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oD» migrate 2 Cloud making Train Computer Vision for GENERATING SEMANTICS Computer Vision for Genera Introduction g Semantics Computer vision in simple words is nothing but the construction of 2-dimensional images to describe the structure and properties of the 3-dimensional world in the explicit and meaningful way.The process in which digital image is divided into super pixels and each pixel is labelled with different class of objects is referred as semantic segmentation. In this paradigm, cognition is defined as the manipulation of symbolic representations according to the rules of a formal syntax.Thus the understanding problem of computer vision presents itself a variant of the symbol grounding problem. In this paper, we examine the type of semantics employed in knowledge-based image understanding. It turns out that in both conventional and symbol grounding systems the semantics is "borrowed" - an interpretation by users remains necessary. It is argued that the depicted problems with image understanding and symbol grounding are matters of principle. Since machines do not have subjectivity, it is unreasonable to expect that they could ever have an understanding capacity. Approaches based on the computing paradigm will be unable to capture the historically determined, holistic nature of living beings and their embedding in an ecological niche, even if modern Al theories emphasize the agent-environment interaction. We also come to the conclusion that computer vision and Artificial Intelligence, in general, be a tool of perspective to use all the possibilities in a direct and constructive manner. pane ‘ond Keyboard and Mouse API www.migrate2cloud,com awa migrate 2 Cloud History The computer vision science has the variety of paradigm shifts over the last four decades one such example is by John von Neumann 1993, Crowley and Christensen 1995) were the first attempt was undertaken to use the new computing machines in processing the pictures or images.Later throughout the period between 1965-1975 vision was referred as pattern recognition.During this period an associate degree object was represented by a feature record. The similarity of objects was outlined by the quantitative degree of the agreement of the feature records that describe the objects. The book of Duda and Hart (1973) offers an informative summary of work done.The pattern recognition approach presently encountered many basic difficulties above all of these matter of segmentation of a picture into important chunks that might be classified established to be usually insoluble. From this period the anthology of Hanson and Risernan (1978) gives a representative overview of work, The image understanding approach also soon encountered barriers which limited its success. Also, the work to enter and formalize the necessary world knowledge proved to be feasible only for restricted domains. The segmentation | problem cannot be solved with the image understanding approach. An important reason is | that most Al techniques are rather sensitive to flaws of the image segmentation. Initial segmenting represents still today an important ) problem due to which many promising algorithms fail. 5 Another approach argued that understanding an image requires going back from the 2D pattern of grey or color values to the 3D form of the objects which generated the pattern. This recovery approach was developed by Marr (1982) and his colleagues at MIT into an influential concept, still strong today, for machine vision. Various techniques were specified with the goal to reconstruct the form of imaged objects on the basis of image features such as shading, texture, contour, Movement etc. These so-called Shape-from-X techniques turned out to be ill-posed in the mathematical sense. A problem is well-posed when its solution ‘exists, is unique and depends continuously on the given data. Ill-posed problems fail to satisfy one or more of these criteria. This means, for the case of a single static image, an unambiguous reconstruction is not possible in general. Uniqueness with the recovery can often be achieved if controlled camera movements are used, i.e. if images of the scene are taken from different views. www.migrate2cloud,com awa migrate2 Cloud Latent (ames T0000 a and promoted by Aloimonos et al. (1988). Active vision techniques use algorithms of constant or linear complexity. The contribution of active vision first was still embedded in the context of the recovery approach. Since the 1990's, modeling a vision system as an active agent has represented a lively research area. Thus, attention has been paid to criticism at the conception of Al machines as knowledge-based systems. Computer vision is no longer to be considered as a passive recovery process but has to include the process of selective data acquisition in space and time. Further, a good theory of vision should provide the interface between perception and other cognitive abilities, such as reasoning, planning, learning, and acting. In the framework of this approach, the aspects of attention, orientation to targets and purpose become important (Sommer 1995, Schierwagen and Werner 1998). At the same time, there are projects which resume the knowledge-based approach. The starting point is the assumption that object recognition includes the comparison of the objects with internal representations of objects and scenes in the image understanding system (|US). From a computational perspective (on the level of algorithm and representation) different possibilities of implementation result. While Marr (1982) tried to put the data-driven recovery of the visual objects into practice, an "image-based" approach has been suggested (see Tarr and Bulthoff (1998) for review). This approach does not need recovery in the sense of computing 3D representations. Image-based models represent objects in their image from a specific viewpoint. In order to determine the perceptual similarity between an input image and known objects, robust matching 6 algorithms are required. Tarr and Bulthoff (1998) plead in summary for a concept of object recognition which incorporates aspects of both recovery and image-based models. www.migrate2cloud,com awa migrate2 Cloud Image Segmentation A concise annotation method for collecting training data for class based image segmentation. Two steps » Generating the multiple tight segments, by mixing the multiple segment methods with the concept of bounding box. » Selecting the best segment by semi-supervised regression Credits » Present a novel algorithm which integrates the bounding box prior into the concept of multiple image segmentation, and automatically generate multiple tight segments. » Consider the segment selection as problem of the semi-supervised regression » Demonstrate that our approach provides an effective alternative for manually labeled contours. Segmentation with simulated user input Bounding Box Sloppy Contour Fit a tight rectangle Dilate ground truth Obiect independent features 4 ‘Color distances Graph Cuts Uncertainty Edge histogram Boundary alignment eo IED | i ee fle www.migrate2cloud,com awa migrate2 Cloud Core Techniques » Multiple Tight Segment Generation: In This Case an algorithm is Presented which automatically generates a set of tight segments for the bounding box of an object, out of which at least one of these tight segments will be approaching the object segment. >» Segment Selection: Here there are few contours as well as a set of bounding boxes of an object class, which are illustrated how to infer the object segments of these bounding boxes by solving a semi-supervised regression problem Instance Segmentation Classification Object Detection CAT,DOG, DUCK CAT, DOG, DUCK Single object Multiple objects Object Recognition In a given above image you have to find or detect every object as mentioned/restricted within your dataset, The finally Localize them with a bounding box and labeling that bounding box. In above image, you will see a basic output of a state of the art object recognition. (@) Camera View Alt objecs (6) Umoceluded Objects oa» migrate 2 Cloud www.migrate2cloud,com Object Detection Object recognition but is the task where you have only two classes of object classification that is: »» object bounding boxes »» non-object bounding boxes. For example Process of Detecting Humans: In Which you have to detect all humans in given image with their bounding boxes. Object Segmentation This process is similar to that of object recognition where you will be recognizing every object in an image but your output should be displayed classifying pixels of the image of the object. (a) classification (b) detection (€) segmentation www.migrate2cloud,com awa migrate2 Cloud Instance Segmentation Instance Segmentation means the segmentation of the individual objects within a scene,However, the primary reason this is very difficult is that from a visual perspective and philosophical ways philosophical ways what makes an "object" instance is not clear so far. Few questions arising are given below Are body parts objects? Should such "part-objects" be segmented at all by an instance segmentation algorithm? Should they be only segmented if they are seen separate from the whole? Or compound objects should be considered two separate things or one object. The example would be a rock glued to the top of a stick an ax, a hammer, or just a stick and a rock unless properly made?. Also, it isn't clear how to distinguish between instances. Is a will a separate instance from the other walls it is attached to? What order should instances be counted in? As they appear? Proximity to the viewpoint? In spite of these difficulties, segmentation of objects is still a big deal because as humans we will interact with objects all the time regardless of their "class label" (using random objects around you as paperweights, sitting on things that are not chairs), and so some dataset do attempt to get at this problem, but the main reason there isn't much attention given to the problem yet is because it isn't well enough defined @a'n'n Input Image ‘Semantic Segmentation Boundary Segmentation Semantic Instance ‘Segmentation www.migrate2cloud,com awa migrate2 Cloud Scene Parsing/Scene Labelling Scene Parsing is the strict segmentation process of labeling the scene, which also has some vagueness problems of its own. Historically, labeling the scene is meant to divide the entire "scene" into segments and finally labeling those scenes with a class. Generally, class labels are given to areas of the image without segmenting them explicitly. Semantic Segmentation means not dividing the entire scene. For semantic segmentation, the algorithm is intended to segment only the objects it knows and will be penalized by its loss function for labeling pixels that don't have any label. The best example is MS-COCO dataset which is a dataset for semantic segmentation where only limited or few objects are segmented. Inputs. Outputs Conclusion There are several different techniques developed for the segmentation of images to perform well and compare the methods used in practice. Then also the result of image segmentation method is dependent on several factors such as intensity, texture, image content. So you can neither do single segmentation which is applicable to all images nor you can apply every segmentation methods which perform well for one particular image. www.migrate2cloud,com oa» migrate 2 Cloud aw migrate Z Cloud making IT rain By MPa eC Pa ae Cour Ca Cue LCi ME gt oe Contact us at: