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Occupational Safety and Health Admin., Labor § 1910.

269

connected to and supplied from another (1) Fuel and ash handling and proc-
circuit of higher voltage (as in the case essing installations, such as coal con-
of an autotransformer), both are con- veyors,
sidered as of the higher voltage, unless (2) Water and steam installations,
the circuit of lower voltage is effec- such as penstocks, pipelines, and
tively grounded, in which case its volt- tanks, providing a source of energy for
age is not determined by the circuit of electric generators, and
higher voltage. Direct connection im- (3) Chlorine and hydrogen systems;
plies electric connection as distin- (C) Test sites where electrical testing
guished from connection merely involving temporary measurements as-
through electromagnetic or electro- sociated with electric power genera-
static induction. tion, transmission, and distribution is
[40 FR 13441, Mar. 26, 1975, as amended at 43
performed in laboratories, in the field,
FR 49751, Oct. 24, 1978; 47 FR 14706, Apr. 6, in substations, and on lines, as opposed
1982; 52 FR 36387, Sept. 28, 1987; 54 FR 24334, to metering, relaying, and routine line
June 7, 1989; 61 FR 9242, Mar. 7, 1996; 63 FR work;
33467, June 18, 1998; 67 FR 67965, Nov. 7, 2002; (D) Work on or directly associated
69 FR 31882, June 8, 2004; 70 FR 1141, Jan. 5, with the installations covered in para-
2005] graphs (a)(1)(i)(A) through (a)(1)(i)(C) of
this section; and
§ 1910.269 Electric power generation,
(E) Line-clearance tree-trimming op-
transmission, and distribution.
erations, as follows:
NOTE: OSHA is staying the enforcement of (1) Entire § 1910.269 of this part, ex-
the following paragraphs of § 1910.269 until cept paragraph (r)(1) of this section, ap-
November 1, 1994: (b)(1)(ii), (d) except for
plies to line-clearance tree-trimming
(d)(2)(i) and (d)(2)(iii), (e)(2), (e)(3), (j)(2)(iii),
(l)(6)(iii), (m), (n)(3), (n)(4)(ii), (n)(8), (o) ex- operations performed by qualified em-
cept for (o)(2)(i), (r)(1)(vi), (u)(1), (u)(4), (u)(5). ployees (those who are knowledgeable
OSHA is also staying the enforcement of in the construction and operation of
paragraphs (n)(6) and (n)(7) of § 1910.269 until electric power generation, trans-
November 1, 1994, but only insofar as they mission, or distribution equipment in-
apply to lines and equipment operated at 600 volved, along with the associated haz-
volts or less. Further, OSHA is staying the ards).
enforcement of paragraph (v)(11)(xii) of
(2) Paragraphs (a)(2), (b), (c), (g), (k),
§ 1910.269 until Februrary 1, 1996.
(p), and (r) of this section apply to line-
(a) General—(1) Application. (i) This clearance tree-trimming operations
section covers the operation and main- performed by line-clearance tree trim-
tenance of electric power generation, mers who are not qualified employees.
control, transformation, transmission, (ii) Notwithstanding paragraph
and distribution lines and equipment. (a)(1)(i) of this section, § 1910.269 of this
These provisions apply to: part does not apply:
(A) Power generation, transmission, (A) To construction work, as defined
and distribution installations, includ- in § 1910.12 of this part; or
ing related equipment for the purpose (B) To electrical installations, elec-
of communication or metering, which trical safety-related work practices, or
are accessible only to qualified employ- electrical maintenance considerations
ees; covered by subpart S of this part.
NOTE: The types of installations covered by NOTE 1: Work practices conforming to
this paragraph include the generation, trans- §§ 1910.332 through 1910.335 of this part are
mission, and distribution installations of considered as complying with the electrical
electric utilities, as well as equivalent in- safety-related work practice requirements of
stallations of industrial establishments. this section identified in Table 1 of appendix
Supplementary electric generating equip- A–2 to this section, provided the work is
ment that is used to supply a workplace for being performed on a generation or distribu-
emergency, standby, or similar purposes tion installation meeting §§ 1910.303 through
only is covered under subpart S of this part. 1910.308 of this part. This table also identifies
(See paragraph (a)(1)(ii)(B) of this section.) provisions in this section that apply to work
by qualified persons directly on or associated
(B) Other installations at an electric with installations of electric power genera-
power generating station, as follows: tion, transmission, and distribution lines or

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§ 1910.269 29 CFR Ch. XVII (7–1–11 Edition)
equipment, regardless of compliance with (a)(2)(iii) of this section indicate that
§§ 1910.332 through 1910.335 of this part. the employee is not complying with
NOTE 2: Work practices performed by quali- the safety-related work practices re-
fied persons and conforming to § 1910.269 of
this part are considered as complying with quired by this section, or
§§ 1910.333(c) and 1910.335 of this part. (B) If new technology, new types of
equipment, or changes in procedures
(iii) This section applies in addition
necessitate the use of safety-related
to all other applicable standards con-
work practices that are different from
tained in this part 1910. Specific ref-
those which the employee would nor-
erences in this section to other sec-
mally use, or
tions of part 1910 are provided for em-
phasis only. (C) If he or she must employ safety-
(2) Training. (i) Employees shall be related work practices that are not
trained in and familiar with the safety- normally used during his or her regular
related work practices, safety proce- job duties.
dures, and other safety requirements in NOTE: OSHA would consider tasks that are
this section that pertain to their re- performed less often than once per year to
spective job assignments. Employees necessitate retraining before the perform-
shall also be trained in and familiar ance of the work practices involved.
with any other safety practices, includ-
(v) The training required by para-
ing applicable emergency procedures
graph (a)(2) of this section shall be of
(such as pole top and manhole rescue),
the classroom or on-the-job type.
that are not specifically addressed by
this section but that are related to (vi) The training shall establish em-
their work and are necessary for their ployee proficiency in the work prac-
safety. tices required by this section and shall
(ii) Qualified employees shall also be introduce the procedures necessary for
trained and competent in: compliance with this section.
(A) The skills and techniques nec- (vii) The employer shall certify that
essary to distinguish exposed live parts each employee has received the train-
from other parts of electric equipment, ing required by paragraph (a)(2) of this
(B) The skills and techniques nec- section. This certification shall be
essary to determine the nominal volt- made when the employee demonstrates
age of exposed live parts, proficiency in the work practices in-
(C) The minimum approach distances volved and shall be maintained for the
specified in this section corresponding duration of the employee’s employ-
to the voltages to which the qualified ment.
employee will be exposed, and NOTE: Employment records that indicate
(D) The proper use of the special pre- that an employee has received the required
cautionary techniques, personal pro- training are an acceptable means of meeting
tective equipment, insulating and this requirement.
shielding materials, and insulated tools
for working on or near exposed ener- (3) Existing conditions. Existing condi-
gized parts of electric equipment. tions related to the safety of the work
to be performed shall be determined be-
NOTE: For the purposes of this section, a fore work on or near electric lines or
person must have this training in order to be equipment is started. Such conditions
considered a qualified person. include, but are not limited to, the
(iii) The employer shall determine, nominal voltages of lines and equip-
through regular supervision and ment, the maximum switching tran-
through inspections conducted on at sient voltages, the presence of haz-
least an annual basis, that each em- ardous induced voltages, the presence
ployee is complying with the safety-re- and condition of protective grounds
lated work practices required by this and equipment grounding conductors,
section. the condition of poles, environmental
(iv) An employee shall receive addi- conditions relative to safety, and the
tional training (or retraining) under locations of circuits and equipment, in-
any of the following conditions: cluding power and communication
(A) If the supervision and annual in- lines and fire protective signaling cir-
spections required by paragraph cuits.

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Occupational Safety and Health Admin., Labor § 1910.269

(b) Medical services and first aid. The first job of each day or shift. Addi-
employer shall provide medical serv- tional job briefings shall be held if sig-
ices and first aid as required in nificant changes, which might affect
§ 1910.151 of this part. In addition to the the safety of the employees, occur dur-
requirements of § 1910.151 of this part, ing the course of the work.
the following requirements also apply: (2) Extent of briefing. A brief discus-
(1) Cardiopulmonary resuscitation and sion is satisfactory if the work in-
first aid training. When employees are volved is routine and if the employee,
performing work on or associated with by virtue of training and experience,
exposed lines or equipment energized can reasonably be expected to recog-
at 50 volts or more, persons trained in nize and avoid the hazards involved in
first aid including cardiopulmonary re- the job. A more extensive discussion
suscitation (CPR) shall be available as shall be conducted:
follows: (i) If the work is complicated or par-
(i) For field work involving two or ticularly hazardous, or
more employees at a work location, at (ii) If the employee cannot be ex-
least two trained persons shall be pected to recognize and avoid the haz-
available. However, only one trained ards involved in the job.
person need be available if all new em-
ployees are trained in first aid, includ- NOTE: The briefing is always required to
ing CPR, within 3 months of their hir- touch on all the subjects listed in the intro-
ductory text to paragraph (c) of this section.
ing dates.
(ii) For fixed work locations such as (3) Working alone. An employee work-
generating stations, the number of ing alone need not conduct a job brief-
trained persons available shall be suffi- ing. However, the employer shall en-
cient to ensure that each employee ex- sure that the tasks to be performed are
posed to electric shock can be reached planned as if a briefing were required.
within 4 minutes by a trained person. (d) Hazardous energy control (lockout/
However, where the existing number of tagout) procedures—(1) Application. The
employees is insufficient to meet this provisions of paragraph (d) of this sec-
requirement (at a remote substation, tion apply to the use of lockout/tagout
for example), all employees at the procedures for the control of energy
work location shall be trained. sources in installations for the purpose
(2) First aid supplies. First aid sup- of electric power generation, including
plies required by § 1910.151(b) of this related equipment for communication
part shall be placed in weatherproof or metering. Locking and tagging pro-
containers if the supplies could be ex- cedures for the deenergizing of electric
posed to the weather. energy sources which are used exclu-
(3) First aid kits. Each first aid kit sively for purposes of transmission and
shall be maintained, shall be readily distribution are addressed by para-
available for use, and shall be in- graph (m) of this section.
spected frequently enough to ensure
that expended items are replaced but NOTE 1: Installations in electric power gen-
eration facilities that are not an integral
at least once per year. part of, or inextricably commingled with,
(c) Job briefing. The employer shall power generation processes or equipment are
ensure that the employee in charge covered under § 1910.147 and subpart S of this
conducts a job briefing with the em- part.
ployees involved before they start each NOTE 2: Lockout and tagging procedures
job. The briefing shall cover at least that comply with paragraphs (c) through (f)
the following subjects: hazards associ- of § 1910.147 of this part will also be deemed
ated with the job, work procedures in- to comply with paragraph (d) of this section
if the procedures address the hazards covered
volved, special precautions, energy
by paragraph (d) of this section.
source controls, and personal protec-
tive equipment requirements. (2) General. (i) The employer shall es-
(1) Number of briefings. If the work or tablish a program consisting of energy
operations to be performed during the control procedures, employee training,
work day or shift are repetitive and and periodic inspections to ensure that,
similar, at least one job briefing shall before any employee performs any
be conducted before the start of the servicing or maintenance on a machine

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§ 1910.269 29 CFR Ch. XVII (7–1–11 Edition)

or equipment where the unexpected en- (iii) Procedures shall be developed,


ergizing, start up, or release of stored documented, and used for the control
energy could occur and cause injury, of potentially hazardous energy cov-
the machine or equipment is isolated ered by paragraph (d) of this section.
from the energy source and rendered (iv) The procedure shall clearly and
inoperative. specifically outline the scope, purpose,
(ii) The employer’s energy control responsibility, authorization, rules,
program under paragraph (d)(2) of this and techniques to be applied to the
section shall meet the following re- control of hazardous energy, and the
quirements: measures to enforce compliance includ-
(A) If an energy isolating device is ing, but not limited to, the following:
not capable of being locked out, the (A) A specific statement of the in-
employer’s program shall use a tagout tended use of this procedure;
system. (B) Specific procedural steps for
(B) If an energy isolating device is shutting down, isolating, blocking and
capable of being locked out, the em- securing machines or equipment to
ployer’s program shall use lockout, un- control hazardous energy;
less the employer can demonstrate (C) Specific procedural steps for the
that the use of a tagout system will placement, removal, and transfer of
provide full employee protection as fol- lockout devices or tagout devices and
lows: the responsibility for them; and
(1) When a tagout device is used on (D) Specific requirements for testing
an energy isolating device which is ca- a machine or equipment to determine
pable of being locked out, the tagout and verify the effectiveness of lockout
device shall be attached at the same lo- devices, tagout devices, and other en-
cation that the lockout device would ergy control measures.
have been attached, and the employer (v) The employer shall conduct a
shall demonstrate that the tagout pro- periodic inspection of the energy con-
gram will provide a level of safety trol procedure at least annually to en-
equivalent to that obtained by the use sure that the procedure and the provi-
of a lockout program. sions of paragraph (d) of this section
(2) In demonstrating that a level of are being followed.
safety is achieved in the tagout pro- (A) The periodic inspection shall be
gram equivalent to the level of safety performed by an authorized employee
obtained by the use of a lockout pro- who is not using the energy control
gram, the employer shall demonstrate procedure being inspected.
full compliance with all tagout-related (B) The periodic inspection shall be
provisions of this standard together designed to identify and correct any
with such additional elements as are deviations or inadequacies.
necessary to provide the equivalent (C) If lockout is used for energy con-
safety available from the use of a lock- trol, the periodic inspection shall in-
out device. Additional means to be con- clude a review, between the inspector
sidered as part of the demonstration of and each authorized employee, of that
full employee protection shall include employee’s responsibilities under the
the implementation of additional safe- energy control procedure being in-
ty measures such as the removal of an spected.
isolating circuit element, blocking of a (D) Where tagout is used for energy
controlling switch, opening of an extra control, the periodic inspection shall
disconnecting device, or the removal of include a review, between the inspector
a valve handle to reduce the likelihood and each authorized and affected em-
of inadvertent energizing. ployee, of that employee’s responsibil-
(C) After November 1, 1994, whenever ities under the energy control proce-
replacement or major repair, renova- dure being inspected, and the elements
tion, or modification of a machine or set forth in paragraph (d)(2)(vii) of this
equipment is performed, and whenever section.
new machines or equipment are in- (E) The employer shall certify that
stalled, energy isolating devices for the inspections required by paragraph
such machines or equipment shall be (d)(2)(v) of this section have been ac-
designed to accept a lockout device. complished. The certification shall

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Occupational Safety and Health Admin., Labor § 1910.269

identify the machine or equipment on (D) Tags and their means of attach-
which the energy control procedure ment must be made of materials which
was being used, the date of the inspec- will withstand the environmental con-
tion, the employees included in the in- ditions encountered in the workplace.
spection, and the person performing (E) Tags may evoke a false sense of
the inspection. security, and their meaning needs to be
understood as part of the overall en-
NOTE: If normal work schedule and oper-
ation records demonstrate adequate inspec-
ergy control program.
tion activity and contain the required infor- (F) Tags must be securely attached
mation, no additional certification is re- to energy isolating devices so that they
quired. cannot be inadvertently or acciden-
tally detached during use.
(vi) The employer shall provide train- (viii) Retraining shall be provided by
ing to ensure that the purpose and the employer as follows:
function of the energy control program (A) Retraining shall be provided for
are understood by employees and that all authorized and affected employees
the knowledge and skills required for whenever there is a change in their job
the safe application, usage, and re- assignments, a change in machines,
moval of energy controls are acquired equipment, or processes that present a
by employees. The training shall in- new hazard or whenever there is a
clude the following: change in the energy control proce-
(A) Each authorized employee shall dures.
receive training in the recognition of (B) Retraining shall also be con-
applicable hazardous energy sources, ducted whenever a periodic inspection
the type and magnitude of energy under paragraph (d)(2)(v) of this section
available in the workplace, and in the reveals, or whenever the employer has
methods and means necessary for en- reason to believe, that there are devi-
ergy isolation and control. ations from or inadequacies in an em-
(B) Each affected employee shall be ployee’s knowledge or use of the energy
instructed in the purpose and use of control procedures.
the energy control procedure. (C) The retraining shall reestablish
(C) All other employees whose work employee proficiency and shall intro-
operations are or may be in an area duce new or revised control methods
where energy control procedures may and procedures, as necessary.
be used shall be instructed about the (ix) The employer shall certify that
procedures and about the prohibition employee training has been accom-
relating to attempts to restart or re- plished and is being kept up to date.
energize machines or equipment that The certification shall contain each
are locked out or tagged out. employee’s name and dates of training.
(vii) When tagout systems are used, (3) Protective materials and hardware.
employees shall also be trained in the (i) Locks, tags, chains, wedges, key
following limitations of tags: blocks, adapter pins, self-locking fas-
(A) Tags are essentially warning de- teners, or other hardware shall be pro-
vices affixed to energy isolating de- vided by the employer for isolating, se-
vices and do not provide the physical curing, or blocking of machines or
restraint on those devices that is pro- equipment from energy sources.
vided by a lock. (ii) Lockout devices and tagout de-
(B) When a tag is attached to an en- vices shall be singularly identified;
ergy isolating means, it is not to be re- shall be the only devices used for con-
moved without authorization of the au- trolling energy; may not be used for
thorized person responsible for it, and other purposes; and shall meet the fol-
it is never to be bypassed, ignored, or lowing requirements:
otherwise defeated. (A) Lockout devices and tagout de-
(C) Tags must be legible and under- vices shall be capable of withstanding
standable by all authorized employees, the environment to which they are ex-
affected employees, and all other em- posed for the maximum period of time
ployees whose work operations are or that exposure is expected.
may be in the area, in order to be effec- (1) Tagout devices shall be con-
tive. structed and printed so that exposure

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§ 1910.269 29 CFR Ch. XVII (7–1–11 Edition)

to weather conditions or wet and damp NOTE: See also paragraph (d)(7) of this sec-
locations will not cause the tag to de- tion, which requires that the second notifica-
teriorate or the message on the tag to tion take place before the machine or equip-
become illegible. ment is reenergized.
(2) Tagout devices shall be so con- (6) Lockout/tagout application. The es-
structed as not to deteriorate when tablished procedures for the applica-
used in corrosive environments. tion of energy control (the lockout or
(B) Lockout devices and tagout de- tagout procedures) shall include the
vices shall be standardized within the following elements and actions, and
facility in at least one of the following these procedures shall be performed in
criteria: color, shape, size. Addition- the following sequence:
ally, in the case of tagout devices,
(i) Before an authorized or affected
print and format shall be standardized.
employee turns off a machine or equip-
(C) Lockout devices shall be substan-
ment, the authorized employee shall
tial enough to prevent removal without
the use of excessive force or unusual have knowledge of the type and mag-
techniques, such as with the use of bolt nitude of the energy, the hazards of the
cutters or metal cutting tools. energy to be controlled, and the meth-
(D) Tagout devices, including their od or means to control the energy.
means of attachment, shall be substan- (ii) The machine or equipment shall
tial enough to prevent inadvertent or be turned off or shut down using the
accidental removal. Tagout device at- procedures established for the machine
tachment means shall be of a non-reus- or equipment. An orderly shutdown
able type, attachable by hand, self- shall be used to avoid any additional or
locking, and non-releasable with a increased hazards to employees as a re-
minimum unlocking strength of no less sult of the equipment stoppage.
than 50 pounds and shall have the gen- (iii) All energy isolating devices that
eral design and basic characteristics of are needed to control the energy to the
being at least equivalent to a one- machine or equipment shall be phys-
piece, all-environment-tolerant nylon ically located and operated in such a
cable tie. manner as to isolate the machine or
(E) Each lockout device or tagout de- equipment from energy sources.
vice shall include provisions for the (iv) Lockout or tagout devices shall
identification of the employee applying
be affixed to each energy isolating de-
the device.
vice by authorized employees.
(F) Tagout devices shall warn against
(A) Lockout devices shall be attached
hazardous conditions if the machine or
equipment is energized and shall in- in a manner that will hold the energy
clude a legend such as the following: isolating devices in a ‘‘safe’’ or ‘‘off’’ po-
Do Not Start, Do Not Open, Do Not sition.
Close, Do Not Energize, Do Not Oper- (B) Tagout devices shall be affixed in
ate. such a manner as will clearly indicate
that the operation or movement of en-
NOTE: For specific provisions covering ac-
ergy isolating devices from the ‘‘safe’’
cident prevention tags, see § 1910.145 of this
part. or ‘‘off’’ position is prohibited.
(1) Where tagout devices are used
(4) Energy isolation. Lockout and with energy isolating devices designed
tagout device application and removal with the capability of being locked out,
may only be performed by the author- the tag attachment shall be fastened at
ized employees who are performing the
the same point at which the lock would
servicing or maintenance.
have been attached.
(5) Notification. Affected employees
shall be notified by the employer or au- (2) Where a tag cannot be affixed di-
thorized employee of the application rectly to the energy isolating device,
and removal of lockout or tagout de- the tag shall be located as close as
vices. Notification shall be given before safely possible to the device, in a posi-
the controls are applied and after they tion that will be immediately obvious
are removed from the machine or to anyone attempting to operate the
equipment. device.

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Occupational Safety and Health Admin., Labor § 1910.269

(v) Following the application of lock- vided by the removal of the device by
out or tagout devices to energy iso- the authorized employee who applied
lating devices, all potentially haz- it. The specific procedure shall include
ardous stored or residual energy shall at least the following elements:
be relieved, disconnected, restrained, (A) Verification by the employer that
or otherwise rendered safe. the authorized employee who applied
(vi) If there is a possibility of re- the device is not at the facility;
accumulation of stored energy to a (B) Making all reasonable efforts to
hazardous level, verification of isola- contact the authorized employee to in-
tion shall be continued until the serv- form him or her that his or her lockout
icing or maintenance is completed or or tagout device has been removed; and
until the possibility of such accumula- (C) Ensuring that the authorized em-
tion no longer exists. ployee has this knowledge before he or
(vii) Before starting work on ma- she resumes work at that facility.
chines or equipment that have been (8) Additional requirements. (i) If the
locked out or tagged out, the author- lockout or tagout devices must be tem-
ized employee shall verify that isola- porarily removed from energy isolating
tion and deenergizing of the machine devices and the machine or equipment
or equipment have been accomplished. must be energized to test or position
If normally energized parts will be ex- the machine, equipment, or component
posed to contact by an employee while thereof, the following sequence of ac-
the machine or equipment is deener- tions shall be followed:
gized, a test shall be performed to en-
(A) Clear the machine or equipment
sure that these parts are deenergized.
of tools and materials in accordance
(7) Release from lockout/tagout. Before
with paragraph (d)(7)(i) of this section;
lockout or tagout devices are removed
(B) Remove employees from the ma-
and energy is restored to the machine
chine or equipment area in accordance
or equipment, procedures shall be fol-
with paragraphs (d)(7)(ii) and (d)(7)(iii)
lowed and actions taken by the author-
of this section;
ized employees to ensure the following:
(i) The work area shall be inspected (C) Remove the lockout or tagout de-
to ensure that nonessential items have vices as specified in paragraph (d)(7)(iv)
been removed and that machine or of this section;
equipment components are operation- (D) Energize and proceed with the
ally intact. testing or positioning; and
(ii) The work area shall be checked to (E) Deenergize all systems and re-
ensure that all employees have been apply energy control measures in ac-
safely positioned or removed. cordance with paragraph (d)(6) of this
(iii) After lockout or tagout devices section to continue the servicing or
have been removed and before a ma- maintenance.
chine or equipment is started, affected (ii) When servicing or maintenance is
employees shall be notified that the performed by a crew, craft, depart-
lockout or tagout devices have been re- ment, or other group, they shall use a
moved. procedure which affords the employees
(iv) Each lockout or tagout device a level of protection equivalent to that
shall be removed from each energy iso- provided by the implementation of a
lating device by the authorized em- personal lockout or tagout device.
ployee who applied the lockout or Group lockout or tagout devices shall
tagout device. However, if that em- be used in accordance with the proce-
ployee is not available to remove it, dures required by paragraphs (d)(2)(iii)
the device may be removed under the and (d)(2)(iv) of this section including,
direction of the employer, provided but not limited to, the following spe-
that specific procedures and training cific requirements:
for such removal have been developed, (A) Primary responsibility shall be
documented, and incorporated into the vested in an authorized employee for a
employer’s energy control program. set number of employees working
The employer shall demonstrate that under the protection of a group lockout
the specific procedure provides a de- or tagout device (such as an operations
gree of safety equivalent to that pro- lock);

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§ 1910.269 29 CFR Ch. XVII (7–1–11 Edition)

(B) Provision shall be made for the (C) Provisions shall be made to iden-
authorized employee to ascertain the tify the authorized employee who is re-
exposure status of all individual group sponsible for (that is, being protected
members with regard to the lockout or by) the lockout or tagout device, to
tagout of the machine or equipment; transfer responsibility for lockout and
(C) When more than one crew, craft, tagout devices, and to ensure that an
department, or other group is involved, authorized employee requesting re-
assignment of overall job-associated moval or transfer of a lockout or
lockout or tagout control responsi- tagout device is the one responsible for
bility shall be given to an authorized it before the device is removed or
employee designated to coordinate af- transferred.
fected work forces and ensure con- (e) Enclosed spaces. This paragraph
tinuity of protection; and covers enclosed spaces that may be en-
tered by employees. It does not apply
(D) Each authorized employee shall
to vented vaults if a determination is
affix a personal lockout or tagout de-
made that the ventilation system is op-
vice to the group lockout device, group
erating to protect employees before
lockbox, or comparable mechanism
they enter the space. This paragraph
when he or she begins work and shall
applies to routine entry into enclosed
remove those devices when he or she spaces in lieu of the permit-space entry
stops working on the machine or equip- requirements contained in paragraphs
ment being serviced or maintained. (d) through (k) of § 1910.146 of this part.
(iii) Procedures shall be used during If, after the precautions given in para-
shift or personnel changes to ensure graphs (e) and (t) of this section are
the continuity of lockout or tagout taken, the hazards remaining in the en-
protection, including provision for the closed space endanger the life of an en-
orderly transfer of lockout or tagout trant or could interfere with escape
device protection between off-going from the space, then entry into the en-
and on-coming employees, to minimize closed space shall meet the permit-
their exposure to hazards from the un- space entry requirements of paragraphs
expected energizing or start-up of the (d) through (k) of § 1910.146 of this part.
machine or equipment or from the re-
lease of stored energy. NOTE: Entries into enclosed spaces con-
ducted in accordance with the permit-space
(iv) Whenever outside servicing per- entry requirements of paragraphs (d)
sonnel are to be engaged in activities through (k) of § 1910.146 of this part are con-
covered by paragraph (d) of this sec- sidered as complying with paragraph (e) of
tion, the on-site employer and the out- this section.
side employer shall inform each other (1) Safe work practices. The employer
of their respective lockout or tagout shall ensure the use of safe work prac-
procedures, and each employer shall tices for entry into and work in en-
ensure that his or her personnel under- closed spaces and for rescue of employ-
stand and comply with restrictions and ees from such spaces.
prohibitions of the energy control pro- (2) Training. Employees who enter en-
cedures being used. closed spaces or who serve as attend-
(v) If energy isolating devices are in- ants shall be trained in the hazards of
stalled in a central location and are enclosed space entry, in enclosed space
under the exclusive control of a system entry procedures, and in enclosed space
operator, the following requirements rescue procedures.
apply: (3) Rescue equipment. Employers shall
(A) The employer shall use a proce- provide equipment to ensure the
dure that affords employees a level of prompt and safe rescue of employees
protection equivalent to that provided from the enclosed space.
by the implementation of a personal (4) Evaluation of potential hazards. Be-
lockout or tagout device. fore any entrance cover to an enclosed
(B) The system operator shall place space is removed, the employer shall
and remove lockout and tagout devices determine whether it is safe to do so by
in place of the authorized employee checking for the presence of any at-
under paragraphs (d)(4), (d)(6)(iv), and mospheric pressure or temperature dif-
(d)(7)(iv) of this section. ferences and by evaluating whether

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Occupational Safety and Health Admin., Labor § 1910.269

there might be a hazardous atmosphere tested for oxygen deficiency with a di-
in the space. Any conditions making it rect-reading meter or similar instru-
unsafe to remove the cover shall be ment, capable of collection and imme-
eliminated before the cover is removed. diate analysis of data samples without
the need for off-site evaluation. If con-
NOTE: The evaluation called for in this
paragraph may take the form of a check of tinuous forced air ventilation is pro-
the conditions expected to be in the enclosed vided, testing is not required provided
space. For example, the cover could be that the procedures used ensure that
checked to see if it is hot and, if it is fas- employees are not exposed to the haz-
tened in place, could be loosened gradually ards posed by oxygen deficiency.
to release any residual pressure. A deter- (10) Testing for flammable gases and va-
mination must also be made of whether con- pors. Before an employee enters an en-
ditions at the site could cause a hazardous closed space, the internal atmosphere
atmosphere, such as an oxygen deficient or
shall be tested for flammable gases and
flammable atmosphere, to develop within
the space. vapors with a direct-reading meter or
similar instrument capable of collec-
(5) Removal of covers. When covers are tion and immediate analysis of data
removed from enclosed spaces, the samples without the need for off-site
opening shall be promptly guarded by a evaluation. This test shall be per-
railing, temporary cover, or other bar- formed after the oxygen testing and
rier intended to prevent an accidental ventilation required by paragraph (e)(9)
fall through the opening and to protect of this section demonstrate that there
employees working in the space from is sufficient oxygen to ensure the accu-
objects entering the space. racy of the test for flammability.
(6) Hazardous atmosphere. Employees (11) Ventilation and monitoring. If
may not enter any enclosed space while flammable gases or vapors are detected
it contains a hazardous atmosphere, or if an oxygen deficiency is found,
unless the entry conforms to the ge- forced air ventilation shall be used to
neric permit-required confined spaces maintain oxygen at a safe level and to
standard in § 1910.146 of this part. prevent a hazardous concentration of
NOTE: The term ‘‘entry’’ is defined in
flammable gases and vapors from accu-
§ 1910.146(b) of this part. mulating. A continuous monitoring
program to ensure that no increase in
(7) Attendants. While work is being flammable gas or vapor concentration
performed in the enclosed space, a per- occurs may be followed in lieu of ven-
son with first aid training meeting tilation, if flammable gases or vapors
paragraph (b) of this section shall be are detected at safe levels.
immediately available outside the en-
closed space to render emergency as- NOTE: See the definition of hazardous at-
mosphere for guidance in determining
sistance if there is reason to believe whether or not a given concentration of a
that a hazard may exist in the space or substance is considered to be hazardous.
if a hazard exists because of traffic pat-
terns in the area of the opening used (12) Specific ventilation requirements. If
for entry. That person is not precluded continuous forced air ventilation is
from performing other duties outside used, it shall begin before entry is
the enclosed space if these duties do made and shall be maintained long
not distract the attendant from moni- enough to ensure that a safe atmos-
toring employees within the space. phere exists before employees are al-
lowed to enter the work area. The
NOTE: See paragraph (t)(3) of this section forced air ventilation shall be so di-
for additional requirements on attendants rected as to ventilate the immediate
for work in manholes.
area where employees are present with-
(8) Calibration of test instruments. Test in the enclosed space and shall con-
instruments used to monitor tinue until all employees leave the en-
atmospheres in enclosed spaces shall be closed space.
kept in calibration, with a minimum (13) Air supply. The air supply for the
accuracy of ±10 percent. continuous forced air ventilation shall
(9) Testing for oxygen deficiency. Be- be from a clean source and may not in-
fore an employee enters an enclosed crease the hazards in the enclosed
space, the internal atmosphere shall be space.

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§ 1910.269 29 CFR Ch. XVII (7–1–11 Edition)

(14) Open flames. If open flames are generation, transmission, and distribution
used in enclosed spaces, a test for flam- lines and equipment. It does not apply to
mable gases and vapors shall be made portions of buildings, such as loading docks,
to electric equipment, such as transformers
immediately before the open flame de- and capacitors, nor to aerial lifts. Require-
vice is used and at least once per hour ments for fall protection associated with
while the device is used in the space. walking and working surfaces are contained
Testing shall be conducted more fre- in subpart D of this part; requirements for
quently if conditions present in the en- fall protection associated with aerial lifts
closed space indicate that once per are contained in § 1910.67 of this part.
hour is insufficient to detect hazardous NOTE 2: Employees undergoing training are
not considered ‘‘qualified employees’’ for the
accumulations of flammable gases or purposes of this provision. Unqualified em-
vapors. ployees (including trainees) are required to
NOTE: See the definition of hazardous at- use fall protection any time they are more
mosphere for guidance in determining than 4 feet (1.2 m) above the ground.
whether or not a given concentration of a (vi) The following requirements
substance is considered to be hazardous. apply to personal fall arrest systems:
(f) Excavations. Excavation oper- (A) When stopping or arresting a fall,
ations shall comply with subpart P of personal fall arrest systems shall limit
part 1926 of this chapter. the maximum arresting force on an
(g) Personal protective equipment—(1) employee to 900 pounds (4 kN) if used
General. Personal protective equipment with a body belt.
shall meet the requirements of subpart (B) When stopping or arresting a fall,
I of this part. personal fall arrest systems shall limit
(2) Fall protection. (i) Personal fall ar- the maximum arresting force on an
rest equipment shall meet the require- employee to 1800 pounds (8 kN) if used
ments of subpart M of part 1926 of this with a body harness.
chapter. (C) Personal fall arrest systems shall
(ii) Body belts and safety straps for be rigged such that an employee can
work positioning shall meet the re- neither free fall more than 6 feet (1.8
quirements of § 1926.959 of this chapter. m) nor contact any lower level.
(iii) Body belts, safety straps, lan- (vii) If vertical lifelines or droplines
yards, lifelines, and body harnesses are used, not more than one employee
shall be inspected before use each day may be attached to any one lifeline.
to determine that the equipment is in (viii) Snaphooks may not be con-
safe working condition. Defective nected to loops made in webbing-type
lanyards.
equipment may not be used.
(ix) Snaphooks may not be connected
(iv) Lifelines shall be protected
to each other.
against being cut or abraded.
(h) Ladders, platforms, step bolts, and
(v) Fall arrest equipment, work posi-
manhole steps—(1) General. Require-
tioning equipment, or travel restrict-
ments for ladders contained in subpart
ing equipment shall be used by employ- D of this part apply, except as specifi-
ees working at elevated locations more cally noted in paragraph (h)(2) of this
than 4 feet (1.2 m) above the ground on section.
poles, towers, or similar structures if (2) Special ladders and platforms. Port-
other fall protection has not been pro- able ladders and platforms used on
vided. Fall protection equipment is not structures or conductors in conjunc-
required to be used by a qualified em- tion with overhead line work need not
ployee climbing or changing location meet paragraphs (d)(2)(i) and (d)(2)(iii)
on poles, towers, or similar structures, of § 1910.25 of this part or paragraph
unless conditions, such as, but not lim- (c)(3)(iii) of § 1910.26 of this part. How-
ited to, ice, high winds, the design of ever, these ladders and platforms shall
the structure (for example, no provi- meet the following requirements:
sion for holding on with hands), or the (i) Ladders and platforms shall be se-
presence of contaminants on the struc- cured to prevent their becoming acci-
ture, could cause the employee to lose dentally dislodged.
his or her grip or footing. (ii) Ladders and platforms may not
NOTE 1: This paragraph applies to struc- be loaded in excess of the working
tures that support overhead electric power loads for which they are designed.

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Occupational Safety and Health Admin., Labor § 1910.269

(iii) Ladders and platforms may be nected equipment through receptacles


used only in applications for which mounted on the generator or the vehi-
they were designed. cle.
(iv) In the configurations in which (ii) The non-current-carrying metal
they are used, ladders and platforms parts of equipment and the equipment
shall be capable of supporting without grounding conductor terminals of the
failure at least 2.5 times the maximum receptacles shall be bonded to the gen-
intended load. erator frame.
(3) Conductive ladders. Portable metal (iii) In the case of vehicle-mounted
ladders and other portable conductive generators, the frame of the generator
ladders may not be used near exposed shall be bonded to the vehicle frame.
energized lines or equipment. However, (iv) Any neutral conductor shall be
in specialized high-voltage work, con- bonded to the generator frame.
ductive ladders shall be used where the (4) Hydraulic and pneumatic tools. (i)
employer can demonstrate that non- Safe operating pressures for hydraulic
conductive ladders would present a and pneumatic tools, hoses, valves,
greater hazard than conductive lad- pipes, filters, and fittings may not be
ders. exceeded.
(i) Hand and portable power tools—(1)
NOTE: If any hazardous defects are present,
General. Paragraph (i)(2) of this section
no operating pressure would be safe, and the
applies to electric equipment con- hydraulic or pneumatic equipment involved
nected by cord and plug. Paragraph may not be used. In the absence of defects,
(i)(3) of this section applies to portable the maximum rated operating pressure is the
and vehicle-mounted generators used maximum safe pressure.
to supply cord-and plug-connected
(ii) A hydraulic or pneumatic tool
equipment. Paragraph (i)(4) of this sec-
used where it may contact exposed live
tion applies to hydraulic and pneu-
parts shall be designed and maintained
matic tools.
for such use.
(2) Cord- and plug-connected equip-
(iii) The hydraulic system supplying
ment. (i) Cord-and plug-connected
a hydraulic tool used where it may
equipment supplied by premises wiring
contact exposed live parts shall provide
is covered by subpart S of this part.
protection against loss of insulating
(ii) Any cord- and plug-connected
value for the voltage involved due to
equipment supplied by other than
the formation of a partial vacuum in
premises wiring shall comply with one
the hydraulic line.
of the following in lieu of § 1910.243(a)(5)
of this part: NOTE: Hydraulic lines without check
(A) It shall be equipped with a cord valves having a separation of more than 35
containing an equipment grounding feet (10.7 m) between the oil reservoir and
conductor connected to the tool frame the upper end of the hydraulic system pro-
mote the formation of a partial vacuum.
and to a means for grounding the other
end (however, this option may not be (iv) A pneumatic tool used on ener-
used where the introduction of the gized electric lines or equipment or
ground into the work environment in- used where it may contact exposed live
creases the hazard to an employee); or parts shall provide protection against
(B) It shall be of the double-insulated the accumulation of moisture in the
type conforming to subpart S of this air supply.
part; or (v) Pressure shall be released before
(C) It shall be connected to the power connections are broken, unless quick
supply through an isolating trans- acting, self-closing connectors are
former with an ungrounded secondary. used. Hoses may not be kinked.
(3) Portable and vehicle-mounted gen- (vi) Employees may not use any part
erators. Portable and vehicle-mounted of their bodies to locate or attempt to
generators used to supply cord- and stop a hydraulic leak.
plug-connected equipment shall meet (j) Live-line tools—(1) Design of tools.
the following requirements: Live-line tool rods, tubes, and poles
(i) The generator may only supply shall be designed and constructed to
equipment located on the generator or withstand the following minimum
the vehicle and cord- and plug-con- tests:

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§ 1910.269 29 CFR Ch. XVII (7–1–11 Edition)

(i) 100,000 volts per foot (3281 volts per along its entire working length and, if
centimeter) of length for 5 minutes if the tool is made of fiberglass-rein-
the tool is made of fiberglass-rein- forced plastic, its integrity under wet
forced plastic (FRP), or conditions.
(ii) 75,000 volts per foot (2461 volts per (E) The voltage applied during the
centimeter) of length for 3 minutes if tests shall be as follows:
the tool is made of wood, or (1) 75,000 volts per foot (2461 volts per
(iii) Other tests that the employer centimeter) of length for 1 minute if
can demonstrate are equivalent. the tool is made of fiberglass, or
NOTE: Live-line tools using rod and tube (2) 50,000 volts per foot (1640 volts per
that meet ASTM F711–89, Standard Speci- centimeter) of length for 1 minute if
fication for Fiberglass-Reinforced Plastic the tool is made of wood, or
(FRP) Rod and Tube Used in Live-Line (3) Other tests that the employer can
Tools, conform to paragraph (j)(1)(i) of this
section.
demonstrate are equivalent.

(2) Condition of tools. (i) Each live-line NOTE: Guidelines for the examination,
cleaning, repairing, and in-service testing of
tool shall be wiped clean and visually
live-line tools are contained in the Institute
inspected for defects before use each of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
day. Guide for In-Service Maintenance and Elec-
(ii) If any defect or contamination trical Testing of Live-Line Tools, IEEE Std.
that could adversely affect the insu- 978–1984.
lating qualities or mechanical integ-
rity of the live-line tool is present after (k) Materials handling and storage—(1)
wiping, the tool shall be removed from General. Material handling and storage
service and examined and tested ac- shall conform to the requirements of
cording to paragraph (j)(2)(iii) of this subpart N of this part.
section before being returned to serv- (2) Materials storage near energized
ice. lines or equipment. (i) In areas not re-
(iii) Live-line tools used for primary stricted to qualified persons only, ma-
employee protection shall be removed terials or equipment may not be stored
from service every 2 years and when- closer to energized lines or exposed en-
ever required under paragraph (j)(2)(ii) ergized parts of equipment than the
of this section for examination, clean- following distances plus an amount
ing, repair, and testing as follows: providing for the maximum sag and
(A) Each tool shall be thoroughly ex- side swing of all conductors and pro-
amined for defects. viding for the height and movement of
(B) If a defect or contamination that material handling equipment:
could adversely affect the insulating (A) For lines and equipment ener-
qualities or mechanical integrity of gized at 50 kV or less, the distance is 10
the live-line tool is found, the tool feet (305 cm).
shall be repaired and refinished or shall (B) For lines and equipment ener-
be permanently removed from service. gized at more than 50 kV, the distance
If no such defect or contamination is is 10 feet (305 cm) plus 4 inches (10 cm)
found, the tool shall be cleaned and for every 10 kV over 50 kV.
waxed. (ii) In areas restricted to qualified
(C) The tool shall be tested in accord- employees, material may not be stored
ance with paragraphs (j)(2)(iii)(D) and within the working space about ener-
(j)(2)(iii)(E) of this section under the gized lines or equipment.
following conditions:
NOTE: Requirements for the size of the
(1) After the tool has been repaired or
working space are contained in paragraphs
refinished; and (u)(1) and (v)(3) of this section.
(2) After the examination if repair or
refinishing is not performed, unless the (l) Working on or near exposed ener-
tool is made of FRP rod or foam-filled gized parts. This paragraph applies to
FRP tube and the employer can dem- work on exposed live parts, or near
onstrate that the tool has no defects enough to them, to expose the em-
that could cause it to fail in use. ployee to any hazard they present.
(D) The test method used shall be de- (1) General. Only qualified employees
signed to verify the tool’s integrity may work on or with exposed energized

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Occupational Safety and Health Admin., Labor § 1910.269

lines or parts of equipment. Only quali- insulating gloves and sleeves worn in
fied employees may work in areas con- accordance with paragraph (l)(3) of this
taining unguarded, uninsulated ener- section are considered insulation of the
gized lines or parts of equipment oper- employee only with regard to the ener-
ating at 50 volts or more. Electric lines gized part upon which work is being
and equipment shall be considered and performed), or
treated as energized unless the provi- (ii) The energized part is insulated
sions of paragraph (d) or paragraph (m) from the employee and from any other
of this section have been followed. conductive object at a different poten-
(i) Except as provided in paragraph tial, or
(l)(1)(ii) of this section, at least two (iii) The employee is insulated from
employees shall be present while the any other exposed conductive object, as
following types of work are being per- during live-line bare-hand work.
formed:
(A) Installation, removal, or repair of NOTE: Paragraphs (u)(5)(i) and (v)(5)(i) of
lines that are energized at more than this section contain requirements for the
600 volts, guarding and isolation of live parts. Parts of
(B) Installation, removal, or repair of electric circuits that meet these two provi-
sions are not considered as ‘‘exposed’’ unless
deenergized lines if an employee is ex-
a guard is removed or an employee enters
posed to contact with other parts ener- the space intended to provide isolation from
gized at more than 600 volts, the live parts.
(C) Installation, removal, or repair of
equipment, such as transformers, ca- (3) Type of insulation. If the employee
pacitors, and regulators, if an em- is to be insulated from energized parts
ployee is exposed to contact with parts by the use of insulating gloves (under
energized at more than 600 volts, paragraph (l)(2)(i) of this section), insu-
(D) Work involving the use of me- lating sleeves shall also be used. How-
chanical equipment, other than insu- ever, insulating sleeves need not be
lated aerial lifts, near parts energized used under the following conditions:
at more than 600 volts, and (i) If exposed energized parts on
(E) Other work that exposes an em- which work is not being performed are
ployee to electrical hazards greater insulated from the employee and
than or equal to those posed by oper- (ii) If such insulation is placed from a
ations that are specifically listed in position not exposing the employee’s
paragraphs (l)(1)(i)(A) through upper arm to contact with other ener-
(l)(1)(i)(D) of this section. gized parts.
(ii) Paragraph (l)(1)(i) of this section (4) Working position. The employer
does not apply to the following oper- shall ensure that each employee, to the
ations: extent that other safety-related condi-
(A) Routine switching of circuits, if tions at the worksite permit, works in
the employer can demonstrate that a position from which a slip or shock
conditions at the site allow this work
will not bring the employee’s body into
to be performed safely,
contact with exposed, uninsulated
(B) Work performed with live-line
parts energized at a potential different
tools if the employee is positioned so
from the employee.
that he or she is neither within reach
of nor otherwise exposed to contact (5) Making connections. The employer
with energized parts, and shall ensure that connections are made
(C) Emergency repairs to the extent as follows:
necessary to safeguard the general pub- (i) In connecting deenergized equip-
lic. ment or lines to an energized circuit by
(2) Minimum approach distances. The means of a conducting wire or device,
employer shall ensure that no em- an employee shall first attach the wire
ployee approaches or takes any conduc- to the deenergized part;
tive object closer to exposed energized (ii) When disconnecting equipment or
parts than set forth in Table R–6 lines from an energized circuit by
through Table R–10, unless: means of a conducting wire or device,
(i) The employee is insulated from an employee shall remove the source
the energized part (insulating gloves or end first; and

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§ 1910.269 29 CFR Ch. XVII (7–1–11 Edition)

(iii) When lines or equipment are for the voltage, and is clear of the ex-
connected to or disconnected from en- haust path of the fuse barrel.
ergized circuits, loose conductors shall (8) Covered (noninsulated) conductors.
be kept away from exposed energized The requirements of this section which
parts. pertain to the hazards of exposed live
(6) Apparel. (i) When work is per- parts also apply when work is per-
formed within reaching distance of ex- formed in the proximity of covered
posed energized parts of equipment, the (noninsulated) wires.
employer shall ensure that each em- (9) Noncurrent-carrying metal parts.
ployee removes or renders nonconduc- Noncurrent-carrying metal parts of
tive all exposed conductive articles, equipment or devices, such as trans-
such as key or watch chains, rings, or former cases and circuit breaker
wrist watches or bands, unless such ar- housings, shall be treated as energized
ticles do not increase the hazards asso- at the highest voltage to which they
ciated with contact with the energized are exposed, unless the employer in-
parts. spects the installation and determines
(ii) The employer shall train each that these parts are grounded before
employee who is exposed to the hazards work is performed.
of flames or electric arcs in the hazards (10) Opening circuits under load. De-
involved. vices used to open circuits under load
(iii) The employer shall ensure that conditions shall be designed to inter-
each employee who is exposed to the rupt the current involved.
hazards of flames or electric arcs does
not wear clothing that, when exposed TABLE R–6—AC LIVE-LINE WORK MINIMUM
to flames or electric arcs, could in- APPROACH DISTANCE
crease the extent of injury that would
be sustained by the employee. Distance

NOTE: Clothing made from the following Phase to Phase to


Nominal voltage in kilovolts ground expo- phase expo-
types of fabrics, either alone or in blends, is phase to phase sure sure
prohibited by this paragraph, unless the em-
ployer can demonstrate that the fabric has (ft-in) (m) (ft-in) (m)
been treated to withstand the conditions
0.05 to 1.0 ......................... (4) (4) (4) (4)
that may be encountered or that the cloth-
1.1 to 15.0 ......................... 2–1 0.64 2–2 0.66
ing is worn in such a manner as to eliminate 15.1 to 36.0 ....................... 2–4 0.72 2–7 0.77
the hazard involved: acetate, nylon, poly- 36.1 to 46.0 ....................... 2–7 0.77 2–10 0.85
ester, rayon. 46.1 to 72.5 ....................... 3–0 0.90 3–6 1.05
72.6 to 121 ........................ 3–2 0.95 4–3 1.29
(7) Fuse handling. When fuses must be
138 to 145 ......................... 3–7 1.09 4–11 1.50
installed or removed with one or both 161 to 169 ......................... 4–0 1.22 5–8 1.71
terminals energized at more than 300 230 to 242 ......................... 5–3 1.59 7–6 2.27
volts or with exposed parts energized 345 to 362 ......................... 8–6 2.59 12–6 3.80
at more than 50 volts, the employer 500 to 550 ......................... 11–3 3.42 18–1 5.50
765 to 800 ......................... 14–11 4.53 26–0 7.91
shall ensure that tools or gloves rated
for the voltage are used. When expul- NOTE 1: These distances take into consideration the highest
switching surge an employee will be exposed to on any sys-
sion-type fuses are installed with one tem with air as the insulating medium and the maximum
or both terminals energized at more voltages shown.
NOTE 2: The clear live-line tool distance shall equal or ex-
than 300 volts, the employer shall en- ceed the values for the indicated voltage ranges.
sure that each employee wears eye pro- NOTE 3: See appendix B to this section for information on
how the minimum approach distances listed in the tables were
tection meeting the requirements of derived.
subpart I of this part, uses a tool rated 4 Avoid contact.

TABLE R–7—AC LIVE-LINE WORK MINIMUM APPROACH DISTANCE WITH OVERVOLTAGE FACTOR
PHASE-TO-GROUND EXPOSURE
Distance in feet-inches
Maximum an-
ticipated per- Maximum phase-to-phase voltage in kilovolts
unit transient
overvoltage 121 145 169 242 362 552 800

1.5 ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... 6–0 9–8


1.6 ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... 6–6 10–8
1.7 ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... 7–0 11–8
1.8 ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... 7–7 12–8

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Occupational Safety and Health Admin., Labor § 1910.269

TABLE R–7—AC LIVE-LINE WORK MINIMUM APPROACH DISTANCE WITH OVERVOLTAGE FACTOR
PHASE-TO-GROUND EXPOSURE—Continued
Distance in feet-inches
Maximum an-
ticipated per- Maximum phase-to-phase voltage in kilovolts
unit transient
overvoltage 121 145 169 242 362 552 800

1.9 ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... 8–1 13–9


2.0 2–5 2–9 3–0 3–10 5–3 8–9 14–11
2.1 2–6 2–10 3–2 4–0 5–5 9–4 ......................
2.2 2–7 2–11 3–3 4–1 5–9 9–11 ......................
2.3 2–8 3–0 3–4 4–3 6–1 10–6 ......................
2.4 2–9 3–1 3–5 4–5 6–4 11–3 ......................
2.5 2–9 3–2 3–6 4–6 6–8 ...................... ......................
2.6 2–10 3–3 3–8 4–8 7–1 ...................... ......................
2.7 2–11 3–4 3–9 4–10 7–5 ...................... ......................
2.8 3–0 3–5 3–10 4–11 7–9 ...................... ......................
2.9 3–1 3–6 3–11 5–1 8–2 ...................... ......................
3.0 3–2 3–7 4–0 5–3 8–6 ...................... ......................
NOTE 1: The distance specified in this table may be applied only where the maximum anticipated per-unit transient overvoltage
has been determined by engineering analysis and has been supplied by the employer. Table R–6 applies otherwise.
NOTE 2: The distances specified in this table are the air, bare-hand, and live-line tool distances.
NOTE 3: See appendix B to this section for information on how the minimum approach distances listed in the tables were de-
rived and on how to calculate revised minimum approach distances based on the control of transient overvoltages.

TABLE R–8—AC LIVE-LINE WORK MINIMUM APPROACH DISTANCE WITH OVERVOLTAGE FACTOR
PHASE-TO-PHASE EXPOSURE
Distance in feet-inches
Maximum an-
ticipated per- Maximum phase-to-phase voltage in kilovolts
unit transient
overvoltage 121 145 169 242 362 552 800

1.5 ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... 7–4 12–1


1.6 ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... 8–9 14–6
1.7 ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... 10–2 17–2
1.8 ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... 11–7 19–11
1.9 ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... 13–2 22–11
2.0 3–7 4–1 4–8 6–1 8–7 14–10 26–0
2.1 3–7 4–2 4–9 6–3 8–10 15–7 ......................
2.2 3–8 4–3 4–10 6–4 9–2 16–4 ......................
2.3 3–9 4–4 4–11 6–6 9–6 17–2 ......................
2.4 3–10 4–5 5–0 6–7 9–11 18–1 ......................
2.5 3–11 4–6 5–2 6-9 10–4 ...................... ......................
2.6 4–0 4–7 5–3 6–11 10–9 ...................... ......................
2.7 4–1 4–8 5–4 7–0 11–2 ...................... ......................
2.8 4–1 4–9 5–5 7–2 11–7 ...................... ......................
2.9 4–2 4–10 5–6 7–4 12–1 ...................... ......................
3.0 4–3 4–11 5–8 7–6 12–6 ...................... ......................
NOTE 1: The distance specified in this table may be applied only where the maximum anticipated per-unit transient overvoltage
has been determined by engineering analysis and has been supplied by the employer. Table R–6 applies otherwise.
NOTE 2: The distances specified in this table are the air, bare-hand, and live-line tool distances.
NOTE 3: See appendix B to this section for information on how the minimum approach distances listed in the tables were de-
rived and on how to calculate revised minimum approach distances based on the control of transient overvoltages.

TABLE R–9—DC LIVE-LINE WORK MINIMUM APPROACH DISTANCE WITH OVERVOLTAGE FACTOR
Distance in feet-inches
Maximum anticipated per-unit transient over- Maximum line-to-ground voltage in kilovolts
voltage
250 400 500 600 750

1.5 or lower ......................................................... 3–8 5–3 6–9 8–7 11–10


1.6 ....................................................................... 3–10 5–7 7–4 9–5 13–1
1.7 ....................................................................... 4–1 6–0 7–11 10–3 14–4
1.8 ....................................................................... 4–3 6–5 8–7 11–2 15–9
NOTE 1: The distances specified in this table may be applied only where the maximum anticipated per-unit transient over-
voltage has been determined by engineering analysis and has been supplied by the employer. However, if the transient over-
voltage factor is not known, a factor of 1.8 shall be assumed.
NOTE 2: The distances specified in this table are the air, bare-hand, and live-line tool distances.

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§ 1910.269 29 CFR Ch. XVII (7–1–11 Edition)

TABLE R–10—ALTITUDE CORRECTION FACTOR (m)(3)(xii) of this section do not apply.


Additionally, tags required by the re-
Altitude
Correction factor maining provisions of paragraph (m)(3)
ft m of this section need not be used.
3000 900 1.00 (iv) Any disconnecting means that
4000 1200 1.02 are accessible to persons outside the
5000 1500 1.05 employer’s control (for example, the
6000 1800 1.08
7000 2100 1.11 general public) shall be rendered inop-
8000 2400 1.14 erable while they are open for the pur-
9000 2700 1.17 pose of protecting employees.
10000 3000 1.20
12000 3600 1.25 (3) Deenergizing lines and equipment.
14000 4200 1.30 (i) A designated employee shall make a
16000 4800 1.35 request of the system operator to have
18000 5400 1.39
20000 6000 1.44 the particular section of line or equip-
ment deenergized. The designated em-
NOTE: If the work is performed at elevations greater than
3000 ft (900 m) above mean sea level, the minimum ap- ployee becomes the employee in charge
proach distance shall be determined by multiplying the dis- (as this term is used in paragraph
tances in Table R–6 through Table R–9 by the correction fac-
tor corresponding to the altitude at which work is performed. (m)(3) of this section) and is respon-
sible for the clearance.
(m) Deenergizing lines and equipment
(ii) All switches, disconnectors,
for employee protection—(1) Application.
jumpers, taps, and other means
Paragraph (m) of this section applies to
through which known sources of elec-
the deenergizing of transmission and
tric energy may be supplied to the par-
distribution lines and equipment for
ticular lines and equipment to be deen-
the purpose of protecting employees.
ergized shall be opened. Such means
Control of hazardous energy sources
shall be rendered inoperable, unless its
used in the generation of electric en-
design does not so permit, and tagged
ergy is covered in paragraph (d) of this
to indicate that employees are at work.
section. Conductors and parts of elec-
tric equipment that have been deener- (iii) Automatically and remotely
gized under procedures other than controlled switches that could cause
those required by paragraph (d) or (m) the opened disconnecting means to
of this section, as applicable, shall be close shall also be tagged at the point
treated as energized. of control. The automatic or remote
(2) General. (i) If a system operator is control feature shall be rendered inop-
in charge of the lines or equipment and erable, unless its design does not so
their means of disconnection, all of the permit.
requirements of paragraph (m)(3) of (iv) Tags shall prohibit operation of
this section shall be observed, in the the disconnecting means and shall indi-
order given. cate that employees are at work.
(ii) If no system operator is in charge (v) After the applicable requirements
of the lines or equipment and their in paragraphs (m)(3)(i) through
means of disconnection, one employee (m)(3)(iv) of this section have been fol-
in the crew shall be designated as being lowed and the employee in charge of
in charge of the clearance. All of the the work has been given a clearance by
requirements of paragraph (m)(3) of the system operator, the lines and
this section apply, in the order given, equipment to be worked shall be tested
except as provided in paragraph to ensure that they are deenergized.
(m)(2)(iii) of this section. The employee (vi) Protective grounds shall be in-
in charge of the clearance shall take stalled as required by paragraph (n) of
the place of the system operator, as this section.
necessary. (vii) After the applicable require-
(iii) If only one crew will be working ments of paragraphs (m)(3)(i) through
on the lines or equipment and if the (m)(3)(vi) of this section have been fol-
means of disconnection is accessible lowed, the lines and equipment in-
and visible to and under the sole con- volved may be worked as deenergized.
trol of the employee in charge of the (viii) If two or more independent
clearance, paragraphs (m)(3)(i), crews will be working on the same
(m)(3)(iii), (m)(3)(iv), (m)(3)(viii), and lines or equipment, each crew shall

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Occupational Safety and Health Admin., Labor § 1910.269

independently comply with the require- of this section and shall be grounded as
ments in paragraph (m)(3) of this sec- specified in paragraphs (n)(3) through
tion. (n)(9) of this section. However, if the
(ix) To transfer the clearance, the employer can demonstrate that instal-
employee in charge (or, if the employee lation of a ground is impracticable or
in charge is forced to leave the work- that the conditions resulting from the
site due to illness or other emergency, installation of a ground would present
the employee’s supervisor) shall inform greater hazards than working without
the system operator; employees in the grounds, the lines and equipment may
crew shall be informed of the transfer; be treated as deenergized provided all
and the new employee in charge shall of the following conditions are met:
be responsible for the clearance. (i) The lines and equipment have
(x) To release a clearance, the em- been deenergized under the provisions
ployee in charge shall: of paragraph (m) of this section.
(A) Notify employees under his or her (ii) There is no possibility of contact
direction that the clearance is to be re- with another energized source.
leased; (iii) The hazard of induced voltage is
(B) Determine that all employees in not present.
the crew are clear of the lines and (3) Equipotential zone. Temporary pro-
equipment; tective grounds shall be placed at such
(C) Determine that all protective locations and arranged in such a man-
grounds installed by the crew have ner as to prevent each employee from
been removed; and being exposed to hazardous differences
(D) Report this information to the in electrical potential.
system operator and release the clear- (4) Protective grounding equipment. (i)
ance. Protective grounding equipment shall
(xi) The person releasing a clearance be capable of conducting the maximum
shall be the same person that requested fault current that could flow at the
the clearance, unless responsibility has point of grounding for the time nec-
been transferred under paragraph essary to clear the fault. This equip-
(m)(3)(ix) of this section. ment shall have an ampacity greater
(xii) Tags may not be removed unless than or equal to that of No. 2 AWG cop-
the associated clearance has been re- per.
leased under paragraph (m)(3)(x) of this
section. NOTE: Guidelines for protective grounding
(xiii) Only after all protective equipment are contained in American Soci-
grounds have been removed, after all ety for Testing and Materials Standard Spec-
ifications for Temporary Grounding Systems
crews working on the lines or equip- to be Used on De-Energized Electric Power
ment have released their clearances, Lines and Equipment, ASTM F855–1990.
after all employees are clear of the
lines and equipment, and after all pro- (ii) Protective grounds shall have an
tective tags have been removed from a impedance low enough to cause imme-
given point of disconnection, may ac- diate operation of protective devices in
tion be initiated to reenergize the lines case of accidental energizing of the
or equipment at that point of dis- lines or equipment.
connection. (5) Testing. Before any ground is in-
(n) Grounding for the protection of em- stalled, lines and equipment shall be
ployees—(1) Application. Paragraph (n) tested and found absent of nominal
of this section applies to the grounding voltage, unless a previously installed
of transmission and distribution lines ground is present.
and equipment for the purpose of pro- (6) Order of connection. When a ground
tecting employees. Paragraph (n)(4) of is to be attached to a line or to equip-
this section also applies to the protec- ment, the ground-end connection shall
tive grounding of other equipment as be attached first, and then the other
required elsewhere in this section. end shall be attached by means of a
(2) General. For the employee to work live-line tool.
lines or equipment as deenergized, the (7) Order of removal. When a ground is
lines or equipment shall be deenergized to be removed, the grounding device
under the provisions of paragraph (m) shall be removed from the line or

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§ 1910.269 29 CFR Ch. XVII (7–1–11 Edition)

equipment using a live-line tool before areas shall also be included. (See para-
the ground-end connection is removed. graph (o)(6) of this section.)
(8) Additional precautions. When work (ii) Employees shall be trained in
is performed on a cable at a location safe work practices upon their initial
remote from the cable terminal, the assignment to the test area, with peri-
cable may not be grounded at the cable odic reviews and updates provided as
terminal if there is a possibility of haz- required by paragraph (a)(2) of this sec-
ardous transfer of potential should a tion.
fault occur. (3) Guarding of test areas. (i) Perma-
(9) Removal of grounds for test. nent test areas shall be guarded by
Grounds may be removed temporarily walls, fences, or barriers designed to
during tests. During the test proce- keep employees out of the test areas.
dure, the employer shall ensure that (ii) In field testing, or at a temporary
each employee uses insulating equip- test site where permanent fences and
ment and is isolated from any hazards gates are not provided, one of the fol-
involved, and the employer shall insti- lowing means shall be used to prevent
tute any additional measures as may unauthorized employees from entering:
be necessary to protect each exposed (A) The test area shall be guarded by
employee in case the previously the use of distinctively colored safety
grounded lines and equipment become tape that is supported approximately
energized. waist high and to which safety signs
(o) Testing and test facilities—(1) Appli- are attached,
cation. Paragraph (o) of this section (B) The test area shall be guarded by
provides for safe work practices for a barrier or barricade that limits ac-
high-voltage and high-power testing cess to the test area to a degree equiva-
performed in laboratories, shops, and lent, physically and visually, to the
substations, and in the field and on barricade specified in paragraph
electric transmission and distribution (o)(3)(ii)(A) of this section, or
lines and equipment. It applies only to (C) The test area shall be guarded by
testing involving interim measure- one or more test observers stationed so
ments utilizing high voltage, high that the entire area can be monitored.
power, or combinations of both, and (iii) The barriers required by para-
not to testing involving continuous graph (o)(3)(ii) of this section shall be
measurements as in routine metering, removed when the protection they pro-
relaying, and normal line work. vide is no longer needed.
(iv) Guarding shall be provided with-
NOTE: Routine inspection and maintenance in test areas to control access to test
measurements made by qualified employees equipment or to apparatus under test
are considered to be routine line work and
that may become energized as part of
are not included in the scope of paragraph (o)
of this section, as long as the hazards related the testing by either direct or induc-
to the use of intrinsic high-voltage or high- tive coupling, in order to prevent acci-
power sources require only the normal pre- dental employee contact with ener-
cautions associated with routine operation gized parts.
and maintenance work required in the other (4) Grounding practices. (i) The em-
paragraphs of this section. Two typical ex- ployer shall establish and implement
amples of such excluded test work proce- safe grounding practices for the test fa-
dures are ‘‘phasing-out’’ testing and testing
cility.
for a ‘‘no-voltage’’ condition.
(A) All conductive parts accessible to
(2) General requirements. (i) The em- the test operator during the time the
ployer shall establish and enforce work equipment is operating at high voltage
practices for the protection of each shall be maintained at ground poten-
worker from the hazards of high-volt- tial except for portions of the equip-
age or high-power testing at all test ment that are isolated from the test
areas, temporary and permanent. Such operator by guarding.
work practices shall include, as a min- (B) Wherever ungrounded terminals
imum, test area guarding, grounding, of test equipment or apparatus under
and the safe use of measuring and con- test may be present, they shall be
trol circuits. A means providing for treated as energized until determined
periodic safety checks of field test by tests to be deenergized.

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Occupational Safety and Health Admin., Labor § 1910.269

(ii) Visible grounds shall be applied, other conductive parts accessible to


either automatically or manually with employees shall be provided by bond-
properly insulated tools, to the high- ing, insulation, or isolation.
voltage circuits after they are deener- (5) Control and measuring circuits. (i)
gized and before work is performed on Control wiring, meter connections, test
the circuit or item or apparatus under leads and cables may not be run from a
test. Common ground connections shall test area unless they are contained in a
be solidly connected to the test equip- grounded metallic sheath and termi-
ment and the apparatus under test. nated in a grounded metallic enclosure
(iii) In high-power testing, an iso- or unless other precautions are taken
lated ground-return conductor system that the employer can demonstrate as
shall be provided so that no intentional ensuring equivalent safety.
passage of current, with its attendant (ii) Meters and other instruments
voltage rise, can occur in the ground with accessible terminals or parts shall
grid or in the earth. However, an iso- be isolated from test personnel to pro-
lated ground-return conductor need not tect against hazards arising from such
be provided if the employer can dem- terminals and parts becoming ener-
onstrate that both the following condi- gized during testing. If this isolation is
tions are met: provided by locating test equipment in
(A) An isolated ground-return con- metal compartments with viewing win-
ductor cannot be provided due to the dows, interlocks shall be provided to
distance of the test site from the elec-
interrupt the power supply if the com-
tric energy source, and
partment cover is opened.
(B) Employees are protected from
any hazardous step and touch poten- (iii) The routing and connections of
tials that may develop during the test. temporary wiring shall be made secure
against damage, accidental interrup-
NOTE: See appendix C to this section for in- tions and other hazards. To the max-
formation on measures that can be taken to imum extent possible, signal, control,
protect employees from hazardous step and
ground, and power cables shall be kept
touch potentials.
separate.
(iv) In tests in which grounding of (iv) If employees will be present in
test equipment by means of the equip- the test area during testing, a test ob-
ment grounding conductor located in server shall be present. The test ob-
the equipment power cord cannot be server shall be capable of imple-
used due to increased hazards to test menting the immediate deenergizing of
personnel or the prevention of satisfac- test circuits for safety purposes.
tory measurements, a ground that the (6) Safety check. (i) Safety practices
employer can demonstrate affords governing employee work at temporary
equivalent safety shall be provided, and or field test areas shall provide for a
the safety ground shall be clearly indi- routine check of such test areas for
cated in the test set-up. safety at the beginning of each series
(v) When the test area is entered of tests.
after equipment is deenergized, a
(ii) The test operator in charge shall
ground shall be placed on the high-
conduct these routine safety checks be-
voltage terminal and any other exposed
fore each series of tests and shall verify
terminals.
at least the following conditions:
(A) High capacitance equipment or
apparatus shall be discharged through (A) That barriers and guards are in
a resistor rated for the available en- workable condition and are properly
ergy. placed to isolate hazardous areas;
(B) A direct ground shall be applied (B) That system test status signals,
to the exposed terminals when the if used, are in operable condition;
stored energy drops to a level at which (C) That test power disconnects are
it is safe to do so. clearly marked and readily available in
(vi) If a test trailer or test vehicle is an emergency;
used in field testing, its chassis shall (D) That ground connections are
be grounded. Protection against haz- clearly identifiable;
ardous touch potentials with respect to (E) That personal protective equip-
the vehicle, instrument panels, and ment is provided and used as required

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§ 1910.269 29 CFR Ch. XVII (7–1–11 Edition)

by subpart I of this part and by this material shall be used within its max-
section; and imum load rating and other design lim-
(F) That signal, ground, and power itations for the conditions under which
cables are properly separated. the work is being performed.
(p) Mechanical equipment—(1) General (4) Operations near energized lines or
requirements. (i) The critical safety equipment. (i) Mechanical equipment
components of mechanical elevating shall be operated so that the minimum
and rotating equipment shall receive a approach distances of Table R–6
thorough visual inspection before use through Table R–10 are maintained
on each shift. from exposed energized lines and equip-
NOTE: Critical safety components of me- ment. However, the insulated portion
chanical elevating and rotating equipment of an aerial lift operated by a qualified
are components whose failure would result in employee in the lift is exempt from
a free fall or free rotation of the boom. this requirement.
(ii) No vehicular equipment having (ii) A designated employee other than
an obstructed view to the rear may be the equipment operator shall observe
operated on off-highway jobsites where the approach distance to exposed lines
any employee is exposed to the hazards and equipment and give timely warn-
created by the moving vehicle, unless: ings before the minimum approach dis-
(A) The vehicle has a reverse signal tance required by paragraph (p)(4)(i) is
alarm audible above the surrounding reached, unless the employer can dem-
noise level, or onstrate that the operator can accu-
(B) The vehicle is backed up only rately determine that the minimum
when a designated employee signals approach distance is being maintained.
that it is safe to do so. (iii) If, during operation of the me-
(iii) The operator of an electric line chanical equipment, the equipment
truck may not leave his or her position could become energized, the operation
at the controls while a load is sus- shall also comply with at least one of
pended, unless the employer can dem- paragraphs (p)(4)(iii)(A) through
onstrate that no employee (including (p)(4)(iii)(C) of this section.
the operator) might be endangered. (A) The energized lines exposed to
(iv) Rubber-tired, self-propelled contact shall be covered with insu-
scrapers, rubber-tired front-end load- lating protective material that will
ers, rubber-tired dozers, wheel-type ag- withstand the type of contact that
ricultural and industrial tractors, might be made during the operation.
crawler-type tractors, crawler-type (B) The equipment shall be insulated
loaders, and motor graders, with or for the voltage involved. The equip-
without attachments, shall have roll- ment shall be positioned so that its
over protective structures that meet uninsulated portions cannot approach
the requirements of subpart W of part the lines or equipment any closer than
1926 of this chapter. the minimum approach distances speci-
(2) Outriggers. (i) Vehicular equip- fied in Table R–6 through Table R–10.
ment, if provided with outriggers, shall (C) Each employee shall be protected
be operated with the outriggers ex- from hazards that might arise from
tended and firmly set as necessary for equipment contact with the energized
the stability of the specific configura- lines. The measures used shall ensure
tion of the equipment. Outriggers may that employees will not be exposed to
not be extended or retracted outside of hazardous differences in potential. Un-
clear view of the operator unless all less the employer can demonstrate
employees are outside the range of pos- that the methods in use protect each
sible equipment motion. employee from the hazards that might
(ii) If the work area or the terrain arise if the equipment contacts the en-
precludes the use of outriggers, the ergized line, the measures used shall
equipment may be operated only with- include all of the following techniques:
in its maximum load ratings for the (1) Using the best available ground to
particular configuration of the equip- minimize the time the lines remain en-
ment without outriggers. ergized,
(3) Applied loads. Mechanical equip- (2) Bonding equipment together to
ment used to lift or move lines or other minimize potential differences,

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Occupational Safety and Health Admin., Labor § 1910.269

(3) Providing ground mats to extend (i) The employer shall use the ten-
areas of equipotential, and sion stringing method, barriers, or
(4) Employing insulating protective other equivalent measures to minimize
equipment or barricades to guard the possibility that conductors and ca-
against any remaining hazardous po- bles being installed or removed will
tential differences. contact energized power lines or equip-
ment.
NOTE: Appendix C to this section contains
information on hazardous step and touch po- (ii) The protective measures required
tentials and on methods of protecting em- by paragraph (p)(4)(iii) of this section
ployees from hazards resulting from such po- for mechanical equipment shall also be
tentials. provided for conductors, cables, and
(q) Overhead lines. This paragraph pulling and tensioning equipment when
provides additional requirements for the conductor or cable is being in-
work performed on or near overhead stalled or removed close enough to en-
lines and equipment. ergized conductors that any of the fol-
lowing failures could energize the pull-
(1) General. (i) Before elevated struc-
ing or tensioning equipment or the
tures, such as poles or towers, are sub-
jected to such stresses as climbing or wire or cable being installed or re-
the installation or removal of equip- moved:
ment may impose, the employer shall (A) Failure of the pulling or ten-
ascertain that the structures are capa- sioning equipment,
ble of sustaining the additional or un- (B) Failure of the wire or cable being
balanced stresses. If the pole or other pulled, or
structure cannot withstand the loads (C) Failure of the previously in-
which will be imposed, it shall be stalled lines or equipment.
braced or otherwise supported so as to (iii) If the conductors being installed
prevent failure. or removed cross over energized con-
ductors in excess of 600 volts and if the
NOTE: Appendix D to this section contains
design of the circuit-interrupting de-
test methods that can be used in
ascertaining whether a wood pole is capable vices protecting the lines so permits,
of sustaining the forces that would be im- the automatic-reclosing feature of
posed by an employee climbing the pole. these devices shall be made inoper-
This paragraph also requires the employer to ative.
ascertain that the pole can sustain all other (iv) Before lines are installed parallel
forces that will be imposed by the work to be to existing energized lines, the em-
performed.
ployer shall make a determination of
(ii) When poles are set, moved, or re- the approximate voltage to be induced
moved near exposed energized overhead in the new lines, or work shall proceed
conductors, the pole may not contact on the assumption that the induced
the conductors. voltage is hazardous. Unless the em-
(iii) When a pole is set, moved, or re- ployer can demonstrate that the lines
moved near an exposed energized over- being installed are not subject to the
head conductor, the employer shall en- induction of a hazardous voltage or un-
sure that each employee wears elec- less the lines are treated as energized,
trical protective equipment or uses in- the following requirements also apply:
sulated devices when handling the pole (A) Each bare conductor shall be
and that no employee contacts the pole grounded in increments so that no
with uninsulated parts of his or her point along the conductor is more than
body. 2 miles (3.22 km) from a ground.
(iv) To protect employees from fall- (B) The grounds required in para-
ing into holes into which poles are to graph (q)(2)(iv)(A) of this section shall
be placed, the holes shall be attended be left in place until the conductor in-
by employees or physically guarded stallation is completed between dead
whenever anyone is working nearby. ends.
(2) Installing and removing overhead (C) The grounds required in para-
lines. The following provisions apply to graph (q)(2)(iv)(A) of this section shall
the installation and removal of over- be removed as the last phase of aerial
head conductors or cable. cleanup.

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§ 1910.269 29 CFR Ch. XVII (7–1–11 Edition)

(D) If employees are working on bare (ii) Before any employee uses the
conductors, grounds shall also be in- live-line bare-hand technique on ener-
stalled at each location where these gized high-voltage conductors or parts,
employees are working, and grounds the following information shall be
shall be installed at all open dead-end ascertained:
or catch-off points or the next adjacent (A) The nominal voltage rating of the
structure. circuit on which the work is to be per-
(E) If two bare conductors are to be formed,
spliced, the conductors shall be bonded (B) The minimum approach distances
and grounded before being spliced. to ground of lines and other energized
(v) Reel handling equipment, includ- parts on which work is to be per-
ing pulling and tensioning devices, formed, and
shall be in safe operating condition and (C) The voltage limitations of equip-
shall be leveled and aligned. ment to be used.
(vi) Load ratings of stringing lines, (iii) The insulated equipment, insu-
pulling lines, conductor grips, load- lated tools, and aerial devices and plat-
bearing hardware and accessories, rig- forms used shall be designed, tested,
ging, and hoists may not be exceeded. and intended for live-line bare-hand
(vii) Pulling lines and accessories work. Tools and equipment shall be
shall be repaired or replaced when de- kept clean and dry while they are in
fective. use.
(iv) The automatic-reclosing feature
(viii) Conductor grips may not be
of circuit-interrupting devices pro-
used on wire rope, unless the grip is
tecting the lines shall be made inoper-
specifically designed for this applica-
ative, if the design of the devices per-
tion.
mits.
(ix) Reliable communications, (v) Work may not be performed when
through two-way radios or other equiv- adverse weather conditions would
alent means, shall be maintained be- make the work hazardous even after
tween the reel tender and the pulling the work practices required by this sec-
rig operator. tion are employed. Additionally, work
(x) The pulling rig may only be oper- may not be performed when winds re-
ated when it is safe to do so. duce the phase-to-phase or phase-to-
NOTE: Examples of unsafe conditions in- ground minimum approach distances at
clude employees in locations prohibited by the work location below that specified
paragraph (q)(2)(xi) of this section, con- in paragraph (q)(3)(xiii) of this section,
ductor and pulling line hang-ups, and slip- unless the grounded objects and other
ping of the conductor grip. lines and equipment are covered by in-
(xi) While the conductor or pulling sulating guards.
line is being pulled (in motion) with a NOTE: Thunderstorms in the immediate vi-
power-driven device, employees are not cinity, high winds, snow storms, and ice
permitted directly under overhead op- storms are examples of adverse weather con-
erations or on the cross arm, except as ditions that are presumed to make live-line
necessary to guide the stringing sock bare-hand work too hazardous to perform
or board over or through the stringing safely.
sheave. (vi) A conductive bucket liner or
(3) Live-line bare-hand work. In addi- other conductive device shall be pro-
tion to other applicable provisions con- vided for bonding the insulated aerial
tained in this section, the following re- device to the energized line or equip-
quirements apply to live-line bare-hand ment.
work: (A) The employee shall be connected
(i) Before using or supervising the to the bucket liner or other conductive
use of the live-line bare-hand technique device by the use of conductive shoes,
on energized circuits, employees shall leg clips, or other means.
be trained in the technique and in the (B) Where differences in potentials at
safety requirements of paragraph (q)(3) the worksite pose a hazard to employ-
of this section. Employees shall receive ees, electrostatic shielding designed for
refresher training as required by para- the voltage being worked shall be pro-
graph (a)(2) of this section. vided.

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Occupational Safety and Health Admin., Labor § 1910.269

(vii) Before the employee contacts equipment are covered by insulating


the energized part, the conductive guards.
bucket liner or other conductive device (xiv) While an employee is approach-
shall be bonded to the energized con- ing, leaving, or bonding to an energized
ductor by means of a positive connec- circuit, the minimum approach dis-
tion. This connection shall remain at- tances in Table R–6 through Table R–10
tached to the energized conductor until shall be maintained between the em-
the work on the energized circuit is ployee and any grounded parts, includ-
completed. ing the lower boom and portions of the
(viii) Aerial lifts to be used for live- truck.
line bare-hand work shall have dual (xv) While the bucket is positioned
controls (lower and upper) as follows: alongside an energized bushing or insu-
(A) The upper controls shall be with- lator string, the phase-to-ground min-
in easy reach of the employee in the imum approach distances of Table R–6
bucket. On a two-bucket-type lift, ac- through Table R–10 shall be maintained
cess to the controls shall be within between all parts of the bucket and the
easy reach from either bucket. grounded end of the bushing or insu-
(B) The lower set of controls shall be lator string or any other grounded sur-
located near the base of the boom, and face.
(xvi) Hand lines may not be used be-
they shall be so designed that they can
tween the bucket and the boom or be-
override operation of the equipment at
tween the bucket and the ground. How-
any time.
ever, non-conductive-type hand lines
(ix) Lower (ground-level) lift controls may be used from conductor to ground
may not be operated with an employee if not supported from the bucket.
in the lift, except in case of emergency. Ropes used for live-line bare-hand work
(x) Before employees are elevated may not be used for other purposes.
into the work position, all controls (xvii) Uninsulated equipment or ma-
(ground level and bucket) shall be terial may not be passed between a
checked to determine that they are in pole or structure and an aerial lift
proper working condition. while an employee working from the
(xi) Before the boom of an aerial lift bucket is bonded to an energized part.
is elevated, the body of the truck shall (xviii) A minimum approach distance
be grounded, or the body of the truck table reflecting the minimum approach
shall be barricaded and treated as ener- distances listed in Table R–6 through
gized. Table R–10 shall be printed on a plate
(xii) A boom-current test shall be of durable non-conductive material.
made before work is started each day, This table shall be mounted so as to be
each time during the day when higher visible to the operator of the boom.
voltage is encountered, and when (xix) A non-conductive measuring de-
changed conditions indicate a need for vice shall be readily accessible to as-
an additional test. This test shall con- sist employees in maintaining the re-
sist of placing the bucket in contact quired minimum approach distance.
with an energized source equal to the (4) Towers and structures. The fol-
voltage to be encountered for a min- lowing requirements apply to work per-
imum of 3 minutes. The leakage cur- formed on towers or other structures
rent may not exceed 1 microampere per which support overhead lines.
kilovolt of nominal phase-to-ground (i) The employer shall ensure that no
voltage. Work from the aerial lift shall employee is under a tower or structure
be immediately suspended upon indica- while work is in progress, except where
tion of a malfunction in the equipment. the employer can demonstrate that
(xiii) The minimum approach dis- such a working position is necessary to
tances specified in Table R–6 through assist employees working above.
Table R–10 shall be maintained from all (ii) Tag lines or other similar devices
grounded objects and from lines and shall be used to maintain control of
equipment at a potential different from tower sections being raised or posi-
that to which the live-line bare-hand tioned, unless the employer can dem-
equipment is bonded, unless such onstrate that the use of such devices
grounded objects and other lines and would create a greater hazard.

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§ 1910.269 29 CFR Ch. XVII (7–1–11 Edition)

(iii) The loadline may not be de- through the use of insulating equip-
tached from a member or section until ment.
the load is safely secured.
NOTE: A tool constructed of a material
(iv) Except during emergency res- that the employer can demonstrate has insu-
toration procedures, work shall be dis- lating qualities meeting paragraph (j)(1) of
continued when adverse weather condi- this section is considered as insulated under
tions would make the work hazardous this paragraph if the tool is clean and dry.
in spite of the work practices required
by this section. (v) Ladders, platforms, and aerial de-
vices may not be brought closer to an
NOTE: Thunderstorms in the immediate vi- energized part than the distances listed
cinity, high winds, snow storms, and ice in Table R–6, Table R–9, and Table R–
storms are examples of adverse weather con-
10.
ditions that are presumed to make this work
too hazardous to perform, except under (vi) Line-clearance tree-trimming
emergency conditions. work may not be performed when ad-
verse weather conditions make the
(r) Line-clearance tree trimming oper- work hazardous in spite of the work
ations. This paragraph provides addi- practices required by this section. Each
tional requirements for line-clearance employee performing line-clearance
tree-trimming operations and for tree trimming work in the aftermath
equipment used in these operations. of a storm or under similar emergency
(1) Electrical hazards. This paragraph conditions shall be trained in the spe-
does not apply to qualified employees. cial hazards related to this type of
(i) Before an employee climbs, enters, work.
or works around any tree, a determina-
tion shall be made of the nominal volt- NOTE: Thunderstorms in the immediate vi-
age of electric power lines posing a haz- cinity, high winds, snow storms, and ice
ard to employees. However, a deter- storms are examples of adverse weather con-
ditions that are presumed to make line-
mination of the maximum nominal clearance tree trimming work too hazardous
voltage to which an employee will be to perform safely.
exposed may be made instead, if all
lines are considered as energized at (2) Brush chippers. (i) Brush chippers
this maximum voltage. shall be equipped with a locking device
(ii) There shall be a second line-clear- in the ignition system.
ance tree trimmer within normal (that (ii) Access panels for maintenance
is, unassisted) voice communication and adjustment of the chipper blades
under any of the following conditions: and associated drive train shall be in
(A) If a line-clearance tree trimmer place and secure during operation of
is to approach more closely than 10 feet the equipment.
(305 cm) any conductor or electric ap- (iii) Brush chippers not equipped with
paratus energized at more than 750 a mechanical infeed system shall be
volts or equipped with an infeed hopper of
(B) If branches or limbs being re- length sufficient to prevent employees
moved are closer to lines energized at from contacting the blades or knives of
more than 750 volts than the distances the machine during operation.
listed in Table R–6, Table R–9, and (iv) Trailer chippers detached from
Table R–10 or trucks shall be chocked or otherwise
(C) If roping is necessary to remove secured.
branches or limbs from such conduc- (v) Each employee in the immediate
tors or apparatus. area of an operating chipper feed table
(iii) Line-clearance tree trimmers shall wear personal protective equip-
shall maintain the minimum approach ment as required by subpart I of this
distances from energized conductors part.
given in Table R–6, Table R–9, and (3) Sprayers and related equipment. (i)
Table R–10. Walking and working surfaces of spray-
(iv) Branches that are contacting ex- ers and related equipment shall be cov-
posed energized conductors or equip- ered with slip-resistant material. If
ment or that are within the distances slipping hazards cannot be eliminated,
specified in Table R–6, Table R–9, and slip-resistant footwear or handrails and
Table R–10 may be removed only stair rails meeting the requirements of

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Occupational Safety and Health Admin., Labor § 1910.269

subpart D may be used instead of slip- 10 feet (305 cm) of the cutting head of a
resistant material. brush saw.
(ii) Equipment on which employees (ii) A backpack power unit shall be
stand to spray while the vehicle is in equipped with a quick shutoff switch
motion shall be equipped with guard- readily accessible to the operator.
rails around the working area. The (iii) Backpack power unit engines
guardrail shall be constructed in ac- shall be stopped for all cleaning, refuel-
cordance with subpart D of this part. ing, adjustments, and repairs to the
(4) Stump cutters. (i) Stump cutters saw or motor, except as the manufac-
shall be equipped with enclosures or turer’s servicing procedures require
guards to protect employees. otherwise.
(ii) Each employee in the immediate (7) Rope. (i) Climbing ropes shall be
area of stump grinding operations (in- used by employees working aloft in
cluding the stump cutter operator) trees. These ropes shall have a min-
shall wear personal protective equip- imum diameter of 0.5 inch (1.2 cm) with
ment as required by subpart I of this a minimum breaking strength of 2300
part. pounds (10.2 kN). Synthetic rope shall
(5) Gasoline-engine power saws. Gaso- have elasticity of not more than 7 per-
line-engine power saw operations shall cent.
meet the requirements of § 1910.266(e) (ii) Rope shall be inspected before
and the following: each use and, if unsafe (for example,
(i) Each power saw weighing more because of damage or defect), may not
than 15 pounds (6.8 kilograms, service be used.
weight) that is used in trees shall be (iii) Rope shall be stored away from
supported by a separate line, except cutting edges and sharp tools. Rope
when work is performed from an aerial contact with corrosive chemicals, gas,
lift and except during topping or re- and oil shall be avoided.
moving operations where no supporting (iv) When stored, rope shall be coiled
limb will be available. and piled, or shall be suspended, so
(ii) Each power saw shall be equipped that air can circulate through the
with a control that will return the saw coils.
to idling speed when released. (v) Rope ends shall be secured to pre-
(iii) Each power saw shall be vent their unraveling.
equipped with a clutch and shall be so (vi) Climbing rope may not be spliced
adjusted that the clutch will not en- to effect repair.
gage the chain drive at idling speed. (vii) A rope that is wet, that is con-
(iv) A power saw shall be started on taminated to the extent that its insu-
the ground or where it is otherwise lating capacity is impaired, or that is
firmly supported. Drop starting of saws otherwise not considered to be insu-
over 15 pounds (6.8 kg) is permitted lated for the voltage involved may not
outside of the bucket of an aerial lift be used near exposed energized lines.
only if the area below the lift is clear (8) Fall protection. Each employee
of personnel. shall be tied in with a climbing rope
(v) A power saw engine may be start- and safety saddle when the employee is
ed and operated only when all employ- working above the ground in a tree, un-
ees other than the operator are clear of less he or she is ascending into the
the saw. tree.
(vi) A power saw may not be running (s) Communication facilities—(1) Micro-
when the saw is being carried up into a wave transmission. (i) The employer
tree by an employee. shall ensure that no employee looks
(vii) Power saw engines shall be into an open waveguide or antenna
stopped for all cleaning, refueling, ad- that is connected to an energized
justments, and repairs to the saw or microwave source.
motor, except as the manufacturer’s (ii) If the electromagnetic radiation
servicing procedures require otherwise. level within an accessible area associ-
(6) Backpack power units for use in ated with microwave communications
pruning and clearing. (i) While a back- systems exceeds the radiation protec-
pack power unit is running, no one tion guide given in § 1910.97(a)(2) of this
other than the operator may be within part, the area shall be posted with the

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§ 1910.269 29 CFR Ch. XVII (7–1–11 Edition)

warning symbol described in hole to provide assistance, other than


§ 1910.97(a)(3) of this part. The lower emergency.
half of the warning symbol shall in- NOTE 1: An attendant may also be required
clude the following statements or ones under paragraph (e)(7) of this section. One
that the employer can demonstrate are person may serve to fulfill both require-
equivalent: ments. However, attendants required under
paragraph (e)(7) of this section are not per-
Radiation in this area may exceed hazard mitted to enter the manhole.
limitations and special precautions are re- NOTE 2: Employees entering manholes con-
quired. Obtain specific instruction before en- taining unguarded, uninsulated energized
tering. lines or parts of electric equipment oper-
(iii) When an employee works in an ating at 50 volts or more are required to be
qualified under paragraph (l)(1) of this sec-
area where the electromagnetic radi- tion.
ation could exceed the radiation pro-
tection guide, the employer shall insti- (iii) For the purpose of inspection,
tute measures that ensure that the em- housekeeping, taking readings, or simi-
ployee’s exposure is not greater than lar work, an employee working alone
that permitted by that guide. Such may enter, for brief periods of time, a
measures may include administrative manhole where energized cables or
and engineering controls and personal equipment are in service, if the em-
protective equipment. ployer can demonstrate that the em-
(2) Power line carrier. Power line car- ployee will be protected from all elec-
rier work, including work on equip- trical hazards.
ment used for coupling carrier current (iv) Reliable communications,
to power line conductors, shall be per- through two-way radios or other equiv-
formed in accordance with the require- alent means, shall be maintained
ments of this section pertaining to among all employees involved in the
work on energized lines. job.
(4) Duct rods. If duct rods are used,
(t) Underground electrical installations.
they shall be installed in the direction
This paragraph provides additional re-
presenting the least hazard to employ-
quirements for work on underground
ees. An employee shall be stationed at
electrical installations.
the far end of the duct line being
(1) Access. A ladder or other climbing rodded to ensure that the required min-
device shall be used to enter and exit a imum approach distances are main-
manhole or subsurface vault exceeding tained.
4 feet (122 cm) in depth. No employee (5) Multiple cables. When multiple ca-
may climb into or out of a manhole or bles are present in a work area, the
vault by stepping on cables or hangers. cable to be worked shall be identified
(2) Lowering equipment into manholes. by electrical means, unless its identity
Equipment used to lower materials and is obvious by reason of distinctive ap-
tools into manholes or vaults shall be pearance or location or by other read-
capable of supporting the weight to be ily apparent means of identification.
lowered and shall be checked for de- Cables other than the one being worked
fects before use. Before tools or mate- shall be protected from damage.
rial are lowered into the opening for a (6) Moving cables. Energized cables
manhole or vault, each employee work- that are to be moved shall be inspected
ing in the manhole or vault shall be for defects.
clear of the area directly under the (7) Defective cables. Where a cable in a
opening. manhole has one or more abnormalities
(3) Attendants for manholes. (i) While that could lead to or be an indication
work is being performed in a manhole of an impending fault, the defective
containing energized electric equip- cable shall be deenergized before any
ment, an employee with first aid and employee may work in the manhole,
CPR training meeting paragraph (b)(1) except when service load conditions
of this section shall be available on the and a lack of feasible alternatives re-
surface in the immediate vicinity to quire that the cable remain energized.
render emergency assistance. In that case, employees may enter the
(ii) Occasionally, the employee on manhole provided they are protected
the surface may briefly enter a man- from the possible effects of a failure by

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Occupational Safety and Health Admin., Labor § 1910.269

shields or other devices that are capa- grounded. When a substation fence is
ble of containing the adverse effects of expanded or a section is removed, fence
a fault in the joint. grounding continuity shall be main-
NOTE: Abnormalities such as oil or com-
tained, and bonding shall be used to
pound leaking from cable or joints, broken prevent electrical discontinuity.
cable sheaths or joint sleeves, hot localized (4) Guarding of rooms containing elec-
surface temperatures of cables or joints, or tric supply equipment. (i) Rooms and
joints that are swollen beyond normal toler- spaces in which electric supply lines or
ance are presumed to lead to or be an indica- equipment are installed shall meet the
tion of an impending fault. requirements of paragraphs (u)(4)(ii)
(8) Sheath continuity. When work is through (u)(4)(v) of this section under
performed on buried cable or on cable the following conditions:
in manholes, metallic sheath con- (A) If exposed live parts operating at
tinuity shall be maintained or the 50 to 150 volts to ground are located
cable sheath shall be treated as ener- within 8 feet of the ground or other
gized. working surface inside the room or
(u) Substations. This paragraph pro- space,
vides additional requirements for sub- (B) If live parts operating at 151 to
stations and for work performed in 600 volts and located within 8 feet of
them. the ground or other working surface in-
(1) Access and working space. Suffi- side the room or space are guarded
cient access and working space shall be only by location, as permitted under
provided and maintained about electric paragraph (u)(5)(i) of this section, or
equipment to permit ready and safe op- (C) If live parts operating at more
eration and maintenance of such equip- than 600 volts are located within the
ment. room or space, unless:
(1) The live parts are enclosed within
NOTE: Guidelines for the dimensions of ac-
cess and working space about electric equip- grounded, metal-enclosed equipment
ment in substations are contained in Amer- whose only openings are designed so
ican National Standard—National Electrical that foreign objects inserted in these
Safety Code, ANSI C2–1987. Installations openings will be deflected from ener-
meeting the ANSI provisions comply with gized parts, or
paragraph (u)(1) of this section. An installa- (2) The live parts are installed at a
tion that does not conform to this ANSI height above ground and any other
standard will, nonetheless, be considered as
working surface that provides protec-
complying with paragraph (u)(1) of this sec-
tion if the employer can demonstrate that tion at the voltage to which they are
the installation provides ready and safe ac- energized corresponding to the protec-
cess based on the following evidence: tion provided by an 8-foot height at 50
(1) That the installation conforms to the volts.
edition of ANSI C2 that was in effect at the (ii) The rooms and spaces shall be so
time the installation was made, enclosed within fences, screens, parti-
(2) That the configuration of the installa- tions, or walls as to minimize the pos-
tion enables employees to maintain the min-
imum approach distances required by para-
sibility that unqualified persons will
graph (l)(2) of this section while they are enter.
working on exposed, energized parts, and (iii) Signs warning unqualified per-
(3) That the precautions taken when work sons to keep out shall be displayed at
is performed on the installation provide pro- entrances to the rooms and spaces.
tection equivalent to the protection that (iv) Entrances to rooms and spaces
would be provided by access and working that are not under the observation of
space meeting ANSI C2–1987.
an attendant shall be kept locked.
(2) Draw-out-type circuit breakers. (v) Unqualified persons may not
When draw-out-type circuit breakers enter the rooms or spaces while the
are removed or inserted, the breaker electric supply lines or equipment are
shall be in the open position. The con- energized.
trol circuit shall also be rendered inop- (5) Guarding of energized parts. (i)
erative, if the design of the equipment Guards shall be provided around all
permits. live parts operating at more than 150
(3) Substation fences. Conductive volts to ground without an insulating
fences around substations shall be covering, unless the location of the live

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§ 1910.269 29 CFR Ch. XVII (7–1–11 Edition)

parts gives sufficient horizontal or related work practices for power gener-
vertical or a combination of these ating plants.
clearances to minimize the possibility (1) Interlocks and other safety devices.
of accidental employee contact. (i) Interlocks and other safety devices
NOTE: Guidelines for the dimensions of
shall be maintained in a safe, operable
clearance distances about electric equipment condition.
in substations are contained in American (ii) No interlock or other safety de-
National Standard—National Electrical vice may be modified to defeat its func-
Safety Code, ANSI C2–1987. Installations tion, except for test, repair, or adjust-
meeting the ANSI provisions comply with ment of the device.
paragraph (u)(5)(i) of this section. An instal-
(2) Changing brushes. Before exciter
lation that does not conform to this ANSI
standard will, nonetheless, be considered as or generator brushes are changed while
complying with paragraph (u)(5)(i) of this the generator is in service, the exciter
section if the employer can demonstrate that or generator field shall be checked to
the installation provides sufficient clearance determine whether a ground condition
based on the following evidence: exists. The brushes may not be changed
(1) That the installation conforms to the while the generator is energized if a
edition of ANSI C2 that was in effect at the ground condition exists.
time the installation was made,
(3) Access and working space. Suffi-
(2) That each employee is isolated from en-
ergized parts at the point of closest ap-
cient access and working space shall be
proach, and provided and maintained about electric
(3) That the precautions taken when work equipment to permit ready and safe op-
is performed on the installation provide pro- eration and maintenance of such equip-
tection equivalent to the protection that ment.
would be provided by horizontal and vertical
clearances meeting ANSI C2–1987. NOTE: Guidelines for the dimensions of ac-
cess and working space about electric equip-
(ii) Except for fuse replacement and ment in generating stations are contained in
other necessary access by qualified per- American National Standard—National Elec-
sons, the guarding of energized parts trical Safety Code, ANSI C2–1987. Installa-
within a compartment shall be main- tions meeting the ANSI provisions comply
with paragraph (v)(3) of this section. An in-
tained during operation and mainte- stallation that does not conform to this
nance functions to prevent accidental ANSI standard will, nonetheless, be consid-
contact with energized parts and to ered as complying with paragraph (v)(3) of
prevent tools or other equipment from this section if the employer can demonstrate
being dropped on energized parts. that the installation provides ready and safe
(iii) When guards are removed from access based on the following evidence:
energized equipment, barriers shall be (1) That the installation conforms to the
installed around the work area to pre- edition of ANSI C2 that was in effect at the
time the installation was made,
vent employees who are not working
(2) That the configuration of the installa-
on the equipment, but who are in the tion enables employees to maintain the min-
area, from contacting the exposed live imum approach distances required by para-
parts. graph (l)(2) of this section while they are
(6) Substation entry. (i) Upon entering working on exposed, energized parts, and
an attended substation, each employee (3) That the precautions taken when are
other than those regularly working in working is performed on the installation pro-
the station shall report his or her pres- vide protection equivalent to the protection
ence to the employee in charge in order that would be provided by access and work-
ing space meeting ANSI C2–1987.
to receive information on special sys-
tem conditions affecting employee (4) Guarding of rooms containing elec-
safety. tric supply equipment. (i) Rooms and
(ii) The job briefing required by para- spaces in which electric supply lines or
graph (c) of this section shall cover equipment are installed shall meet the
such additional subjects as the location requirements of paragraphs (v)(4)(ii)
of energized equipment in or adjacent through (v)(4)(v) of this section under
to the work area and the limits of any the following conditions:
deenergized work area. (A) If exposed live parts operating at
(v) Power generation. This paragraph 50 to 150 volts to ground are located
provides additional requirements and within 8 feet of the ground or other

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Occupational Safety and Health Admin., Labor § 1910.269

working surface inside the room or that the installation provides sufficient
space, clearance based on the following evidence:
(B) If live parts operating at 151 to (1) That the installation conforms to the
edition of ANSI C2 that was in effect at the
600 volts and located within 8 feet of
time the installation was made,
the ground or other working surface in-
(2) That each employee is isolated from en-
side the room or space are guarded ergized parts at the point of closest ap-
only by location, as permitted under proach, and
paragraph (v)(5)(i) of this section, or (3) That the precautions taken when work
(C) If live parts operating at more is performed on the installation provide pro-
than 600 volts are located within the tection equivalent to the protection that
room or space, unless: would be provided by horizontal and vertical
(1) The live parts are enclosed within clearances meeting ANSI C2–1987.
grounded, metal-enclosed equipment (ii) Except for fuse replacement or
whose only openings are designed so other necessary access by qualified per-
that foreign objects inserted in these sons, the guarding of energized parts
openings will be deflected from ener- within a compartment shall be main-
gized parts, or tained during operation and mainte-
(2) The live parts are installed at a nance functions to prevent accidental
height above ground and any other contact with energized parts and to
working surface that provides protec- prevent tools or other equipment from
tion at the voltage to which they are being dropped on energized parts.
energized corresponding to the protec- (iii) When guards are removed from
tion provided by an 8-foot height at 50 energized equipment, barriers shall be
volts. installed around the work area to pre-
(ii) The rooms and spaces shall be so vent employees who are not working
enclosed within fences, screens, parti- on the equipment, but who are in the
tions, or walls as to minimize the pos- area, from contacting the exposed live
sibility that unqualified persons will parts.
enter. (6) Water or steam spaces. The fol-
(iii) Signs warning unqualified per- lowing requirements apply to work in
sons to keep out shall be displayed at water and steam spaces associated with
entrances to the rooms and spaces. boilers:
(iv) Entrances to rooms and spaces (i) A designated employee shall in-
that are not under the observation of spect conditions before work is per-
an attendant shall be kept locked. mitted and after its completion. Eye
(v) Unqualified persons may not protection, or full face protection if
enter the rooms or spaces while the necessary, shall be worn at all times
electric supply lines or equipment are when condenser, heater, or boiler tubes
energized. are being cleaned.
(5) Guarding of energized parts. (i) (ii) Where it is necessary for employ-
Guards shall be provided around all ees to work near tube ends during
live parts operating at more than 150 cleaning, shielding shall be installed at
volts to ground without an insulating the tube ends.
covering, unless the location of the live (7) Chemical cleaning of boilers and
parts gives sufficient horizontal or pressure vessels. The following require-
vertical or a combination of these ments apply to chemical cleaning of
clearances to minimize the possibility boilers and pressure vessels:
of accidental employee contact. (i) Areas where chemical cleaning is
NOTE: Guidelines for the dimensions of in progress shall be cordoned off to re-
clearance distances about electric equipment strict access during cleaning. If flam-
in generating stations are contained in mable liquids, gases, or vapors or com-
American National Standard—National Elec- bustible materials will be used or
trical Safety Code, ANSI C2–1987. Installa- might be produced during the cleaning
tions meeting the ANSI provisions comply process, the following requirements
with paragraph (v)(5)(i) of this section. An
installation that does not conform to this
also apply:
ANSI standard will, nonetheless, be consid- (A) The area shall be posted with
ered as complying with paragraph (v)(5)(i) of signs restricting entry and warning of
this section if the employer can demonstrate the hazards of fire and explosion; and

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§ 1910.269 29 CFR Ch. XVII (7–1–11 Edition)

(B) Smoking, welding, and other pos- (10) Turbine generators. (i) Smoking
sible ignition sources are prohibited in and other ignition sources are prohib-
these restricted areas. ited near hydrogen or hydrogen sealing
(ii) The number of personnel in the systems, and signs warning of the dan-
restricted area shall be limited to ger of explosion and fire shall be post-
those necessary to accomplish the task ed.
safely. (ii) Excessive hydrogen makeup or
(iii) There shall be ready access to abnormal loss of pressure shall be con-
water or showers for emergency use. sidered as an emergency and shall be
NOTE: See § 1910.141 of this part for require- corrected immediately.
ments that apply to the water supply and to (iii) A sufficient quantity of inert gas
washing facilities. shall be available to purge the hydro-
gen from the largest generator.
(iv) Employees in restricted areas
(11) Coal and ash handling. (i) Only
shall wear protective equipment meet-
designated persons may operate rail-
ing the requirements of subpart I of
road equipment.
this part and including, but not limited
(ii) Before a locomotive or loco-
to, protective clothing, boots, goggles,
motive crane is moved, a warning shall
and gloves.
be given to employees in the area.
(8) Chlorine systems. (i) Chlorine sys-
(iii) Employees engaged in switching
tem enclosures shall be posted with
or dumping cars may not use their feet
signs restricting entry and warning of
to line up drawheads.
the hazard to health and the hazards of
(iv) Drawheads and knuckles may not
fire and explosion.
be shifted while locomotives or cars
NOTE: See subpart Z of this part for re- are in motion.
quirements necessary to protect the health (v) When a railroad car is stopped for
of employees from the effects of chlorine. unloading, the car shall be secured
(ii) Only designated employees may from displacement that could endanger
enter the restricted area. Additionally, employees.
the number of personnel shall be lim- (vi) An emergency means of stopping
ited to those necessary to accomplish dump operations shall be provided at
the task safely. railcar dumps.
(iii) Emergency repair kits shall be (vii) The employer shall ensure that
available near the shelter or enclosure employees who work in coal- or ash-
to allow for the prompt repair of leaks handling conveyor areas are trained
in chlorine lines, equipment, or con- and knowledgeable in conveyor oper-
tainers. ation and in the requirements of para-
(iv) Before repair procedures are graphs (v)(11)(viii) through (v)(11)(xii)
started, chlorine tanks, pipes, and of this section.
equipment shall be purged with dry air (viii) Employees may not ride a coal-
and isolated from other sources of chlo- or ash-handling conveyor belt at any
rine. time. Employees may not cross over
(v) The employer shall ensure that the conveyor belt, except at walkways,
chlorine is not mixed with materials unless the conveyor’s energy source
that would react with the chlorine in a has been deenergized and has been
dangerously exothermic or other haz- locked out or tagged in accordance
ardous manner. with paragraph (d) of this section.
(9) Boilers. (i) Before internal furnace (ix) What could cause injury when
or ash hopper repair work is started, started may not be started until per-
overhead areas shall be inspected for sonnel in the area are alerted by a sig-
possible falling objects. If the hazard of nal or by a designated person that the
falling objects exists, overhead protec- conveyor is about to start.
tion such as planking or nets shall be (x) If a conveyor that could cause in-
provided. jury when started is automatically
(ii) When opening an operating boiler controlled or is controlled from a re-
door, employees shall stand clear of the mote location, an audible device shall
opening of the door to avoid the heat be provided that sounds an alarm that
blast and gases which may escape from will be recognized by each employee as
the boiler. a warning that the conveyor will start

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Occupational Safety and Health Admin., Labor § 1910.269

and that can be clearly heard at all (C) Emergency stop devices shall be
points along the conveyor where per- installed so that they cannot be over-
sonnel may be present. The warning de- ridden from other locations.
vice shall be actuated by the device (xii) Where coal-handling operations
starting the conveyor and shall con- may produce a combustible atmosphere
tinue for a period of time before the from fuel sources or from flammable
conveyor starts that is long enough to gases or dust, sources of ignition shall
allow employees to move clear of the be eliminated or safely controlled to
conveyor system. A visual warning prevent ignition of the combustible at-
may be used in place of the audible de- mosphere.
vice if the employer can demonstrate NOTE: Locations that are hazardous be-
that it will provide an equally effective cause of the presence of combustible dust are
warning in the particular cir- classified as Class II hazardous locations.
cumstances involved. See § 1910.307 of this part.

Exception: If the employer can dem- (xiii) An employee may not work on
onstrate that the system’s function or beneath overhanging coal in coal
would be seriously hindered by the re- bunkers, coal silos, or coal storage
quired time delay, warning signs may areas, unless the employee is protected
be provided in place of the audible from all hazards posed by shifting coal.
warning device. If the system was in- (xiv) An employee entering a bunker
stalled before January 31, 1995, warning or silo to dislodge the contents shall
signs may be provided in place of the wear a body harness with lifeline at-
audible warning device until such time tached. The lifeline shall be secured to
as the conveyor or its control system is a fixed support outside the bunker and
rebuilt or rewired. These warning signs shall be attended at all times by an
shall be clear, concise, and legible and employee located outside the bunker or
shall indicate that conveyors and allied facility.
equipment may be started at any time, (12) Hydroplants and equipment. Em-
that danger exists, and that personnel ployees working on or close to water
must keep clear. These warning signs gates, valves, intakes, forebays,
flumes, or other locations where in-
shall be provided along the conveyor at
creased or decreased water flow or lev-
areas not guarded by position or loca-
els may pose a significant hazard shall
tion.
be warned and shall vacate such dan-
(xi) Remotely and automatically con- gerous areas before water flow changes
trolled conveyors, and conveyors that are made.
have operating stations which are not (w) Special conditions—(1) Capacitors.
manned or which are beyond voice and The following additional requirements
visual contact from drive areas, load- apply to work on capacitors and on
ing areas, transfer points, and other lo- lines connected to capacitors.
cations on the conveyor path not NOTE: See paragraphs (m) and (n) of this
guarded by location, position, or section for requirements pertaining to the
guards shall be furnished with emer- deenergizing and grounding of capacitor in-
gency stop buttons, pull cords, limit stallations.
switches, or similar emergency stop de- (i) Before employees work on capaci-
vices. However, if the employer can tors, the capacitors shall be discon-
demonstrate that the design, function, nected from energized sources and,
and operation of the conveyor do not after a wait of at least 5 minutes from
expose an employee to hazards, an the time of disconnection, short-
emergency stop device is not required. circuited.
(A) Emergency stop devices shall be (ii) Before the units are handled, each
easily identifiable in the immediate vi- unit in series-parallel capacitor banks
cinity of such locations. shall be short-circuited between all
(B) An emergency stop device shall terminals and the capacitor case or its
act directly on the control of the con- rack. If the cases of capacitors are on
veyor involved and may not depend on ungrounded substation racks, the racks
the stopping of any other equipment. shall be bonded to ground.

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§ 1910.269 29 CFR Ch. XVII (7–1–11 Edition)

(iii) Any line to which capacitors are (iii) Where additional employee pro-
connected shall be short-circuited be- tection is necessary, barricades shall
fore it is considered deenergized. be used.
(2) Current transformer secondaries. (iv) Excavated areas shall be pro-
The secondary of a current transformer tected with barricades.
may not be opened while the trans- (v) At night, warning lights shall be
former is energized. If the primary of prominently displayed.
the current transformer cannot be de- (7) Backfeed. If there is a possibility
energized before work is performed on of voltage backfeed from sources of co-
an instrument, a relay, or other sec- generation or from the secondary sys-
tion of a current transformer sec- tem (for example, backfeed from more
ondary circuit, the circuit shall be than one energized phase feeding a
bridged so that the current trans- common load), the requirements of
former secondary will not be opened. paragraph (l) of this section apply if
(3) Series streetlighting. (i) If the open- the lines or equipment are to be
circuit voltage exceeds 600 volts, the worked as energized, and the require-
series streetlighting circuit shall be ments of paragraphs (m) and (n) of this
worked in accordance with paragraph section apply if the lines or equipment
(q) or (t) of this section, as appropriate. are to be worked as deenergized.
(ii) A series loop may only be opened (8) Lasers. Laser equipment shall be
after the streetlighting transformer installed, adjusted, and operated in ac-
has been deenergized and isolated from cordance with § 1926.54 of this chapter.
the source of supply or after the loop is
(9) Hydraulic fluids. Hydraulic fluids
bridged to avoid an open-circuit condi-
used for the insulated sections of
tion.
equipment shall provide insulation for
(4) Illumination. Sufficient illumina-
the voltage involved.
tion shall be provided to enable the em-
(x) Definitions.
ployee to perform the work safely.
(5) Protection against drowning. (i) Affected employee. An employee whose
Whenever an employee may be pulled job requires him or her to operate or
or pushed or may fall into water where use a machine or equipment on which
the danger of drowning exists, the em- servicing or maintenance is being per-
ployee shall be provided with and shall formed under lockout or tagout, or
use U.S. Coast Guard approved per- whose job requires him or her to work
sonal flotation devices. in an area in which such servicing or
(ii) Each personal flotation device maintenance is being performed.
shall be maintained in safe condition Attendant. An employee assigned to
and shall be inspected frequently remain immediately outside the en-
enough to ensure that it does not have trance to an enclosed or other space to
rot, mildew, water saturation, or any render assistance as needed to employ-
other condition that could render the ees inside the space.
device unsuitable for use. Authorized employee. An employee
(iii) An employee may cross streams who locks out or tags out machines or
or other bodies of water only if a safe equipment in order to perform serv-
means of passage, such as a bridge, is icing or maintenance on that machine
provided. or equipment. An affected employee be-
(6) Employee protection in public work comes an authorized employee when
areas. (i) Traffic control signs and traf- that employee’s duties include per-
fic control devices used for the protec- forming servicing or maintenance cov-
tion of employees shall meet the re- ered under this section.
quirements of § 1926.200(g)(2) of this Automatic circuit recloser. A self-con-
chapter. trolled device for interrupting and re-
(ii) Before work is begun in the vicin- closing an alternating current circuit
ity of vehicular or pedestrian traffic with a predetermined sequence of open-
that may endanger employees, warning ing and reclosing followed by resetting,
signs or flags and other traffic control hold-closed, or lockout operation.
devices shall be placed in conspicuous Barricade. A physical obstruction
locations to alert and channel ap- such as tapes, cones, or A-frame type
proaching traffic. wood or metal structures intended to

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Occupational Safety and Health Admin., Labor § 1910.269

provide a warning about and to limit Deenergized. Free from any electrical
access to a hazardous area. connection to a source of potential dif-
Barrier. A physical obstruction which ference and from electric charge; not
is intended to prevent contact with en- having a potential different from that
ergized lines or equipment or to pre- of the earth.
vent unauthorized access to a work NOTE: The term is used only with reference
area. to current-carrying parts, which are some-
Bond. The electrical interconnection times energized (alive).
of conductive parts designed to main-
Designated employee (designated per-
tain a common electrical potential.
son). An employee (or person) who is
Bus. A conductor or a group of con- designated by the employer to perform
ductors that serve as a common con- specific duties under the terms of this
nection for two or more circuits. section and who is knowledgeable in
Bushing. An insulating structure, in- the construction and operation of the
cluding a through conductor or pro- equipment and the hazards involved.
viding a passageway for such a con- Electric line truck. A truck used to
ductor, with provision for mounting on transport personnel, tools, and mate-
a barrier, conducting or otherwise, for rial for electric supply line work.
the purposes of insulating the con- Electric supply equipment. Equipment
ductor from the barrier and conducting that produces, modifies, regulates, con-
current from one side of the barrier to trols, or safeguards a supply of electric
the other. energy.
Cable. A conductor with insulation, Electric supply lines. (See Lines, elec-
or a stranded conductor with or with- tric supply.)
out insulation and other coverings (sin- Electric utility. An organization re-
gle-conductor cable), or a combination sponsible for the installation, oper-
of conductors insulated from one an- ation, or maintenance of an electric
other (multiple-conductor cable). supply system.
Cable sheath. A conductive protective Enclosed space. A working space, such
covering applied to cables. as a manhole, vault, tunnel, or shaft,
NOTE: A cable sheath may consist of mul- that has a limited means of egress or
tiple layers of which one or more is conduc- entry, that is designed for periodic em-
tive. ployee entry under normal operating
conditions, and that under normal con-
Circuit. A conductor or system of con-
ditions does not contain a hazardous
ductors through which an electric cur-
atmosphere, but that may contain a
rent is intended to flow.
hazardous atmosphere under abnormal
Clearance (between objects). The clear
conditions.
distance between two objects measured
surface to surface. NOTE: Spaces that are enclosed but not de-
Clearance (for work). Authorization to signed for employee entry under normal op-
perform specified work or permission erating conditions are not considered to be
enclosed spaces for the purposes of this sec-
to enter a restricted area.
tion. Similarly, spaces that are enclosed and
Communication lines. (See Lines, com- that are expected to contain a hazardous at-
munication.) mosphere are not considered to be enclosed
Conductor. A material, usually in the spaces for the purposes of this section. Such
form of a wire, cable, or bus bar, used spaces meet the definition of permit spaces
for carrying an electric current. in § 1910.146 of this part, and entry into them
Covered conductor. A conductor cov- must be performed in accordance with that
ered with a dielectric having no rated standard.
insulating strength or having a rated Energized (alive, live). Electrically
insulating strength less than the volt- connected to a source of potential dif-
age of the circuit in which the con- ference, or electrically charged so as to
ductor is used. have a potential significantly different
Current-carrying part. A conducting from that of earth in the vicinity.
part intended to be connected in an Energy isolating device. A physical de-
electric circuit to a source of voltage. vice that prevents the transmission or
Non-current-carrying parts are those release of energy, including, but not
not intended to be so connected. limited to, the following: a manually

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§ 1910.269 29 CFR Ch. XVII (7–1–11 Edition)

operated electric circuit breaker, a dis- (3) Atmospheric oxygen concentra-


connect switch, a manually operated tion below 19.5 percent or above 23.5
switch, a slide gate, a slip blind, a line percent;
valve, blocks, and any similar device (4) Atmospheric concentration of any
with a visible indication of the position substance for which a dose or a permis-
of the device. (Push buttons, selector sible exposure limit is published in sub-
switches, and other control-circuit- part G, Occupational Health and Envi-
type devices are not energy isolating ronmental Control, or in subpart Z, Toxic
devices.) and Hazardous Substances, of this part
Energy source. Any electrical, me- and which could result in employee ex-
chanical, hydraulic, pneumatic, chem- posure in excess of its dose or permis-
ical, nuclear, thermal, or other energy sible exposure limit;
source that could cause injury to per- NOTE: An atmospheric concentration of
sonnel. any substance that is not capable of causing
Equipment (electric). A general term death, incapacitation, impairment of ability
including material, fittings, devices, to self-rescue, injury, or acute illness due to
appliances, fixtures, apparatus, and the its health effects is not covered by this pro-
vision.
like used as part of or in connection
with an electrical installation. (5) Any other atmospheric condition
Exposed. Not isolated or guarded. that is immediately dangerous to life
Ground. A conducting connection, or health.
whether intentional or accidental, be- NOTE: For air contaminants for which
tween an electric circuit or equipment OSHA has not determined a dose or permis-
and the earth, or to some conducting sible exposure limit, other sources of infor-
body that serves in place of the earth. mation, such as Material Safety Data Sheets
Grounded. Connected to earth or to that comply with the Hazard Communica-
tion Standard, § 1910.1200 of this part, pub-
some conducting body that serves in lished information, and internal documents
place of the earth. can provide guidance in establishing accept-
Guarded. Covered, fenced, enclosed, able atmospheric conditions.
or otherwise protected, by means of
High-power tests. Tests in which fault
suitable covers or casings, barrier rails
currents, load currents, magnetizing
or screens, mats, or platforms, de-
currents, and line-dropping currents
signed to minimize the possibility,
are used to test equipment, either at
under normal conditions, of dangerous
the equipment’s rated voltage or at
approach or accidental contact by per-
lower voltages.
sons or objects.
High-voltage tests. Tests in which
NOTE: Wires which are insulated, but not voltages of approximately 1000 volts
otherwise protected, are not considered as are used as a practical minimum and in
guarded. which the voltage source has sufficient
Hazardous atmosphere means an at- energy to cause injury.
mosphere that may expose employees High wind. A wind of such velocity
to the risk of death, incapacitation, that the following hazards would be
impairment of ability to self-rescue present:
(that is, escape unaided from an en- (1) An employee would be exposed to
closed space), injury, or acute illness being blown from elevated locations, or
from one or more of the following (2) An employee or material handling
causes: equipment could lose control of mate-
rial being handled, or
(1) Flammable gas, vapor, or mist in
(3) An employee would be exposed to
excess of 10 percent of its lower flam-
other hazards not controlled by the
mable limit (LFL);
standard involved.
(2) Airborne combustible dust at a
concentration that meets or exceeds its NOTE: Winds exceeding 40 miles per hour
LFL; (64.4 kilometers per hour), or 30 miles per
hour (48.3 kilometers per hour) if material
NOTE: This concentration may be approxi- handling is involved, are normally consid-
mated as a condition in which the dust ob- ered as meeting this criteria unless pre-
scures vision at a distance of 5 feet (1.52 m) cautions are taken to protect employees
or less. from the hazardous effects of the wind.

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Occupational Safety and Health Admin., Labor § 1910.269

Immediately dangerous to life or health this part for information regarding the
(IDLH) means any condition that poses training an employee must have to be con-
an immediate or delayed threat to life sidered a qualified employee under §§ 1910.331
through 1910.335 of this part.)
or that would cause irreversible ad-
verse health effects or that would Line-clearance tree trimming. The
interfere with an individual’s ability to pruning, trimming, repairing, main-
escape unaided from a permit space. taining, removing, or clearing of trees
or the cutting of brush that is within 10
NOTE: Some materials—hydrogen fluoride
gas and cadmium vapor, for example—may feet (305 cm) of electric supply lines
produce immediate transient effects that, and equipment.
even if severe, may pass without medical at- Lines—(1) Communication lines. The
tention, but are followed by sudden, possibly conductors and their supporting or
fatal collapse 12–72 hours after exposure. The containing structures which are used
victim ‘‘feels normal’’ from recovery from for public or private signal or commu-
transient effects until collapse. Such mate- nication service, and which operate at
rials in hazardous quantities are considered potentials not exceeding 400 volts to
to be ‘‘immediately’’ dangerous to life or
health.
ground or 750 volts between any two
points of the circuit, and the trans-
Insulated. Separated from other con- mitted power of which does not exceed
ducting surfaces by a dielectric (in- 150 watts. If the lines are operating at
cluding air space) offering a high re- less than 150 volts, no limit is placed
sistance to the passage of current. on the transmitted power of the sys-
NOTE: When any object is said to be insu- tem. Under certain conditions, commu-
lated, it is understood to be insulated for the nication cables may include commu-
conditions to which it is normally subjected. nication circuits exceeding these limi-
Otherwise, it is, within the purpose of this tations where such circuits are also
section, uninsulated. used to supply power solely to commu-
Insulation (cable). That which is re- nication equipment.
lied upon to insulate the conductor NOTE: Telephone, telegraph, railroad sig-
from other conductors or conducting nal, data, clock, fire, police alarm, cable tel-
parts or from ground. evision, and other systems conforming to
Line-clearance tree trimmer. An em- this definition are included. Lines used for
ployee who, through related training or signaling purposes, but not included under
on-the-job experience or both, is famil- this definition, are considered as electric
supply lines of the same voltage.
iar with the special techniques and
hazards involved in line-clearance tree (2) Electric supply lines. Conductors
trimming. used to transmit electric energy and
their necessary supporting or con-
NOTE 1: An employee who is regularly as-
signed to a line-clearance tree-trimming taining structures. Signal lines of more
crew and who is undergoing on-the-job train- than 400 volts are always supply lines
ing and who, in the course of such training, within this section, and those of less
has demonstrated an ability to perform du- than 400 volts are considered as supply
ties safely at his or her level of training and lines, if so run and operated through-
who is under the direct supervision of a line- out.
clearance tree trimmer is considered to be a Manhole. A subsurface enclosure
line-clearance tree trimmer for the perform- which personnel may enter and which
ance of those duties.
NOTE 2: A line-clearance tree trimmer is is used for the purpose of installing, op-
not considered to be a ‘‘qualified employee’’ erating, and maintaining submersible
under this section unless he or she has the equipment or cable.
training required for a qualified employee Manhole steps. A series of steps indi-
under paragraph (a)(2)(ii) of this section. vidually attached to or set into the
However, under the electrical safety-related walls of a manhole structure.
work practices standard in subpart S of this Minimum approach distance. The clos-
part, a line-clearance tree trimmer is consid- est distance an employee is permitted
ered to be a ‘‘qualified employee’’. Tree trim-
ming performed by such ‘‘qualified employ-
to approach an energized or a grounded
ees’’ is not subject to the electrical safety-re- object.
lated work practice requirements contained Qualified employee (qualified person).
in §§ 1910.331 through 1910.335 of this part. One knowledgeable in the construction
(See also the note following § 1910.332(b)(3) of and operation of the electric power

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§ 1910.269 29 CFR Ch. XVII (7–1–11 Edition)

generation, transmission, and distribu- Vented vault. A vault that has provi-
tion equipment involved, along with sion for air changes using exhaust flue
the associated hazards. stacks and low level air intakes oper-
NOTE 1: An employee must have the train-
ating on differentials of pressure and
ing required by paragraph (a)(2)(ii) of this temperature providing for airflow
section in order to be considered a qualified which precludes a hazardous atmos-
employee. phere from developing.
NOTE 2: Except under paragraph (g)(2)(v) of Voltage. The effective (rms) potential
this section, an employee who is undergoing difference between any two conductors
on-the-job training and who, in the course of or between a conductor and ground.
such training, has demonstrated an ability Voltages are expressed in nominal val-
to perform duties safely at his or her level of
training and who is under the direct super-
ues unless otherwise indicated. The
vision of a qualified person is considered to nominal voltage of a system or circuit
be a qualified person for the performance of is the value assigned to a system or
those duties. circuit of a given voltage class for the
purpose of convenient designation. The
Step bolt. A bolt or rung attached at
operating voltage of the system may
intervals along a structural member
vary above or below this value.
and used for foot placement during
climbing or standing. APPENDIX A TO § 1910.269—FLOW CHARTS
Switch. A device for opening and clos- This appendix presents information, in the
ing or for changing the connection of a form of flow charts, that illustrates the
circuit. In this section, a switch is un- scope and application of § 1910.269. This ap-
derstood to be manually operable, un- pendix addresses the interface between
less otherwise stated. § 1910.269 and subpart S of this part
System operator. A qualified person (Electrical), between § 1910.269 and § 1910.146 of
designated to operate the system or its this part (Permit-required confined spaces),
parts. and between § 1910.269 and § 1910.147 of this
part (The control of hazardous energy (lockout/
Vault. An enclosure, above or below
tagout)). These flow charts provide guidance
ground, which personnel may enter and for employers trying to implement the re-
which is used for the purpose of install- quirements of § 1910.269 in combination with
ing, operating, or maintaining equip- other General Industry Standards contained
ment or cable. in part 1910.

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Occupational Safety and Health Admin., Labor § 1910.269

APPENDIX A–1 TO § 1910.269—APPLICATION OF § 1910.269 AND SUBPART S OF


THIS PART TO ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS

Is this an electric power generation,


transmission, or distribution installation?1

YES NO

Is it a generation §§1910.302
installation? through
1910.308
YES NO

§1910.269(v)2 §1910.269(u)2

1
Electrical installation design requirements only. See Appendix 1B
for electrical safety-related work practices. Supplementary electric
generating equipment that is used to supply a workplace for
emergency, standby, or similar purposes only is not considered to
be an electric power generation installation.

2
See Table 1 of Appendix A-2 for requirements that can be met
through compliance with Subpart S.

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§ 1910.269 29 CFR Ch. XVII (7–1–11 Edition)

APPENDIX A–2 TO § 1910.269—APPLICATION OF § 1910.269 AND SUBPART S OF


THIS PART TO ELECTRICAL SAFETY-RELATED WORK PRACTICES

NO
Are the employees §§1910.332
"qualified" as defined through
in §1910.269(x)? 1910.335

YES

NO
Is this an electric Is it a commingled1
power generation, installation?
transmission, or
distribution YES NO
installation?
§§1910.332
through
YES
1910.335

Does the installation


conform to §§1910.302
OR
through 1910.308?

NO YES §1910.269
§1910.269 plus
§1910.332,
§1910.269 §1910.333(a) & (b),
OR
and
§1910.334

§§1910.332 through 1910.335


plus
the supplementary requirements of §1910.269
identified in Appendix A-2, Table 1

1
Commingled to the extent that the electric power generation, transmission, or distribution
installation poses the greater hazard.

TABLE 1—ELECTRICAL SAFETY-RELATED WORK PRACTICES IN § 1910.269


Compliance with subpart S is considered as compliance with Paragraphs that apply regardless of compliance with subpart
§ 1910.269 1 S

(d), electric shock hazards only .................................................... (a)(2) 2 and (a)(3) 2.

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Occupational Safety and Health Admin., Labor § 1910.269

TABLE 1—ELECTRICAL SAFETY-RELATED WORK PRACTICES IN § 1910.269—Continued


Compliance with subpart S is considered as compliance with Paragraphs that apply regardless of compliance with subpart
§ 1910.269 1 S

(h)(3) ............................................................................................. (b) 2.


(i)(2) .............................................................................................. (c) 2.
(k) .................................................................................................. (d), other than electric shock hazards.
(l)(1) through (l)(4), (l)(6)(i), and (l)(8) through (l)(10) .................. (e).
(m) ................................................................................................. (f).
(p)(4) ............................................................................................. (g).
(s)(2) ............................................................................................. (h)(1) and (h)(2).
(u)(1) and (u)(3) through (u)(5) ..................................................... (i)(3) 2 and (i)(4) 2.
(v)(3) through (v)(5) ...................................................................... (j) 2.
(w)(1) and (w)(7) ........................................................................... (l)(5) 2, (l)(6)(ii) 2, (l)(6)(iii) 2, and (l)(7) 2.
(n) 2.
(o) 2.
(p)(1) through (p)(3).
(q) 2.
(r) 2.
(s)(1).
(t) 2.
(u)(2) 2 and (u)(6) 2.
(v)(1), (v)(2) 2, and (v)(6) through (v)(12).
(w)(2) through (w)(6) 2, (w)(8), and (w)(9) 2.
1 If the electrical installation meets the requirements of §§ 1910.303 through 1910.308 of this part, then the electrical installa-
tion and any associated electrical safety-related work practices conforming to §§ 1910.332 through 1910.335 of this part are con-
sidered to comply with these provisions of § 1910.269 of this part.
2 These provisions include electrical safety requirements that must be met regardless of compliance with subpart S of this part.

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§ 1910.269 29 CFR Ch. XVII (7–1–11 Edition)

APPENDIX A–3 TO § 1910.269—APPLICATION OF § 1910.269 AND SUBPART S OF


THIS PART TO TREE-TRIMMING OPERATIONS

NO Neither
Is the tree within 10 feet1 §1910.269 nor
of an overhead line? Subpart S
applies.

YES

Subpart S
applies.
NO (Employee
Is the employee a line-
may not trim
clearance tree trimmer?
branch within
10 feet1 of
YES line.)

§1910.269 applies. (Clearances are


specified in §1910.269(r)(1)(iii).)

1
10 feet plus 4 inches for every 10 kilovolts over 50 kilovolts.

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Occupational Safety and Health Admin., Labor § 1910.269

APPENDIX A–4 TO § 1910.269—APPLICATION OF §§ 1910.147, 1910.269 AND


1910.333 TO HAZARDOUS ENERGY CONTROL PROCEDURES (LOCKOUT/TAGOUT)

Is this an electric power generation,


transmission, or distribution installation?1

YES NO

YES
Is it a generation Is it a commingled2
installation? installation?

YES NO NO

§1910.269(d) Is there a hazard


or §1910.269(m) of electric shock?
§1910.147

YES NO

§1910.333(b)
or §1910.147
§1910.1473

1
If the installation conforms to §§1910.303 through 1910.308, the lockout and tagging
procedures of 1910.333(b) may be followed for electric shock hazards.

2
Commingled to the extent that the electric power generation, transmission, or
distribution installation poses the greater hazard.

3
§1910.333(b)(2)(iii)(D) and (b)(2)(iv)(B) still apply.

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§ 1910.269 29 CFR Ch. XVII (7–1–11 Edition)

APPENDIX A–5 TO § 1910.269—APPLICATION OF §§ 1910.146 AND 1910.269 TO


PERMIT-REQUIRED CONFINED SPACES

NO
Is this a confined space
as defined in
§1910.146(b)?1
Neither
§1910.146 nor
§1910.269(e) YES
apply to entry.

Is it a permit space as
defined in §1910.146(b)?
NO
YES

NO Does the work


performed fall within the
scope of §1910.269?

YES

NO Is this space an
§1910.146 enclosed space as
defined in §1910.269(x)?

YES

NO Are hazards controlled YES §1910.269(e)


through measures or
required by §1910.269? §1910.146

1
See §1910.146(c) for general non-entry requirements that apply to all confined spaces.

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Occupational Safety and Health Admin., Labor § 1910.269
APPENDIX B TO § 1910.269—WORKING ON NOTE: Wires which are insulated, but not
EXPOSED ENERGIZED PARTS otherwise protected, are not considered as
guarded.
I. Introduction
Insulated. Separated from other conducting
Electric transmission and distribution line surfaces by a dielectric (including air space)
installations have been designed to meet Na- offering a high resistance to the passage of
tional Electrical Safety Code (NESC), ANSI current.
C2, requirements and to provide the level of NOTE: When any object is said to be insu-
line outage performance required by system lated, it is understood to be insulated for the
reliability criteria. Transmission and dis- conditions to which it is normally subjected.
tribution lines are also designed to with- Otherwise, it is, within the purpose of this
stand the maximum overvoltages expected section, uninsulated.
to be impressed on the system. Such
overvoltages can be caused by such condi- B. Installations Energized at 50 to 300 Volts
tions as switching surges, faults, or light-
The hazards posed by installations ener-
ning. Insulator design and lengths and the
gized at 50 to 300 volts are the same as those
clearances to structural parts (which, for low
found in many other workplaces. That is not
voltage through extra-high voltage, or EHV,
to say that there is no hazard, but the com-
facilities, are generally based on the per-
plexity of electrical protection required does
formance of the line as a result of contami-
not compare to that required for high volt-
nation of the insulation or during storms)
age systems. The employee must avoid con-
have, over the years, come closer to the min-
tact with the exposed parts, and the protec-
imum approach distances used by workers
tive equipment used (such as rubber insu-
(which are generally based on non-storm
lating gloves) must provide insulation for
conditions). Thus, as minimum approach
the voltages involved.
(working) distances and structural distances
(clearances) converge, it is increasingly im- C. Exposed Energized Parts Over 300 Volts
portant that basic considerations for estab- AC
lishing safe approach distances for per-
forming work be understood by the designers Table R–6, Table R–7, and Table R–8 of
and the operating and maintenance per- § 1910.269 provide safe approach and working
sonnel involved. distances in the vicinity of energized electric
The information in this appendix will as- apparatus so that work can be done safely
sist employers in complying with the min- without risk of electrical flashover.
imum approach distance requirements con- The working distances must withstand the
tained in paragraphs (l)(2) and (q)(3) of this maximum transient overvoltage that can
section. The technical criteria and method- reach the work site under the working condi-
ology presented herein is mandatory for em- tions and practices in use. Normal system
ployers using reduced minimum approach design may provide or include a means to
distances as permitted in Table R–7 and control transient overvoltages, or temporary
Table R–8. This appendix is intended to pro- devices may be employed to achieve the
vide essential background information and same result. The use of technically correct
technical criteria for the development or practices or procedures to control
modification, if possible, of the safe min- overvoltages (for example, portable gaps or
imum approach distances for electric trans- preventing the automatic control from initi-
mission and distribution live-line work. The ating breaker reclosing) enables line design
development of these safe distances must be and operation to be based on reduced tran-
undertaken by persons knowledgeable in the sient overvoltage values. Technical informa-
techniques discussed in this appendix and tion for U.S. electrical systems indicates
competent in the field of electric trans- that current design provides for the fol-
mission and distribution system design. lowing maximum transient overvoltage val-
ues (usually produced by switching surges):
II. General 362 kV and less—3.0 per unit; 552 kV—2.4 per
unit; 800 kV—2.0 per unit.
A. Definitions Additional discussion of maximum tran-
The following definitions from § 1910.269(x) sient overvoltages can be found in paragraph
relate to work on or near transmission and IV.A.2, later in this appendix.
distribution lines and equipment and the
electrical hazards they present. III. Determination of the Electrical Component
Exposed. Not isolated or guarded. of Minimum Approach Distances
Guarded. Covered, fenced, enclosed, or oth-
A. Voltages of 1.1 kV to 72.5 kV
erwise protected, by means of suitable covers
or casings, barrier rails or screens, mats, or For voltages of 1.1 kV to 72.5 kV, the elec-
platforms, designed to minimize the possi- trical component of minimum approach dis-
bility, under normal conditions, of dangerous tances is based on American National Stand-
approach or accidental contact by persons or ards Institute (ANSI)/American Institute of
objects. Electrical Engineers (AIEE) Standard No.4,

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§ 1910.269 29 CFR Ch. XVII (7–1–11 Edition)
March 1943, Tables III and IV. (AIEE is the Where:
predecessor technical society to the Insti- D = Electrical component of the minimum
tute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers approach distance in air in feet
(IEEE).) These distances are calculated by
Vmax = Maximum rated line-to-ground rms
the following formula:
voltage in kV
Equation (1)—For voltages of 1.1 kV to 72.5 pu = Maximum transient overvoltage factor
kV in per unit
1.63 SOURCE: AIEE Standard No. 4, 1943.
⎛ V × pu ⎞
D = ⎜ max ⎟ This formula has been used to generate
⎝ 124 ⎠ Table 1.

TABLE 1—AC ENERGIZED LINE-WORK PHASE-TO-GROUND ELECTRICAL COMPONENT OF THE


MINIMUM APPROACH DISTANCE—1.1 TO 72.5 KV
Phase to phase voltage
Maximum anticipated per-unit transient overvoltage
15,000 36,000 46,000 72,500

3.0 ......................................................................................................... 0.08 0.33 0.49 1.03


NOTE: The distances given (in feet) are for air as the insulating medium and provide no additional clearance for inadvertent
movement.

B. Voltages of 72.6 kV to 800 kV D=Electrical component of the minimum ap-


proach distance in air in feet
For voltages of 72.6 kV to 800 kV, the elec- C=0.01 to take care of correction factors as-
trical component of minimum approach dis- sociated with the variation of gap
tances is based on ANSI/IEEE Standard 516– sparkover with voltage
1987, ‘‘IEEE Guide for Maintenance Methods a=A factor relating to the saturation of air
on Energized Power Lines.’’ This standard at voltages of 345 kV or higher
gives the electrical component of the min- pu=Maximum anticipated transient over-
imum approach distance based on power fre- voltage, in per unit (p.u.)
quency rod-gap data, supplemented with Vmax=Maximum rms system line-to-ground
transient overvoltage information and a voltage in kilovolts—it should be the ‘‘ac-
saturation factor for high voltages. The dis- tual’’ maximum, or the normal highest
tances listed in ANSI/IEEE Standard 516 voltage for the range (for example, 10 per-
have been calculated according to the fol- cent above the nominal voltage)
lowing formula: SOURCE: Formula developed from ANSI/IEEE
Equation (2)—For voltages of 72.6 kV to 800 Standard No. 516, 1987.
kV This formula is used to calculate the elec-
trical component of the minimum approach
D=(C+a)puVmax
distances in air and is used in the develop-
Where: ment of Table 2 and Table 3.
TABLE 2—AC ENERGIZED LINE-WORK PHASE-TO-GROUND ELECTRICAL COMPONENT OF THE
MINIMUM APPROACH DISTANCE—121 TO 242 KV
Phase to phase voltage
Maximum anticipated per-unit transient overvoltage
121,000 145,000 169,000 242,000

2.0 ......................................................................................................... 1.40 1.70 2.00 2.80


2.1 ......................................................................................................... 1.47 1.79 2.10 2.94
2.2 ......................................................................................................... 1.54 1.87 2.20 3.08
2.3 ......................................................................................................... 1.61 1.96 2.30 3.22
2.4 ......................................................................................................... 1.68 2.04 2.40 3.35
2.5 ......................................................................................................... 1.75 2.13 2.50 3.50
2.6 ......................................................................................................... 1.82 2.21 2.60 3.64
2.7 ......................................................................................................... 1.89 2.30 2.70 3.76
2.8 ......................................................................................................... 1.96 2.38 2.80 3.92
2.9 ......................................................................................................... 2.03 2.47 2.90 4.05
3.0 ......................................................................................................... 2.10 2.55 3.00 4.29
NOTE: The distances given (in feet) are for air as the insulating medium and provide no additional clearance for inadvertent
movement.

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Occupational Safety and Health Admin., Labor § 1910.269

TABLE 3—AC ENERGIZED LINE-WORK PHASE-TO-GROUND ELECTRICAL COMPONENT OF THE


MINIMUM APPROACH DISTANCE—362 TO 800 KV
Phase to phase voltage
Maximum anticipated per-unit transient overvoltage
362,000 552,000 800,000

1.5 ...................................................................................................................... ........................ 4.97 8.66


1.6 ...................................................................................................................... ........................ 5.46 9.60
1.7 ...................................................................................................................... ........................ 5.98 10.60
1.8 ...................................................................................................................... ........................ 6.51 11.64
1.9 ...................................................................................................................... ........................ 7.08 12.73
2.0 ...................................................................................................................... 4.20 7.68 13.86
2.1 ...................................................................................................................... 4.41 8.27 ........................
2.2 ...................................................................................................................... 4.70 8.87 ........................
2.3 ...................................................................................................................... 5.01 9.49 ........................
2.4 ...................................................................................................................... 5.34 10.21 ........................
2.5 ...................................................................................................................... 5.67 ........................ ........................
2.6 ...................................................................................................................... 6.01 ........................ ........................
2.7 ...................................................................................................................... 6.36 ........................ ........................
2.8 ...................................................................................................................... 6.73 ........................ ........................
2.9 ...................................................................................................................... 7.10 ........................ ........................
3.0 ...................................................................................................................... 7.48 ........................ ........................
NOTE: The distances given (in feet) are for air as the insulating medium and provide no additional clearance for inadvertent
movement.

C. Provisions for Inadvertent Movement At voltages below 72.5 kV, the electrical
component of the minimum approach dis-
The minimum approach distances (working tance is smaller than the ergonomic compo-
distances) must include an ‘‘adder’’ to com- nent. At 72.5 kV the electrical component is
pensate for the inadvertent movement of the only a little more than 1 foot. An ergonomic
worker relative to an energized part or the component of the minimum approach dis-
movement of the part relative to the worker. tance is needed that will provide for all the
A certain allowance must be made to ac- worker’s unexpected movements. The usual
count for this possible inadvertent move- live-line work method for these voltages is
ment and to provide the worker with a com- the use of rubber insulating equipment, fre-
fortable and safe zone in which to work. A quently rubber gloves. The energized object
distance for inadvertent movement (called needs to be far enough away to provide the
the ‘‘ergonomic component of the minimum worker’s face with a safe approach distance,
approach distance’’) must be added to the as his or her hands and arms are insulated.
electrical component to determine the total In this case, 2 feet has been accepted as a
safe minimum approach distances used in sufficient and practical value.
live-line work. For voltages between 72.6 and 800 kV, there
One approach that can be used to estimate is a change in the work practices employed
the ergonomic component of the minimum during energized line work. Generally, live-
approach distance is response time-distance line tools (hot sticks) are employed to per-
analysis. When this technique is used, the form work while equipment is energized.
total response time to a hazardous incident These tools, by design, keep the energized
is estimated and converted to distance trav- part at a constant distance from the em-
elled. For example, the driver of a car takes ployee and thus maintain the appropriate
a given amount of time to respond to a minimum approach distance automatically.
‘‘stimulus’’ and stop the vehicle. The elapsed The length of the ergonomic component of
time involved results in a distance being the minimum approach distance is also in-
travelled before the car comes to a complete fluenced by the location of the worker and
stop. This distance is dependent on the speed by the nature of the work. In these higher
of the car at the time the stimulus appears. voltage ranges, the employees use work
In the case of live-line work, the employee methods that more tightly control their
must first perceive that he or she is ap- movements than when the workers perform
proaching the danger zone. Then, the worker rubber glove work. The worker is farther
responds to the danger and must decelerate from energized line or equipment and needs
and stop all motion toward the energized to be more precise in his or her movements
part. During the time it takes to stop, a dis- just to perform the work.
tance will have been traversed. It is this dis- For these reasons, a smaller ergonomic
tance that must be added to the electrical component of the minimum approach dis-
component of the minimum approach dis- tance is needed, and a distance of 1 foot has
tance to obtain the total safe minimum ap- been selected for voltages between 72.6 and
proach distance. 800 kV.

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§ 1910.269 29 CFR Ch. XVII (7–1–11 Edition)
Table 4 summarizes the ergonomic compo- shape, dimensions, and separation of the
nent of the minimum approach distance for electrodes, and by the characteristics of the
the two voltage ranges. applied voltage (wave shape).
2. Atmospheric effect. Flashover for a given
TABLE 4—ERGONOMIC COMPONENT OF MINIMUM air gap is inhibited by an increase in the den-
APPROACH DISTANCE sity (humidity) of the air. The empirically
determined electrical strength of a given gap
Distance is normally applicable at standard atmos-
Voltage range (kV) (feet)
pheric conditions (20 °C, 101.3 kPa, 11 g/cm3
1.1 to 72.5 ............................................................. 2.0 humidity).
72.6 to 800 ............................................................ 1.0 The combination of temperature and air
NOTE: This distance must be added to the electrical compo- pressure that gives the lowest gap flashover
nent of the minimum approach distance to obtain the full min- voltage is high temperature and low pres-
imum approach distance. sure. These are conditions not likely to
occur simultaneously. Low air pressure is
D. Bare-Hand Live-Line Minimum Approach
generally associated with high humidity, and
Distances
this causes increased electrical strength. An
Calculating the strength of phase-to-phase average air pressure is more likely to be as-
transient overvoltages is complicated by the sociated with low humidity. Hot and dry
varying time displacement between working conditions are thus normally associ-
overvoltages on parallel conductors (elec- ated with reduced electrical strength.
trodes) and by the varying ratio between the The electrical component of the minimum
positive and negative voltages on the two approach distances in Table 1, Table 2, and
electrodes. The time displacement causes the Table 3 has been calculated using the max-
maximum voltage between phases to be less imum transient overvoltages to determine
than the sum of the phase-to-ground withstand voltages at standard atmospheric
voltages. The International Electrotechnical conditions.
Commission (IEC) Technical Committee 28, 3. Altitude. The electrical strength of an air
Working Group 2, has developed the fol- gap is reduced at high altitude, due prin-
lowing formula for determining the phase-to- cipally to the reduced air pressure. An in-
phase maximum transient overvoltage, based crease of about 3 percent per 300 meters in
on the per unit (p.u.) of the system nominal the minimum approach distance for alti-
voltage phase-to-ground crest: tudes above 900 meters is required. Table R–
pup=pug+1.6. 10 of § 1910.269 presents this information in
Where: tabular form.
pug=p.u. phase-to-ground maximum tran- Summary. After taking all these correction
sient overvoltage factors into account and after considering
pup=p.u. phase-to-phase maximum transient their interrelationships relative to the air
overvoltage gap insulation strength and the conditions
under which live work is performed, one
This value of maximum anticipated tran- finds that only a correction for altitude need
sient overvoltage must be used in Equation be made. An elevation of 900 meters is estab-
(2) to calculate the phase-to-phase minimum lished as the base elevation, and the values
approach distances for live-line bare-hand of the electrical component of the minimum
work. approach distances has been derived with
this correction factor in mind. Thus, the val-
E. Compiling the Minimum Approach
ues used for elevations below 900 meters are
Distance Tables
conservative without any change; correc-
For each voltage involved, the distance in tions have to be made only above this base
Table 4 in this appendix has been added to elevation.
the distance in Table 1, Table 2 or Table 3 in
this appendix to determine the resulting IV. Determination of Reduced Minimum
minimum approach distances in Table R–6, Approach Distances
Table R–7, and Table R–8 in § 1910.269.
A. Factors Affecting Voltage Stress at the
F. Miscellaneous Correction Factors Work Site
The strength of an air gap is influenced by 1. System voltage (nominal). The nominal
the changes in the air medium that forms system voltage range sets the absolute lower
the insulation. A brief discussion of each fac- limit for the minimum approach distance.
tor follows, with a summary at the end. The highest value within the range, as given
1. Dielectric strength of air. The dielectric in the relevant table, is selected and used as
strength of air in a uniform electric field at a reference for per unit calculations.
standard atmospheric conditions is approxi- 2. Transient overvoltages. Transient
mately 31 kV (crest) per cm at 60 Hz. The dis- overvoltages may be generated on an elec-
ruptive gradient is affected by the air pres- trical system by the operation of switches or
sure, temperature, and humidity, by the breakers, by the occurrence of a fault on the

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Occupational Safety and Health Admin., Labor § 1910.269
line or circuit being worked or on an adja- with broken skirts is reduced. Broken units
cent circuit, and by similar activities. Most may have lost up to 70% of their withstand
of the overvoltages are caused by switching, capacity. Because the insulating capability
and the term ‘‘switching surge’’ is often used of a broken unit cannot be determined with-
to refer generically to all types of out testing it, damaged units in an insulator
overvoltages. However, each overvoltage has are usually considered to have no insulating
an associated transient voltage wave shape. value. Additionally, the overall insulating
The wave shape arriving at the site and its strength of a string with broken units may
magnitude vary considerably.
be further reduced in the presence of a live-
The information used in the development
of the minimum approach distances takes line tool alongside it. The number of good
into consideration the most common wave units that must be present in a string is
shapes; thus, the required minimum ap- based on the maximum overvoltage possible
proach distances are appropriate for any at the worksite.
transient overvoltage level usually found on
electric power generation, transmission, and B. Minimum Approach Distances Based on
distribution systems. The values of the per Known Maximum Anticipated Per-Unit
unit (p.u.) voltage relative to the nominal Transient Overvoltages
maximum voltage are used in the calcula- 1. Reduction of the minimum approach dis-
tion of these distances.
tance for AC systems. When the transient
3. Typical magnitude of overvoltages. The
overvoltage values are known and supplied
magnitude of typical transient overvoltages
is given in Table 5. by the employer, Table R–7 and Table R–8 of
4. Standard deviation—air-gap withstand. § 1910.269 allow the minimum approach dis-
For each air gap length, and under the same tances from energized parts to be reduced. In
atmospheric conditions, there is a statistical order to determine what this maximum over-
variation in the breakdown voltage. The voltage is, the employer must undertake an
probability of the breakdown voltage is as- engineering analysis of the system. As a re-
sumed to have a normal (Gaussian) distribu- sult of this engineering study, the employer
tion. The standard deviation of this distribu- must provide new live work procedures, re-
tion varies with the wave shape, gap geom- flecting the new minimum approach dis-
etry, and atmospheric conditions. The with- tances, the conditions and limitations of ap-
stand voltage of the air gap used in calcu- plication of the new minimum approach dis-
lating the electrical component of the min- tances, and the specific practices to be used
imum approach distance has been set at when these procedures are implemented.
three standard deviations (3s 1) below the
2. Calculation of reduced approach distance
critical flashover voltage. (The critical
values. The following method of calculating
flashover voltage is the crest value of the
impulse wave that, under specified condi- reduced minimum approach distances is
tions, causes flashover on 50 percent of the based on ANSI/IEEE Standard 516:
applications. An impulse wave of three Step 1. Determine the maximum voltage
standard deviations below this value, that is, (with respect to a given nominal voltage
the withstand voltage, has a probability of range) for the energized part.
flashover of approximately 1 in 1000.) Step 2. Determine the maximum transient
overvoltage (normally a switching surge)
TABLE 5—MAGNITUDE OF TYPICAL TRANSIENT that can be present at the work site during
OVERVOLTAGES work operation.
Step 3. Determine the technique to be used
Mag-
nitude to control the maximum transient over-
Cause voltage. (See paragraphs IV.C and IV.D of
(per
unit) this appendix.) Determine the maximum
Energized 200 mile line without closing resistors ... 3.5 voltage that can exist at the work site with
Energized 200 mile line with one step closing re- that form of control in place and with a con-
sistor ..................................................................... 2.1 fidence level of 3s. This voltage is considered
Energized 200 mile line with multi-step resistor ..... 2.5 to be the withstand voltage for the purpose
Reclosed with trapped charge one step resistor .... 2.2
Opening surge with single restrike .......................... 3.0
of calculating the appropriate minimum ap-
Fault initiation unfaulted phase ............................... 2.1 proach distance.
Fault initiation adjacent circuit ................................. 2.5 Step 4. Specify in detail the control tech-
Fault clearing ........................................................... 1.7–1.9 nique to be used, and direct its implementa-
Source: ANSI/IEEE Standard No. 516, 1987. tion during the course of the work.
Step 5. Using the new value of transient
5. Broken Insulators. Tests have shown that
the insulation strength of an insulator string overvoltage in per unit (p.u.), determine the
required phase-to-ground minimum approach
distance from Table R–7 or Table R–8 of
1 Sigma, s, is the symbol for standard devi-
§ 1910.269.
ation.

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§ 1910.269 29 CFR Ch. XVII (7–1–11 Edition)
C. Methods of Controlling Possible Transient resters has not been used to reduce the
Overvoltage Stress Found on a System length of the insulator string, it may be used
to reduce the minimum approach distance
1. Introduction. There are several means of
instead. 3
controlling overvoltages that occur on trans-
mission systems. First, the operation of cir- 4. Switching Restrictions. Another form of
cuit breakers or other switching devices may overvoltage control is the establishment of
be modified to reduce switching transient switching restrictions, under which breakers
overvoltages. Second, the overvoltage itself are not permitted to be operated until cer-
may be forcibly held to an acceptable level tain system conditions are satisfied. Restric-
by means of installation of surge arresters at tion of switching is achieved by the use of a
the specific location to be protected. Third, tagging system, similar to that used for a
the transmission system may be changed to ‘‘permit’’, except that the common term used
minimize the effect of switching operations. for this activity is a ‘‘hold-off’’ or ‘‘restric-
2. Operation of circuit breakers.2 The max- tion’’. These terms are used to indicate that
imum transient overvoltage that can reach operation is not prevented, but only modified
the work site is often due to switching on during the live-work activity.
the line on which work is being performed. If
the automatic-reclosing is removed during D. Minimum Approach Distance Based on
energized line work so that the line will not Control of Voltage Stress (Overvoltages) at
be re-energized after being opened for any the Work Site.
reason, the maximum switching surge over- Reduced minimum approach distances can
voltage is then limited to the larger of the be calculated as follows:
opening surge or the greatest possible fault- 1. First Method—Determining the reduced
generated surge, provided that the devices minimum approach distance from a given with-
(for example, insertion resistors) are oper- stand voltage.4
able and will function to limit the transient Step 1. Select the appropriate withstand
overvoltage. It is essential that the oper- voltage for the protective gap based on sys-
ating ability of such devices be assured when tem requirements and an acceptable prob-
they are employed to limit the overvoltage ability of actual gap flashover.
level. If it is prudent not to remove the re-
Step 2. Determine a gap distance that pro-
closing feature (because of system operating
vides a withstand voltage 5 greater than or
conditions), other methods of controlling the
equal to the one selected in the first step. 6
switching surge level may be necessary.
Transient surges on an adjacent line, par- Step 3. Using 110 percent of the gap’s crit-
ticularly for double circuit construction, ical flashover voltage, determine the elec-
may cause a significant overvoltage on the trical component of the minimum approach
line on which work is being performed. The distance from Equation (2) or Table 6, which
coupling to adjacent lines must be accounted is a tabulation of distance vs. withstand
for when minimum approach distances are voltage based on Equation (2).
calculated based on the maximum transient Step 4. Add the 1-foot ergonomic compo-
overvoltage. nent to obtain the total minimum approach
3. Surge arresters. The use of modern surge distance to be maintained by the employee.
arresters has permitted a reduction in the 2. Second Method—Determining the necessary
basic impulse-insulation levels of much protective gap length from a desired (reduced)
transmission system equipment. The pri- minimum approach distance.
mary function of early arresters was to pro-
tect the system insulation from the effects 3 Surge arrestor application is beyond the
of lightning. Modern arresters not only dis- scope of this appendix. However, if the ar-
sipate lightning-caused transients, but may rester is installed near the work site, the ap-
also control many other system transients plication would be similar to protective gaps
that may be caused by switching or faults. as discussed in paragraph IV.D. of this ap-
It is possible to use properly designed ar- pendix.
resters to control transient overvoltages 4 Since a given rod gap of a given configu-
along a transmission line and thereby reduce ration corresponds to a certain withstand
the requisite length of the insulator string. voltage, this method can also be used to de-
On the other hand, if the installation of ar- termine the minimum approach distance for
a known gap.
2 The detailed design of a circuit inter- 5 The withstand voltage for the gap is equal

rupter, such as the design of the contacts, of to 85 percent of its critical flashover voltage.
resistor insertion, and of breaker timing con- 6 Switch steps 1 and 2 if the length of the

trol, are beyond the scope of this appendix. protective gap is known. The withstand volt-
These features are routinely provided as part age must then be checked to ensure that it
of the design for the system. Only features provides an acceptable probability of gap
that can limit the maximum switching tran- flashover. In general, it should be at least
sient overvoltage on a system are discussed 1.25 times the maximum crest operating
in this appendix. voltage.

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Occupational Safety and Health Admin., Labor § 1910.269
Step 1. Determine the desired minimum ap- 3. Sample protective gap calculations.
proach distance for the employee. Subtract Problem 1: Work is to be performed on a 500-
the 1-foot ergonomic component of the min- kV transmission line that is subject to tran-
imum approach distance. sient overvoltages of 2.4 p.u. The maximum
Step 2. Using this distance, calculate the operating voltage of the line is 552 kV. De-
air gap withstand voltage from Equation (2). termine the length of the protective gap that
Alternatively, find the voltage cor- will provide the minimum practical safe ap-
responding to the distance in Table 6. 7 proach distance. Also, determine what that
Step 3. Select a protective gap distance cor-
minimum approach distance is.
responding to a critical flashover voltage
that, when multiplied by 110 percent, is less Step 1. Calculate the smallest practical
than or equal to the withstand voltage from maximum transient overvoltage (1.25 times
Step 2. the crest line-to-ground voltage): 8
Step 4. Calculate the withstand voltage of 2
the protective gap (85 percent of the critical 552 kV × × 1.25 = 563 kV.
flashover voltage) to ensure that it provides 3
an acceptable risk of flashover during the This will be the withstand voltage of the pro-
time the gap is installed. tective gap.
Step 2. Using test data for a particular pro-
TABLE 6—WITHSTAND DISTANCES FOR tective gap, select a gap that has a critical
TRANSIENT OVERVOLTAGES flashover voltage greater than or equal to:
Withstand 563 kV ÷ 0.85 = 662 kV.
distance
Crest voltage (kV) For example, if a protective gap with a 4.0-
(in feet) air
gap foot spacing tested to a critical flashover
100 ....................................................................... 0.71
voltage of 665 kV, crest, select this gap spac-
150 ....................................................................... 1.06 ing.
200 ....................................................................... 1.41 Step 3. This protective gap corresponds to a
250 ....................................................................... 1.77 110 percent of critical flashover voltage
300 ....................................................................... 2.12
value of:
350 ....................................................................... 2.47
400 ....................................................................... 2.83
450 ....................................................................... 3.18 665 kV × 1.10 = 732 kV.
500 ....................................................................... 3.54 This corresponds to the withstand voltage
550 ....................................................................... 3.89
600 ....................................................................... 4.24
of the electrical component of the minimum
650 ....................................................................... 4.60 approach distance.
700 ....................................................................... 5.17 Step 4. Using this voltage in Equation (2)
750 ....................................................................... 5.73 results in an electrical component of the
800 ....................................................................... 6.31
minimum approach distance of:
850 ....................................................................... 6.91
900 ....................................................................... 7.57
552 kV
D = ( 0.01 + 0.0006 ) ×
950 ....................................................................... 8.23
1000 ..................................................................... 8.94 = 5.5 ft.
1050 ..................................................................... 9.65 3
1100 ..................................................................... 10.42
1150 ..................................................................... 11.18 Step 5. Add 1 foot to the distance cal-
1200 ..................................................................... 12.05 culated in step 4, resulting in a total min-
1250 ..................................................................... 12.90
1300 ..................................................................... 13.79
imum approach distance of 6.5 feet.
1350 ..................................................................... 14.70 Problem 2: For a line operating at a max-
1400 ..................................................................... 15.64 imum voltage of 552 kV subject to a max-
1450 ..................................................................... 16.61 imum transient overvoltage of 2.4 p.u., find a
1500 ..................................................................... 17.61
protective gap distance that will permit the
1550 ..................................................................... 18.63
use of a 9.0-foot minimum approach distance.
Source: Calculations are based on Equation (2). (A minimum approach distance of 11 feet, 3
Note: The air gap is based on the 60-Hz rod-gap withstand inches is normally required.)
distance.
Step 1. The electrical component of the
minimum approach distance is 8.0 feet (9.0–
7 Since the value of the saturation factor,
1.0).
a, in Equation (2) is dependent on the max-
ER31JA94.015</GPH>

Step 2. From Table 6, select the withstand


imum voltage, several iterative computa- voltage corresponding to a distance of 8.0
tions may be necessary to determine the cor- feet. By interpolation:
rect withstand voltage using the equation. A
graph of withstand voltage vs. distance is
given in ANSI/IEEE Std. 516, 1987. This graph 8 To eliminate unwanted flashovers due to
ER31JA94.014</GPH>

could also be used to determine the appro- minor system disturbances, it is desirable to
priate withstand voltage for the minimum have the crest withstand voltage no lower
approach distance involved. than 1.25 p.u.

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§ 1910.269 29 CFR Ch. XVII (7–1–11 Edition)
the arithmetic sum of the two surges. A gap
⎡ (8.00 − 7.57) ⎤⎥ that is installed within 0.5 mile of the work
900 kV + ⎢50 × = 933 kV. site will protect against such intersecting
⎢ (8.23 − 7.57) ⎥⎦ waves. Engineering studies of a particular
⎣ line or system may indicate that adequate
Step 3. The voltage calculated in Step 2 protection can be provided by even more dis-
corresponds to 110 percent of the critical tant gaps.
flashover voltage of the gap that should be 3. If protective gaps are used at the work
employed. Using test data for a particular site, the work site impulse insulation
protective gap, select a gap that has a crit- strength is established by the gap setting.
ical flashover voltage less than or equal to: Lightning strikes as much as 6 miles away
D = (0.01+0.0006)×732kV÷√2 from the worksite may cause a voltage surge
greater than the insulation withstand volt-
For example, if a protective gap with a 5.8-
foot spacing tested to a critical flashover age, and a gap flashover may occur. The
voltage of 820 kV, crest, select this gap spac- flashover will not occur between the em-
ing. ployee and the line, but across the protective
Step 4. The withstand voltage of this pro- gap instead.
tective gap would be: 4. There are two reasons to disable the
automatic-reclosing feature of circuit-inter-
820 kV × 0.85 = 697 kV. rupting devices while employees are per-
The maximum operating crest voltage would forming live-line maintenance:
be: • To prevent the reenergizing of a circuit
faulted by actions of a worker, which could
2 possibly create a hazard or compound inju-
552 kV × = 449 kV, ries or damage produced by the original
3 fault;
• To prevent any transient overvoltage
The crest withstand voltage of the protective
gap in per unit is thus: caused by the switching surge that would
occur if the circuit were reenergized.
697 kV + 449 kV = 1.55 p.u. However, due to system stability consider-
ations, it may not always be feasible to dis-
If this is acceptable, the protective gap
able the automatic-reclosing feature.
could be installed with a 5.8-foot spacing,
and the minimum approach distance could APPENDIX C TO § 1910.269—PROTECTION FROM
then be reduced to 9.0 feet. STEP AND TOUCH POTENTIALS
4. Comments and variations. The 1-foot ergo-
nomic component of the minimum approach I. Introduction
distance must be added to the electrical
component of the minimum approach dis- When a ground fault occurs on a power
tance calculated under paragraph IV.D of line, voltage is impressed on the ‘‘grounded’’
this appendix. The calculations may be var- object faulting the line. The voltage to
ied by starting with the protective gap dis- which this object rises depends largely on
tance or by starting with the minimum ap- the voltage on the line, on the impedance of
proach distance. the faulted conductor, and on the impedance
to ‘‘true,’’ or ‘‘absolute,’’ ground represented
E. Location of Protective Gaps
by the object. If the object causing the fault
1. Installation of the protective gap on a represents a relatively large impedance, the
structure adjacent to the work site is an ac- voltage impressed on it is essentially the
ceptable practice, as this does not signifi- phase-to-ground system voltage. However,
cantly reduce the protection afforded by the even faults to well grounded transmission
gap. towers or substation structures can result in ER31JA94.020</GPH>

2. Gaps installed at terminal stations of hazardous voltages. 1 The degree of the haz-
lines or circuits provide a given level of pro- ard depends upon the magnitude of the fault
tection. The level may not, however, extend current and the time of exposure.
throughout the length of the line to the
worksite. The use of gaps at terminal sta-
tions must be studied in depth. The use of 1 This appendix provides information pri-
ER31JA94.019</GPH>

substation terminal gaps raises the possi- marily with respect to employee protection
bility that separate surges could enter the from contact between equipment being used
line at opposite ends, each with low enough and an energized power line. The information
magnitude to pass the terminal gaps without presented is also relevant to ground faults to
flashover. When voltage surges are initiated transmission towers and substation struc-
simultaneously at each end of a line and tures; however, grounding systems for these
ER31JA94.018</GPH>

travel toward each other, the total voltage structures should be designed to minimize
on the line at the point where they meet is the step and touch potentials involved.

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Occupational Safety and Health Admin., Labor § 1910.269
II. Voltage-Gradient Distribution tances from the ‘‘electrode’’. A person could
be at risk of injury during a fault simply by
A. Voltage-Gradient Distribution Curve standing near the grounding point.
The dissipation of voltage from a ground- ‘‘Touch potential’’ is the voltage between
ing electrode (or from the grounded end of an the energized object and the feet of a person
energized grounded object) is called the in contact with the object. It is equal to the
ground potential gradient. Voltage drops as- difference in voltage between the object
sociated with this dissipation of voltage are (which is at a distance of 0 feet) and a point
called ground potentials. Figure 1 is a typ- some distance away. It should be noted that
ical voltage-gradient distribution curve (as- the touch potential could be nearly the full
suming a uniform soil texture). This graph voltage across the grounded object if that
shows that voltage decreases rapidly with in- object is grounded at a point remote from
creasing distance from the grounding elec- the place where the person is in contact with
trode. it. For example, a crane that was grounded
to the system neutral and that contacted an
B. Step and Touch Potentials energized line would expose any person in
‘‘Step potential’’ is the voltage between the contact with the crane or its uninsulated
feet of a person standing near an energized load line to a touch potential nearly equal to
grounded object. It is equal to the difference the full fault voltage.
in voltage, given by the voltage distribution Step and touch potentials are illustrated
curve, between two points at different dis- in Figure 2.

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§ 1910.269 29 CFR Ch. XVII (7–1–11 Edition)

100

90

80

70
Voltage remote from electrode

60

50

40

30

20

10

0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16

Distance from rod (ft)


ER31JA94.007<BCAP><E T=’15’>Figure 1&mdash;Typical Voltage-Gradient Distribution Curve</E></GPH>

FIGURE 1—TYPICAL VOLTAGE-GRADIENT DISTRIBUTION CURVE

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Occupational Safety and Health Admin., Labor § 1910.269

C. Protection From the Hazards of Ground- tective measures and can guide the selection
Potential Gradients. of appropriate precautions.
Several methods may be used to protect
An engineering analysis of the power sys-
employees from hazardous ground-potential
tem under fault conditions can be used to de-
gradients, including equipotential zones, in-
termine whether or not hazardous step and
sulating equipment, and restricted work
touch voltages will develop. The result of
areas.
this analysis can ascertain the need for pro-

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§ 1910.269 29 CFR Ch. XVII (7–1–11 Edition)
1. The creation of an equipotential zone dling grounded equipment and conductors
will protect a worker standing within it from from hazardous touch potentials. The insu-
hazardous step and touch potentials. (See lating equipment must be rated for the high-
Figure 3.) Such a zone can be produced est voltage that can be impressed on the
through the use of a metal mat connected to grounded objects under fault conditions
the grounded object. In some cases, a (rather than for the full system voltage).
grounding grid can be used to equalize the 3. Restricting employees from areas where
voltage within the grid. Equipotential zones hazardous step or touch potentials could
will not, however, protect employees who are arise can protect employees not directly in-
either wholly or partially outside the pro- volved in the operation being performed.
tected area. Bonding conductive objects in Employees on the ground in the vicinity of
the immediate work area can also be used to transmission structures should be kept at a
minimize the potential between the objects distance where step voltages would be insuf-
and between each object and ground. (Bond- ficient to cause injury. Employees should
ing an object outside the work area can in- not handle grounded conductors or equip-
crease the touch potential to that object in ment likely to become energized to haz-
some cases, however.) ardous voltages unless the employees are
2. The use of insulating equipment, such as within an equipotential zone or are protected
rubber gloves, can protect employees han- by insulating equipment.

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Occupational Safety and Health Admin., Labor § 1910.269

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§ 1910.269 29 CFR Ch. XVII (7–1–11 Edition)
APPENDIX D TO § 1910.269—METHODS OF E. Knots
INSPECTING AND TESTING WOOD POLES
One large knot or several smaller ones at
I. Introduction the same height on the pole may be evidence
of a weak point on the pole.
When work is to be performed on a wood
pole, it is important to determine the condi- F. Depth of Setting
tion of the pole before it is climbed. The Evidence of the existence of a former
weight of the employee, the weight of equip- ground line substantially above the existing
ment being installed, and other working ground level may be an indication that the
stresses (such as the removal or retensioning pole is no longer buried to a sufficient ex-
of conductors) can lead to the failure of a de- tent.
fective pole or one that is not designed to
handle the additional stresses. 1 For these G. Soil Conditions
reasons, it is essential that an inspection
Soft, wet, or loose soil may not support
and test of the condition of a wood pole be
any changes of stress on the pole.
performed before it is climbed.
If the pole is found to be unsafe to climb or H. Burn Marks
to work from, it must be secured so that it
does not fail while an employee is on it. The Burning from transformer failures or con-
pole can be secured by a line truck boom, by ductor faults could damage the pole so that
ropes or guys, or by lashing a new pole it cannot withstand mechanical stress
alongside it. If a new one is lashed alongside changes.
the defective pole, work should be performed III. Testing of Wood Poles
from the new one.
The following tests, which have been taken
II. Inspection of Wood Poles from § 1910.268(n)(3), are recognized as accept-
able methods of testing wood poles:
Wood poles should be inspected by a quali-
fied employee for the following conditions: 2 A. Hammer Test
A. General Condition Rap the pole sharply with a hammer
weighing about 3 pounds, starting near the
The pole should be inspected for buckling ground line and continuing upwards circum-
at the ground line and for an unusual angle ferentially around the pole to a height of ap-
with respect to the ground. Buckling and odd proximately 6 feet. The hammer will produce
angles may indicate that the pole has rotted a clear sound and rebound sharply when
or is broken. striking sound wood. Decay pockets will be
indicated by a dull sound or a less pro-
B. Cracks
nounced hammer rebound. Also, prod the
The pole should be inspected for cracks. pole as near the ground line as possible using
Horizontal cracks perpendicular to the grain a pole prod or a screwdriver with a blade at
of the wood may weaken the pole. Vertical least 5 inches long. If substantial decay is
ones, although not considered to be a sign of encountered, the pole is considered unsafe.
a defective pole, can pose a hazard to the
climber, and the employee should keep his or B. Rocking Test
her gaffs away from them while climbing. Apply a horizontal force to the pole and at-
tempt to rock it back and forth in a direc-
C. Holes tion perpendicular to the line. Caution must
Hollow spots and woodpecker holes can re- be exercised to avoid causing power lines to
duce the strength of a wood pole. swing together. The force may be applied ei-
ther by pushing with a pike pole or pulling
D. Shell Rot and Decay with a rope. If the pole cracks during the
test, it shall be considered unsafe.
Rotting and decay are cutout hazards and
are possible indications of the age and inter- APPENDIX E TO § 1910.269—REFERENCE
nal condition of the pole. DOCUMENTS
The references contained in this appendix
1A properly guyed pole in good condition provide information that can be helpful in
should, at a minimum, be able to handle the understanding and complying with the re-
weight of an employee climbing it. quirements contained in § 1910.269. The na-
2 The presence of any of these conditions is
tional consensus standards referenced in this
an indication that the pole may not be safe appendix contain detailed specifications that
to climb or to work from. The employee per- employers may follow in complying with the
forming the inspection must be qualified to more performance-oriented requirements of
make a determination as to whether or not OSHA’s final rule. Except as specifically
it is safe to perform the work without taking noted in § 1910.269, however, compliance with
additional precautions. the national consensus standards is not a

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Occupational Safety and Health Admin., Labor § 1910.272
substitute for compliance with the provi- ASTM F 914–91, Test Method for Acoustic
sions of the OSHA standard. Emission for Insulated Aerial Personnel De-
ANSI/SIA A92.2–1990, American National vices.
Standard for Vehicle-Mounted Elevating and ASTM F 968–93, Specification for Elec-
Rotating Aerial Devices. trically Insulating Plastic Guard Equipment
ANSI C2–1993, National Electrical Safety for Protection of Workers.
Code. ASTM F 1116–88, Test Method for Deter-
ANSI Z133.1–1988, American National mining Dielectric Strength of Overshoe
Standard Safety Requirements for Pruning, Footwear.
Trimming, Repairing, Maintaining, and Re- ASTM F 1117–87, Specification for Dielec-
moving Trees, and for Cutting Brush. tric Overshoe Footwear.
ANSI/ASME B20.1–1990, Safety Standard ASTM F 1236–89, Guide for Visual Inspec-
for Conveyors and Related Equipment. tion of Electrical Protective Rubber Prod-
ANSI/IEEE Std. 4–1978 (Fifth Printing), ucts.
IEEE Standard Techniques for High-Voltage ASTM F 1505–94, Standard Specification for
Testing. Insulated and Insulating Hand Tools.
ANSI/IEEE Std. 100–1988, IEEE Standard ASTM F 1506–94, Standard Performance
Dictionary of Electrical and Electronic Specification for Textile Materials for Wear-
Terms. ing Apparel for Use by Electrical Workers
ANSI/IEEE Std. 516–1987, IEEE Guide for Exposed to Momentary Electric Arc and Re-
Maintenance Methods on Energized Power- lated Thermal Hazards.
Lines. IEEE Std. 62–1978, IEEE Guide for Field
ANSI/IEEE Std. 935–1989, IEEE Guide on Testing Power Apparatus Insulation.
Terminology for Tools and Equipment To Be IEEE Std. 524–1992, IEEE Guide to the In-
Used in Live Line Working. stallation of Overhead Transmission Line
ANSI/IEEE Std. 957–1987, IEEE Guide for
Conductors.
Cleaning Insulators.
IEEE Std. 1048–1990, IEEE Guide for Pro-
ANSI/IEEE Std. 978–1984 (R1991), IEEE
tective Grounding of Power Lines.
Guide for In-Service Maintenance and Elec-
trical Testing of Live-Line Tools. IEEE Std. 1067–1990, IEEE Guide for the In-
ASTM D 120–87, Specification for Rubber Service Use, Care, Maintenance, and Testing
Insulating Gloves. of Conductive Clothing for Use on Voltages
ASTM D 149–92, Test Method for Dielectric up to 765 kV AC.
Breakdown Voltage and Dielectric Strength [59 FR 4437, Jan. 31, 1994; 59 FR 33658, June 30,
of Solid Electrical Insulating Materials at 1994, as amended at 59 FR 4458, Jan. 31, 1994;
Commercial Power Frequencies. 59 FR 40729, Aug. 9, 1994; 59 FR 51748, Oct. 12,
ASTM D 178–93, Specification for Rubber 1994]
Insulating Matting.
ASTM D 1048–93, Specification for Rubber § 1910.272 Grain handling facilities.
Insulating Blankets.
ASTM D 1049–93, Specification for Rubber (a) Scope. This section contains re-
Insulating Covers. quirements for the control of grain
ASTM D 1050–90, Specification for Rubber dust fires and explosions, and certain
Insulating Line Hose. other safety hazards associated with
ASTM D 1051–87, Specification for Rubber grain handling facilities. It applies in
Insulating Sleeves.
addition to all other relevant provi-
ASTM F 478–92, Specification for In-Serv-
ice Care of Insulating Line Hose and Covers. sions of part 1910 (or part 1917 at ma-
ASTM F 479–93, Specification for In-Serv- rine terminals).
ice Care of Insulating Blankets. (b) Application. (1) Paragraphs (a)
ASTM F 496–93b, Specification for In-Serv- through (n) of this section apply to
ice Care of Insulating Gloves and Sleeves. grain elevators, feed mills, flour mills,
ASTM F 711–89, Specification for Fiber- rice mills, dust pelletizing plants, dry
glass-Reinforced Plastic (FRP) Rod and Tube
corn mills, soybean flaking operations,
Used in Live Line Tools.
ASTM F 712–88, Test Methods for Elec- and the dry grinding operations of
trically Insulating Plastic Guard Equipment soycake.
for Protection of Workers. (2) Paragraphs (o), (p), and (q) of this
ASTM F 819–83a (1988), Definitions of section apply only to grain elevators.
Terms Relating to Electrical Protective (c) Definitions.
Equipment for Workers. Choked leg means a condition of ma-
ASTM F 855–90, Specifications for Tem-
terial buildup in the bucket elevator
porary Grounding Systems To Be Used on
De-Energized Electric Power Lines and that results in the stoppage of material
Equipment. flow and bucket movement. A bucket
ASTM F 887–91a, Specifications for Per- elevator is not considered choked that
sonal Climbing Equipment. has the up-leg partially or fully loaded

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