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MAHARASHTRA STATE BOARD OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION

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MODEL ANSWER
WINTER - 2017 EXAMINATION
Subject: Computer Hardware & Maintenance Subject Code: 17428

Important Instructions to examiners:


1) The answers should be examined by key words and not as word-to-word as given in the model
answer scheme.
2) The model answer and the answer written by candidate may vary but the examiner may try to
assess the understanding level of the candidate.
3) The language errors such as grammatical, spelling errors should not be given more Importance
(Not applicable for subject English and Communication Skills).
4) While assessing figures, examiner may give credit for principal components indicated in the
figure. The figures drawn by candidate and model answer may vary. The examiner may give
credit for any equivalent figure drawn.
5) Credits may be given step wise for numerical problems. In some cases, the assumed constant
values may vary and there may be some difference in the candidate’s answers and model
answer.
6) In case of some questions credit may be given by judgement on part of examiner of relevant
answer based on candidate’s understanding.
7) For programming language papers, credit may be given to any other program based on
equivalent concept.

Q. Sub Answer Marking


No Q.N. Scheme
.
1. a) Attempt any SIX of the following: 12
(i) Write any four features of PCI bus. 2M
Ans. Features of PCI bus:
1. Plug and Play: - Just connect device and use it.
2. Hot plug-ability: -Devices can be connected while system is Four
running.
features
3. Hot swappable: - Flexibility in removing or replace device with
another device without significant interruption to the system. ½M
4. High speed: - 32 bits and 64 bits enable PCI to transfer data at high each
speed.
5. Backward compatibility: - Older versions of independent bus can
be connected to PCI Slot.
6. Independent bus: - Device operates independently without CPU
intervention.
7. High operational frequency:- Operates at frequency up to 133MHz.
(ii) What is formatting? List types of formatting. 2M
Ans.

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WINTER - 2017 EXAMINATION
Subject: Computer Hardware & Maintenance Subject Code: 17428

Formatting:
It is process to prepare blank hard disk for data storage. It puts
magnetic marks of tracks and sectors on the platter surface (low level 1M
formatting). Definitio
FAT and root directory are also put on the platter.(high level n
formatting).
Hard Disk requires a low level formatting and a high level formatting
to make it useful for data storage.

Types of formatting:-
1. High Level Formatting 1M
2. Low Level Formatting Types
(iii) Write any two advantages of CRT display over LCD display. 2M
Ans. Advantages of CRT display over LCD display:
1. LCD monitors consume less power. An average 19-inch LCD uses
45 watts of electricity while a 19- inch CRT uses 100 watts.
2. LCD monitors are smaller, thinner and weigh half as much as Any two
CRTs. advanta
3. An LCD monitor's tilt, swivel, height and orientation from ges 1M
horizontal to vertical can all be adjusted easily. each
4. LCD monitors don't produce the flicker that CRTs do, generating
(iv) Define following terms with reference to scanner. 2M
1) Resolution
2) Interpolation
Ans.
1) Resolution:- The scanner’s dpi is determined by the number of
sensors in a single row(x-direction sampling rate) of the CCD(Charge
coupled device) by the precision of the stepper motor (y-direction
sampling rate) OR A scanner's resolution is determined by how many
1M
pixels it can actually see.
Each
2) Interpolation is a process that the scanning software uses to
increase the perceived resolution of an imageby creating extra pixels in
between the ones actually scanned by the CCD array.
These extra pixels are an average of the adjacent pixels.
For example, if the hardware resolution is 300x300 and the interpolated
resolution is 600x300, then the software is adding a pixel between
every one scanned by a CCD sensor in each row.

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WINTER - 2017 EXAMINATION
Subject: Computer Hardware & Maintenance Subject Code: 17428

(v) List various types of keyboard switches. 2M


Ans. Types of Key switches:
1. Capacitive Any
2. Hall effect switch four
types
3. Opto-electronic
½M
4. Membrane each
5. Mechanical
6. Rubber dome switch
(vi) Define following terms related to power supply- 2M
1) Line Regulation
2) Load Regulation
Ans. 1) Line Regulation:
Line regulation is a measure of the ability of the power supply to
maintain its output voltage given changes in the input line voltage.
OR
It indicates how much the load voltage changes when the line voltage
changes. Each
Line Regulation = ((VHL-VLL)/VLL) x 100% definitio
n 1M
2) Load Regulation:
Load regulation is the capability to maintain a constant voltage (or
current) level on the output of a power supply even if there are changes
in the supply's load (such as a change in resistance value connected
across the supply output).
OR
It indicates how much the load voltage changes when the load current
changes
Load Regulation = ((VNL-VFL)/VFL) x 100%
(vii) Give any four features of SCSI – 1. 2M
Ans. Features of SCSI – 1:
1. A 3 bit address is used by the SCSI so that devices are assigned Any
addresses from 0 to 7. four
2. Device with address 7 has the highest priority. features
3. External switch is used to setup the address. ½M
4. SCSI-1 is 8 bit parallel interface between host adapter and the
each
device.
5. It runs at 5 MHz and is capable of transferring 8 million bytes per

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WINTER - 2017 EXAMINATION
Subject: Computer Hardware & Maintenance Subject Code: 17428

second.
(viii) Give any four features of USB. 2M
Ans. Four features of USB:
1. Up to 127 different devices can be connected on a single USB bus.
2. Initial USB standard supported 12 Mbps transfer rate. Currently 60
Mbps is supported.
3. Supports wide range of peripherals such as keyboard, mouse,
printer, FDD, game pad, joystick etc.
4. Devices are not daisy chained. Each device is connected to USB Any
hub, which is an intelligent device interacting with the PC on one four
side and USB peripheral devices on the other side. features
5. A USB device can be connected without powering off the PC. The ½M
plug and play feature in the BIOS together with intelligence in the each
USB device takes care of detection, device recognition and
handling.
6. USB controller in the PC detects the presence or absence of USB
devices and does power allocation.
7. The CPU/software initiates every transaction on the USB bus.
Hence the over head on the PC software increases.
1. b) Attempt any TWO of the following: 8M
(i) What is need of cache memory? Describe in brief internal and 4M
external cache.
Ans. Cache memory:
Cache is a smaller, faster memory which stores copies of the data from
the most frequently used main memory locations. When the processor
needs to read from or write to a location in a main memory, it first Need
checks whether a copy of that data is in the cache. If so, the processor 1M
immediately reads from or writes to the cache, which is much faster
than reading from or writing to the main memory. The CPU uses cache
memory to store instructions that are repeatedly required to run
programs, improving overall system speed. Static RAM is used as
cache memory to improve the speed of computer, and Used in between
main memory and processor.

Types of Cache:
Internal Cache:- Cache built into the CPU itself is referred to as level
1 (L1) cache. L1 or primary cache is a small high speed cache Internal
incorporated right onto the processors chip. The L1 cache typically 1½M
ranges in size from 8KB to 64 KB and uses high speed SRAM instead

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WINTER - 2017 EXAMINATION
Subject: Computer Hardware & Maintenance Subject Code: 17428

of slower and cheaper DRAM used for main memory.

External Cache:- Cache that resides on a separate chip next to the


CPU is called as level 2 (L2) cache. L2, or secondary cache memory
between the RAM and the CPU (but not on the CPU chip itself) bigger
than the primary cache (typically 64KB to 2MB). Some CPUs have
both L1 and L2 cache built-in and designate cache chip as level 3(L3) External
cache. L3 cache: L3 cache is slowly replacing the L2 cache function 1½M
and the extra cache built into the motherboards between the CPU and
the main memory (old L2 cache definition) is now being called the L3
cache. Some manufacturers have proprietary L3 cache designs already,
but most desktops do not offer this feature yet. b) Describe
(ii) Explain following: 4M
1) Interlaced scanning.
2) Non-interlaced scanning.
Ans. 1) Interlaced scanning:
 A interlace displays draws an image as two passes. Once the first
pass is complete a second pass fills in the rest of the image.
 In order to avoid a flickering image, some adapters force the Interlac
monitor to create an interlaced image. ed
 Instead of the electron gun scanning from top to bottom in a scannin
continuous manner, on the first pass it will skip every next line. g 2M
 On the second pass, it will scan the lines that it skipped during the
first pass, thus creating full image in two scans instead of one.
 The odd raster starts at the top left edge and the even raster at the
middle of the CRT.

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Subject: Computer Hardware & Maintenance Subject Code: 17428

2) Non-interlaced scanning:
 A non interlaced monitor draws all of the lines that compose an Non-
image in one pass interlace
 The entire image is first refreshed at the vertical scanning d
frequency. scannin
 The effective image refresh rate is only half the stated vertical g 2M
scanning rate.
(iii) Draw the block diagram of Video Accelerated card and explain its 4M
working.
Ans. Video accelerator card: The core of the accelerator is the graphics
chip (or Video chipset). The graphics chip connects directly with the
PC expansion bus. Graphics command and data are transmitted into
pixel data and stored in Video memory offers a second data bus that is Working
routed directly to the Video board’s RAM DAC (Random Access 2M
Memory Video to Analog Converter). The graphics chip directs RAM
DAC operation and ensures that VRAM data is available. The RAM
DAC then translates Video data into red, green and horizontal and
vertical synchronization signals output signals generated by the
monitor. This architecture may appear simple, but this is due to high
level of integration provided by the chipsets being used.

Diagram
2M

2. Attempt any FOUR of the following: 16


a) State any four features of H67 or P67 chipset. 4M
(Note: Any other relevant features shall be considered)
Ans.

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Subject: Computer Hardware & Maintenance Subject Code: 17428

Features of H67 Chipset:


1. Support for 2nd generation Intel® CoreTM processor family
2. Support for HDMI, Display Port*, eDP and DVI 2
3. Dual independent display expands the viewable workspace to two Any
monitors(Multi-monitor support with Windows 7)
four
4. Intel® Rapid Storage Technology (Intel® RST)
5. Serial ATA (SATA) :, Next generation high-speed storage interface features
supporting up to of H67
6. 6 Gb/s transfer rates for optimal data access with up to 2 SATA or P67
ports. chipset
7. High-speed storage interface supporting up to 4 SATA ports (3 Gb/s 1M each
)
8. PCI Express 2.0 Interface -8 PCI Express 2.0 x1 ports, configurable
as x2 and x4 Provides Gigabit LAN connect.

OR
Features of P67 Chipset:
1. Supports the 2nd generation Intel® CoreTM processors with Intel®
Turbo Boost Technology
2. Intel® Rapid Storage Technology 10.0
3. Intel® Rapid Recover Technology
4. Intel® High Definition Audio
5. USB 2.0 Rate Matching Hub
6. Serial ATA (SATA) :, Next generation high-speed storage interface
supporting up to6 Gb/s transfer rates for optimal data access with up
to 2 SATA ports.
7. High-speed storage interface supporting up to 4 SATA ports (3 Gb/s
)
8. PCI Express* 2.0 Interface
b) State eight features of Blue-ray. 4M
Ans. Features of Blue-ray:

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WINTER - 2017 EXAMINATION
Subject: Computer Hardware & Maintenance Subject Code: 17428

Any
eight
features
½M
each

c) Describe and write precompensation. State its use. 4M


Ans.

Describe
2M &
Use 2M
It is useful for drives using standard track, sector format
Drives using zone bit recording do not require any write pre-
compensation
The magnetic particles used to write on the disk surface have north and
south poles
Like poles repel and unlike poles attract
In outer surface of hard disk platter, magnetic particles are far apart to
be affected by the attraction and repulsion of magnetic particles

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WINTER - 2017 EXAMINATION
Subject: Computer Hardware & Maintenance Subject Code: 17428

In the inner tracks of the disk drive, the density of the magnetic are
very high and adjacent particles start to attract and repel.
This will force to change the information written on the disk
To compensate for this shift of data particles due to attraction and
repulsion, the drive can write the data apart or closer than the required
position
The particles will slowly shift to the required position because of
attraction and repulsion
This process of writing the data closer or farther to compensate for
attraction or repulsion of magnetic particles is called Write pre-
compensation
Use: When no write precompensation is used, the forces of attraction
or repulsion will change the information on the disk.
With the use of write precompensation, loss of data can be avoided.
d) Describe following terms related to hard disk: 4M
MBR, sector, cylinder, track
Ans. MBR:
MBR is a small program to load and start the active/bootable partition
from HDD
It stores information about all primary partition on HDD, starting
sectors, ending sectors, size etc in a partition table record, about bad
area on the disk.
It is created on HDD by exe FDISK.EXE and located at cylinder 0, Each
head 0 ,sector 1 term 1M

Sector: A track is a big area to store data (5000 bytes). Hence tracks
are divided into sectors
The formatting program divides disk surface into sectors by writing
magnetic pattern on disk surface

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Subject: Computer Hardware & Maintenance Subject Code: 17428

Cylinder: Same track number on different platters form an imaginary


cylinder like structure Data is stored cylinder by cylinder.

Track: Each side of HDD platters surface is divided into concentric


circles called tracks
They are magnetic information written during formatting of HDD
Outermost track is called track 0. The innermost will have the highest
number.

e) Differentiate between CRT and LCD display (any four points). 4M


Ans. Sr. CRT LCD
No.
1 It is less expensive. It is more expensive
Any 4
2 It takes up more desk Doesn’t take up much space.
points
space. 1M each
3 It uses more energy. It is energy efficient.
4 It is heavier and bulkier. It is lightweight.

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5 It emits harmful Doesn’t emit radiation.


radiation.
6 It is used only for PCs It is used for PCs, laptop,
Phones.

OR

f) Draw the block diagram of flatbed scanner and state the function 4M
of each block.
Ans.

Diagram
of
flatbed
scanner
2M

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Subject: Computer Hardware & Maintenance Subject Code: 17428

Light Source illuminates a piece of paper placed face down on the glass
window above the scanning mechanism.
Motor moves the scan head beneath the page. As it moves the scan
head captures light reflected from individual areas of the page.
Reflection takes place through a system of mirrors.
A lens focuses the beams of light on to light sensitive diodes that
translate the amount of light into electrical current. Functio
The more the reflected light, the more is the voltage of the signal. n 2M
White spaces reflect more light than black or colored images.
ADC converts each analog signal of voltage into digital pixel
representing the scanned area.
For monochrome scanner 1 bit per pixel is stored either on or off
representing black or white.
For color scanner, the scan head makes three passes under the images
and the light on each pass is directed through a red, green or blue filter
before it strikes the original image.
Signals from three passes are converted into digital information and
stored to represent red, green, or blue color value of the scanned area
on the page.
This digital information is sent to the software in the PC, where data is
stored in a format on which a graphics program or OCR can work.
3. Attempt any FOUR of the following: 16
a) Name the different modes of operation of the processor and state 4M
their features.
Ans. Following are the different modes of operation:
1. Real Mode
2. Protected Mode Listing
3. Virtual Real Mode 1M
4. 64 Bit extension Mode

Processor modes refer to the various ways that the processor creates an
operating environment for itself. Specifically, the processor mode
controls how the processor sees and manages the system memory and
the tasks that use it.
Explana
1. Real Mode: tion any
 The original IBM PC could only address 1 MB of system memory, two
and the original versions of DOS created to work on it were 1½M
designed with this in mind.

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Subject: Computer Hardware & Maintenance Subject Code: 17428

 DOS is by its nature a single-tasking operating system, meaning it


can only handle one program running at a time.
 The decisions made in these early days have carried forward until
now, and in each new processor, care had to be taken to be able to
put the processor in a mode that would be compatible with the
original Intel 8088 chip. This is called real mode.
 When a processor is running in real mode, it acts like an "8088 on
steroids". What this means is that it has the advantage of speed, but
it otherwise accesses memory with the same restrictions of the
original 8088: a limit of 1 MB of addressable RAM, and slow
memory access that doesn't take advantage of the full 32-bit
processing of modern CPUs.
 All processors have this real mode available, and in fact the
computer normally starts up in real mode.

2. Protected Mode:
This mode is the native state of the processor.
In this mode all instructions and architectural features are available,
providing the highest performance and capability. This is the
recommended mode for all new applications and operating systems.
Among the capabilities of protected mode is the ability to directly
execute “real-address mode” 8086 software in a protected, multi-
tasking environment.
The advantages of protected mode (compared to real mode) are:
•Full access to all of the system's memory. There is no 1 MB limit in
protected mode.
•Ability to multitask, meaning having the operating system manage
the execution of multiple programs simultaneously.
•Support for virtual memory, which allows the system to use the hard
disk to emulate additional system memory when needed.
•Faster (32-bit) access to memory, and faster 32-bit drivers to do I/O
transfers.

3. Virtual Real Mode


 The key to the backward compatibility of the Windows 32-bit
environment is the third mode in the processor: virtual real mode.
Virtual real is essentially a virtual real mode 16-bit environment that
runs inside 32-bit protected mode. When you run a DOS prompt
window inside Windows, you have created a virtual real mode

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Subject: Computer Hardware & Maintenance Subject Code: 17428

session. Because protected mode enables true multitasking, you can


actually have several real mode sessions running, each with its own
software running on a virtual PC. These can all run simultaneously,
even while other 32-bit applications are running.
 Note that any program running in a virtual real mode window can
access up to only 1MB of memory, which that program will believe
is the first and only megabyte of memory in the system. In other
words, if you run a DOS application in a virtual real window, it will
have a 640 KB limitation on memory usage. That is because there is
only 1 MB of total RAM in a 16-bit environment, and the upper
384KB is reserved for system use. The virtual real window fully
emulates an 8088 environment, so that aside from speed, the
software runs as if it were on an original real mode–only PC. Each
virtual machine gets its own 1 MB address space, an image of the
real hardware basic input/output system (BIOS) routines, and
emulation of all other registers and features found in real mode.
 One interesting thing to note is that all Intel and Intel-compatible
(such as AMD and VIA/Cyrix) processors power up in real mode. If
you load a 32-bit OS, it automatically switches the processor into
32-bit mode and takes control from there.
b) Draw and explain functional block diagram of LCD monitor. 4M
Ans.

Diagram
2M

A block diagram showing the driving of an LCD panel.

TFT LCD (Thin Film Transistor Liquid Crystal Display) has a


sandwich-like structure with liquid crystal filled between two glass

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Subject: Computer Hardware & Maintenance Subject Code: 17428

plates.
TFT Glass has as many TFTs as the number of pixels displayed, while
a Color Filter Glass has color filter which generates color. Liquid
crystals move according to the difference in voltage between the Color
Filter Glass and the TFT Glass. The amount of light supplied by Back
Light is determined by the amount of movement of the liquid crystals
in such a way as to generate color.
A TFT LCD module consists of a TFT panel, driving-circuit unit,
backlight system, and assembly It is commonly used to display
characters and graphic images when connected a host system.
The TFT LCD panel consists of a TFT-array substrate and a color-filter
substrate.
The TFT-array substrate contains the TFTs, storage capacitors, pixel
electrodes, and interconnect wiring. The color filter contains the black
matrix and resin film containing three primary-color - red, green, and
blue - dyes or pigments. The two glass substrates are assembled with a
sealant, the gap between them is maintained by spacers, and LC
material is injected into the gap between the substrates. Two sheets of Explana
polarizer film are attached to the outer faces of the sandwich formed by tion 2M
the glass substrates. A set of bonding pads are fabricated on each end
of the gate and data-signal bus-lines to attach LCD Driver IC (LDI)
chips.

Driving Circuit Unit


Driving an a-Si TFT LCD requires a driving circuit unit consisting of a
set of LCD driving IC (LDI) chips and printed-circuit-boards (PCBs).

To reduce the footprint of the LCD module, the drive circuit unit can
be placed on the backside of the LCD module by using bent Tape
Carrier Packages (TCPs) and a tapered light-guide panel (LGP).
c) Draw and explain centronic interface with diagram. 4M
Ans.

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1M for
diagram

Following are Signals from PC to Printer:-


Centronic interface signals:
The Centronic Interface is a handshake protocol between a computer
and a printer. It supports maximum data transfer speed of 100Kb/s. 3M for
There are 8 signals lines for data bits. The control signals used are: explaini
ng the
STROBE: The printer should take data when this signal is low. signals

INIT: When it is low the printer resets the electronics logic and clears
the printer buffer.

SLCTIN: It is an interface unable signal. When it is low the printer


responds to the signals from the controller.

AUTOFEEDXT: After printer every line, the printer will provide one
line feed automatically if this signal is low. This type of line feed is
known as hardware line feed. There are five status signals from printer
to PC.

ACK: It is an acknowledgement for strobe signal from the PC. When


active it indicates that printer has received data sent by the PC and the

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printer is ready to receive the next data byte.

PE (Paper End): When PE is high it indicates that there is no paper in


the printer. Either the paper is torn or the paper is over.
SLCT: It indicates that the printer is selected and logically connected to
the PC.

BUSY: When the busy signal is high, it indicates that the printer is
busy and it cannot receive data

ERROR: It indicates that there is some error condition in the printer.


d) State any four applications of BGA workstation. 4M
Ans. Applications of BGA workstation:
1. BGA is used to repair Laptops, Mobiles, Server Boards and
Desktop boards. 1M for
2. It is used to remove any IC from Motherboard without damaging each
anything. Applicat
3. It is used to replace the faulty north bridge IC or South Bridge IC or ion
Reballing of the IC’s.
4. It is used for upgrading of Motherboard functionality.
e) Name two hardware tools and two software tools used for 4M
troubleshooting of PC.
Ans. TOOLS in troubleshooting

Hardware Tools :
1. Multimeter 2M each
2. Logic Probes for
3. IC Logic Clips hardwar
4. Oscillloscope. e and
5. Current Tracer software
tools
Software Tools :
1. POST
2. CheckIT
3. Norton’s Diagnostics.
4. QAPlus
f) Give the preventive maintenance for hard disk drive and 4M
keyboard.
Ans.

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Subject: Computer Hardware & Maintenance Subject Code: 17428

Preventive maintenance of HDD:


 Take periodic backup of data and critical areas such as boot
sectors, FAT and directory structure on the disk.
 Defragment the disk to maintain the disk efficiency and speed.
 Delete all the temporary files, temporary internet files etc.
2M for
 Take backup and format the HDD at least once a year and reinstall HDD
all the software to maintain disk efficiency and speed. preventi
 Provide good surge protection. ve
 Format the drive in position and at temperature it will be used. mainten
ance
 Do not keep the CPU or the HDD near vibrating machines.
 As the HDD are completely sealed only the connector pins need
periodic cleaning.
 Use safe park program to park the heads so as to avoid head crash.
 Use software based backup.
 Back up of boot sector, FAT and directory structure.
 Periodic virus scan.

Preventive maintenance of KEYBOARD:


 Handle the keyboard carefully. 2M for
 Press the keys gently without applying pressure. keyboar
 Do not spill liquids on the keyboard. d
 Clean interior of the keyboard using vacuum cleaner or blow away preventi
the accumulated dirt. ve
 Use dust cover for keyboard when not in use. mainten
ance
 Make sure the cable is not subjected to high stress at the keyboard
end.
4. Attempt any FOUR of the following: 16
a) Explain working of optical mouse. 4M
Ans. The main components of the optical mouse are:
 Inbuilt optical sensor
 High speed camera which can take 1000 pictures at a time
 LED Explana
tion of
Working : optical
1. In this type of mouse, instead of the customary ball and rollers, a mouse
light source and photo-detector is used with a special mouse pad. 4M

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2. When the optical mouse is moved on this special pad, light from the
light source gets reflected from the pad and special photo-detectors
inside the mouse detect the horizontal and vertical movement based on
the reflected light received.
3. One of these photo-detector is used to detect the back-and-forth
movement of the mouse, i.e., vertical movement of the cursor on the
screen and the other photo-detector is used to detect the side-to-side
movement of the mouse, i.e., the horizontal (left to right and right to
left) movement of the cursor on the screen.
4. The movement of the cursor on the screen depends on the number of
the signals that is passed to the PC through the wire connected with the
mouse.
5. The PC in turn, passes them to the mouse driver software which then
converts them into distance, direction and speed required for the
movement of the screen cursor.
6. Depressing any of the mouse button also produces a signal which is
passed to the PC and the PC passes it to the software.
7. Depending upon the button being pressed, number of times the
button being pressed and the present location of the cursor on the
screen, the software accomplishes the task desired by the user.
b) What is modem? Explain working of internal modem with 4M
diagram.
Ans. Modem:
A modem is a hardware device that allows a computer to send and 1M for
receive data over a telephone line or a cable or satellite connection modem

1M for
diagram

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It contains its own Universal Asynchronous Receiver/Transmitter


(UART).

A modulator Circuit converts the serial data from the computer into
audio signals to be transmitted over telephone lines. This modulated 2M for
audio is then coupled to the telephone line. The signal passes through working
telephone jack (RJ 11) connector at the rate of the modem to the
telephone line.

On the receiver side, signals received from the telephone line must be
translated into serial data. The telephone interface separates the
received signals and passes them to the demodulator. After
demodulation the resulting serial data is passed to UART, which in turn
converts the serial bits into parallel words that are placed on the
system’s data bus.

The telephone interface also generates Dual Tone multi Frequency


(DTFM) dialing signals needed to reach a remote modem. When the
remote modem dials in, the telephone interface detects the incoming
signal and alerts the UART to begin negotiating a connection.
The telephone interface drives a speaker. During the initial stages of
modem operation the speaker is used to hear the dial tone, dialing
signals, and audio negotiation between the two modems. Once the
connection is established, the speaker is disabled.
The controller circuit manages the overall operation of the modem. It
switches the modem between the control and data operating modes.
The controller accepts commands from the modulator that allow the
modem characteristics and operating parameters to be changed.
c) List various protection devices for power supply. Explain any one 4M
of them.
Ans. Protection Devices:
1. Surge suppressor List 1M
2. Circuit breaker

1. Surge suppressor:
These circuits are designed to absorb high voltage transients produced
by lightning and other high energy equipment. Protection is
accomplished by clamping voltages above a certain level.
 MOVs (Metal oxide varistors) are often included that respond

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quickly and clamp the voltage.


 The MOV is a disc shaped electronic component made from a layer
of zinc oxide particles held between two electrodes.
 The granular zinc oxide offers a high resistance to electricity until Explana
the voltage reaches a break over point. The electrical current then tion of
forms a low resistance path between the zinc oxide particles. any one
 The MOVs are designed to accept voltages as high as 6000V and device
divert any power above 250V to ground. 3M
 MOVs degrade with each spike. Once they have passed a number
of surges they must be replaced by new a one. Many suppressers
show a LED when the MOV has blown

2. Circuit Breaker:
A circuit breaker is an automatically operated electrical
switch designed to protect an electrical circuit from damage caused
by overload or short circuit.
 Its basic function is to detect a fault condition and interrupt
current flow. Unlike a fuse, which operates once and then must
be replaced, a circuit breaker can be reset (either manually or
automatically) to resume normal operation.
 Circuit breakers are made in varying sizes, from small devices that
protect an individual household appliance up to large switch
gear designed to protect high voltage circuits feeding an entire
city.
d) What are the symptoms of power supply problem? 4M
Ans. Symptoms of power supply problem:
 Circuit breakers popping when the PC is turned on
 System startup failures or lockups
 Noticeable change in how long it takes for your PC to boot and Any
shutdown four
 Spontaneous rebooting or intermittent lockups during normal symptom
operation (small brownouts) s 1M
 Memory Errors each
 HDD and fan simultaneously failing to spin
 HDD file system corruption
 USB devices power issues
 Overheating due to fan failure
 Electric shocks that are felt when the case is touched

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 Smoke
 BIOS beeping codes detected
e) Draw the pin description of RS232 interface and give the function 4M
of each signal.
Ans.

2M for
diagram

CD (Carrier Detect or Data Carrier Detect): It is used by computer


to know that the modem connected to the serial port has made proper
connection with modem on the other side.
2M for
RxD (Receive Data): It is used by the device connected to the serial
explaini
port to send data to the computer Or data send from DCE to DTE
ng the
TxD (Transmit Data): It is used by the computer to send data to a
signals
device connected to the serial port Or Data sent from DTE to DCE
DTR (Data Terminal Ready): It is send from computer to the device
connected to the serial port to inform that computer is ready for
communication
GND (Signal Ground): This is one of the most important signal. This
wire provides the necessary return path for both the data signals and the
hand shaking signals.
DSR (Data Set Ready): It is send from the device connected to the
serial port to the computer to inform that the device is ready for
communication
RTS (Request To Send): One clear to send signal is received the
computer send Request To Send (RTS) signal to the device connected
to the serial port to inform that computer is also ready to start the data
transmission
CTS (Clear To send): Clear to send or CTS signal is used by the
device connected to the serial port to inform to the computer can start
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the data transmission.


RI (Ring Indicator): RI Signal is used by the device connected to the
serial port to inform to the computer that it has detected a ringing
voltage on the telephone line. This signal is used by a modem
connected to the serial port to inform to the computer that someone is
calling the modem.
f) Write any four advantages of bluetooth. 4M
(Note: Any other advantages may be considered.)
Ans. Advantages of Bluetooth:
1.Bluetooth does not require a clear line of sight between the synced
devices. Any
2.Bluetooth transfers data at the rate of 1 Mbps, which is from three to four
eight times the average speed of parallel and serial ports, points
respectively. 1M each
3.Bluetooth technology is designed to have very low power
consumption.
4.Bluetooth is extremely secure in that it employs several layers of
data encryption and user authentication measures.
5.Bluetooth technology is available in an unprecedented range of
applications from mobile phones to automobiles to medical devices
for use by consumers, industrial markets, enterprises, and more.
5. Attempt any TWO of the following: 16
a) List any eight motherboard selection criteria. 8M
Ans. Motherboard Selection Criteria:
 Motherboard Chipset: Motherboard should use a high performance
chipset that supports DDR or DDR2 SDRAM DIMMs. It should
also support PCI- Express X16 video support and Serial ATA or
faster hard drive support. Any
 Processor: A modern system should use a socket based processor eight
with on-die L2 cache. The processor should have highest speed CPU criteria
bus (Front Side Bus- FSB). 1M each
 Processor Sockets: For maximum upgradability and performance, a
socket based system should be used. The main sockets used are
Socket A (Socket 426) for Athlon XP and Socket 775 for Pentium 4.
 Motherboard Speed: 200MHz to 400MHz for
Duron/Athlon/Athlon XP –based boards and 400MHz to 1066MHz
for Pentium 4 based boards.
 Cache Memory: Use a processor with full core speed on-die L2
cache as it offers maximum in performance.

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 SIMM/DIMM/RIMM memory: Current systems use either DDR


or DDR2 DIMMs. Currently DDR and DDR2 SDRAM and
RDRAM are the fastest type of memory available, with RDRAM
being by far the most costly.
 Bus Type: Current systems offer PCI as well as PCI Express slots.
PCI slots should confirm with PCI 2.1 or later revision. Systems
without on-board video should also feature PCI Express X 16 slot.
 Basic Input Output System (BIOS): The motherboard should use
industry standard BIOS such as those from AMI, Phoenix or Award.
The BIOS should be of a flash ROM or EEPROM design for easy
updating.
 Form Factor: For maximum flexibility, performance, reliability and
ease of use, motherboard with ATX form factor should be used.
 Built-in Interfaces: The motherboard should contain as many built-
in standard controllers and interfaces as possible.
 On-board IDE interfaces: It should be included on the
motherboard.
 Power Management: The motherboard should support the latest
standard for power management which is ACPI.
 Documentation: Good technical documentation is essential. It
should include information on all jumpers and switches found on the
board, connector pin out for all connectors, specifications for other
plug-in components etc.
 Technical Support: Good online technical support goes beyond
documentation. It includes driver and BIOS updates, FAQs, updated
tables of processor and memory compatibility, and theutility
programs to help you monitor the condition of your system.
b) Draw the block diagram of North bridge/South bridge architecture 8M
and explain.
Ans. North Bridge- South Bridge Architecture:
Intel’s earlier chipset were broken into multi-tired architecture known
as North Bridge and South Bridge components as well as Super I/O
chip.

North Bridge: It is the connection between the high speed processor


bus and the slower AGP & PCI buses.

South Bridge: It is the bridge between PCI bus and even slower ISA
bus. Super I/O chip: contains commonly used peripheral items all

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combined in single chip.

Diagram
4M &
Explana
tion 4M

OR

North Bridge:
 It is the connection between the high speed processor bus and the
slower AGP & PCI buses.
 It is responsible for communication from the CPU to memory, the
CPU to the PCI (Peripheral Component Interconnect) Express bus,
and the Advanced Graphics Port (AGP) device.

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 It is the only motherboard circuit (besides the processor) that runs at


the full motherboard speed.
 It serves as the four way connection between CPU, Memory, Video
card and south bridge
South Bridge:
 It is the bridge between PCI bus and even slower ISA bus.
 It is responsible for communication between the CPU and other
devices, such as PCI, ISA, and IDE devices.
 The Southbridge actually contains some On-chip integrated
peripherals, such as Ethernet, USB and audio devices.
 It is responsible for communication between the CPU and other
devices, such as PCI, ISA, and IDE devices.
These two chips contain the bulk of the logic that allows a CPU to
communicate with other hardware.
c) Explain working of Laser printer with diagram and mention any 8M
two specification.
Ans. Laser Printer:
Functional blocks of laser printer
1. Image formation system
2. Paper pickup/delivery system
3. Machine control system
4. Interface system

Diagram
3M

Figure : Laser Printer Block Diagram

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1. Image Formation system


Image formation process revolves around a photo sensitive drum,
called organic Photo conductive (OPC) drum. This drum is located
inside the Electro photographic cartridge inside the laser printer.
Image formation process consists of following six steps:
1. Cleaning of the OPC drum.
2. Conditioning of the OPC drum.
3. Electro-statically writing the image onto the OPC drum
4. Developing the image on the OPC drum.
5. Transferring of the image from OPC drum to the paper. Explana
6. Fusing the image on the paper. tion 3M

The OPC drum is an Al cylinder which is coated with a non-toxic layer


of organic photoconductive material. The Al base of the cylinder is
electrically connected to the ground potential.
The OPC material has a property that when it is exposed to light, it
becomes electrically conductive.
When exposed to light, any charges that are deposited on the surface of
the drum, conduct to the Aluminum base of the drum. Areas of the
drum not exposed to light remain nonconductive and retain the charge
applied.

Cleaning of the OPC drum


Before transferring any image to the OPC drum’s surface, the surface
needs to be cleaned and prepared to hold the image being transferred.
The drum’s surface is cleaned physically to remove any trace of the old
toner particles from the previous printing operation and is cleaned
electro statically to remove any charge present on the drum’s surface
from the last printing.

Conditioning of the OPC drum


In this process, a uniform charge of -600V is applied to the complete
surface of the OPC drum.

Writing the image on the OPC drum


After the conditioning process its surface has a uniform -600V
potential.
To write any information on this drum laser beam is focused on the
selected areas of the drum. The area where laser strikes discharges to

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ground and the area where laser does not strike remains at -600V.
Later this beam is focused and sent to the scanning mirror, the scanning
mirror sweeps the beam across the entire width of the OPC drum.
Once one dot line of image is drawn on the OPC drum, the drum is
rotated by 1/300th of an inch, so that the beam can write the next line.

Developing the image on the OPC drum


When the image is completely written onto the drum, the latent image
is ready.
To transfer the latent image into a visible image the toner is transferred
to the discharged areas of the drum
The toner is a black plastic resin, powdery substance bound to iron
particles. It is also available in colors other than black.
The developer section consists of a rotating metallic cylinder, a
permanent magnet inside the cylinder, a toner cavity and a toner height
control blade.
The iron in the toner causes it to be attracted to the magnet inside the
developing cylinder. As the cylinder rotates, the height control blade
limits the amount of toner on the cylinder to a uniform thickness
The developing cylinder is connected to a negative power supply.
Hence the toner particles receive a negative charge from the cylinder.
This negative electrostatic charge causes the toner to be attracted to the
areas of the OPC drum which has been exposed to the laser beam or
those areas that contain the image to be printed.

Transfer of the image to paper


Once the image is developed on the OPC drum, using the corona wire
positive charge is given to the paper. The positive charge applied to the
paper is stronger than the charge on the OPC drum. This pulls the
negatively charged toner particles away from the drum to the paper.
As the paper and the drum move, the stiffness and the small radius of
the drum makes the paper move away from the OPC drum.
This process of paper separation is assisted by a static charge
eliminator which weakens the attractive force between the drum and
the paper.

Fusing the image to the paper


It consists of a non stick roller, covered with Teflon type coating. The
roller is heated from inside using very high intensity quartz lamp.

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The heated roller melts the toner and fuses it on the printing media.

2. Paper pickup/delivery system


This system is responsible for picking the paper from the input tray,
delivering the paper to the image formation system at the right time,
feeding it to the fusing station and finally delivering it to the output
tray

3. Machine Control System


This system is responsible for coordinating all the activities of the
printer, required for the printing process.

4. Interface System
This system takes care of the communication between the PC and the
printer.

Specifications:
Print speed: Upto 19PPM
Print technology: Laser Any 2
Print quality: 1200 x 1200 DPI (B/W) specifica
Memory: 8 MB tions 1M
Interface: USB each
Power consumption: 320W when operational
Graphics Resolution: 300 to 2400 DPI
Media supported: Paper, Envelopes, and Transparencies
6. Attempt any TWO of the following: 16
a) Describe FM, MFM, and RLL method of recording and explain 8M
how MFM recording technique will be applied for the data stream
10110111.
Ans. FM (Frequency Modulation) Encoding Scheme:
FM or Frequency Modulation also known as the “Single density
recording” was the original data-encoding scheme used for storing the
data on the magnetic recording surface. FM 2M
In this method, a clock signal is put with every data signal on the
recording surface. This clock signal is used for synchronizing the read
operation, as there will always be a clock signal, whether the data
signal is there or not.
In this recording a 1 bit is stored as two pulses (one clock pulse and
one data pulse), and a 0 bit is stored as a one pulse and one gap or no

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pulse.
For example, a binary number 1011 will be stored as
PP PN PP PP

MFM (Modified Frequency Modulation) Encoding Scheme: The


MFM (modified frequency modulation) method of data storage, by
reducing the number of pulses, is able to store more data without any MFM
data and synchronization number of pulses, is able to store more data 2M
without any data and synchronization loss.
In MFM recording the 0s and 1s are encoded as given below
1 is always stored as no pulse, and a pulse(NP)
0, when preceded by another 0, is stored as a pulse, and no pulse(PN)
0, when preceded by a 1, is stored as two no pulses(NN)
If 1001 to be recorded on the disk surface using the MFM storage
method, it would be stored as NP NN PN NP.

RLL (Run Length Limited) Encoding Scheme:


The RLL encoding or the “Run Length Limited” encoding is also RLL
called as (2, 7) RLL encoding scheme because in this scheme in a 2M
series or in a running length the minimum number of Zero’s next to
each other is 2 and the maximum number of zero’s together cannot be
more than 7.
The RLL encoding scheme can be store 50% more information than
MFM encoding scheme on a given surface and it can store 3 times as
much information as the FM encoding scheme.
For the RLL encoding an encoder/decoder table is used to find the
pulse signal to be used for different data bit groups.

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Given bit stream , 10110111, the following table gives the recording
using MFM:
MFM
example
solution
2M

b) With suitable block diagram, describe the construction of CD- 8M


ROM drive and explain how recording is done.
Ans. CD ROM Drive Construction:

Constru
ction
Diagram
3M

Figure : Construction diagram of CD ROM drive

CD – ROM drive consists of


1. Optical head which contains laser diode, photo detector and beam
splitter
2. Drive controller
3. Loading mechanism
4. Servo motor
5. I/O interface

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1. The optical head contains:


 Laser diode, which generates the laser beam
 A lens system to focus the laser beam on the disc and to direct
the reflected beam on to the photo detector. The beam splitter
sends the reflected beam towards a different lens for focusing.
 Servo motors that control the position of laser and lenses to
ensure correct tracking and focusing.
 Photo detector that detects the reflected light and converts it
into electric pulses.
2. Drive controller is the overall controller of the CD drive. It
controls the speed of rotation and processes the signals coming
from the optical head. Explana
3. The information coming from the photo detector is in the encoded tion 3M
from (8 to 14 Modulation) (EFM). The decoding of data is done by
the microprocessor on the controller.
4. The decoded data is sent to the I/O interface, which makes it
available to the system.

Recording mechanism:
Compact Discs have pits and lands. These are microscopic and
represent the binary information of the data stored on the disc. A land
is reflective and reflects the laser into a sensor to register it as a 1, but
when the light hits a pit, it shatters and no reflection is received, thus a
0 is registered.
The CD recording method makes use of optical recording, using a
beam of light from a minute semiconductor laser. Such a beam is of Recordi
low power (milli watts) but the focus of the beam can be a very small ng
point so that low melting point materials like plastics can be vaporized mechani
by a focused beam. Turning the recording beam onto a place on a sm – 2M
plastic disc for a fraction of a millionth of a second will therefore
vaporize the material to leave a tiny created pit, about 0.6 μm (1 μm- 1
millionth of a meter, equal to one thousandth of a millimeter) in
diameter. The depth of the pits is also very small of the order of 0.1
μm. If no beam strikes the disc, then no pit is formed, hence forming
the pits and no pits (lands) on the surface of the CD.
c) With block diagram describe the working of SMPS. 8M
Ans. Switched Mode Power Supply:

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Diagram
4M

Figure : Block diagram of SMPS in a PC

SMPS in a PC has five sections:


AC input section
Receives unregulated input AC supply from mains. This signal is
filtered using line filter and given to full wave rectifier for rectification.
The fuse protects the SMPS from over current draining.
Power converter
It consists of push pull configuration of transistors which are driven by Explana
converter driver from the control section. Only desired quantity of tion 4M
power is delivered to the load.
Control section
It senses over voltage or over current at load. It changes the turn on
time of the transistors in the push pull amplifier so that output power
can be controlled It applies Pulse Width Modulated Waveforms to
converter driver circuit at 22 KHz frequency.
Output section
It rectifies and filters the power received from the power section It
provides short circuit and overload protection to the power applied to
the load.
Voltage sense section
It generates Power Good Signal (PGS). When all four voltage outputs
(+5V, -5V, +12V, -12V) are steady above minimum sense levels for
more than 100ms, PGS is generated by this section. It checks the
maximum load current and compares it with specified current. If the

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connected load exceeds the specified load, current limit circuits shutoff
the output section of the SMPS, thereby avoiding damage due to over
current flow.

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