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Eoceno-Oligoceno (2)

Fast exhumation & uplift: Fission track data

Nalpas et al (2005), El Salvador Transect


Syntectonic Eocene-early
Oligocene strata
Eocene-E Oligocene synorogenic sediments (Loma Amarilla Fm),
Eastern Cordillera de Domeyko, El Bordo Escarpment (Salar de
Atacama region)
SEGMENT
EXPLORADORA (33-32)
DAMIANA
EL SALVADOR (44-41)
26°

POTRERILLOS (37-35)

Copiapó
S
E
G
M
T
N

EL MORO-FORTUNA (35-32)
28°

Vallenar
ARGENTINA

APOLINARIO (37)

La Serena
30°
Incaic synorogenic
deposits Southern termination
LOICA (35) Salar of the Eocene –Oligocene
Ovalle
Fault Porphyry Copper Belt
100 km Reverse fault (26-31ºS)
Fold-thrust belt
Los Vilos
32°
Eocene-E Oligocene Porphyry Copper
belt of Northern Chile and southern Perú

Perelló et al, 2004


?
?
Andahuaylas Yauri
Batholith

Roperch et al, 2006


Andesitic Volcanism
Porphyry Copper (Anta Formation)
RAPID
Stocks UPLIFT
MOLASSE DEPOSITS

MESOZOIC SEQUENCES
FOLD-THRUST
BELT
INTERMEDIATE-STAGE
GRANODIORITES AND
EARLY-STAGE
QUARTZ MONZODIORITES
∼ 50 km CUMULATE GABBROS
AND DIORITES

Perelló et al, 2003


Early Stage Anta Arc ? (∼50 - 45 Ma)
WC A EC
0
?

50
m oho

DEPTH
OC

(KM)
EA
NIC
100 LIT
HO
SP
HE
m
k)(th
p
e
D

150 RE

Distance (Km)
200
0 100 200 300 400 500

INITIAL STAGE OF ∼41 - 38 Ma)


(∼
PORPHYRY COPPER EMPLACEMENT Easten Cordillera
Anta Arc
EC A : ALTIPLANO
0
WC A EC : EASTERN CORDILLERA
WC : WESTERN CORDILLERA
50
o
OC
EA moh
NIC
100 LIT
HO
S PH
ER
150 E

200
0 100 200 300 400 500 600

MAIN STAGE OF PORPHYRY COPPER EMPLACEMENT ∼ 38 - 32 Ma)


End stage Anta Arc (∼
EC
0
WC A
ANDAHUAYLAS - YAURI BATHOLITH
50 OC a c a, b, c : EARLY, INTERMEDIATE,
EA AND LATE PHASES
NIC moho
LI T
100 HO
S PH
ER
E
150

200
0 100 200 300 400 500
Perrelló et al, 2003
Volatile-rich Basalts are
Modified by AFC:

1. Assimilition of melted
or partly melted
crust;
2. Fractional
Px, Plg, Hbl
Crystallization of
MASH magma (crystal
Px, Hbl, Garnet removal)
zone

Ol, Px, ±Ga±Sp Production of Hydrous


Andesite largely
occurs in the MASH
zone in lower to
middle part of thick
(50-70 km)
Continental Crust
JHDilles,
Dacite/granodiorite
may form in MASH
MASH = zone of crustal Melting and Assimilation, magma zone or in Upper
Storage, and Homogenization (Hildreth & Moorbath, 1988) Crustal Batholithic
Chambers
Geoquímica 200
La Escondida
“Adakitas”
150

Sr/Y
100

Rocas volcánicas e
Zaldívar Escondida intrusivas “normales” de
los Andes Centrales
Norte 50

0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40
Y (ppm)
60

50
La Escondida
40

La/Yb
30

20

5km 10

0
0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5
Yb (ppm)
Mathews y Cornejo (2004)
13 Post Incaic intrusives

11 Incaic Event

Sm/Yb Maricunga Belt

9
Eoc-E Olig
“Incaic” intrusives
7 Late Cret
“Peruvian” KT
5 Event Event

1
90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0
AGE (Ma)
Chemical characteristics of ‘Adakites’
after Defant and Drummond (1990).

• Isotopic signatures - 87Sr/86Sr < 0.704 (0.7028).


• Major elements - SiO2 > 56% (56%)
• Steep REE patterns, particularly HREE.
• Low HREE levels, Yb < 1.9 ppm (0.94 ppm).
• High LIL concentrations,Sr > 400 ppm (1780 ppm),
high Na
• Relatively high Cr (375 ppm), Ni and Mg number.
10 Eocene. pretectonic E Oligocene, post
intrusives tectonic intrusives

8
+++ L Eocene, syntectonic
intrusives
+ C
A

6 +++
La/Sm + +
++++ +
+ B
4 + +
+ + Paleocene
volcanics

2 L Cretaceous
intrusives & volcanics
Geochemical changes during the Eocene
“Incaic” event, El Salvador region (26ºS)

0
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14
Cpx Hb Gr
Sm/Yb
Cornejo, Mpodozis y Mathews, 1999
Haskhe et al, 2006
Cornejo et al, 1999 Cristalización en
paredes
cpx+oliv+cro Eclogita
(gnt+cpx+liq)

Contaminación
del magma
por líquidos tonalíticos

Generación de líquido
tonalítico en paredes por
formación de eclogitas

Basalto primario Anfibolita granatífera


fraccionando (anf+plag+gnt+cz)
clinopiroxeno
Olivino y cromita
Venas Tonalíticas
(TTG) con
cristales de Granate Gabros Gneíssicos
de Anfíbola

Zonas de
Reacción a
Granate

Rocas de la corteza inferior “congeladas”


durante el proceso de tranformación de
Gabros de Anfíbola a Eclogitas de
Granate Batolito Separation Point,Nueva Zelandia
Schroter et al, 2004
Klepeis et al, (2003)

Melt leucosomes surrounding peritectic garnet formed from hornblende breakdown.


Migmatitic dioritic and gabbroic gneisses from exposed lower crustal rocks in the Mesozoic arc of
southern New Zealand arc.
Volcanismo activo

EOCENO (>45 Ma)


Intrusivos pre-deformación en corteza delgada

Corteza inferior anfibolítica


(Almacena fluidos)
Los magmas no Pórfidos de Cu
alcanzan la superficie

++
+
+++ + ++ EVENTO CUPRIFERO
+
(42-33 Ma)

Compresión Engrosamienro
OLIGOCENO (<32 Ma)
cortical Intrusivos post Deformación

Anfíbola Granate
(Liberación de Fluidos)
Magmas capaces de transportar
Metales
Cornejo et al, 1999
Corteza inferior eclogítica
Mpodozis & Kay, 2000 (Magmas “secos”)
Mathews y Cornejo (2004)
13 Post Incaic intrusives

11 Incaic Event

Sm/Yb Maricunga Belt

9
Eoc-E Olig
“Incaic” intrusives
7 Late Cret
“Peruvian” KT
5 Event Event

1
90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0
AGE (Ma)
Edades U/Pb, 87-88 Ma
(Rivera et al, 2006)

Inca de Oro

Pórfido Cu Inca de Oro, Atacama: Un sistema Porfídico “Peruano”


?
?
? ?

Evolutionary pattern of Andean La/Yb ratios and changes in


crustal thickness in Northern Chile during the last 200 Ma,
according to Haschke and Günther (2003)
La/Yb peaks and arc migration

The transient nature of eruption of magmas with very steep REE patterns can indicate,
besides the crustal thickening effects, a contribution of melting of eclogitic crust
entering the mantle wedge during peaks of forearc subduction erosion at times of arc
migration.

Kay , 2005
Numerical
Models:
Catastrophic
Subduction
Erosion

Keppie et al, 2008


Incaic
(Syn-tectonic)

Shallow crustal processes


Large scale volcanism
concealed

Buffering of magmatic
oxigen fugacity by REDOX
reactions in a sulphur-rich
comagmatic fluid phase

v
SO2+H2O == H2S+3/202

The buffering reaction


overrides iron bufferinbg and
drives melt into sulphate
stability field. Anhydrite
becomes stable as a
phenocryst phase, and Cu, Au,
etc, incompatible in the
phenocryst assemblage
Magma Mixing at Bajo La Alumbrera
(Halter et al, 2005)
Hattori & Keith, 2001
April 1993 eruption, Lascar, largest
recorded eruption in 150 years
Column height: 25 km

photos M Gardeweg
West Fissure Chuqui Porphyry

Los Picos Diorite .

R Tomic
San Lorenzo
Porphyries
38,5

42.3±0.2
42,3
Antena Granodiorite Chuquicamata
34-33
34-33 #

38,0 Chuquicamata
F.Mesabi
Fiesta Granodiorite 39,1
39.1±0.4

MM
MMC.Norte
Norte

34-32
34-32 Intrusivos Terciarios
MM C.Central
MM Central
Diorita Los Picos
Diorita Los Picos
Granodiorita Antena
Granodiorita Antena
36,0
37,5
Genoveva
Granodiorita Fiesta
Granodiorita Fiesta
Pórfido San
Pórfido San Lorenzo
Lorenzo

? ?
Pórfido
Pórfido Chuqui
Chuqui
Toki
37,9 Calama

Opache
Alteration Dominant Sulphide

Weak
Quartz-Sericite

Enargite

Sericite over
Potassic

Potassic
Chlacocite-Covellite

Silicification Covellite

Chlacopyrite-Bornite

Quartz-Sericite Low Sulphide


Chalcopyrite
Oxidized
Chalcocite

Chloritic Low Sulphide


(Chalcopyrite)

Oxide Cu
Campbell et al, 2006

Chuquicamata Complex: 37-33 Ma


Ballard et al, 2000

Laser IC-MS (Ma) East Porphyry

Banco Porphyry

West Porphyry

SHRIMP Age (Ma)


1000
Ballard et al (2000)

800 Zircon

600

MoS2
400
K Fsp
Biotite
200 Sericite

Apatite
0
28 30 32 34 36 38
Age (Ma)
QB-COLLAHUASI REGIONAL SECTION
Chile Bolivia

A A«
Rosario (~34.4Ma*2)
W La Grande
Ujina (~34.7Ma*3) E
QB (37.5±0.5Ma*1) 4800m
La Profunda
4000m

0m 1600m
1 2 3
West Fissure El Loa Fault
Fault System System

Quaternary Volcanoes
Quaternary Volcanics Supergene Enrichment
Ujina Ignimbrites Major Faults

Tertiary Porphyries Emplacement Ages


*1 Maksaev et al. (2004)
Jurassic Sediments
*2 Clark et al. (1998)
Permian Volcanics - Sediments *3 Masterman et al. (2004)
Guatacondo
Queb Blancai Silvari
Collaguasii

Ornajuno

Ireland & Oliveros, 2006


Areas of active
deformation

Eastern Cordillera
c.a. 200 km of Eocene-
Oligocene horizontal
shorthening

Oncken, 2006
Llanura del Beni

La Paz
Lago
Titicaca

Cordillera
Oriental
Altiplano
Arica

Salar
de
Uyuni

Iquique
Cordillera
Occidental

Antofagasta
Cordillera
Oriental
Compl Volcánico
Morococala
6-8Ma

Altiplano
Lago Poopó

Cordillera Oriental. Intensa deformación en rocas del Paleozoico, Cretácico y Paleoceno (>55
Ma), Deformación muy débil afectando a rocas del Oligoceno superior- Mioceno (< 26 Ma) (Horton,
2005)
Cordillera
Oriental,
Bolivia

McQuarrie et al, 2006

123 km de acortamiento
horizontal, entre los 45 y
26 Ma !
N
Total Shortening

McQuarrie and
DeCelles, [2001]
40-47%

Müller et al. [2002]


41-44%
Eastern Cordillera, Bolivia

•EXHUMATION OF
PLATEAU
MARGIN
• Two phases of
• rapid cooling:
• ~42 Ma, ~8 Ma

Horton et al, 2006


Arica

Sur del Peru

Rotaciones antihorarias en
rocas >20Ma
Roperch et al, 2006
Paleomagnetismo
Northern Chile

18°-22°S
No major rotations

Arriagada et al, 2008


Northern Chile 23ºS -
~30ºS

Clokwise block
rotations in Mesozoic
to Paleogene rocks
< 20 Ma
Arriagada et al, 2007
Arica Arica

Posición de
Línea de
Referencia
(Costa Actual)
hace 45 Ma

Arriagada et al, 2008


Lamb, 2001
Martinod et al. 2010
Arriagada et al, 2007
Cordillera de Domeyko

Arriagada et al, 2006


LEGEND
Sierra Limón Verde
La Escondida shear lens (LE)
Cordón de Lila “stable” domain
Clockwise rotated blocks of Cordillera de
Domeyko. SC: San Carlos, I: Imilac, LM, Los
Morros, M. Mariposas, Q: Quimal
Mesozoic to Paleocene lavas and sediments
Purilactis Group and Paleogene sediments
of the Atacama Basin

Strike-slip fault

Normal fault
Reverse fault
El Bordo Escarpment
Tomlinson and Blanco, 1997
Basaltos del
Eoceno Oligoceno
Asociados a las
Fallas del SFD al N
de La Escondida

Jara et al, 2009


Jara et al, 2009

Calc-Alkaline
Basalts

Tipo I-a Tipo I-


I-b
Ocean Island,
Alkaline Basalts

 Tipo I-
I-c  Tipo I-
I-d

Primer ciclo magmático (54,3-50,7 Ma) Tipos petrográficos II y III


•Afinidad de arco volcánico calcoalcalino Relacionada a Formación Cinchado (Paleoceno)

Segundo ciclo (48,4–28,9 Ma) Basaltos de los tipos I y IV


•Afinidad de intraplaca (OIB o de Rift), con cierto grado de contaminación cortical, el origen mantélico de estos
basaltos es evidente, pudiendo su ascenso haberse canalizado a través de fallas de importancia cortical en
zonas extensionales originadas por la rotación de bloques dentro del Lente de Cizalle Escondida
•Dada su edad, esto conlleva una connotación metalogénica debido al rol atribuido al aporte de magma máfico
en la base de las cámaras magmáticas a partir de las cuales se desarrollan los pórfidos Cu, en la corteza
continental inferior
Pampa
Escondida

Hervé, M, 2010
Transtensional dilation

Lindsay et al., 1995; Richards et al.,


2001; Richards, 2003; Masterman et
al., 2005

Arc parallel fault


subvertical
plan view

Padila 1998
σ1
La Escondida area

Escondida region geochronology:

La ESCONDIDA:
Escondida porphyry: 37.9 ± 1.1 Ma (zircon U-Pb)
Rhyolitic porphyry: 34.7 ± 1.7 Ma (zircon U-Pb)

ZALDÍVAR:
Llamo porphyry: 38.7 ± 1.3 Ma (zircon U-Pb)
37.4 ± 0.2 Ma (biotite 40Ar/39Ar)

CHIMBORAZO:
Andesitic porphyry: 38.1 ± 0.3 Ma (biotite 40Ar/39Ar)

REGIONAL DIORITES: 38.2 ± 0.3 to 36.9 ± 0.5 Ma (biotite 40Ar/39Ar)

© Richards (2004)
Pampa Escondida
, Plan View, 2000 m s.n.m

Hervé, M, 2010
Hervé, M, 2010
Ages of Porphyries
and Host Rocks

Hervé, M, 2010
Zaldívar

v
v v
v

Falla
v v v v v

55+ 1.4 Ma (K-Ar) 290+4 Ma

Porte
287.1 + 4.4 Ma

zuelo
39.2 ± 2.4 a
35.5 ± 0.8 Ma
(U-Pb, Ar40/Ar39)

294.4 ± 4.6 Ma 289.9 ± 3.5 Ma


291.1 ± 2.3 Ma
Gravas Andesitas (A. Victoria) Pórfido Granodiorítico
Brecha Hidrotermal Pórfidos y diques and Tobas Riolíticas
Brecha Potásica Diques Aplíticos (“Pórfido Zaldívar”)
Pórfidos Eoceno Granito de biotita Andesitas profundas
Pampa Escondida
Geochronology

Hervé, M. 2010
The Changing Tertiary Geotherm

• Collahuasi District
• Background (arcs)30-500C/km – ZHe, 40Ar/39Ar, surface heat flow
• Multiple Controls – Eocene-Oligocene thermal
– Topographic, structural, hydrological event
– Advective heat transfer – ~6 m.y. of >2000C/km
– Magmatic, hydrothermal 100- – Diachronous cooling
2000C/km, transient

1000

geotherm (0C/km)
Frequency

100

10
60 55 50 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10
Radiometric Age (Ma.)
Ireland & Olivares, 2006
Onken , 2006
Lallemand et al, 2005
Amilibia et al, 2008
W Codillera de Domeyko
E
Eastern Cordillera
(transpressional deformation) (thin skinned, west verging, thrusting)
Fast, highly oblique, convergence Extinct
L Cret-Pal arc rapid uplift
shallow level plutons rapid uplift mechanically weak crust
syntectonic and erosion (no volcanism) and erosion
Subduction erosion sediments

100
Removal of base of Eclogite crustal keel
continental lithosphere
oxidation
hydration melt zone
200 Westwards advancing SAM Plate
thermally weakened crust

300
km
200 400 km

Slab Shallowing
Crustal section during the Incaic event
(Eocene-Early-Oligocene, 43-35 Ma)