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L.BLUE- RLNAME Semi-automatic vibrating table type machines

are widely used for making cement concrete
GREEN- SEARCH hollow blocks. The machine consists of an
automatic vibrating unit, a lever operated up and
(1) Proportioning: down metallic mould box and a stripper head
The determination of suitable amounts of raw contained in a frame work.
materials needed to produce concrete of desired
quality under given conditions of mixing,
placing and curing is known as proportioning. Wooden pallet is kept on the vibrating platform
As per Indian Standard specifications, the of the machine. The mould box is lowered on to
combined aggregate content in the concrete mix the pallet. Concrete mix is poured into the mould
used for making hollow blocks should not be and evenly levelled. The motorised vibrating
more than 6 parts to 1 part by volume of causes the concrete to settle down the mould by
Portland cement. If this ratio is taken in terms of approximately 1 ½ to 1 ¾ inches. More of
weight basis this may average approximately at concrete is then raked across the mould level.
1:7 (cement : aggregate). However, there have The stripper head is placed over the mould to
been instances of employing a lean mix of as bear on the levelled material. Vibration causes
high as 1:9 by manufacturers where hollow the concrete come down to its limit position.
blocks are compacted by power operated Then the mould box is lifted by the lever. The
vibrating machines. The water cement ratio of moulded hollow blocks resting on the pallet is
0.62 by weight basis can be used for concrete removed and a new pallet is placed and the
hollow blocks. process repeated. The machine can
accommodate interchangeable mould for
producing blocks of different sizes of hollow or
(2) Mixing solid blocks.

The objective of thorough mixing of aggregates, (4) Curing

cement and water is to ensure that the cement-
water paste completely covers the surface of the
aggregates. All the raw materials including Hollow blocks removed from the mould are
water are collected in a concrete mixer, which is protected until they are sufficiently hardened to
rotated for about 1 ½ minutes. The prepared mix permit handling without damage. This may take
is discharged from the mixer and consumed about 24 hours in a shelter away from sun and
within 30 minutes. winds. The hollow blocks thus hardened are
cured in a curing yard to permit complete
moisturisation for atleast 21 days. When the
(3) Compacting hollow blocks are cured by immersing them in a
water tank, water should be changed atleast
every four days.

The purpose of compacting is to fill all air

pockets with concrete as a whole without
movement of free water through the concrete. The greatest strength benefits occur during the
Excessive compaction would result in formation first three days and valuable effects are secured
of water pockets or layers with higher water up to 10 or 14 days. The longer the curing time
content and poor quality of the product. permitted the better the product.
being removed from the mould, the CHBs
should be covered with a plastic sheet or
(5) Drying tarpaulin and kept damp and shaded for at least 7
days in order to effectively cure. This can be
achieved by continually spraying them with
Concrete shrinks slightly with loss of moisture. water or keeping them under water in tanks. A
It is therefore essential that after curing is over, good curing process leads to less cracking and a
the blocks should be allowed to dry out stronger, harder, denser and more durable
gradually in shade so that the initial drying concrete.
shrinkage of the blocks is completed before they
 Storage: Store CHBs for at least 14 days
are used in the construction work. Hollow
after curing before using them. Protect
blocks are stacked with their cavities horizontal
them from rain and ground water,
to facilitate thorough passage of air.
stacking them in a way which allows air
to circulate around and between them.
 Selection and quality control of CHBs:
Generally a period of 7 to 15 days of drying will It is recommended to test the
bring the blocks to the desired degree of dryness compressive strength of CHBs
to complete their initial shrinkage. After this the produced/purchased in order to ensure
blocks are ready for use in construction they meet the required strength. Select
work.(M-1) only strong CHBs. Blocks with cracks
and corners crumbling away when
handled suggests poor quality. If the
CHB breaks when dropped from head
This is done in two different ways By weight or height, don’t use it or other blocks in the
volume. The most common method is by same batch
volume (e.g. using a bucket) Mixture.
 Building Code of the Philippines -
For CHBs: Mix Proportion 1:7, as per Arellano V. Busto. (2014) Building
structural engineer’s specification Code of the Philippines. Manila,
Philippines: A.V.B Printing Press.
Water Clean water should be used. Shall not  Consumer’s Guide, Product Quality and
exceed 28 litres per 40 kilograms per bag of Safety-
cement, slump test (as per ASTM C-143) shall
not exceed 10cm, unless specified by a structural aterials/doc_download/3-consumers-
engineer. guide-oncement.html

Common CHB mix: (bucket) (M-3)

½ water 1 cement 7 sand The major process steps are –

i) First stone and sand are mixed with

water and cement is then poured in the
Common mortar mix: (bucket) mixer.
ii) Weighing of aggregate.
1 water 1 cement 3 sand iii) Pouring of cement slurry in moulds
place on concrete block making
Mixing time If batch mixer is used, use accurate iv) Ramming of moulds in machine.
timing and measuring devices to operate as per v) Removal of moulds from machine.
manufacturer’s instructions. Revolutions should vi) Curing of cast blocks for 21 days.
be between 14 and 20 per minute. Curing After
No client or owner wanted to easily destroy their
house but rather they want it stonger and money

, the ash content of bamboo is also made up of

inorganic minerals, primarily silica, calcium and
potassium. Manganese and magnesium are two
other common minerals. Silica content is the
highest in the epidermis, with very little in the
nodes. Reactions of this ash (heated at
moderately high temperatures) with calcium
hydroxide are known to be pozzolanic in nature.
– strength of bamboo ash