth excited state energy (in meV ) is ____________.
Ans.: 6
Solution:  E  J  J  1 where J  0,1, 2,3..

E4 3  3  1
   E4  6 E1  6 meV where J  0,1, 2,3..
E1 11  1
Q32. The binding energy per molecule of NaCl (lattice parameter is 0.563 nm ) is 7.956 eV .
K
The repulsive term of the potential is of the form , where K is a constant. The value
r9
of the Madelung constant is ___________ (upto three decimal places)
(Electron charge e  1.6  10 19 C ;  0  8.854  10 12 C 2 N 1 m 2 )
Ans.: 1.68
                                                                                
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Phone: 011‐26865455/+91‐9871145498 Hauz Khas, New Delhi‐16 
                                                   
                                             Website: www.physicsbyfiziks.com                                                                                          
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Solution: The total energy of one ion due to the presence of all others in NaCl crystal is
(considering univalent ions)
Ae2 K
U r     n where A is Modelung Constant.
4 0 r r

The potential energy will be minimum at the equilibrium spacing r0 .

 dU   Ae 2 Kn  Ae2 r0n 1
Thus     n 1 
 0  K 
 dr  r  r0  4 0 r0 r0  4 0 n
2

Thus, Binding energy of molecule or lattice energy is

Ae 2 Ae2 r0n 1  Ae 2   n  1 
U 0  U r  r      
0
4 0 r0 4 0 nr0n  4 0 r0   n 
K
Given repulsive term of the potential is  n  9 
r9
Also binding energy per molecule is U 0  7.95 eV

4 0 r0 n
The Modelung constant is A  U 0  
e 2
n 1
Given, the lattice parameter is a  0.563 nm , thus, the interatomic separation is
a
r0   0.82 nm
2

 A  7.95 1.67  0 19


J

4  3.14  8.85  1012 C 2 N 1m 2  0.282 109   9
1.67 10 
2
19
J 8

7.95  4  3.14  8.85  0.282  9


 A 102  A  1.68
1.67  8
Q33. Match the phrases in Group I and Group II and identify the correct option.
Group I Group II
(P) Electron spin resonance (ESR) (i) radio frequency
(Q) Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) (ii) visible range frequency
(R) Transition between vibrational states of a molecule (iii) microwave frequency
(S) Electronic transition (iv) far-infrared range
                                                                                
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(a) (P-i), (Q-ii), (R-iii), (S-iv) (b) (P-ii), (Q-i), (R-iv), (S-iii)
(c) (P-iii), (Q-iv), (R-i), (S-ii) (d) (P-iii), (Q-i), (R-iv), (S-ii)
Ans.: (d)
Solution: (P) Electron spin resonance (ESR) is achieved by Microwave frequency (iii)
(Q): Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is achieved by Radio frequency (i)
(R): Transition between vibrational states of a molecule is achieved by radiation of far
infrared range (iv)
(S): Electronic transition is achieved by visible radiation (ii)
Q34. The excitation wavelength of laser in a Raman effect experiment is 546 nm . If the
Stokes’ line is observed at 552 nm , then the wavenumber of the anti-Stokes’ line (in

cm 1 ) is ___________
Ans.: 18514
Solution: Raman displacement is
1 1 1 1
   AS  0   0  S or     
AS 0 0 S
where  AS , 0 ,  S are wavelength of anti-stoke, exciting & stoke line.
From above relation we can write
1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 2 S   0 0  S
          AS 
 AS 0 0 S  AS 0 S  AS 0  S 2 S   0

 AS 
 546 10 m  552 10 m 
9 9


546  552
109 m
 2  552 10 9
m  546 10 m  9
558

 AS  540.129 109 m  540.129 107 cm

1 1
Anti-stoke wavenumber is  AS    18514 cm 1
AS 7
540.129  10 cm

                                                                                
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Phone: 011‐26865455/+91‐9871145498 Hauz Khas, New Delhi‐16 
                                                   
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Q35. The number of permitted transitions from 2 P3 / 2  2 S1 / 2 in the presence of a weak
magnetic field is ________________
Ans. : 6
Solution: Zeeman splitting of 2 P3 / 2 and 2 S1/ 2 is shown below
MJ
3/2
2
P3/2 1/2

1/2
3/2
2
S1/ 2 1/2

1/2

The selection rule for Zeeman transactions are


M J  0,  1 0  0 if J  0
There are total six transition in accordance with above selection rules.

GATE-2016
17
Q36. The molecule O2
(a) Raman active but not NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) active.
(b) Infrared active and Raman active but not NMR active.
(c) Raman active and NMR active.
(d) Only NMR active.
Ans.: (c)
17
Solution: (i) Molecule O2 can not absorb infrared as there is no change in dipole moment
17
during vibration. Thus O2 is infrared inactive.
17
(ii) Molecule O2 shows change in polaraziability during rotation. Thus it is Raman

active molecule.
17 5
(iii) The nucleus of O has spin , therefore it is NMR active.
2

                                                                                
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Q37. There are four electrons in the 3d shell of an isolated atom. The total magnetic moment
of the atom in units of Bohr magneton is ________.
Ans.: 0
Solution: The configuration leads to S  2 and L  2
Since it is the case of less than half filled sub shell, thus according to Hund’s rules, lower
J will be in ground state. M L  2 1 0 1 2

 J  L  S  0 . Thus   0 3d 4 
Q38. Which of the following transitions is NOT allowed in the case of an atom, according to
the electric dipole radiation selection rule?
(a) 2 s  1s (b) 2 p  1s (c) 2 p  2s (d) 3d  2 p
Ans.: (a)
Solution: In electron dipole transition, l  1 . Thus in transition 2s  1s, l  0 . It violate the
selection rule and hence not allowed.
Q39. The number of spectroscopic terms resulting from the L.S coupling of a 3 p electron and
a 3d electron is _______.
Ans.: 12
1 1
Solution: For 3 p1 3d 1 : s1  , s2   S  0,1
2 2
l1  1, l2  2  L  1, 2,3

S  0, L  1  J  1  Term  1P1

S  0, L  2  J  2  Term  1D2

S  0, L  3  J  3  Term  1F3

S  1, L  1  J  0,1, 2  Terms  3P0 , 3P1 , 3 P2

S  1, L  2  J  1, 2,3  Terms  3D1 , 3D2 , 3 D3

S  1, L  3  J  2,3, 4  Terms  3F2 , 3F3 , 3 F4

Thus total number of spectroscopic terms are 12.

                                                                                
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Phone: 011‐26865455/+91‐9871145498 Hauz Khas, New Delhi‐16 
                                                   
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GATE-2017
Q40. The wavefunction of which orbital is spherically symmetric:
(a) px (b) p y (c) s (d) d xy

Ans. : (c)
Solution: For s orbital l  0
0.5 1
Q41. The total energy of an inert-gas crystal is given by E  R    (in eV ), where R
R12 R 6
is the inter-atomic spacing in Angstroms. The equilibrium separation between the atoms
is Angstroms. (up to two decimal places)
Ans. : 1
0.5 1
Solution: Given that E  R   
R12 R 6
For equilibrium separation
dE
0
dR
dE 12  0.5 6
   7 0
dR R13 R
1  6 
  R 6  6   0  R  1
R6
Q42. Which one of the following gases of diatomic molecules is Raman, infrared, and NMR
active?
(a) 1H - 1H (b) 12C - 16O (c) 1H - 35Cl (d) 16O- 16O
Ans. : (c)
Solution: (a) 1H  1H Infrared inactive
(b) 12C  16O NMR Inactive
(c) 1H  35Cl Raman, infrared & NMR active
(d) 16
O  16O Infrared , Raman inactive

                                                                                
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Phone: 011‐26865455/+91‐9871145498 Hauz Khas, New Delhi‐16 
                                                   
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Q43. Using Hund’s rule the total angular momentum quantum number J for the electronic
ground state of the nitrogen atom is
1 3
(a) (b) (c) 0 (d) 1
2 2
Ans. : (b)
Solution: N : 7 :1s 2 2 s 2 2 p 3

For p 3 : ML  1 0 1
  

 spectral term  251 LJ  4s3/ 2


Q44. Positronium is an atom made of an electron and a positron. Given the Bohr radius for the
ground state of the Hydrogen atom to be 0.53 Angstroms, the Bohr radius for the ground
state of positronium is…………Angstroms. (up to two decimal places).
Ans. : 1.06
m 
Solution: rn  a0  e 
  
me me m2 m
When    e  e
me  me 2me 2

 rn  2a0  2  0.53  1.06 A0

                                                                                
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SOLID STATE PHYSICS SOLUTIONS

GATE-2010

Q1. The valence electrons do not directly determine the following property of a metal
(a) Electrical conductivity (b) Thermal conductivity
(c) Shear modulus (d) Metallic luster
Ans: (c)
Q2. Consider X-ray diffraction from a crystal with a face-centered-cubic (fcc) lattice. The
lattice plane for which there is NO diffraction peak is
(a) (2, 1, 2) (b) (1, 1, 1) (c) (2, 0, 0) (d) (3, 1, 1)
Ans: (a)
Q3. The Hall coefficient, RH, of sodium depends on
(a) The effective charge carrier mass and carrier density
(b) The charge carrier density and relaxation time
(c) The charge carrier density only
(d) The effective charge carrier mass
Ans: (c)

Q4. The Bloch theorem states that within a crystal, the wavefunction, ψ( r ), of an electron has
the form

 
(a)  r  u r e i k .r where u( r ) is an arbitrary function and k is an arbitrary vector

(b) r   u r e i G r
where u( r ) is an arbitrary function and G is a reciprocal lattice vector

(c)  r   u r e i G r
  
where u r  u r   ,  is a lattice vector and G is a reciprocal
lattice vector

    
(d)  r  u r e i k .r where u r  u r   ,  is a lattice vector and k is an arbitrary
vector
Ans: (d)

                                                                                
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Q5. In an experiment involving a ferromagnetic medium, the following observations were
made. Which one of the plots does NOT correctly represent the property of the medium?
(TC is the Curie temperature)
(a) (b)

1 / TC 1/ T

(c) (d)

TC T TC T
Ans: (c)
Q6. The thermal conductivity of a given material reduces when it undergoes a transition from
its normal state to the superconducting state. The reason is:
(a) The Cooper pairs cannot transfer energy to the lattice
(b) Upon the formation of Cooper pairs, the lattice becomes less efficient in heat transfer
(c) The electrons in the normal state lose their ability to transfer heat because of their
coupling to the Cooper pairs
(d) The heat capacity increases on transition to the superconducting state leading to a
reduction in thermal conductivity
Ans: (d)

                                                                                
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Q7. For a two-dimensional free electron gas, the electronic density n, and the Fermi energy
EF, are related by

2mE F  2 mE F  3
3 1 1
mE F mE F 2 3
(a) n  (b) n  (c) n  (d) n 
3 2  3  2 2 2 
Ans: (b)
Solution: For two dimensional gas, the number of possible k-states between k and k+dk is

2 2
 L   L 
g k dk    2 k dk  2  2 k dk it is multiplied by 2 for electron gas
 2   2 

2mE 2m 2m
Since k 2  2
 2k dk  2 dE  2 k dk  2 dE
  
2
 L  2m
 g E dE  2   2 dE
 2  
The total number of electrons at T  0 0 K is
EF EF 2 EF
2m  1  2m L2
N  g E dE  F E  
0
 g E dE  2 
0
 
 2  2   dE  2 
0

 2 4 2
 EF

m  2  N  
2
mE F
N  L2
E  E F     n  n 
 2
F
 2 m  L2  m
Q8. Far away from any of the resonance frequencies of a medium, the real part of the
dielectric permittivity is
(a) Always independent of frequency (b) Monotonically decreasing with frequency
(c) Monotonically increasing with frequency (d) A non-monotonic function of frequency
Ans: (a)
dipolar

 1 ionic
 2
electronics

frequency

                                                                                
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GATE-2011

Q9. The temperature (T) dependence of magnetic susceptibility (χ) of a ferromagnetic


substance with a Curie temperature (Tc) is given by
C C
(a) , for T  Tc (b) , for T  Tc
T  Tc T  Tc

C C
(c) , for T  Tc (d) , for all temperatures
T  Tc T  Tc

where C is constant .
Ans: (b)
Q10. The order of magnitude of the energy gap of a typical superconductor is
(a) 1 MeV (b) 1 KeV (c) 1 eV (d) 1 meV
Ans: (d)
Q11. For a three-dimensional crystal having N primitive unit cells with a basis of p atoms, the
number of optical branches is
(a) 3 (b) 3p (c) 3p – 3 (d) 3N – 3p
Ans: (c)
Q12. For an intrinsic semiconductor, me* and mh* are respectively the effective masses of
electrons and holes near the corresponding band edges. At a finite temperature the
position of the Fermi level
(a) depends on me* but not on mh* (b) depends on mh* but not on me*
(c) depends on both me* and mh* (d) depends neither on me* nor on mh*
Ans: (c)
Ec  Ev 3  mh* 
Solution: The Fermi level for intrinsic semicondutor is E F   k B T ln * 
2 4  me 
Q13. A metal with body centered cubic (bcc) structure show the first (i.e. smallest angle)
diffraction peak at a Bragg angle of θ = 30o. The wavelength of X-ray used is 2.1 Ǻ. The
volume of the PRIMITIVE unit cell of the metal is
(a) 26.2 (Ǻ)3 (b) 13.1(Ǻ)3 (c) 9.3 (Ǻ)3 (d) 4.6 (Ǻ)3
Ans: (b)
                                                                                
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a
Solution: According to Bragg’s law 2d sin    where d 
h2  k 2  l 2
For BCC structure the first diffraction peak appear for (110) plane.
a 2a
d   sin 30 0    2a sin 30 0  2.1A 0
2 2
1
 2 a  2.1A 0  a  2  2.1A 0  a  2.97 A 0 .
2

The volume primitive unit cell of BCC is volume 


a 3 26.2 0
2

2
A   3
 13.1 A 0  3

Common Data for Questions 14 and 15:


The tight binding energy dispersion (E-k) relation for electrons in a one-dimensional
array of atoms having lattice constant a and total length L is
E = E0 – β – 2γ cos (ka),
where E0, β and γ are constants and k is the wave vector.
Q14. The density of states of electrons (including spin degeneracy) in the band is given by
L L L L
(a) (b) (c) (d)
 a sin ka  2 a sin ka  2 a coska   a coska 
Ans: (b)
 L  1  L  1 L
Solution: D E   2   2  
 2  dE / dk  2  2a sin ka  2a sin ka 
Q15. The effective mass of electrons in the band is given by
2 2 2 2
(a) (b) (c) (d)
 a 2 coska  2 a 2 coska   a 2 sin ka  2 a 2 sin ka 
Ans: (b)
2 2 2
Solution: Effective mass m *   
 d 2E  2a 2  coska  2a 2 coska 
 2 
 dk 

                                                                                
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Phone: 011‐26865455/+91‐9871145498 Hauz Khas, New Delhi‐16 
                                                   
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GATE-2012

Q16. For an ideal Fermi gas in three dimensions, the electron velocity VF at the Fermi surface
is related to electron concentration n as,
(a) V F  n 2 / 3 (b) V F  n (c) VF  n1 / 2 (d) V F  n1 / 3
Ans: (d)

Solution: V F 

m

3 2 n
1/ 3

Q17. The total energy, E of an ideal non-relativistic Fermi gas in three dimensions is given by
N 5/3
E where N is the number of particles and V is the volume of the gas. Identify the
V 2/3
CORRECT equation of state (P being the pressure),
1 2 5
(a) PV  E (b) PV  E (c) PV  E (d) PV  E
3 3 3
Ans: (b)
Q18. Which one of the following CANNOT be explained by considering a harmonic
approximation for the lattice vibrations in solids?
(a) Deby’s T3 law (b) Dulong Petit’s law
(c) Optical branches in lattices (d) Thermal expansion
Ans: (d)
Solution: Thermal expansion in solid can only be explained if solid behave as a anharmonic
oscillator.
Q19. A simple cubic crystal with lattice parameter a c undergoes transition into a tetragonal

structure with lattice parameters at  bt  2ac and ct  2a c , below a certain


temperature. The ratio of the interplanar spacing of (1 0 1) planes for the cubic and the
tetragonal structure is

1 1 3 3
(a) (b) (c) (d)
6 6 8 8
Ans: (c)
                                                                                
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a a
Solution: For Cubic Lattice d c   c
h2  k 2  l 2 2

a 2a c
For Tetragonal lattice d t  
h k
2
l 2 2
3
2
 2
a c
dc 3
Therefore the ratio is 
dt 8
Q20. Inverse susceptibility (1/χ) as a function of temperature, T for a material undergoing
paramagnetic to ferromagnetic transition is given in the figure, where O is the origin. The
values of the Curie constant, C, and the Weiss molecular field constant, λ, in CGS units,
are
1
600 K

(a) C  5  10 5 ,   3  10 2

(b) C  3  10 2 ,   5  10 5 O T

(c) C  3  10 2 ,   2  10 4
 2  10 4
(d) C  2  10 ,   3  10
4 2
(CGS unit)

Ans: (c)
1 T  TC 1
Solution:  and TC  C . Here TC  600 K and  2  10 4
 C 
Thus C  3  10 2 and   2  10 4 .

Common Data for Questions 21–22


The dispersion relation for a one dimensional monatomic crystal with lattice spacing a,
which interacts nearest neighbour harmonic potential is given by
Ka
  A sin
2
where A is a constant of appropriate unit.
Q21. The group velocity at the boundary of the first Brillouin zone is

                                                                                
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Aa 2 1 Aa 2
(a) 0 (b) 1 (c) (d)
2 2 2
Ans: (a)
Solution: At the first Brillouin zone the frequency is maximum and the group velocity which is
the derivative of the angular frequency is zero.
Q22. The force constant between the nearest neighbour of the lattice is (M is the mass of the
atom)
MA 2 MA 2
(a) (b) (c) MA2 (d) 2MA2
4 2

Ans: (a)

4K MA 2
Solution: A  K
M 4
GATE-2013

Q23. A phosphorous doped silicon semiconductor (doping density: 1017/cm3) is heated from
100C to 200C. Which one of the following statements is CORRECT?
(a) Position of Fermi level moves towards conduction band
(b) Position of dopant level moves towards conduction band
(c) Position of Fermi level moves towards middle of energy gap
(d) Position of dopant level moves towards middle of energy gap
Ans: (c)
Solution: Phosphorous doped silicon semiconductors behave as a n-type semiconductor. In
n-type semiconductor Fermi level lies near conduction band and moves toward middle of
the band gap upon heating. At a very high temperature the Fermi level is near the middle
of the band gap and semiconductor behaves as intrinsic semiconductor.
Q24. Considering the BCS theory of superconductors, which one of the following statements is
NOT CORRECT? ( h is the Plank’s constant and e is the electronic charge)
(a) Presence of energy gap at temperature below the critical temperature
(b) Different critical temperature for isotopes
                                                                                
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h
(c) Quantization of magnetic flux in superconduction ring in the unit of  
e
(d) Presence of Meissner effect
Ans: (c)
 h
Solution: Quantization of magnetic flux in superconduction ring in the unit of  
 2e 
Q25. Group I contains elementary excitations in solids. Group II gives the associated field with
these exciations. MATCH the excitations with their associated field and select your
answer as per codes given below.
Group I Group II
(P) phonon (i) photon + lattice vibration
(Q) plasmon (ii) electron +elastic deformation
(R) polaron (iii) collective electron oscillations
(S) polariton (iv) elastic wave
Codes
(a) P  iv , Q  iii , R  i , S  ii  (b) P  iv , Q  iii , R  ii , S  i 
(c) P  i , Q  iii , R  ii , S  iv  (d) P  iii , Q  iv , R  ii , S  i 
Ans: (b)
Solution: Phonon: Quantum of energy of the elastic wave in solid, produced due to the vibration
of atoms in solid.
Plasmon: Quantum of energy of the wave produced due to the oscillation of plasma,
which contains charged particles (positive ions and negative electrons or ions).
Polaron: A charge placed in a polarizable medium will be screened. The induced
polarization will follow the charge carrier when it is moving through the medium. The
carrier together with the induced polarization is considered as one entity, which is called
a polaron.
Polariton: A polariton is a quasiparticle resulting from the mixing of a photon with
phonon.

                                                                                
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Q26.
  

A lattice has the following primitive vector in Å  : a  2 ˆj  kˆ , b  2 kˆ  iˆ , c  2 iˆ  ˆj .     
The reciprocal lattice corresponding to the above lattice is
 
(a) BCC lattice with cube edge of  Å -1
2
(b) BCC lattice with cube edge of 2 Å -1

 
(c) FCC lattice with cube edge of  Å -1
2
(d) FCC lattice with cube edge of 2 Å -1
Ans: (a)
Solution: The reciprocal lattice vectors are
 
 b c 
a  2     - î  ĵ  k̂ Å -1
a b c 2    
 
 ca 
b   2     î  ĵ  k̂ Å -1
a b c 2    
 
 a b 
c   2     î  ĵ  k̂ Å -1
a b c 2    
 e2 B
Q27. The total energy of an ionic solid is given by an expression E    9 where 
4 0 r r
is Madelung constant, r is the distance between the nearest neighbours in the crystal and
B is a constant. If r0 is the equilibrium separation between the nearest neighbours then
the value of B is
 e 2 r08  e 2 r08 2 e 2 r010  e 2 r010
(a) (b) (c) (d)
36 0 4 0 9 0 36 0
Ans: (a)
dE  e2 9B  e 2 r08
Solution: At r  r0 , 0  10  B
dr r  r0 4 0 r0 r0
2
36 0

                                                                                
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GATE-2014
Q28. The Miller indices of a plane passing through the three points having coordinates (0, 0, 1)

1, 0, 0  1 , 1 , 1  are
2 2 4
(a) (212) (b) (111) (c) (121) (d) (211)
Ans: (a)
Q29. The plot of specifies heat versus temperature across the superconducting transition
temperature Tc  is most appropriately represented by
(a) (b)

Cp Cp

TC T TC T

(c) (d)

Cp Cp

TC T TC T
Ans: (a)
  
 
Solution: CV  e  2kT 

                                                                                
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Q30. The energy  k for band electrons as a function of the wave vector k in the first Brillouin

  
zone    k   of a one dimensional monatomic lattice is shown as ( a is lattice
 a a
k
constant)

k
  /a O  /a

The variation of the group velocity vg is most appropriately represented by

(a) vg (b) vg

  /a k   /a k
O  /a O  /a

(c) (d)
vg vg

  /a k   /a k
O  /a O  /a

Ans: (b)
  ka  
Solution: E   E0    cos  
   
1 dE ka
Vg    sin
 dk 

                                                                                
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Q31. For Nickel the number density is 8  10 atoms / cm 3 and electronic configuration is
23

1s 2 2 s 2 2 p 6 3s 2 3 p 6 3d 8 4s 2 . The value of the saturation magnetization of Nickel in its

ferromagnetic state is _____________  10 9 A / m .

(Given the value of Bohr magneton  B  9.21  10 21 Am 2 )


Ans: 4.42
Solution: Component of magnetic dipoles in a solid material are in the direction of external field.
M S  (Magnetic dipole moment)  B N ,

0.6  9.21 1021  Am 2  N (For N i :magnetic dipole moment  0.6

Fe :2.22, For Cu :1.2 )


 NA
N  8  1029 / m3  B  9.211021 A / m
AN

M S  0.6  9.211021  8 1029  4.42 109 A / m

GATE-2015
Q31. The energy dependence of the density of states for a two dimensional non-relativistic
electron gas is given by, g E   CE n , where C is constant. The value of n
is____________
Ans.: 0
Solution: We know that
g  E   E1/ 2 for 3  D , g  E   E 0 for 2  D , g  E   E 1/ 2 for 1  D

 n  0 for 2  D
Q32. The lattice parameters a, b, c of an orthorhombic crystal are related by a  2b  3c . In
units of a the interplanar separation between the 110  planes is ____________. (Upto
three decimal places)
Ans.: 0.447

                                                                                
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1 1 a
Solution: d hkl   d110    0.447  a  2b  3c
2
h k 2
l 2
1 1 5
   0
a 2 b2 c2 a 2  a 2
 
2
Q33. The dispersion relation for phonons in a one dimensional monatomic Bravais lattice with
lattice spacing a and consisting of ions of masses M is given by

2c
 k   1  coska  , where  is the frequency of oscillation, k is the wavevector
M
and C is the spring constant. For the long wavelength modes   a  , the ratio of the
phase velocity to the group velocity is_________
Ans.: 1

2C
Solution:   k   1  cos  ka  
M 
For long wavelength modes   a 

 ka  2C   ka  
2 2
C
 cos  ka   1   k   1  1   a k
2 M  2  M

 C d C
Phase velocity vP  a and Group velocity vg  a
k M dk M
vP
 1
vg

Q34. In a Hall effect experiment, the hall voltage for an intrinsic semiconductor is negative.
This is because (symbols carry usual meaning)
(a) n  p (b) n  p (c)  *   h (d) m*  mn*
Ans.: (c)
Solution: The Hall voltage is V H  RH JB
where J : current density, B : magnetic field and R H : Hall constant

                                                                                
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1 p  p  n n   p  n   n  p B
2 2 2 2 2

RH 
e  n  p  2   p  n  2  2  2 B 2
n p n p

1  p  n
For intrinsic semiconductor n  p  ni  RH 
eni  p   n

In Intrinsic semiconductor  n   p , therefore Hall voltage is negative.

Q35. Which one of the following represents the electron occupancy for a superconductor in its
normal and superconducting states?

Normal Superconducting Normal Superconducting


state state state state
(a) (b)
f E  f E  f E  f E 

E E E E

Normal Superconducting Normal Superconducting


(c) state state (d) state state

f E  f E  f E  f E 

Ans. : (d) E E E E
Solution: In normal slide, some states below Fermi levels are empty and equal number of states
above Fermi levels are filled. If material converts into a superconductor, electrons above
the Fermi Level makes cooper pair and they fall back below level Fermi level as same
energy released during cooper pair formation. Therefore, correct option is (d).
Q36. Given that the Fermi energy of gold is 5.54 eV , the number density of electrons is

__________ 1028 m3 (upto one decimal place)


(Mass of electron  9.11  10 31 kg ; h  6.626  10 34 j  s; 1 eV  1.6  10 19 j )
Ans.: 5.9
Solution: Relation between electron density (n) and Fermi energy E F  is
                                                                                
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 2m 
3/ 2
2
EF  3 2 n  2/3
n
1
3 2 3
 EF3/ 2
2m

 2  9.110 kg 
31 3/ 2
1
  5.54  1.6 109 J 
3/ 2
n 
3   3.14  1.0546  10 J  s
2 34

1 2.45  1045  8.35 1028 3


n  m  0.59  10 29 m 3
29.61 1.17 10102
 n  5.9  1028 m 3
GATE-2016
Q37. Consider a metal which obeys the Sommerfeld model exactly. If E F is the Fermi energy
of the metal at T  0 K and R H is its Hall coefficient, which of the following statements
is correct?
3 2

(a) R H  E 2
F (b) R H  E 3
F

3

(c) RH  E F2 (d) R H is independent of EF .


Ans.: (c)
1
Solution: RH 
ne
3/ 2 3/ 2
2
   2m   EF 
2/3
where EF  3 2 n n 2   2 
 RH  EF3 / 2
2m    3 
Q38. A one-dimensional linear chain of atoms contains two types of atoms of masses m1 and
m2 (where m2  m1 ), arranged alternately. The distance between successive atoms is the
same. Assume that the harmonic approximation is valid. At the first Brillouin zone
boundary, which of the following statements is correct?
(a) The atoms of mass m 2 are at rest in the optical mode, while they vibrate in the
acoustical mode.
(b The atoms of mass m1 are at rest in the optical mode, while they vibrate in the
acoustical mode.

                                                                                
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(c) Both types of atoms vibrate with equal amplitudes in the optical as well as in the
acoustical modes.
(d) Both types of atoms vibrate, but with unequal, non-zero amplitudes in the optical as
well as in the acoustical modes.
Ans.: (a)
Solution: In optical mode, at Brillouin zone boundary atom of heavier mass  m2  is at rest,

whereas in Acoustic mode, atoms of lighter mass  m1  is at rest.

 1 1 
2   
optical mode m
 1 m2 

2  2  / m1
Acoustic 1  2  / m2
mode
 
2a k 2a
Q39. A solid material is found to have a temperature independent magnetic susceptibility,
  C . Which of the following statements is correct?
(a) If C is positive, the material is a diamagnet.
(b) If C is positive, the material is a ferromagnet.
(c) If C is negative, the material could be a type I superconductor.
(d) If C is positive, the material could be a type I superconductor.
Ans.: (b)

Solution: Susceptibility is defined as    1 , where   0 is permeability of medium and
0
vacuum respectively.
(i) For Diamagnet;   0 , thus   0 i.e.  is negative

(ii) For Ferromagnet,   0 , thus   0 i.e.  is positive

(iii) For superconductor,   0 , thus   1


Thus best answer is (b)
                                                                                
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Q40. Atoms, which can be assumed to be hard spheres of radius R , are arranged in an fcc
lattice with lattice constant a , such that each atom touches its nearest neighbours. Take
the center of one of the atoms as the origin. Another atom of radius r (assumed to be
 a 
hard sphere) is to be accommodated at a position  0, ,0  without distorting the lattice.
 2 
r
The maximum value of is ________. (Give your answer upto two decimal places)
R
Ans.: 0.41
 a 
Solution: The new atom location is  0, , 0  i.e. it is on the middle of y - axis.
 2 
z
a

2a

Position of new r
x
 a   a 
atom  0, , 0  a new atom at  0, ,0 
figure (i)  2   2 
2
figure (ii)
If new atom of radius r fit without distorting the original lattice, then from figure (ii) we get
a
 Rr (i)
2
4
whereas for FCC 2a  4 R  a  R  2 2R (ii)
2
Thus from (i) and (ii)

2 2
2
R  Rr   
2 1 R  r 
r
R
 2  1  1.414  1  0.414

                                                                                
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Q41. The energy vs. wave vector E  k  relationship near the bottom of a band for a solid can

be approximated as E  Aka   Bka  , where the lattice constant a  2.1 A . The


2 4 0

values of A and B are 6.3  10 19 J and 3.2 10 20 J , respectively. At the bottom of
the conduction band, the ratio of the effective mass of the electron to the mass of free
electron is _______. (Give your answer upto two decimal places)
(Take   1.05  10 34 J  s , mass of free electron  9.110 31 kg )
Ans.: 0.22

Solution: E  A  ka   B  ka 
2 4

E 2 E
  2 Aa 2 k  4 Ba 4 k 3 and  2 Aa 2  12 Ba 4 k 2
k k 2

At the bottom of the band k  0


2 2
Thus effective mass m*  2 
 E / k 2 2 Aa 2
1.05  10 
34 2
J s 1.1025  1068
m  *
  0.01984  1029
 
2 39
2  6.3  1019 J  2.1  1010 m 55.57  10

m* 19.84  1032 kg
 19.84  1032 kg   31
 2.18  101  0.218  0.22
m 9.1  10 kg
Q42. The Fermi energies of two metals X and Y are 5 eV and 7 eV and their Debye
temperatures are 170 K and 340 K , respectively. The molar specific heats of these
metals at constant volume at low temperatures can be written as
CV  X   X T  AX T 3 and CV Y   Y T  AY T 3 where  and A are constants. Assuming
that the thermal effective mass of the electrons in the two metals are same, which of the
following is correct?
 X 7 AX  X 7 AX 1
(a)  , 8 (b)  , 
 Y 5 AY  Y 5 AY 8
 X 5 AX 1  X 5 AX
(c)  ,  (d)  , 8
 Y 7 AY 8  Y 7 AY

                                                                                
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Ans.: (a)
Solution: Heat capacity is defined as CV   T  AT 3

3 2 1 12 4 1 1
where   Nk B  and A  Nk B  3  234 Nk B  3
2 EF 5 D D
3 2 1
Nk B 
x 2 EFx EF y 7eV 7
Thus,    
 y 3 Nk 2  1 EFx 5eV 5
B
2 EFy

1
234 Nk B 3
Ax  D3 x   Dy   340 3
  2  8
3
and    
Ay 234 Nk 1  D   170 
B 3  x 
 Dy

x 7 A
Thus,  and x  8
y 5 Ay

GATE-2017

Q43. The atomic mass and mass density of Sodium are 23 and 0.968 g cm 3 , respectively. The

number density of valence electrons is……………… 1022 cm 3 . (Up to two decimal

places) (Avogadro number, N A  6.022 1023 )

Ans. : 2.54
neff  M neff  NA
Solution:  n 
NA  a 3
a 3
M

where   0.968gcm 3 , N A  6.022 1023 , M  23g

0.968  6.022  1023


n  2.54  1022 cm 3
23

                                                                                
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 2 x 
Q44. Consider a one dimensional lattice with a weak periodic potential U  x   U 0 cos  .
 a 
 
The gap at the edge of the Brillouin zone  k   is:
 a
U0 U0
(a) U 0 (b) (c) 2U 0 (d)
2 4
Ans. : (c)
 2 
Solution: U  U 0 cos  x
 a 
 2 a 
Energy at the edge of Brillouin Zone is U t  U 0 cos  . 
 a 
Energy at the k  0 is U b  U 0

 Band gap U  U t  U b  2U 0


Thus correct option is (c)
Q45. Consider a 2 - dimensional electron gas with a density of 1019 m2 . The Fermi energy of
the system is………………… eV (up to two decimal places).
( me  9.311031 kg , h  6.626 1034 Js, e  1.602  1019 C )
 A EF 2 AmEF
N   f  E  g  E dE  2  
1 2m  2 E 0 dE 
0 h 0 h2

 
2
nh 2 1019  6.6 1034
EF    0.37 1018 J  2.32eV
4 m 4  3.14  9.311031
Ans. : 2.34

1.055 1034 J  s 
2
2
  
Solution: EF     2 n   31
 2  3.142 1019
 2 m  2  9.31  10

0.3756 1018 J  0.2345 10 eV  2.34 eV

                                                                                
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Q46.
  a
The real space primitive lattice vectors are a1  axˆ and a2  xˆ  3 yˆ . The reciprocal
2
 
 
space unit vectors b1 and b2 for this lattice are, respectively

2  yˆ  4 2  yˆ  4
(a)
a  xˆ   and yˆ (b)
a  xˆ   and yˆ
 3 a 3  3 a 3

2 4  xˆ  2 4  xˆ 
(c) xˆ and   yˆ  (d) xˆ and   yˆ 
a 3 a  3  a 3 a  3 
Ans. (a)

Solution:

a1  axˆ ,
 a
a2  xˆ  3 yˆ
2
 

assume, a3  zˆ

   a 
Now, a1   a2  a3   axˆ.  xˆ  3 yˆ  zˆ 
2 
 

a 2 xˆ
2
 a2

  yˆ  3xˆ   0  3  
2
3a 2
2

  
a2  a3  3 xˆ  yˆ  a2
b  2     2
a1   a2  a3  3 2
a
3
 2  yˆ 
b1   xˆ  
a  3
  
a3  a1 4
Similarly, b2  2     yˆ
a1   a2  a3  3a
Thus correct option is (a)

                                                                                
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NUCLEAR AND PARTICLE PHYSICS SOLUTIONS

GATE-2010
Q1. The basic process underlying the neutron β-decay is
(a) d  u  e    e (b) d  u  e 
(c) s  u  e    e (d) u  d  e    e
Ans: (a)
Q2. In the nuclear shell model the spin parity of 15N is given by
1 1 3 3
(a) (b) (c) (d)
2 2 2 2
Ans: (a)
Solution: Z  7 ; s1 / 2   p3 / 2 4  p1 / 2 1
2
and N  8

1 1
 parity   1  1,
1
l  1, J  spin - parity   
2 2
Q3. Match the reactions on the left with the associated interactions on the right.
(1) π+ → μ+ +  (i) Strong

(2) π0 → γ + γ (ii) Electromagnetic


(3) π0 + n → π- + p (iii) Weak
(a) (1, iii), (2, ii), (3, i) (b) (1, i), (2, ii), (3, iii)
(c) (1, ii), (2, i), (3, iii) (d) (1, iii), (2, i), (3, ii)
Ans: (a)
Q4. The ground state wavefunction of deuteron is in a superposition of s and d states. Which
of the following is NOT true as a consequence?
(a) It has a non-zero quadruple moment
(b) The neutron-proton potential is non-central
(c) The orbital wavefunction is not spherically symmetric
(d) The Hamiltonian does not conserve the total angular momentum
Ans: (d)

                                                                                
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228
Q5. The first three energy levels of Th90 are shown below

4 187 keV
2 57.5keV
0 0keV

The expected spin-parity and energy of the next level are given by
(a) (6+; 400 keV) (b) (6+; 300 keV) (c) (2+; 400 keV) (d) (4+; 300 keV)
Ans: (a)
E 2 J 2  J 2  1 E 66  1
Solution:   6   E 6  393keV
E1 J 1  J 1  1 E 4 44  1

GATE-2011

Q6. The semi-empirical mass formula for the binding energy of nucleus contains a surface
correction term. This term depends on the mass number A of the nucleus as
(a) A-1/3 (b) A1/3 (c) A2/3 (d) A
Ans: (c)
Q7. According to the single particles nuclear shell model, the spin-parity of the ground state
of 178 O is
   
1 3 3 5
(a) (b) (c) (d)
2 2 2 2
Ans: (d)
Solution: Z  8 and N  9; s1 / 2   p3 / 2 4  p1 / 2 2 d 5 / 2 1
2


5 5
l  2, J   parity   1  1, spin - parity   
2

2 2

                                                                                
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Phone: 011‐26865455/+91‐9871145498 Hauz Khas, New Delhi‐16 
                                                   
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Q8. In the β-decay of neutron n→ p + e + e , the anti-neutrino e , escapes detection. Its
-

existence is inferred from the measurement of


(a) energy distribution of electrons (b) angular distribution of electrons
(c) helicity distribution of electrons (d) forward-backward asymmetry of electrons
Ans: (a)
Q9. The isospin and the strangeness of   baryon are
(a) 1, -3 (b) 0, -3 (c) 1, 3 (d) 0, 3
Ans: (b)

GATE-2012

Q10. Deuteron has only one bound state with spin parity 1+, isospin 0 and electric quadrupole
moment 0.286 efm2. These data suggest that the nuclear forces are having
(a) only spin and isospin dependence
(b) no spin dependence and no tensor components
(c) spin dependence but no tensor components
(d) spin dependence along with tensor components
Ans: (d)

Q11. The quark content of   , K  ,   and p is indicated:

   uus ; K   su ;    u d ; p  uud .

In the process,    p  K     , considering strong interactions only, which of the


following statements is true?
(a) The process, is allowed because ∆S = 0
(b) The process is allowed because ∆I3 =0
(c) The process is not allowed because ∆S ≠ 0 and ∆I3 ≠ 0
(d) The process is not allowed because the baryon number is violated

                                                                                
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Ans: (c)
Solution:    p  k    

S: 0 0 1 1 (not conserved)
1 1
I3 : 1   1 (not conserved)
2 2
For strong interaction S and I3 must conserve. Therefore this process is not allowed under
strong interaction
Q12. Which one of the following sets corresponds to fundamental particles?
(a) proton, electron and neutron
(b) proton, electron and photon
(c) electron, photon and neutrino
(d) quark, electron and meson
Ans: (a)
Q13. In case of a Geiger-Muller (GM) counter, which one of the following statement is
CORRECT?
(a) Multiplication factor of the detector is of the order of 1010
(b) Type of the particles detected can be identified
(c) Energy of the particles detected can be distinguished
(d) Operating voltage of the detector is few tens of Volts
Ans: (c)
Q14. Choose the CORRECT statement from the following
(a) Neutron interacts through electromagnetic interaction
(b) Electron does not interact through weak interaction
(c) Neutrino interacts through weak and electromagnetic interaction
(d) Quark interacts through strong interaction but not through weak interaction
Ans: (d)

                                                                                
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Phone: 011‐26865455/+91‐9871145498 Hauz Khas, New Delhi‐16 
                                                   
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GATE-2013
Q15. The decay process n  p   e   v e violates
(a) Baryon number (b) lepton number (c) isospin (d) strangeness
Ans: (c)
Q16. The isospin I  and baryon number B  of the up quark is
(a) I  1, B  1 (b) I  1, B  1 / 3
(c) I  1 / 2, B  1 (d) I  1 / 2, B  1 / 3
Ans: (d)
Q17. In the  decay process, the transition 2   3  , is
(a) allowed both by Fermi and Gamow-Teller selection rule
(b) allowed by Fermi and but not by Gamow-Teller selection rule
(c) not allowed by Fermi but allowed by Gamow-Teller selection rule
(d) not allowed both by Fermi and Gamow-Teller selection rule
Ans: (c)
Solution: According to Fermi Selection Rule:
I  0, Parity  No Change
According to Gammow-Teller Selection Rule:
I  0,1, Parity  No Change

In the  decay process, the transition 2   3  ,


I  1, Parity  No Change .
GATE-2014

Q18. Which one of the following is a fermions’?


(a)  -particle (b) 4 Be7 nucleus
(c) Hydrogen atom (d) deuteron

                                                                                
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Ans: (b)
If a nucleus contains odd number of nucleons, it is fermions. If a nucleus contains even number
of nucleons, it is a boson.
Q19. Which one of the following three-quark states  qqq  denoted by X CANNOT be a

possible baryon? The corresponding electric charge is indicated in the superscript.


(a) X   (b) X  (c) X  (d) X  
Ans: (d)
Solution: X  qqq
2 2 2 6
X   uuu      2  two unit positive charge 
3 3 3 3
2 2 1 4 1
X   uud       1 single unit positive charge 
3 3 3 3 3
1 1 1
X   ddd       1 single unit negative charge 
3 3 3
X   Not possible with qqq  . So the correct option is (d)

Q20. Consider the process           . The minimum kinetic energy of the muons
  in the centre of mass frame required to produce the pion   pairs at rest is
______ MeV .
Ans: 81.7
Solution: Use conservation of energy and momentum in relativistic form.
m  105 MeV / c 2 and m  140 MeV / c 2

m   c
2 2

   m  c 2  m   m  2
 280 
2
MeV   210  MeV
2

E   E   163.3 MeV
2m 2 105

163.3
For pair it will be MeV  81.7 MeV
2

                                                                                
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Q21. A nucleus X undergoes a first forbidden  -decay to nucleus Y . If the angular
7
momentum I  and parity P  , denoted by I P as for X , which of the following is a
2
possible I P value for Y ?
1 1 3 3
(a) (b) (c) (d)
2 2 2 2
Ans: (c)
For first forbidden  -decay; I  0,1 or 2 and Parity does change.

GATE-2015
Q22. The decay    e    is forbidden, because it violates
(a) momentum and lepton number conservations
(b) baryon and lepton number conservations
(c) angular momentum conservation
(d) lepton number conservation
Ans.: (d)
Solution:    e    . In this decay lepton number is not conserved.
Q23. A beam of X - ray of intensity I 0 is incident normally on a metal sheet of thickness

2 mm . The intensity of the transmitted beam is 0.025 I 0 . The linear absorption

 
coefficient of the metal sheet in m 1 is _______________ (upto one decimal place)
Ans.: 1844.4
x 1  0  1    1
Solution: I  I 0 e  ln    3
ln   3
ln  40 
x    2  10  0.025 I 0  2  10
2.303
3 
 log10 40  1.151 103  2  0.3010  1  1844.4 m 1
2  10
Q24. The mean kinetic energy of a nucleon in a nucleus of atomic weight A varies as An ,
where n is____________(upto two decimal places)

                                                                                
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Ans.: -0.67
R 2  d 2 2 d  2 2
   2  4 r dr
2 R
0 2m  dr r dr   4   2  2  dr  4  4 R
Solution:  T   2m 0
 2 m
R R
4 R 3 / 3
 4 r 2 dr   2
4 r dr
0 0

2
R 1 1 1  2
 T  3
 2
 2
 2
 A 3
 n    0.667  0.67
R R  1
 3
R A
 0 
3 A3
 

152 152
Q25. The atomic masses of 63 Eu, 62 Sm, 11 H and neutron are 151.921749, 151.919756,
1.007825 and 1.008665 in atomic mass units (amu), respectively. Using the above
3
information, the Q - value of the reaction 152
63 Eu  n 152
62 Sm  p is ___________  10

amu (upto three decimal places)


Ans.: 2.833
Solution: Q  152.930414  152.927581  2.833  103 a.m.u.

1  
Q26. In the nuclear shell model, the potential is modeled as V r   m 2 r 2  L  S ,   0 .
2
The correct spin-parity and isospin assignments for the ground state of 13 C is
1  1 1  1 3 1 3  1
(a) ; (b) ; (c) ; (d) ;
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
Ans.: (a)
Solution: 13C6 , N  7, Z  6
2 4 1
      1
For N  7 ; 1S 1  1P3   P1   j  and l  1
 2  2  2 2

1
Thus spin- parity is   .
2

                                                                                
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Q27. In the SU 3 quark model, the triplet of mesons   ,  0 ,    has
(a) Isospin  0 , Strangeness  0 (b) Isospin  1 , Strangeness  0
1 1
(c) Isospin  , Strangeness  1 (d) Isospin  , Strangeness  1
2 2
Ans.: (b)
Solution:   ,  0 ,   are not strange particle thus strangness  0
Since meson group contain 3 particles, thus I  1

25 Mn  e  24 Cr  X . The particle X is
Consider the reaction 54 54
Q28.

(a)  (b)  e (c) n (d)  0


Ans.: (b)
Q29. Which of the following statements is NOT correct?
(a) A deuteron can be disintegrated by irradiating it with gamma rays of energy 4 MeV .
(b) A deuteron has no excited states.
(c) A deuteron has no electric quadrupole moment.
(d) The 1 S 0 state of deuteron cannot be formed.
Ans.: (c)
Q30. According to the nuclear shell model, the respective ground state spin-parity values of
15 17
8 O and 8 O nuclei are

1 1 1 5 3 5  3  1
(a) , (b) , (c) , (d) ,
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
Ans.: (d)
N  7 :  s1/ 2   p3/ 2   p1/ 2 
2 4 1
8 O ; Z  8 and N  7 ;
Solution: 15

1 1
 j and l  1 . Thus spin and parity   
2 2

N  9 :  s1/ 2   p3/ 2   p1/ 2   d5/ 2 


2 4 2 1
17
8 O ; Z  8 and N  9 ;

5 5
 j  and l  2 . Thus spin and parity   
2 2

                                                                                
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GATE-2017

Q31. Which one of the following conservation laws is violated in the decay         
(a) Angular momentum (b) Total Lepton number
(c) Electric charge (d) Tau number
Ans. : (d)
Solution:        
q  1 1  1  1 conserved
L  1 1  1  1 conserved
L  1 0 0 0 Not conserved

1 1 1
spin = 1 conserved
2 2 2 2
Tau number is not conserved
Q32. Electromagnetic interactions are:
(a) C conserving
(b) C non-conserving but CP conserving
(c) CP non-conserving but CPT conserving
(d) CPT non-conserving
Ans. : (a)
Solution: In electromagnetic interaction C is conserved
CPT: Conserved in all interaction
CP: Conserved in EM and Strong interactions
13.6
En   eV 
n2
For n  1 E1  13.6ev Ground state

For n   E  0 Highest state


Thus correct option is (a)

                                                                                
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Q33. In the nuclear reaction C6  e  N 7  X , the particle X is
13 13

(a) an electron (b) an anti-electron


(c) a muon (d) a pion
Ans. : (a)
Solution: 13C6  e  13N 7  X

 13C6  13N 7  X  e

Le  0 0 1 1

To conserve the Lepton number Le , x should be e 

Q34. J P for the ground state of the 13 C6 nucleus is

 3 3 1
(a) 1 (b) (c) (d)
2 2 2
Ans. : (d)
Solution: 13 C6 : Z  6, N  7

 s1/ 2   p3/ 2   p1/ 2 


2 4 1
N  7:

1 1
 j  and l  1 . Thus spin and parity   
2 2
Q35. The   decays at rest to   and v . Assuming the neutrino to be massless, the

momentum of the neutrino is…………….. MeV / c . (up to two decimal places)


( m  139 MeV / c 2 , m  105 MeV / c 2 )

Ans. : 29.84

Solution: E 
m 
2

 m2 c 2
 pc
2m

So p
m 2
  m2 c  
19321  11025
 29.84
2m 2  139

                                                                                
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PH: PHYSICS

2014

GATE Test Paper

Duration: Three Hours Maximum Marks: 100

Q. 1 – Q. 25 carry one mark each.

Q1. Consider an anti-symmetric tensor Pij with indices i and j running from 1 to 5. The
number of independent components of the tensor is
(A) 3 (B) 10 (C) 9 (D) 6

Cos  sx 
Q2. The value of the integral  2 2
dx , is

k  x

 2  ks   ks  ks   ks
(A) e (B) e (C) e (D) e
k2 k2 k k
2 3 0
 
Q3. The eigenvalues of the matrix  3 2 0  are
0 0 1 

(A) 5, 2, -2 (B) -5, -1, -1 (C) 5, 1, -1 (D) -5, 1, 1

Q4. Which of the following is correct expression of probability current density in one
dimension .
i  d * * d  i  d * d 
(A) J x    .   .  (B) J x   .  * . 
2m  dx dx  2m  dx dx 
i   * d d *  i  * d d * 
(C) J x   .   .  (D) J x   .   . 
2m  dx dx  2m  dx dx 
3
Q.5 Three fermions of spin is adjusted in one dimensional harmonic oscillator of
2
frequency  what is energy of ground state configuration .
 3 5  7 
(A) (B) (C) (D)
2 2 2 2

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Q6. Which of the following potential will give not give bound state for energy 0 E  .
k
(A) V ( x)  kx 2 (B) V ( r )   in three dimensional
r
(C) V ( x)  k x (D) V ( x)  V0 cosh x  V0

Q7. Consider Maxwell’s equations in vacuum in the absence of sources. If the solutions to

      
these equations are of the form  r , t   0 exp i k.r  t , B r , t   0 exp i k .r  t 
where  0 , 0 and k are constant vectors, then

 
(A) k .  0   0  0  
(B) k   0   0  0
(C) d dk  0 (D) k  c

Q8. Consider an electric field  existing in the interface between a conductor and free space.

Then the electric field  is


(A) external to the conductor and normal to the conductor’s surface
(B) internal to the conductor and normal to the conductor’s surface
(C) external to the conductor and tangential to the conductor’s surface
(D) both external and internal to the conductor and normal to the conductor’s surface

Q9. The xoy plane carries a uniform surface current of density   50 x̂ A/m. The magnetic
field (in Wb) at the point z = - 0.5 m is
(A) 10  10–6 Wb (B) 1  10 –6 Wb (C) π  10–6 Wb (D) 10π  10–6 Wb

Q10. A planet of mass m is moving in a circular orbit of radius ‘ a ’ under central force around
the sun of mass M, such that m << M. The kinetic energy of the planet is
GMm GMm
(A) (B) 
a a
GMm GMm
(C) (D) 
2a 2a

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Q11. A bead of mass m is slide down smoothly on a wire of shape z = x2 in the (z, x) plane.
The Lagrangian of the bead is .
1 2 1 2
(A)
2
 
mx 1  x 2  mgx 2 (B)
2
 
mx 1  4 x 2  mgx 2

1 2 1 2
(C)
2
 
mx 1  x 2  mgx 2 (D)
2
 
mx 1  4 x 2  mgx 2

Q.12 The Lagrangian for a particle in cylindrical coordinates is given to be

1
L
2
 2

m  2   2 2  z 2 / 1  (  /    V (  )

where m is the mass of the particle and λ is a constant. Then which of the following is not
a conserved quantity?
(A) m (B) m 2
1

(C) mz / 1   /  2  (D)
2
 
m  2   2 2  z 2 / 1  (  /    V (  )
2

Q.13 Consider the Fermi-Dirac distribution function f E  at room temperature (300K) where

E refers to energy. If E F is the Fermi energy, which of the following is true?

(A) f E  is a step function


(B) f E F  has a value ½

(C) States with E  E F are filled completely

(D) f E  is large and tends to infinity as E decreases much below E F


2
Q.14 Find the average value of v x  iv y for ideal gas at temperature T

kT 2kT 3kT
(A) 0 (B) (C) (D)
m m 2m
Q15. ensemble of N three level systems with energies   1, 0, 1 is in thermal equilibrium at
temperature T. Let   kT  1 .
The partition function is given by
(A) (1+cosh2 ) (B) (1+cos2 ) (C) (1+2cosh2 ) (D) (1+cosh2)

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Q16. For a cubic crystal the diffraction line from the planes with (h2+k2+l2) = 8 is observed at
an angle of diffraction 10.23 0. If only one line is observed at an angle lower than this, the
crystal structure is?
(A) Simple Cubic
(B) Body Centered Cubic
(C) Face Centered Cubic
(D) Diamond Cubic Lattice
Q17. Consider an ideal Fermi gas, with energy spectrum (p is momentum), contained in
a box of volume V in space of 3 dimension. Which of the following is correct PV relation
for this system?
(A) (B)

(C) (D)

Q18. Which of the following statement about superconductor is not correct?


(A) With appearance of Meisner effect, resistivity disappear
(B) When superconductivity is destroyed with magnetic field, the material will heat.
(C) Superconductivity occurs in material having high electrical resistivity
(D) Critical temperature (T c) decreases with isotopic mass

Q19. In a He-Ne laser, the laser transition takes place in:


(A) He only (B) Ne only
(C) Ne first, then in He (D) He first, then in Ne

Q20. All vibrations producing a change in the electric dipole moment of a molecule yield
(A) Raman spectra (B) Infrared spectra
(C) Ultra-violet spectra (D) X-ray spectra

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Q21. Pick the WRONG statement.


(A) The nuclear force is independent of electric charge
 mc 
(B) The Yukawa potential is proportional to r 1 exp  r  , where r is the separation
 h 
between two nucleons.
(C) The range of nuclear force is of the order of 10-15 m – 10 -14m
(D) The nucleons interact among each other by the exchange of mesons.

Q.22 In the circuit shown in the figure the Thevenin voltage VTH and Thevenin resistance RTH
as seen by the load between point A and B are respectively

2 RTH
A A
 

12 A 4 3 VTH

 
B B

(A) 4V , 2 (B) 8V , 3 (C) 12V , 3 (D) 16V , 2

Q.23 How many maximum number of electrons can be adjusted in d orbital of hydrogen
atom …………………..

Q24. An amplifier has a voltage gain of 500 and input impedance 20 KΩ, without any
feedback. Now a negative feedback with β = 0.1 is applied. Its gain and input impedance
(K ohms) with feedback will respectively be …………………..

Q25. If the nuclear radius of 27Al is 3.6 Fermi, the approximate nuclear radius of 64Cu in Fermi
is …………………..

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Q. 26 – Q. 55 carry two marks each.

d2y dy
Q.26 The solution of the differential equation for 2
 2  101 y  10.4e x , subject to the
dx dx
dy
initial conditions y  0   1.1 and  0.9 , is
dt x0

(A) e  x ( A cos10 x  B sin10 x ) (B) e  x ( A cos x  B sin x )

(C) e  x ( A cos10 x  B sin10 x ) (D) e x ( A cos10 x  B sin10 x)


Q.27 A binary star system consists of two stars S1 and S2, with masses m and 2m respectively
separated by a distance r. If both S1 and S2 individually follow circular orbits around the
centre of mass with instantaneous speeds v1 and v2 respectively, the speeds ratio v1/v2 is
…………………….
Q.28 A particle of unit mass moves along the x-axis under the influence of a potential,
2
V  x   x  x  4  . The particle is found to be in stable equilibrium at the point . The time

period of oscillation of the particle is


 3
(A) (B)  (C) (D) 2
2 2
Q.29 A parallel plate capacitor has circular plates of radius R. It is being charged by a current I.

Then the magnetic induction B at a point between the plates at a distance R/2 from the
axis of the capacitor is:
0 I ˆ 0 I ˆ 0 I ˆ 0 I ˆ
(a) B   (b) B   (c) B   (d) B  
2R 4R 6R 8R
1 0
Q30. Consider a system in the unperturbed state described by the Hamiltonian, H0   .
0 1 

0 
The system is subjected to a perturbation of the form H '   , when δ<< 1. The
 0 
energy eigenvalues of the perturbed system using the first order perturbation
approximation are
(A) 1 and (1 + 2δ) (B) (1 + δ) and (1 - δ)
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(C) (1+2 δ) and (1 - δ) (D) (1+ δ) and (1 - 2δ)


Q31. Consider a two level quantum system with energies  1  0 and  1   . The specific heat
of the system is given by
 e  / k B T 2 e   / k BT
(A) (B)
k B T 1  e  / k BT 2 k B T 2 1  e  / kBT 

 2 e  / k B T 2 e   / k BT
(C)  (D)
1  e  / k B T 2
 k B T 2 1  e  / kBT 2

3 a
Q32. The internal energy of n moles of a gas is given by E  nRT  , where V is the
2 V
volume of the gas at temperature T and a is a positive constant. One mole of the gas in
state (T1, V1) is allowed to expand adiabatically into vacuum to a final state (T2, V2). The
temperature T2 is

a 1 1 2a 1 1
(A) 1     (B) 1    
R  V2 V1  3 R  V2 V1 

2a 1 1 1a 1 1
(C) 1     (D) 1    
3 R  V2 V1  3 R  V2 V1 

Q33. Consider the following circuit in which the current gain βdc of the transistor is 100
and VBE  0.7V . Which one of the following correctly represents the collector current IC
and collector-emitter voltage VCE?  15 V
(A) 12mA, 0.5V
(B) 14mA, 1V 100 k 900 

(C) 16mA, 2V
(D) 18mA, 3V

100 

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Q.34 For the given circuit the frequency above which the gain will decrease by 20 dB per
decade is 10 k
Vin  
(A) 12 kHz
Vout 
(B) 16 kHz 1000pF 
(C) 18 kHz 1 k

(D) 20 kHz
2 k

Q.35 In the circuit shown, the ports Q1 and Q2 are in the state Q1 = 1, Q2 = 0. The circuit is
now subjected to three complete clock pulses. The state of these ports now becomes
Q1 Q2
(A) Q2 = 1, Q1 = 0
(B) Q2 = 0, Q1 = 1
1 J Q 1 J Q
(C) Q2 = 1, Q1 = 1 CLK CLK
(D) Q2 = 0, Q1 = 0 1 K Q 1 K Q

Q.36 There are only three bound states for a particle of mass m in a one-dimensional potential
well of the form shown in the figure. The depth V0 of the
potential satisfies V
a/2 a/2
2 2  2 9 2  2  2 2 2 2  2 x
(a)  V0  (b)  V0 
ma 2 2ma 2 ma 2 ma 2
2 2  2 8 2  2 2 2  2 50 2  2  V0
(c)  V0  (d)  V0 
ma 2 ma 2 ma 2 ma 2

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3 2 3 2
Q.37 The equation of a surface of revolution is z   x  y
2 2

 2 
The unit normal to the surface at the point A ,0,1 is
 3 

3ˆ 2 ˆ 3ˆ 2 ˆ
(A) i k (B) i k
5 10 5 10

3ˆ 2 ˆ 3ˆ 2 ˆ
(C) i k (D) i k
5 5 10 10

0 for x  3,
Q.38 If f  x    then the Laplace transform of f(x) is
x  3 for x  3
(A) s-2e3s (B) s2e-3s (C) s-2 (D) s-2e-3s

Q.39 A hypothetical semiconductor has a conduction band that can be described by


Ecb = E1 – E2 cos (Ka)
and valence band that can be described by :
Evb = E3 – E4 sin2 (Ka/2)

Where E3 < (E1 – E2) and 


 
K
a a
The band gap of the material is
(A) E1-E2-E3+E4 (B) E1+E2- E3
(C) E1-E2+E4 (D) 2(E2-E4)
Q.40 The electron concentration in the conduction band of Ge at 77K is 10 12 cm-3. At this
temperature the electron and hole nobilities are equal, µ = 0.5 x 104 cm2 /V-sec. The
dielectric constant of Ge is 16.
If 100 volts is applied across a 1 cm cube of crystal, the current (mA) flowing in the
sample is …………………..

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Q.41. Assuming a dispersion relation under long wavelength approximation for elastic
wave in one dimensional lattice of ferromagnetic system. The lattice specific heat at low
temperature varies as
(A) (B) (C) (D)

Q.42 According to the single particles nuclear shell model, the spin-parity of the ground state
of 178 O is
   
1 3 3 5
(A) (B) (C) (D)
2 2 2 2
Q.43 The disintegration energy is defined to be the difference in the rest energy between the
initial and final states. Consider the following process: 240
94 Pu 
236
92 U  42 He
The emitted α particle has a kinetic energy 5.17 MeV. The value of the disintegration
energy in MeV is ……………..
Q44. Which of the following fusion reaction give more energy? The nuclear mass of the different
nuclei is as follows
M( ) = 1.00783amu, M( ) = 2.01410amu, M( ) = 3.01605amu,

M( ) = 3.01603amu, M( ) = 4.02603amu, M( ) = 6.01512amu and


M(e) = 0.00055amu

(A) +
(B)
(C)
(D)
Q.45 If λB and λp is the wavelength of the series limit of Bracket and Pfund series respectively.
The ratio of λB and λp will be
16 25 9 9
(A) (B) (C) (D)
25 36 25 16

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Q.46 A pure rotational Raman spectrum of a linear diatomic molecule is recorded using
electromagnetic radiation of frequency ve. The frequency of two consecutive stokes
(A) ve – 10 B, ve – 14 B (B) ve – 2 B, ve – 4 B
(C) ve + 10 B, ve + 14 B (D) ve + 2 B, ve + 4 B

Q.47 The first excited state of nucleus has spin parity 2+ and decays to 1+ ground state by
emitting gamma rays. The possible multipole radiation for the above transition are?
(A) E1, E2, E3 (B) M1, M2, M3
(C) M1, E2, M3 (D) E1, M2, E3.

Common Data Questions


Common Data for Questions 48 and 49
A hydrogen beam is prepared in the state

 1  Et   2  Et  3  Et 
 r , t   exp  i 1  1  r   exp  i 2   2  r   exp  i 3   3  r 
14    7    14   
where E1, E2, E3 are the energies of the ground state and the first excited state of the
  
hydrogen atom and 1 r , 2 r , 3 r  are their normalized wave functions respectively.
The beam is incident on a detector which measures their energy. Let E0 be the ionization
energy of the hydrogen atom.
E0
Q48. what will be probability such that energy is  E0 and  respectively .
9
1 3 1 9 1 1 3 3
(A) , (B) , (C) , (D) ,
14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14

Q49. The average energy measured by the detector is given by


3 3
(A) – E0 (B)  E0 (C) E0 (D) E0
14 14

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Common Data for Questions 50 and 51


Consider a hetero nuclear diatomic molecule with moment of inertia I .
Q50. If N no of such molecule kept at equilibrium temperature T with j total angular
orbital quantum no then write the partition fuction at low temperature .
2 2 2
a) Z  exp(  ) b) Z  1  exp( ) c) Z  1  3exp( )
IkT IkT IkT
2 2
Z  1  3exp( )
IkT
Q51. what will average energy per molecule at higher temperature T
3kT
(A) kT (B) 2kT (C) (D)3 kT
2
Linked Answer Questions
Statement for Linked Answer Questions 52 and 53:
Three particles of equal mass m are connected by two identical mass less springs of
stiffness constant k as shown in the figure:
k k
m m m
Q.52 If x1 , x 2 and x 3 denote the horizontal displacements of the masses from their
respective equilibrium positions, the potential energy of the system is
1 1
(A)
2

k x12  x22  x32  (B)
2

k x12  x 22  x 32  x 2  x1  x3 
1 1
(C)
2

k x12  2 x 22  x32  2 x 2 x1  x3   (D)
2

k x12  2 x 22  x32  2 x 2  x1  x 3 
Q.53 The normal mode of frequency is given by

k k k 2k k 3k k k
(A) , (B) , (C) , (D) ,2 .
m m m m m m m m

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Statement for Linked Answer Questions 54 and 55:


A long solenoid, of radius a, is driven by alternating current, so that the field inside is

sinusoidal: B  t   B0 cos t  zˆ . A circular loop of wire, of radius a and resistance R,
2
is placed inside the solenoid, and coaxial with it.

Q54. The Magnetic flux through the loop is,


1 2
(A)  a B0 sin  t  (B)  a 2 B0 sin t 
4
1 2
(C)  a 2 B0 cos  t  (D)  a B0 cos  t 
4

Q55. Then the amplitude of current induced in the loop is


 a 2 B0  a 2 B0  a 2 B0  a 2 B0
(A) (B) (C) (D)
2R 3R 4R 5R

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General Aptitude (GA) Questions


Q.56 – Q.60 carry one mark each

Q.56 Choose the grammatically INCORRECT sentence:


(a) They gave us the money back less the service charges of Three Hundred rupees.
(b) This country’s expenditure is not less than that of Bangladesh.
(c) The committee initially asked for a funding of Fifty Lakh rupees, but later settled for a
lesser sum.
(d) This country’s expenditure on educational reforms is very less.

Q.57. Which one of the following options is the closest in meaning to the word given below?
Mitigate
(a) Diminish (b) Divulge (c) Dedicate (d) Denote

Q.58 Choose the most appropriate alternative from the options given below to complete the
following sentence:
Despite several ––––––––– the mission succeeded in its attempt to resolve the
conflict.
(a) attempts (b) setbacks (c) meetings (d) delegations

Q.59 T he cost function for a product in a firm is given by 5q2, where q is the amount of
production. The firm can sell the product at a market price of Rs50 per unit. The number
of units to be produced by the firm such that the profit is maximized is
(a) 5 (b) 10 (c) 15 (d) 25

Q.60 Choose the most appropriate alternative from the options given below to complete the
following sentence:
Suresh’s dog is the one ––––––––– was hurt in the stampede.
(a) that (b) which (c) who (d) whom

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Q.61 – Q.65 carry two marks each.

Q.61 Which of the following assertions are CORRECT?


P: Adding 7 to each entry in a list adds 7 to the mean of the list
Q: Adding 7 to each entry in a list adds 7 to the standard deviation of the list
R: Doubling each entry in a list doubles the mean of the list
S: Doubling each entry in a list leaves the standard deviation of the list unchanged
(a) P, Q (b) Q, R (c) P, R (d) R, S

Q.62 An automobile plant contracted to buy shock absorbers from two suppliers X and Y. X
supplies
60% and Y supplies 40% of the shock absorbers. All shock absorbers are subjected to a
quality test. The ones that pass the quality test are considered reliable. Of X’s shock
absorbers, 96% are reliable. Of Y’s shock absorbers, 72% are reliable.
The probability that a randomly chosen shock absorber, which is found to be reliable, is
made by Y is
(a) 0.288 (b) 0.334 (c) 0.667 (d) 0.720

Q.63 A political party orders an arch for the entrance to the ground in which the annual
convention is
being held. The profile of the arch follows the equation y = 2x – 0.1x2 where y is the
height of the
arch in meters. The maximum possible height of the arch is
(a) 8 meters (b) 10 meters (c) 12 meters (d) 14 meters

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Q.64 Wanted Temporary, Part-time persons for the post of Field Interviewer to conduct
personal interviews to collect and collate economic data. Requirements: High School-
pass, must be available for Day, Evening and Saturday work. Transportation paid,
expenses reimbursed.
Which one of the following is the best inference from the above advertisement?
(a) Gender-discriminatory
(b) Xenophobic
(c) Not designed to make the post attractive
(d) Not gender-discriminatory

Q.65 Given the sequence of terms, AD CG FK JP, the next term is


(a) OV (b) OW (c) PV (d) PW

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and Lecturer-ship

PHYSICAL SCIENCES

PART ‘A’ CORE


I. Mathematical Methods of Physics

Dimensional analysis. Vector algebra and vector calculus. Linear algebra, matrices, Cayley-Hamilton
Theorem. Eigenvalues and eigenvectors. Linear ordinary differential equations of first & second order,
Special functions (Hermite, Bessel, Laguerre and Legendre functions). Fourier series, Fourier and Laplace
transforms. Elements of complex analysis, analytic functions; Taylor & Laurent series; poles, residues
and evaluation of integrals. Elementary probability theory, random variables, binomial, Poisson and
normal distributions. Central limit theorem.

II. Classical Mechanics

Newton’s laws. Dynamical systems, Phase space dynamics, stability analysis. Central force motions.
Two body Collisions - scattering in laboratory and Centre of mass frames. Rigid body dynamics-
moment of inertia tensor. Non-inertial frames and pseudoforces. Variational principle. Generalized
coordinates. Lagrangian and Hamiltonian formalism and equations of motion. Conservation laws and
cyclic coordinates. Periodic motion: small oscillations, normal modes. Special theory of relativity-
Lorentz transformations, relativistic kinematics and mass–energy equivalence.

III. Electromagnetic Theory

Electrostatics: Gauss’s law and its applications, Laplace and Poisson equations, boundary value
problems. Magnetostatics: Biot-Savart law, Ampere's theorem. Electromagnetic induction. Maxwell's
equations in free space and linear isotropic media; boundary conditions on the fields at interfaces. Scalar
and vector potentials, gauge invariance. Electromagnetic waves in free space. Dielectrics and conductors.
Reflection and refraction, polarization, Fresnel’s law, interference, coherence, and diffraction. Dynamics
of charged particles in static and uniform electromagnetic fields.

IV. Quantum Mechanics

Wave-particle duality. Schrödinger equation (time-dependent and time-independent). Eigenvalue


problems (particle in a box, harmonic oscillator, etc.). Tunneling through a barrier. Wave-function in
coordinate and momentum representations. Commutators and Heisenberg uncertainty principle. Dirac
notation for state vectors. Motion in a central potential: orbital angular momentum, angular momentum
algebra, spin, addition of angular momenta; Hydrogen atom. Stern-Gerlach experiment. Time-
independent perturbation theory and applications. Variational method. Time dependent perturbation
theory and Fermi's golden rule, selection rules. Identical particles, Pauli exclusion principle, spin-statistics
connection.

V. Thermodynamic and Statistical Physics

Laws of thermodynamics and their consequences. Thermodynamic potentials, Maxwell relations,


chemical potential, phase equilibria. Phase space, micro- and macro-states. Micro-canonical, canonical
and grand-canonical ensembles and partition functions. Free energy and its connection with
thermodynamic quantities. Classical and quantum statistics. Ideal Bose and Fermi gases. Principle of
detailed balance. Blackbody radiation and Planck's distribution law.

VI. Electronics and Experimental Methods

Semiconductor devices (diodes, junctions, transistors, field effect devices, homo- and hetero-junction
devices), device structure, device characteristics, frequency dependence and applications. Opto-electronic
devices (solar cells, photo-detectors, LEDs). Operational amplifiers and their applications. Digital
techniques and applications (registers, counters, comparators and similar circuits). A/D and D/A
converters. Microprocessor and microcontroller basics.

Data interpretation and analysis. Precision and accuracy. Error analysis, propagation of errors. Least
squares fitting,

PART ‘B’ ADVANCED


I. Mathematical Methods of Physics

Green’s function. Partial differential equations (Laplace, wave and heat equations in two and three
dimensions). Elements of computational techniques: root of functions, interpolation, extrapolation,
integration by trapezoid and Simpson’s rule, Solution of first order differential equation using Runge-
Kutta method. Finite difference methods. Tensors. Introductory group theory: SU(2), O(3).

II. Classical Mechanics

Dynamical systems, Phase space dynamics, stability analysis. Poisson brackets and canonical
transformations. Symmetry, invariance and Noether’s theorem. Hamilton-Jacobi theory.

III. Electromagnetic Theory

Dispersion relations in plasma. Lorentz invariance of Maxwell’s equation. Transmission lines and wave
guides. Radiation- from moving charges and dipoles and retarded potentials.

IV. Quantum Mechanics

Spin-orbit coupling, fine structure. WKB approximation. Elementary theory of scattering: phase shifts,
partial waves, Born approximation. Relativistic quantum mechanics: Klein-Gordon and Dirac equations.
Semi-classical theory of radiation.

V. Thermodynamic and Statistical Physics

First- and second-order phase transitions. Diamagnetism, paramagnetism, and ferromagnetism. Ising
model. Bose-Einstein condensation. Diffusion equation. Random walk and Brownian motion.
Introduction to nonequilibrium processes.

VI. Electronics and Experimental Methods

Linear and nonlinear curve fitting, chi-square test. Transducers (temperature, pressure/vacuum, magnetic
fields, vibration, optical, and particle detectors). Measurement and control. Signal conditioning and
recovery. Impedance matching, amplification (Op-amp based, instrumentation amp, feedback), filtering
and noise reduction, shielding and grounding. Fourier transforms, lock-in detector, box-car integrator,
modulation techniques.

High frequency devices (including generators and detectors).

VII. Atomic & Molecular Physics

Quantum states of an electron in an atom. Electron spin. Spectrum of helium and alkali atom. Relativistic
corrections for energy levels of hydrogen atom, hyperfine structure and isotopic shift, width of spectrum
lines, LS & JJ couplings. Zeeman, Paschen-Bach & Stark effects. Electron spin resonance. Nuclear
magnetic resonance, chemical shift. Frank-Condon principle. Born-Oppenheimer approximation.
Electronic, rotational, vibrational and Raman spectra of diatomic molecules, selection rules. Lasers:
spontaneous and stimulated emission, Einstein A & B coefficients. Optical pumping, population
inversion, rate equation. Modes of resonators and coherence length.

VIII. Condensed Matter Physics

Bravais lattices. Reciprocal lattice. Diffraction and the structure factor. Bonding of solids. Elastic
properties, phonons, lattice specific heat. Free electron theory and electronic specific heat. Response and
relaxation phenomena. Drude model of electrical and thermal conductivity. Hall effect and
thermoelectric power. Electron motion in a periodic potential, band theory of solids: metals, insulators
and semiconductors. Superconductivity: type-I and type-II superconductors. Josephson junctions.
Superfluidity. Defects and dislocations. Ordered phases of matter: translational and orientational order,
kinds of liquid crystalline order. Quasi crystals.

IX. Nuclear and Particle Physics

Basic nuclear properties: size, shape and charge distribution, spin and parity. Binding energy, semi-
empirical mass formula, liquid drop model. Nature of the nuclear force, form of nucleon-nucleon
potential, charge-independence and charge-symmetry of nuclear forces. Deuteron problem. Evidence of
shell structure, single-particle shell model, its validity and limitations. Rotational spectra. Elementary
ideas of alpha, beta and gamma decays and their selection rules. Fission and fusion. Nuclear reactions,
reaction mechanism, compound nuclei and direct reactions.

Classification of fundamental forces. Elementary particles and their quantum numbers (charge, spin,
parity, isospin, strangeness, etc.). Gellmann-Nishijima formula. Quark model, baryons and mesons. C, P,
and T invariance. Application of symmetry arguments to particle reactions. Parity non-conservation in
weak interaction. Relativistic kinematics.
fiziks
Institute for NET/JRF, GATE, IIT‐JAM, M.Sc. Entrance, JEST, TIFR and GRE in Physics 
 
MATHEMATICAL PHYSICS SOLUTIONS
NET/JRF (JUNE-2011)
Q1. The value of the integral  dz z 2 e z , where C is an open contour in the complex z -plane as
C
lm z
shown in the figure below, is:
5 5
(a) e (b) e  0,1
e e
5 5 C
(c) e (d)  e
e e
Re z
Ans: (c)  1,0  1,0
Solution: If we complete the contour, then by Cauchy integral theorem
1 1
e   dzz e  0   dzz e    dzz 2 e z   z 2 e z  2 ze z  2e z  1 
1 5
 dzz e
2 z 2 z 2 z

1 C C 1
e
Q2. Which of the following matrices is an element of the group SU 2  ?
1 i 1 
 
 1 1
(a)   (b)  3 3
 0 1  1 1 i 
 
 3 3
 1 3
 
2  i i 
(c)   (d)  2 2 
 3 1 i  3 1 
 
 2 2 
Ans: (b)
   
Solution: SU 2  is a group defined as following: SU 2   
2 2
 :  ,   C ;     1
    
1 i 1 1 i 1
clearly (b) hold the property of SU 2  .   ,  and   ,  .
3 3 3 3
Note: SU 2  has wide applications in electroweak interaction covered in standard model
of particle physics.
  
Q3. Let a and b be two distinct three dimensional vectors. Then the component of b that is

perpendicular to a is given by
  
(a)
a ba  
(b)
  
b  a b 
(c)
 
a b b  (d)
 
b a a    
a2 b2 b2 a2
Ans: (a)
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fiziks
Institute for NET/JRF, GATE, IIT‐JAM, M.Sc. Entrance, JEST, TIFR and GRE in Physics 
 
 
Solution: a  b  ab sin  nˆ where n̂ is perpendicular to plane containing
 
a and b and pointing upwards.
b b sin  kˆ
  
  
a  a  b  ab sin  a  nˆ    a 2 b sin  kˆ

     
ˆ
b sin  k 
 a  a  b   ˆ
 b sin  k 
a  ba
.
  a

a2 a2
Q4. Let p n  x  (where n  0,1, 2, ...... ) be a polynomial of degree n with real coefficients,
4
defined in the interval 2  n  4 . If  pn  x  pm  x dx   nm , then
2

1 3 1
(a) p 0 x   and p1  x    3  x  (b) p0  x   and p1  x   3 3  x 
2 2 2

1 3 1 3
(c) p0  x   and p1  x   3  x  (d) p 0  x   and p1  x   3  x 
2 2 2 2
Ans: (d)
Solution: For n not equal to m kroneker delta become zero. One positive and one negative term
1
can make integral zero. So answer may be (c) or (d). Now take n  m  0 so p0  x  
2
and then integrate. (d) is correct option because it satisfies the equation Check by
integration and by orthogonal property of Legendre polynomial also.
Q5. Which of the following is an analytic function of the complex variable z  x  iy in the

domain z  2 ?

(a) 3  x  iy  (b) 1  x  iy  7  x  iy 
7 4 3

(c) 1  x  iy   7  x  iy  (d) x  iy  1
4 3 1/ 2

Ans: (b)
Solution: Put z  x  iy . If z  x  iy appears in any of the expressions then that expression is
1
non-analytic. For option (d) we have a branch point singularity as the power is which
2
is fractional. Hence only option (b) is analytic.

H.No. 40‐D, Ground Floor, Jia Sarai, Near IIT, Hauz Khas, New Delhi‐110016 
Phone: 011‐26865455/+91‐9871145498
Website: www.physicsbyfiziks.com  | Email: fiziks.physics@gmail.com  

fiziks
Institute for NET/JRF, GATE, IIT‐JAM, M.Sc. Entrance, JEST, TIFR and GRE in Physics 
 
 1 1 1
Q6. Consider the matrix M  1 1 1
 1 1 1
 
A. The eigenvalues of M are
(a) 0, 1, 2 (b) 0, 0, 3 (c) 1, 1, 1 (d) – 1, 1, 3
Ans: (b)
1   1 1 
Solution: For eigen values  1 1  1   0
 1 1 1   

1   1   2  1  1    1  11  1     0
1   1  2  2  1      0  2  2  3  22  2  0
3  32  0  2   3  0    0, 0, 3
For any n  n matrix having all elements unity eigenvalues are 0, 0, 0,..., n .
B. The exponential of M simplifies to (I is the 3  3 identity matrix)
 e3  1  M2
(a) e  I  
M
 M (b) e  I  M 
M

 3  2!

(c) e M  I  33 M (d) e M  e  1M


Ans: (a)
Solution: For e M , let us try to diagonalize matrix M using similarity transformation.

 2 1 1   x1  0

For   3 ,  1  2 1   x 2   0
 1 1  2  x3  0

  2 x1  x2  x 3  0 , x1  2 x 2  x3  0 , x1  x 2  2 x3  0

 3x 2  3x3  0 or x2  x3  x1  x 2  x3  k .

1
1 
Eigen vector is 1 , where k  1 .
3 
1

For   0 ,

H.No. 40‐D, Ground Floor, Jia Sarai, Near IIT, Hauz Khas, New Delhi‐110016 
Phone: 011‐26865455/+91‐9871145498
Website: www.physicsbyfiziks.com  | Email: fiziks.physics@gmail.com  

fiziks
Institute for NET/JRF, GATE, IIT‐JAM, M.Sc. Entrance, JEST, TIFR and GRE in Physics 
 
1 1 1  x1  0
1 1 1  x  0  x  x  x  0
  2   1 2 3

1 1 1  x3  0

 k1  1
  1  
Let x1  k1 , x2  k2 and x3   k1  k2  . Eigen vector is  k2    1 where k1  k 2  1 .
 k 1  k 2   2
   1 

1
1  
Let x1  k1 , x 2  k 2 and x3  k1  k 2  . Other Eigen vector 0 where k1  1, k 2  1 .
2 
 1

 0 1 1 1  2 1 
S   1 0 1  S  2  1  1  D  S 1 MS , M  SDS 1 .
  1

 1  1 1 1  1 1 

1 0 0 
eM  Se D S 1  e D  0 1 0   e M  1 
e3  1 M  
3
0 0 e 3 

NET/JRF (DEC-2011)
Q7. An unbiased dice is thrown three times successively. The probability that the numbers of
dots on the uppermost surface add up to 16 is
1 1 1 1
(a) (b) (c) (d)
16 36 108 216
Ans: (b)
Solution: We can get sum of dice as 16 in total six ways i.e. three ways (6, 5, 5) and three ways
(6, 6, 4).
Total number of ways for 3 dice having six faces  6  6  6
6 1
 
6  6  6 36

Q8. The generating function F x, t    Pn  x t n for the Legendre polynomials Pn  x 
n 0


is F x, t   1  2 xt  t 2 
1
2
. The value of P3  1 is
(a) 5 / 2 (b) 3 / 2 (c)  1 (d)  1
H.No. 40‐D, Ground Floor, Jia Sarai, Near IIT, Hauz Khas, New Delhi‐110016 
Phone: 011‐26865455/+91‐9871145498
Website: www.physicsbyfiziks.com  | Email: fiziks.physics@gmail.com  

fiziks
Institute for NET/JRF, GATE, IIT‐JAM, M.Sc. Entrance, JEST, TIFR and GRE in Physics 
 
Ans: (d)

Solution: P3 
1
2
  1
2
 1

5 x 3  3x  P3  1  5 1  3 1   5  3  1
3

2
Q9. The equation of the plane that is tangent to the surface xyz  8 at the point 1, 2, 4  is
(a) x  2 y  4 z  12 (b) 4 x  2 y  z  12
(c) x  4 y  2  0 (d) x  y  z  7
Ans: (b)
Solution: To get a normal at the surface, lets take the gradient

 xyx   yziˆ  zxˆj  kˆxy  8iˆ  4 ˆj  2kˆ

We want a plane perpendicular to this so: r  r0    8iˆ64 4 16ˆj 2k4ˆ  0 .


x 1iˆ   y  2 ˆj  z  4kˆ 8iˆ  4 ˆj  2kˆ  0  4 x  2 y  z  12 .
Q10.    
A 3  3 matrix M has Tr M   6, Tr M 2  26 and Tr M 3  90 . Which of the following
can be a possible set of eigenvalues of M ?
(a) 1,1, 4 (b)  1, 0, 7 (c)  1, 3, 4 (d) 2, 2, 2
Ans: (c)
  2 2
 
Solution: Tr M 2   1  3  4 also Tr M 3   1  3  4  90 .
2 3 3 3

Q11. Let x1 t  and x2 t  be two linearly independent solutions of the differential equation

d 2x dx t  dx t 
 2  f t x  0 and let wt   x1 t  2  x2 t  1 . If w0   1, then w1 is
dx
2
dt dt dt dt
given by
(a) 1 (b) e 2 (c) 1 / e (d) 1 / e 2
Ans: (d)
Solution: W t  is Wronskian of D.E.

W  e   e 2t  W 1  e 2 since P  2 .


 Pdt

H.No. 40‐D, Ground Floor, Jia Sarai, Near IIT, Hauz Khas, New Delhi‐110016 
Phone: 011‐26865455/+91‐9871145498
Website: www.physicsbyfiziks.com  | Email: fiziks.physics@gmail.com  

fiziks
Institute for NET/JRF, GATE, IIT‐JAM, M.Sc. Entrance, JEST, TIFR and GRE in Physics 
 
1 for 2n  x  2n  1
Q12. The graph of the function f  x   
0 for 2n  1  x  2n  2
~
where n  0,1, 2,...... is shown below. Its Laplace transform f s  is
f x 
1  es 1  es
(a) (b)
s s 1
1 1
(c) (d) x
s 1  e  s  s 1  e  s  0 1 2 3 4 5

Ans: (c)
 1 2 3
Solution: L f  x    e  sx
f  x  dx   e  sx
 1dx   e  sx
 0dx   e  sx  1dx  ......
0 0 1 2

1 3
 e  sx   e  sx 
   0     ...... 
1 s
e 1 
1 3 s

e  e  2 s  ......   
  s 0   s 2 s s


1
s
 1
 
 1  e  s  e 2 s  e 3 s  ........  1  e  s  e  2 s  e 3s  ....
s

a 1 1 
Since S   where r  e  s and a  1  S    .
1 r s  1  e  s 

Q13. The first few terms in the Taylor series expansion of the function f  x   sin x around

x are:
4

1     1   1   
2 3

(a)  
1  x     x     x   .....
2   4  2!  4  3!  4 

1   
2 3
 1  1 
(b) 1
  x     x     x   .....
2   4  2!  4  3!  4 

   1   
3

(c)  x     x   .....
 4  3!  4 

1  x 2 x3 
(d) 1  x   .....
2  2! 3! 

Ans: (b)
Solution: f  x   sin x

H.No. 40‐D, Ground Floor, Jia Sarai, Near IIT, Hauz Khas, New Delhi‐110016 
Phone: 011‐26865455/+91‐9871145498
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fiziks
Institute for NET/JRF, GATE, IIT‐JAM, M.Sc. Entrance, JEST, TIFR and GRE in Physics 
 
  1    1    1
f   , f    