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ENTREPRENEURIAL LEARNING: AN EXPLORATION OF CREATIVE

MODEL IN INDUSTRY TO ART AND DESIGN COURSES
Azhari Md Hashim1, Fadila Mohd Yusof2, Mohd Hamidi Adha Mohd Amin3,
Asrol Hasan4, and Norarifah Ali5

1* azhari033@kedah.uitm.edu.my
2 fadila675@kedah.uitm.edu.my
3 hamidiadha@kedah.uitm.edu.my
4 asrol726@kedah.uitm.edu.my
5 norarifah@kedah.uitm.edu.my

Accepted date: 15 December 2017, Published date: 31 December 2017

Abstract
This paper attempts to highlight the entrepreneurial awareness among
student of art and design, which is trained to be an entrepreneur in creative
industries. Creative industries involves the range of economic activities of individual
and groups in creativity, skill and talent to create job and wealth through their
intellectual property. Human creativity was considered one of the ultimate
economic resources and the prospect were never ending as long as the
development process of creativity and innovation are continuously encouraged.
Within the Malaysian government initiative, the National Policy of Creative
Industries were introduces along with The Action Plan of Malaysian Higher Ministry
Education in enhanced The Higher Education Entrepreneurship Development
Policy with the primary goal of generating high‐quality human capital, equipped with
entrepreneurial thinking, attributes, and values, hence to produces more graduate
entrepreneurs to act as catalysts for economic transformation. Recent studies
conclude that art and design discipline has the potential to develop creativity,
innovative, adaptable, and lateral thinking in producing the high quality demand of
graduates. However, graduates merely recognize these positive outcomes by
practicing in creative industries and resulted in job hunting for private or
government sector. This paper explores the prospect of creative industries, what
the requirements for graduates to entering the workplace, and the connection
between academic and working environment. Finally, a student quantitative
analysis evaluation of the entrepreneurial awareness, focusing in this area,
recommends some insights into how students can develop confidence and
entrepreneurship skills, as well as the opportunity in creative businesses.

Keywords: Creative Industry, Entrepreneurial awareness, Creative entrepreneur

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1 Introduction
Recent studies conclude that art and design discipline has the potential to develop creativity,
innovative, adaptable, and lateral thinking in producing the high quality demand of
graduates. However, graduates merely recognize these positive outcomes by practicing in
creative industries and resulted in job hunting for private or government sector.

This study explores the prospect of creative industries, what the requirements for
graduates to entering the workplace, and the connection between academic and working
environment. Creative industries involves the range of economic activities of individual and
groups in creativity, skill and talent to create job and wealth through their intellectual
property.

Within the Malaysian government initiative, the National Policy of Creative Industries
were introduces along with The Action Plan of Malaysian Higher Ministry Education in
enhanced The Higher Education Entrepreneurship Development Policy with the primary goal
of generating high‐quality human capital, equipped with entrepreneurial thinking, attributes,
and values, hence to produces more graduate entrepreneurs to act as catalysts for
economic transformation.

This study explores the prospect of creative industries, what the requirements for
graduates to entering the workplace, and the connection between academic and working
environment. Finally, a student evaluation of the entrepreneurial awareness, focusing in this
area, recommends some insights into how students can develop confidence and
entrepreneurship skills, as well as the opportunity in creative business.

By capturing current attitudes and practices in creative industries, this study
emphasizes entrepreneurial curriculum development and proposes implementation in a
relatively aspect of educational research. This study suggests tentative suggestions and
recommendations on how higher education and policy makers might respond to current and
future creative industry needs.

2 Entrepreneurial Education

Entrepreneurship education is a learning action prepared to establish individuals’ attitude in
entrepreneurial action and potentiality. It boosts individuals’ creativity, deviation and
effectiveness in order to motivate economic enhancement (hanif). Gibb as cited in Ui Wei Lii
argued that to establish entrepreneurs, the core of education structure demand alteration
from the traditional focus to “entrepreneurial focus” as in Table 1. This is promoted by
Timmons who added that entrepreneurial learning is the capability to build up and
commence something from practically nothing.

Table 1. Traditional versus entrepreneurial focus

Traditional focus on Entrepreneurial focus on
The past The future
Critical analysis Creativity
Knowledge Insight
Passive understanding Active understanding
Absolute detachment Emotional involvement
Manipulation of symbols Manipulations of events
Written communication and neutrality Personal communications and influence
Concept Problem or opportunity

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In Malaysia, entrepreneurship programs are provided for a specific target. For
example, 1Malaysia Entrepreneur (1Met) is a series of intense hands-on entrepreneurship
boot camps designed for first-time entrepreneurs to learn the basics of entrepreneurship.
The government aims to catalyze the creation of 5000 youth entrepreneurs every year from
entrepreneurial programs (Treasury.gov.my, 2015). Different researchers give different
definitions of entrepreneurship. For example, Syed Zamberi Ahmad et al. (2012) views
entrepreneurship as a process of creating something of value by devoting the necessary
skills, time, and effort, and assuming the accompanying financial and sometime physical and
social risks, to reap the resulting monetary rewards and personal satisfaction (Timmons,
1989). In addition, entrepreneur is defined as a person who produces goods or services to
customers (Syed Zamberi Ahmad, 2012; Harper, 1996).
Entrepreneurship has a significant influence on economic growth and creation of jobs
where political issues seem to be the ways to solve economic problems and social
challenges competing for countries (David, 2004). The entrepreneurial education in Malaysia
has begun from the elementary school level which is applied on Mathematics subject.
Besides, entrepreneurship education at the lower secondary school level is applied through
the subject of Integrated Living Skills which has already been started in the year
1991(Zainalabidin, Golnaz et. al, 2012). Cheng et al. (2009) assessed the state and
effectiveness of entrepreneurial education in Malaysia in terms of business and non-
business studies and thefindings indicated a low level of understandings of entrepreneurship
among students (Karataş-Özkan, 2011).
Nowadays, middle school students have less awareness gathered from educational
institutions in order to build their intentions of becoming entrepreneurs. Moreover, the
problem in this study is the syllabus provided by educational institutions which has less
impact to enhance their intentions of being entrepreneurs. Previous studies found that
research assessing the extent to which entrepreneurial courses are taught in non-business
courses and particularly in schools of education are lacking (Seikkula-Leino et al., 2010).
The questions arise on how, when, where and in what way should art and design students
be taught about entrepreneurship and self-employment in creative industries.

What are the current research needs, pedagogical materials, and the characteristics of
creative entrepreneurs practicing in creative industries?

To seeks to report on the current practice of entrepreneurial education towards higher
education syllabus of art and design curriculum.

To presents a critical evaluation of the growing literature, activity and research in creative
industries.

3 Method

This study was undertaken by using descriptive research design where a questionnaire was
developed. The target population of the study was art and design students from two
departments consist of Industrial Design and Graphic and Digital Media Department. A
sample of 71 students was selected at random from two departments. A sampling involves
the choice of respondents who were most advantageously placed or in the best position to
provide the information required (Uma Sekaran, 2013). Gay et al.(2009) recommended that
the sample questionnaire should be at least distributed to 10-20 percent from the population.
However, only 71 out of 415 students responded which according to Uma Sekaran that was
the recommended sample size and sufficient level of returned questionnaire.
Five-point Likert scale questionnaires were used to measure the entrepreneurial intention of
the students. The choices ranged from 1=strongly disagree to 5=strongly agree. The

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questionnaire was divided into two parts which are Part A and Part B. Part A consists of 4
items for participant’s background. Part B has 30 items used to measure entrepreneurial
learning. This item was to analyze perceived career planning and entrepreneurial inclination,
the role model, the role of universities in promoting entrepreneurship, views on personal
control, and views on achievement. Data collected were analyzed by using SPSS software
to ensure the reliability of the data.

3.1 Participant data

A total of 106 individuals (N=106) took part in the study (Table 2). The participants consisted
of Industrial Design and Graphic and Digital Media students, Faculty of Art and Design,
Universiti Teknologi MARA, Kedah branch campus. University students were selected as it
represent the target group and to form a relatively homogenous group (Babbie 1990, Punch
1998). Participants were chosen from design courses such that prior knowledge of similar
research would affect the responses and easily to interpreted.

Table 2. Background characteristics of participants

Demographics Number Percentage
Gender
Male
Female
Age
19-20
21-22
23-24
25 and above
Place of origin
Pulau Pinang

Kedah
Occupation of father or guardian
Employed (govt)
Employed (private)
Self-employed (business)
Self-employed (agriculture)
Unemployed
Retired
Others

3.2 Questionnaires and Procedure

4. RESULT AND CONCLUSIONS

This study presents a critical evaluation of the growing literature, activity and research in
creative industries in particular research needs, pedagogical materials, characteristics of
creative entrepreneur in how or what way creative students should be taught about
entrepreneurship. By capturing current attitudes and practices in creative industries, this
study emphasizes entrepreneurial curriculum development and proposes implementation in
a relatively aspect of educational research. This study suggests tentative suggestions and

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recommendations on how higher education and policy makers might respond to current and
future creative industry needs.

This study attempts to highlight and report the entrepreneurial awareness among student of
art and design, which is trained to be an entrepreneur in creative industries. This study
explores the prospect of creative industries, what the requirements for graduates to entering
the workplace.

Instead of resisting change, entrepreneurial marketers (both practitioner and researcher
based) should be prepared to work with it, anticipating future trends. An example of an
emerging creative approach can be seen in the way in which teaching and learning is
beginning to embrace electronic methods, instead of relying on traditional modes of
facilitation where educator/learner physical presence is required. Although the majority of
entrepreneurial markets may not believe themselves to be, or be perceived as, geniuses,
they should believe in the worth of visionary thinking in order to stimulate new theory
generation and improved practical understanding (Charlotte & Annette, 2006).

Creative ability should be used as a strategic weapon, as a type of competitive advantage
over those not prepared to take risks and change their ways of thinking and operating.

References

Charlotte, C., & Annette, N. (2006). Enterprise curriculum for creative industries students: An
exploration of current attitudes and issues. Education + Training, 48(7), 518-531. doi:
doi:10.1108/00400910610705908

David, R. (2004). Entrepreneurial learning: a practical model from the creative industries.
Education + Training, 46(8/9), 492-500. doi: doi:10.1108/00400910410569614

Karataş-Özkan, M. (2011). Understanding relational qualities of entrepreneurial learning:
Towards a multi-layered approach. Entrepreneurship & Regional Development, 23(9-
10), 877-906. doi: 10.1080/08985626.2011.577817

Timmons, J. A. (1989). The entrepreneurial mind. Andover: Brick House Publishing.

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