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Nama : Muhammad Akbar Hariyono

NIM : MTE17190194
Mata Kuliah : Metodologi Riset

TOPICS : AUTONOMOUS VECHILES (CAR)

Autonomous vehicles are vehicles that can operate safely and effectively without the need to be
controlled by humans. This vehicle consists of a collection of systems that are work together to
enable the vehicle to cross its environment. Application of sensor use has an important role in
autonomous vehicle technology. Examples of commonly used sensors between Other: Global
Positioning System, video camera, LIDAR, and RADAR. an autonomous vehicle can detect the
surrounding environment and be able to navigate itself with the help of the sensors that exist on it.
On the development of the moment this, the human / operator can set the desired destination
without the need to do mechanical activities such as moving a tooth or stepping on a car clutch o
operate the car.
One research is done by (Wan & Liu, 2007) which develops Automated navigation systems with
many sensors including vision sensors, RTK GPS and electronic compass. The fusion of the three
sensors, vision sensor, GPS and electronic-compass could offer the posture of the vehicle in real-
time. The camera was mounted on the cab of the vehicle at operator eye level, and this was proved
to be a better algorithm now. The system could navigate the vehicle in a straight line. Another
study shows that The navigation system takes RTK-DGPS and inertial measurement unit as
positioning sensors. This control method can online adjust the parameters of fuzzy control using
the genetic algorithm, in order to realize adaptive control. Thus the navigation control precision
can be improved by the methods studied. The navigation control methods can meet the demand
of agricultural machinery operating (Zhou, Wang, Zhang, Feng, & Ma, 2013).
In another study by (Omairi, Anuar, & Bakar, 2015) development of an autonomous small scale
electric car. An automotive ground vehicle (AGV) implements a system that enables it to navigate
through a series of predefined waypoints without any human inputs. To make this happen, it needs
to employ an effective and reliable control system. In the AGV, the control system consists of
longitudinal control system and lateral control system. The vehicle will be controlled by an Inertial
Measurement Unit (IMU) based board called ArduPilot Mega. The car would utilize the Global
Positioning System (GPS), an accelerometer, and a gyrometer on the ArduPilot Mega to pinpoint

& Bakar. Anuar.. (2008). the two parts communicated with each other via wireless data transmission modules. 2008). The attitude and heading reference system uses 3-axis gyroscope and accelerometer. R. the wireless data transmission module. Wang. Wan. 81–91. D- FCM. DEVELOPMENT OF AN AUTONOMOUS SMALL SCALE. A.. X. together with a magnetometer.. Chrun. W. 38(June). Valéria. M. ArduPilot Mega can communicate with a ground control station.. (2007). 769–776.. AUTOMATIC NAVIGATION SYSTEM.. (2015). It communicates over a wireless serial connection. R.. 304–311. Zhou. Valéria.. De. (2013). G. Feng. X. & Liu. using a communication protocol.its position and orientation in a surrounding. where data can be gathered.. S. Omairi. the GPS receiver and the mobile quadricycle. 215–224. G. 2013) developed an autonomous navigation system based on a new type of fuzzy cognitive maps. Research by (Mendonça. The under-controlling part included the ARM7 microprocessor. 943–950. R. Q. (2013). Zhang. Autonomous Navigation System. Mendonça. & Ma. An autonomous navigation system based on GPS was developed by (Liu & Liu. Computing. The system enables the user to go through a series of predefined waypoints using a simple cross track error trajectory following algorithm. I. & Arruda. 2. J. Chrun. 2. . References Liu. Automatic Navigation Based on Navigation Map of Agricultural Machine *. The developed DFCM approach adds new types of relationships and concepts into a classical FCM that allows modeling the human ability of to take decision in presence of random events. Autonomous Navigation Applying Dynamic-Fuzzy. and the waypoints or even control gains can be updated. The system was composed of the under-controlling part and the decision-making part. named dynamic fuzzy cognitive map. L. & Arruda. & Liu. A. Z...