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# PROBLEM SOLVING FORUM

Measuring DFT on
Steel I-Beams

## problem. Gross errors where the is the DFT. No spot measurement

Answer can differ from the specified DFT
paint is obviously too thin or too
Ray Weaver, by more than 20 percent. This stip-
thick must be corrected and are be-
SSPC, ulation will cause rejection if the
yond the scope of this discussion.
Pittsburgh, PA, U.S.: A beam has eight different sur-dry film on one of the surfaces is
SSPC is in the preliminary stages of too thin or too thick. If some of the
faces as shown in Fig. 1. Any one of
developing a procedure for measur- eight surfaces are not accessible,
these surfaces may have a DFT out-
ing the dry film thickness (DFT) of take at least five spot measurements
side the specified range and, hence,
coatings on steel beams. with at least one spot on
Section 5.3 of SSPC-PA 2 each accessible surface.
is the elastic clause that Repeat for the other
would apply to DFT mea- uestion Q two-foot (0.6-meter)
surement on steel beams. It On a steel I-beam, how many dry film thickness length.
states, “Other size areas or (DFT) measurements are required to achieve a For beams between
number of spot measure- meaningful statistical average, and where 40 ft (12 m) and 80 ft (24
ments may be specified in should they be taken—on the top and bottom of m) in length, divide the
the procurement documents both the upper and lower flanges and on both beam into thirds. Choose
as appropriate for the size sides of the web? a two-foot (0.6-meter)
and shape of the structure length of beam near one
to be measured.” SSPC and end, and randomly select
the American Institute of a two-foot (0.6-meter)
Steel Construction (AISC) propose to should be measured. As an informal length from each of the other thirds.
write a specific procedure for steel initial survey, the inspector may Measure the DFT in each two-foot
beams. want to check for uniformity of DFT (0.6-meter) length as described
The main problem for the painter across each section. Is the DFT of above.
in coating steel beams is providing the flange near the fillet the same as For beams over 80 ft (24 m) in
the same uniform thickness over near the outer edge of the flange? Is length, divide the beam into 40-foot
high and low vertical surfaces as the DFT uniform across the web? (12-meter) segments. The final seg-
over horizontal surfaces. On a The inspector must be sure to use a ment will be less than 40 ft (12 m) if
beam, there are proportionately gage that is not susceptible to edge the total length of the beam is not a
more edges, which tend to have effects. whole number of 40-foot (12-meter)
low DFT, and more inside corners, A possible procedure for measur- increments. Choose a two-foot (0.6-
which tend to have high DFT com- ing DFT on beams is as follows. For meter) length near one end and a
pared to the center of the flat sur- beams up to 40 ft (12 m) in length, randomly selected two-foot (0.6-
faces. Each painter usually develops choose a two-foot (0.6-meter) meter) length from each beam seg-
a pattern of work for a specific length of beam near one end and ment. Measure the DFT in each two-
task. Hence, the DFT on the under- another two-foot (0.6-meter) length foot (0.6-meter) length as described
side of the top flange, for example, near the center. As indicated in above.
may be consistently on the high SSPC-PA 2 (Section 4.1.2), take one For batch jobs of many girders,
side or the low side of the target spot measurement on each of the measure the first girder as described
DFT. This type of systematic error eight surfaces within the designated above; and then measure the DFT
is easy to detect and correct. Ran- two-foot (0.6-meter) length. The av- on a random two-foot (0.6-meter)
dom errors pose a more difficult erage of these spot measurements continued

PROBLEM SOLVING FORUM

one shift by one painter. For inspec- from the specified DFT by more
1 Top Flange
tion of a laydown of beams or than 20%. ✍
columns, the first step is to make a
8 2 visual survey to detect areas with
obvious defects, such as poor cover-
age. If the laydown passes the visual Answer
inspection, select one piece from Mark B. Dromgool,
3
among the first pieces painted and KTA-Tator Australia Pty Ltd,
measure the DFT as described Richmond, Victoria, Australia:
7 above. Repeat the procedure for a Several excellent standards around
Web piece painted near the center of the the world give guidance for collect-
laydown and one painted near the ing DFT readings on coated sub-
end of the laydown. strates. Two that are widely recog-
For a laydown of miscellaneous nized in Australia and Southeast Asia
Fillet parts, measure the DFT of a part are Australian Standard (AS) 3894.3-
6 4 painted near the beginning, the 1993 (Site Testing of Protective Coat-
middle, and the end of the lay- ings, Method 3: Determination of
Bottom Flange
5 down. As a minimum, choose one Dry Film Thickness) and SSPC-PA 2
Figure 1 — The Eight Surfaces of a Steel Beam
part from among those painted in (1991, Measurement of Dry Paint
each two-hour interval. Take a spot Thickness with Magnetic Gages). I
Fig. 1 - The eight surfaces of a steel beam measurement on each plane (sur- will concentrate on the former stan-
face) of the chosen part using a dard. Because it was based on an
length of each subsequent girder. minimum of five spots per part. As early version of SSPC-PA 2, there are
A “laydown” is a group of steel always, the average of the spots is many similarities between the two.
members laid down to be painted in the DFT, and no spot shall differ I believe that to be of most use,
these standards need to be interpret-
ed in a manner appropriate to the
task at hand, not necessarily literally.
AS 3894.3 suggests devising a pro-
ject-specific inspection plan detailing
the number of readings to be taken,
generally per module of surface area
for flat surfaces, or per meter of
length for structural, piping, or slen-
der articles.
For instance, AS 3894.3 suggests
that an appropriate inspection plan
for flat surfaces could be 5 readings
for each (approximately) 10 sq m
(110 sq ft) of painted area. Further,
if the article is up to approximately
30 sq m (320 sq ft), each 10-square-
meter (110-square-foot) area would
be measured. If it is up to 100 sq m
(1,100 sq ft), then three 10-square-
meter (110-square-foot) areas would
be measured at random, and anoth-
er 10-square-meter (110-square-foot)
area for each further 100 sq m
(1,100 sq ft).
For example, if a storage tank is to
be measured, and if each tank plate
is approximately 8 sq m (90 sq ft) in
PROBLEM SOLVING FORUM

area, then the project-specific in- angles, the standard suggests... “one access available, the configuration of
spection plan may ask for approxi- reading on each flat face less than the coated item, and a pattern of in-
mately five readings per plate. This 300 mm (12 in.) in width, for each spection points that has proven ac-
number is perfectly acceptable. It is lineal metre.” ceptable on projects that used the
not necessary to follow the stan- On the question of where read- same or similar coatings, the same
dard’s suggestion literally and take 5 ings should be taken on structural application methods, and workers of
readings for each plate and a quarter members (such as I beams), the the same skill level.
(to equal the 10 sq m [110 sq ft]). standard is a little more specific. My Therefore, the inspector is charged
As to the question of where read- interpretation of the standard is that with devising an appropriate plan
ings on flat surfaces should be taken, on a regular rolled column or beam that takes into account the frequen-
the standard is silent and appropriate- section, eight readings per lineal cy and locations of readings and
ly so. Otherwise, all effort would go meter are suggested—one on each then uses the standard’s well-rea-
into following the literal guidance and flat face. Thus, there would be one soned statistical evaluation process
devising an inspection plan that is on the underside of the top flange
project- or item-specific. (one on either side of where the
For small surface areas, AS 3894.3 web joins the flange); one on each
suggests a minimum of three read- side of the web face itself; and three Answer
ings per square meter. For more on the lower flange, exactly as Brian F. Connell,
pipework, the standard suggests that detailed for the upper flange. Anti-Corrosion Inspection Services,
a number of readings be taken Notwithstanding the above guid- Gilberdyke, UK:
evenly around the circumference. ance, an intelligent inspection plan The following factors may influence
The quantity per meter of length should call for an appropriate and the number of readings to be taken:
should be appropriate to the pipe achievable frequency of readings. • location of the I-beam (i.e.,
diameter. With respect to beams and The frequency would depend on the continued

PROBLEM SOLVING FORUM

## whether it is in a shop or part of an application; of measuring the dry film thickness.

on-site construction); • the choice of instrument being Consider the following four sce-
• the size and shape, dimensions, used and the inspector’s confidence narios.
and configuration of the I-beam and in its accuracy; 1) An I-beam with a 500-millimeter
(if known) its accessibility (particu- • applicable client specifications, ap- (20-inch) web depth and 150-millime-
larly during preparation and paint- propriate standards, and specific ma- ter (6-inch) top and bottom flanges
ing); terial manufacturer requirements; (30-millimeter [1.2-inch] flange edges)
• the condition of the substrate be- and and a length of 5 m (16 ft) has been
fore coating, the number and types • time constraints relevant to the coat- blast cleaned using recycled G24
of coats applied, and the method of ing’s state of cure and the actual task chilled iron/steel grit to a profile of 40
to 75 micrometers (1.6 to 3 mils) and
coated with a prefabrication primer
by automatic spray.
2) An identical I-beam blast cleaned
with the same medium and to the
same profile has been placed on sup-
port stands with a ground clearance
of less than 250 mm (10 in.) and coat-
ed by means of a roller and brush.
3) An identical I-beam coated with a
three-coat system in a shop by manu-
ally operated airless spray requires a
final DFT determination by an inde-
pendent inspector before dispatch to
the site. Defects would be spotted and
repaired before the job left the shop.
4) Final inspection is required for
an I-beam that has been prepared
and coated with a three-coat system
in a shop by means of manually op-
erated airless spray while under full-
time inspection. (Wet film and dry
film thickness measurements of the
primer and intermediate coats and
wet film thickness of the topcoat
have been recorded.)
It is not necessarily appropriate to
minations in some of the above in-
stances, especially in the case of ex-
ample 2 because of the nature of the
coating method used there and the
variable thickness values likely to be
obtained. The primary concern with
using a statistical average DFT for
example 2 is the danger of ignoring
the probability that some of the spot
readings are likely to be below the
recommended minimum DFT re-
equate corrosion protection.
Nor are statistical average DFTs
needed in the case of example 1.
PROBLEM SOLVING FORUM

Once the spray gun parameters have length) are within the specified
been set, the application is expected thickness values required, no addi- Send questions or answers
to be highly uniform. Periodic DFT tional readings would be necessary. for Problem Solving Forum
measurements would be needed to However, if the values obtained to Karen Kapsanis, Editor,
verify that process control parame- were below that specified, addition- JPCL/PMC, 2100 Wharton
ters (e.g., coating feed rate and tem- al sets of readings on the specific Street, Suite 310, Pittsburgh,
perature) are maintained. element(s) should be done to con- PA 15203; fax: +1/412/431-
Assuming there are no specified firm whether there is non-compli- 5428.
requirements, no doubts about the ance and if remedial treatment is
visual appearance or volume solids ✍
required.
content of the materials used, and
no question that the DFT gauge has
been correctly calibrated and
checked for accuracy, an inspector
checking example 4 would need to
perform no more than seven sets of
three spot readings (a total of 21)
per side for approximately each
meter (three feet) of length of the I-
beam. For a 5-meter (16-foot) beam,
this would be a total of 210 read-
ings. This would be enough to pro-
vide a meaningful statistical average
and assurance that the specified film
thickness has been achieved.
These sets of three spot readings
can be carried out at random, alter-
nating between the various elements
and the two sides of the I-beam,
such as in the following example.
Side one, first meter (three feet):
• edge of top flange—one set of
• underside of top flange—one set
• web area—two sets of readings
• top of bottom flange—one set of
• edge of bottom flange—nil
• underside (soffit)—two sets of